atha aṣṭādaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ – mokṣa-yogaḥ

Now the eighteenth chapter: “The Yoga of Liberation”


Śrīdhara


nyāsa-tyāga-vibhāgena sarva-gītārtha-saṅgraham |
spaṣṭam aṣṭādaśe prāha paramārtha-vinirṇaye ||
 

Viśvanātha


sannyāsa-jñāna-karmādes traividhyaṃ mukti-nirṇayaḥ |
guhya-sāratamā bhaktir ity aṣṭādaśa ucyate ||
 

Baladeva


gītārthān iha saṅgṛhṇan harir aṣṭādaśe ‚khilān |
bhaktes tatra prapatteś ca so ‚bravīd atigopyatām ||
 
 

BhG 18.1

arjuna uvāca
saṃnyāsasya mahābāho tattvam icchāmi veditum
tyāgasya ca hṛṣīkeśa pṛthak keśi-niṣūdana

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syntax


arjuna (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he keśi-niṣūdana (O Keśiniṣūdana!) he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!) he hṛṣīkeśa (O Hṛṣīkeśa!),
sannyāsasya (of renunciation) tyāgasya ca (and abandonment) tattvam (the truth) pṛthak (separately) veditum (to know) icchāmi (I desire).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
saṁnyāsasya saṁnyāsa 6n.1 m. of laying aside, of resignation, of renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO mighty-armed one! (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
tattvam tat-tva abst. 2n.1 n.truth, reality (from: tat – that);
icchāmi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 3v.1I desire;
veditum vid (to know, to understand) [inf.] – to know, to learn;
tyāgasya tyāga 6n.1 m. of leaving, of abandoning (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
ca av.and;
hṛṣīkeśa hṛṣīkeśa 1n.1 m.erect hair, Hṛṣīkeśa (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair);
or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśa itilord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an organ of senses; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
pṛthak av.separately, one by one (from: pṛth – to extend);
keśi-niṣūdana keśi-niṣūdana 8n.1 m.;[TP]: keśinaḥ niṣūdanetiO killer of Keśin! (from: keśa – hair; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses; ni-sūd – to kill, niṣūdana – killing, destroying)

 

textual variants


saṁnyāsasyasaṁnyāsas tu (but renunciations);
pṛthak keśi-niṣūdanapṛthak keśi-nisūdana / pṛthak karma-niṣūdana (separately, O killer of Keśin! / separately, O killer of activity!);

The first pada of verse 18.1 is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 5.6;

 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvasyaiva gītāśāstrasyārtho’smin adhyāye upasaṃhṛtya sarvaś ca vedārtho vaktavyaḥ ity evam artho’yam adhyāya ārabhyate | sarveṣu hy atīteṣu adhyāyeṣūkto’rtho’sminn adhyāye’vagamyate | arjunas tu saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdārthayor eva viśeṣa-bubhutsur uvāca—

pūrvādhyāye śraddhā-traividhyenāhāra-yajña-tapo-dāna-traividhyena ca karmiṇāṃ traividhyam uktaṃ sāttvikānām ādānāya rājasa-tāmasāṃ ca hānāya | idānīṃ tu saṃnyāsa-traividhya-kathanena saṃnyāsinām api traividhyaṃ vaktavyam | tatra ttva-bodhānantaraṃ yaḥ phala-bhūtaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ sa caturdaśe’dhyāye guṇātītatvena vyākhyātatvān na sāttvika-rājasa-tāmasa-bhedam arhati | yo’pi tattva-bodhāt prāk tad-arthaṃ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsas tattva-bubhutsayā vedānta-vākya-vicārāya bhavati so’pi traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna ity ādinā nirguṇatvena vyākhyātaḥ | yas tv anutpanna-tattva-bodhānām anutpanna-tattva-bubhutsānāṃ ca karma-saṃnyāsaḥ sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca ity ādinā gauṇo vyākhyātas tasya traividhya-sambhavāt tad-viśeṣaṃ bubhutsuḥ arjuna uvāca saṃnyāsasyeti |

aviduṣām anupajāta-vividiṣāṇāṃ ca karmādhikṛtānām eva kiṃcit karma-parigrahena kiṃcit karma-parityāgo yaḥ sa tyāgāṃśa-guṇa-yogāt saṃnyāsa-śabdenocyate | etādṛśasyāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhy-artham avidvat-karmādhikāri-kartṛkasya saṃnyāsasya kenacid rūpeṇa karma- tyāgasya tattvaṃ svarūpaṃ pṛthak sāttvika-rājasa-tāmasa-bhedena veditum icchāmi | tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ veditum icchāmi |

kiṃ saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdau ghaṭa-paṭa-śabdāv iva bhinna-jātīya-padārthau kiṃ vā brāhmaṇa-parivrājaka-śabdāv ivaika-jātīyārthau | yady ādyas tarhi tyāgasya tattvaṃ saṃnyāsāt pṛthag veditum icchāmi | yadi dvitīyas tarhy avāntaropādhi-bheda-mātraṃ vaktavyam | eka-vyākhyānenaivobhayaṃ vyākhyātaṃ bhaviṣyati |
mahābāho keśiniṣūdaneti sambodhanābhyāṃ bāhyopadrava-nivāraṇa-svarūpa-yogyatā-phalopadhāne pradarśite | hṛṣīkeśa ity antar-upadrava-nivāraṇa-sāmarthyam iti bhedaḥ | atyanurāgāt sambodhana-trayam |
atrārjunasya dvau praśnau | karmādhikāri-kartṛkena pūrvokta-yajñādi-sādharmyeṇa saṃnyāsa-śabda-pratipādyatvena ca guṇātīta-saṃnyāsa-dvaya-sādharmyeṇa traiguṇya-sambhavāsambhavābhyāṃ saṃśayaḥ prathamasya praśnasya bījam | dvitīyasya tu saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdayoḥ paryāyatvāt karma-phala-tyāga-rūpeṇa ca vailakṣaṇyokteḥ saṃśayo bījaṃ saṃnyāsatyāgaśabdau

 

Rāmānuja


atītenādhyāyadvayena abhyudayaniśśreyasasādhanabhūtaṃ vaidikam eva yajñatapodānādikaṃ karma, nānyat; vaidikasya ca karmaṇas sāmānyalakṣaṇaṃ praṇavānvayaḥ; tatra mokṣābhyudayasādhanayor bhedaḥ tatsacchabdanirdeśyatvena; mokṣasādhanaṃ ca karma phalābhisandhirahitaṃ yajñādikam; tadārambhaś ca sattvodrekād bhavati; sattvavṛddhiś ca sāttvikāhārasevayā ityuktam / anantaraṃ mokṣasādhanatayā nirdiṣṭayos tyāgasaṃnyāsayor aikyam, tyāgasya ca svarūpam, bhagavati sarveśvare ca sarvakarmaṇāṃ kartṛtvānusandhānam, sattvarajastamasāṃ kāryavarṇanena sattvaguṇasyāvaśyopādeyatvam, svavarṇocitānāṃ karmaṇāṃ paramapuruṣārādhanabhūtānāṃ paramapuruṣaprāptinirvartanaprakāraḥ, kṛtsnasya gītāśāstrasya sārārtho bhaktiyoga ity ete pratipādyante / tatra tāvat tyāgasaṃnyāsayor pṛthaktvaikatvanirṇayāya svarūpanirṇayāya cārjunaḥ pṛcchati

tyāgasaṃnyāsau hi mokṣasādhanatayā vihitau, „na karmaṇā na prajayā dhanena tyāgenaike amṛtatvam ānaśuḥ vedāntavijñānasuniścitārthās saṃnyāsayogād yatayaś śuddhasattvāḥ / te brahmaloke tu parāntakāle parāmṛtāt parimucyanti sarve//” ityādiṣu / asya saṃnyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvam yāthātmyaṃ pṛthak veditum icchāmi / ayam abhiprāyaḥ kim etau saṃnyāsatyāgaśabdau pṛthagarthau, utaikārthav eva yadā pṛthagarthau, tadā anayoḥ pṛthaktvena svarūpaṃ veditum icchāmi; ekatve ‚pi tasya svarūpaṃ vaktavyam iti

 

Śrīdhara


atra ca –
sarva-karmāṇi manasā
sannyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī | (Gītā 5.13)
sannyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā (Gītā 9.28)
ity ādiṣu karma-sannyāsa upadiṣṭaḥ | tathā –
tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ
nitya-tṛpto nirāśrayaḥ |
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ
tataḥ kuru yatātmavān || (Gītā 4.20)
ity ādiṣu ca phala-mātra-tyāgena karmānuṣṭhānam upadiṣṭam | na ca paraspara-viruddhaṃ sarvajñaḥ parama-kāruṇiko bhagavān upadiśet | ataḥ karma-sannyāsasya tad-anuṣṭhānasya cāvirodha-prakāraṃ bubhutsur arjuna uvāca sannyāsasyeti | bho hṛṣīkeśa sarvendriya-niyāmaka | he keśī-nisūdana keśī-nāmno mahato hayākṛteḥ daityasya yuddhe mukhaṃ vyādāya bhakṣayitum āgacchato atyantaṃ vyātte mukhe vāma-bāhuṃ praveśya tat-kṣaṇam eva vivṛddhena tenaiva bāhunā karkaṭikā-phalavat taṃ vidārya nisūditavān | ataeva he mahābāho iti sambodhanam | sannyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ pṛthag vivekena veditum icchāmi
 

Viśvanātha


anantarādhyāye –
tad ity anabhisandhāya
phalaṃ yajña-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ |
dāna-kriyāś ca vividhāḥ
kriyante mokṣa-kāṅkṣibhiḥ || (Gītā 17.25)

ity atra bhagavad-vākye mokṣa-kāṅkṣi-śabdena sannyāsina eva ucyante | anye vā yady anya eva te, tarhi – sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān iti (Gītā 12.11) tvad-uktānāṃ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgināṃ teṣāṃ sa tyāgaḥ kaḥ | sannyāsināṃ ca ko sa sannyāsa iti vivekato jijñāsur āha sannyāsasyeti | pṛthag iti yadi sannyāsa-tyāga-śabdau bhinnārthau tadā sannyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ pṛthag veditum icchāmi | yadi tv ekārthau tāv api tvan-mate anya-mate vā tayor aikyārtham arthād ekārthatvam iti pṛthag veditum icchāmi | he hṛṣīkeśeti mad-buddheḥ pravartakatvāt tvam eva imaṃ sandeha-mukhāpayasi | keśi-nisūdana iti taṃ ca sandehaṃ tvam eva keśinam iva vidārayasīti bhāvaḥ | mahābāho iti tvaṃ mahā-bāhu-balānvito ‚haṃ kiñcid bāhubalānvita ity etad aṃśenaiva mayā saha sakhyaṃ tava | na tu sārvajñyādibhir aṃśair atas tvad-datta-kiñcit-sakhya-bhāvād eva praśne mama niḥśaṅkateti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


sarva-karmāṇi manasā sannyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī | (Gītā 5.13) ity ādau sannyāsa-śabdena kim uktam — tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ (Gītā 4.20) ityādau tyāga-śabdena ca kim uktaṃ bhagavatā tatra sandihāno ‚rjunaḥ pṛcchati sannyāsasyeti | sannyāsa-tyāga-śabdau śaila-taru-śabdāv iva vijātīyārthau kiṃ vā kuru-pāṇḍava-śabdāv iva sajātīyārthau | yady ādyas tarhi sannyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ pṛthag-veditum icchāmi | yadyantas tarhi tatrāvāntaropādhi-mātraṃ bhedakaṃ bhāvi, tac ca veditum icchāmi | he mahābāho kṛṣṇa hṛṣīkeśeti dhī-vṛtti-prerakatvāt tvam eva mat-sandeham utpādayasi | keśi-nisūdaneti tvaṃ mat-sandehaṃ keśinam iva vināśayeti
 
 


BhG 18.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ kavayo viduḥ
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇāḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
kavayaḥ (seers) kāmyānām karmaṇām (of intentions of activities) nyāsam (relinquishing) sannyāsam (renunciation) viduḥ (they know).
vicakṣaṇāḥ (the wise) sarva-karma-phala-tyāgam (abandonment of the fruit of all activities) tyāgam (abandonment) prāhuḥ (they declared).
 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
kāmyānām kāmyā 6n.3 f.of desires, of intentions (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure);
karmaṇām karman 6n.3 n.of activities (from: kṛ – to do);
nyāsam nyāsa 2n.1 m. giving up, relinquishing (from: ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
saṁnyāsam saṁnyāsa 2n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
kavayaḥ kavi 1n.3 m.poets, bards, seers (from: kav – to describe, to paint);
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know, they learned;
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgam sarva-karma-phala-tyāga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ karmaṇāṁ phalasya tyāgam iti abandonment of the fruit of all activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment);
prāhuḥ pra-ah (to declare) [Perf.] P 1v.3they declared (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
tyāgam tyāga 2n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
vicakṣaṇāḥ vicakṣaṇa 1n.3 m.bright, who are clear-sighted, wise (from: vi-cakṣ – to shine, to perceive, to see, to proclaim);

 

textual variants


nyāsaṁ tyāgaṁ (abandonment);

The third pada of verse 18.2 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 12.11;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tatra tatra nirdiṣṭau, na nirluṭhitārthau pūrveṣv adhyāyeṣu | ato’rjunāya pṛṣṭavate tan-nirṇayāya bhagavān uvāca—
kāmyānām aśvamedhādīnāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ saṃnyāsa-śabdārtham, anuṣṭheyatvena prāptasyānuṣṭhānam, kavayaḥ paṇḍitāḥ kecid vidur vijānanti | nitya-naimittikānām anuṣṭhīyamānānāṃ sarva-karmaṇām, ātma-sambandhitayā prāptasya phalasya parityāgaḥ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgas taṃ prāhuḥ kathayanti tyāgaṃ tyāga-śabdārthaṃ vicakṣaṇāḥ paṇḍitāḥ | yadi kāmya-karma-parityāgaḥ phala-parityāgo vārtho vaktavyaḥ, sarvathā parityāga-mātraṃ saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdayor eko’rthaḥ syāt, na ghaṭa-paṭa-śabdāv iva jāty-antara-bhūtārthau |

nanu nitya-naimittikānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalam eva nāstīti āhuḥ | katham ucyate teṣāṃ phala-tyāgaḥ, yathā vandhyāyāḥ putra-tyāgaḥ ? naiṣa doṣaḥ, nityānām api karmaṇāṃ bhagavatā phalavattvasya iṣṭatvāt | vakṣyati hi bhagavān aniṣṭa miṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca iti na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit [gītā 18.12] iti ca | saṃnyāsinām eva hi kevalaṃ karma-phalāsambandhaṃ darśayann asaṃnyāsināṃ nitya-karma-phala-prāptiṃ bhavaty atyāgināṃ pretya [gītā 18.12] iti darśayati

 

Rāmānuja


athānayor ekam eva svarūpam, tac cedṛśam iti nirṇetuṃ vādivipratipattiṃ darśayan śrībhagavān uvāca

kecana vidvāṃsaḥ kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ svarūpatyāgaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ viduḥ / kecic ca vicakṣaṇāḥ nityānāṃ naimittikānāṃ ca kāmyānāṃ sarveṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalatyāga eva mokṣaśāstreṣu tyāgaśabdārtha iti prāhuḥ / tatra śāstrīyatyāgaḥ kāmyakarmasvarūpaviṣayaḥ; sarvakarmaphalaviṣaya iti vivādaṃ pradarśayan ekatra saṃnyāsaśabdam itaratra tyāgaśabdaṃ prayuktavān / atas tyāgasaṃnyāsaśabdayor ekārthatvam aṅgīkṛtam iti jñāyate / tathā „niścayaṃ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama” iti tyāgaśabdenaiva nirṇayavacanāt, „niyatasya tu saṃnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate / mohāt tasya parityāgaḥ tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ // BhGR_18.”, „aniṣṭam iṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam / bhavaty atyāgināṃ pretya na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit /” iti parasparaparyāyatādarśanāc ca tayor ekārthatvam aṅgīkṛtam iti niścīyate

 

Śrīdhara


tatrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca – kāmyānām iti | kāmyānāṃ putra-kāmo yajeta svarga-kāmo yajetety evam ādi kāmopabandhena vihitānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ parityāgaṃ sannyāsaṃ kavayo viduḥ | samyak-phalaiḥsaha sarva-karmaṇām api nyāsaṃ sannyāsaṃ paṇḍitā vidur jānantīty arthaḥ | sarveṣāṃ kāmyānāṃ nitya-naimittikānāṃ ca karmaṇāṃ phala-mātra-tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇā nipuṇāḥ | na tu svarūpataḥ karma-tyāgam |

nanu nitya-naimittikānāṃ phalāśravaṇād avidyamānasya phalasya kathaṃ tyāgaḥ syāt | nahi bandhyāyāḥ putra-tyāgaḥ sambhavanti |
ucyate yadyapi svarga-kāmaḥ paśukāma ity ādivad aharahaḥ sandhyām upāsīta yāvaj-jīvam agnihotraṃ juhotīty ādiṣu phala-viśeṣo na śrūyate tathāpy apuruṣārthe vyāpāre prekṣāvantaṃ pravartayitum aśaknuvan vidhir viśvajitā yajetety ādiṣv iva sāmānyataḥ kim api phalam ākṣipaty eva | na cātīva-gurum ataḥ śraddhayā sva-siddhir eva vidheḥ prayojanam iti mantavyam | puruṣa-pravṛtty-anupapatter duṣparaharatvāt | śrūyate ca nityādiṣv api phalam – sarva ete puṇya-lokā bhavatīti | karmaṇā pitṛ-loka iti | dharmeṇa pāpam apanudanti ity evam ādiṣu | tasmād yuktam uktaṃ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇā iti |

nanu phala-tyāgena punar pai niṣphaleṣu karmasu pravṛttir eva na syāt | tan na, sarveṣām api karmaṇāṃ saṃyoga-pṛthaktvena vividiṣārthatayā viniyogāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ – tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakeneti | tataś ca śruti-padoktaṃ sarvaṃ phalaṃ bandhakatvena tyaktvā vividiṣārthaṃ sarva-karmānuṣṭhānaṃ ghaṭata eva | vividiṣā ca nityānitya-vastu-vivekena nivṛtta-dehādy-abhimānatayā buddheḥ pratyak-pravaṇatā | tāvat paryantaṃ ca sattva-śuddhy-arthaṃ jñānāviruddhaṃ yathocitam avaśyakaṃ karma kurvatas tat-phala-tyāga eva karma-tyāgo nāma | na svarūpeṇa | tathā ca śrutiḥ kurvann eveha karmāṇi jijīviṣec chatāṃ samāḥ (Īśo 2) iti | tataḥ parantu sarva-karma-nivṛttiḥ svata eva bhavati | tad uktaṃ naiṣkarmya-siddhau –
pratyak-pravaṇatāṃ buddheḥ karmāṇi utpādya śuddhitaḥ |
kṛtārthānyastam āyānti prāvṛḍaste ghanā iva ||
uktaṃ ca bhagavatā – yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād ity ādi | vaśiṣṭhena coktam –
na karmāṇi tyajed yogī
karmabhis tyajyate hy asau |
karmaṇo mūla-bhūtasya
saṅkalpasyaiva nāśataḥ || iti |
jñāna-niṣṭhā-vikṣepakatvam ālakṣya tyajed vā | tad uktaṃ śrī-bhāgavate –
tāvat karmāṇi kurvīta
na nirvidyeta yāvatā |
mat-kathā-śravaṇādau vā
śraddhā yāvan na jāyate || (BhP 11.20.9)
jñāna-niṣṭho virakto vā
mad-bhakto vānapekṣakaḥ |
saliṅgānāśramāṃs tyaktvā
cared avidhi-gocaraḥ || (BhP 11.18.28) ity ādi |
alam atiprasaṅgena prakṛtam anusarāmaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


prathamaṃ prācyaṃ matam āśritya sannyāsa-tyāga-śabdayor bhinna-jātīyārthatvam āha kāmyānām iti | putra-kāmo yajeta svarga-kāmo yajeta ity evaṃ kāmopabandhena vihitānāṃ kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ svarūpeṇaiva tyāgaṃ sannyāsaṃ vidur na tu nityānām api sandhyopāstādīnām iti bhāvaḥ | sarveṣāṃ kāmyānāṃ nityānām api karmaṇāṃ phalaṃ karmaṇā pitṛlokaḥ iti | dharmeṇa pāpam upanudati ity ādyāḥ śrutayaḥ pratipādayanty eva ity atas tyāge phalābhisandhi-rahitaṃ sarva-karma-karaṇam | sannyāse tu phalābhisandhi-rahitaṃ nitya-karma-karaṇam | kāmya-karmaṇāṃ tu svarūpeṇaiva tyāga iti bhedo jñeyaḥ
 

Baladeva


evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān uvāca kāmyānām iti | putra-kāmo yajeta svarga-kāmo yajeta ity evaṃ kāmopanibandhena vihitānāṃ putreṣṭi-jyotiṣṭomādīnāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ svarūpeṇatyāgaṃ kavayaḥ paṇḍitāḥ sannyāsaṃ vidur na tu nityānām agnihotrādīnām ity arthaḥ | teṣu vicakṣaṇās tu sarveṣāṃ kāmyānāṃ nityānāṃ ca karmaṇāṃ phala-tyāgam eva, na tu svarūpatas tyāgaṃ sannyāsa-lakṣaṇaṃ tyāgaṃ prāhuḥ | nitya-karmaṇāṃ ca phalam asti – karmaṇāṃ pitṛ-loko dharmeṇa pāpam apanudati ity ādi śravaṇāt | yadyapi aharahaḥ sandhyām upāsīta, yāvaj-jīvanam agnihotraṃ juhoti ity ādau, putra-kāmo yajeta ity ādāv iva phala-viśeṣo na śrutayas tathāpi viśvajitā yajeta ity ādāv iva vidhiḥ kiñcit phalam ākṣiped eva | itarathā puruṣa-pravṛtty-anupapatter duṣpariharatāpattiḥ | tathā ca kāmya-karmaṇāṃ svarūpatas tyāgo, nitya-karmaṇāṃ tu phala-tyāgaḥ sannyāsa-śabdārthaḥ | sarveṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalecchāṃ tyaktvānuṣṭhānaṃ khalu tyāga-śabdārthaḥ | pūrvokta-rītyā jñānodaya-phalasya sattvād apravṛtter duṣpariharatvaṃ pratyuktam
 
 


BhG 18.3

tyājyaṃ doṣa-vad ity eke karma prāhur manīṣiṇaḥ
yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma na tyājyam iti cāpare

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syntax


[tatra tyāge] (in the matter of abandonment) eke manīṣiṇaḥ (some wise people) karma doṣa-vat iti (activity being full of faults) tyājyam (to be abandoned) prāhuḥ (they speak),
apare [mīmāṁsakāḥ] (other thinkers) yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma (sacrifice, charity austerity) na tyājyam iti (not to be abandoned) [prāhuḥ] (they speak).

 

grammar

tyājyam tyājya (tyaj – to abandon, to give up) PF 1n.1 n.to be abandoned;
doṣa-vat doṣa-vant 1n.1 n.which has faults, guilty, sinful (from: duṣ – to become bad, to be defiled, to perish, doṣa – evil, fault, guilt; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
eke eka sn. 1n.3 n.some;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
prāhuḥ pra-ah (to declare) [Perf.] P 1v.3they declared (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
manīṣiṇaḥ manīṣin 1n.3 m.who are thoughtful, wise (from: man – to think, to believe);
yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma 1n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: yajñānāṁ ca dānānāṁ ca tapasāṁ ca karmetisacrifices, acts of charity and austerities (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu; – to give, dāna – gift, charity; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
na av.not;
tyājyam tyājya (tyaj – to abandon, to give up) PF 1n.1 n.to be abandoned;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ca av.and;
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;

 

textual variants


tyājyamtyāgam (abandonment);
doṣa-vat → mokṣa-vat (as if liberation);
eke → ete (they);
manīṣiṇaḥ → vicakṣaṇaḥ (wise);

The third pada of verse 18.3 is similar to the second pada of verse BhG 17.24 and is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 18.5;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tyājyaṃ tyaktavyaṃ doṣavad doṣo’syāstīti doṣavat | kiṃ tat ? karma bandha-hetutvāt sarvam eva | athavā, doṣo yathā rāgādis tyajyate, tathā tyājyam ity eke karma prāhur manīṣiṇaḥ paṇḍitāḥ sāṃkhyādi-dṛṣṭim āśritāḥ, adhikṛtānāṃ karmiṇām apīti | tatraiva yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma na tyājyam iti cāpare | karmiṇa evādhikṛtās tān apekṣyaite vikalpāḥ, na tu jñāna-niṣṭhān vyutthāyinaḥ saṃnyāsino’pekṣya | jñāna-yogena sāṃkhyānāṃ [gītā 3.3] niṣṭhā mayā purā proktā iti karmādhikārād arpitā ye, na tān prati cintā ||

nanu karma-yogena yogināṃ [gītā 3.3] ity adhikṛtāḥ pūrvaṃ vibhakta-niṣṭhā apīha sarva-śāstrārthopasaṃhāra-prakaraṇe yathā vicāryante, tathā sāṃkhyāpi jñāna-niṣṭhā vicāryantām iti | na, teṣāṃ moha-duḥkha-nimitta-tyāgānupapatteḥ | na kāya-kleśa-nimittaṃ duḥkhaṃ sāṃkhyā ātmani paśyanti, icchādīnāṃ kṣetra-dharmatvenaiva darśitatvāt | atas te na kāya-kleśa-duḥkha-bhayāt karma parityajanti | nāpi te karmāṇy ātmani paśyanti, yena niyataṃ karma mohāt parityajeyuḥ | guṇānāṃ karma naiva kiṃcit karomi [gītā 5.8] iti hi te saṃnyasyanti |

sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya [gītā 5.13] ity ādibhis tattva-vidaḥ saṃnyāsa-prakāra uktaḥ | tasmād ye’nye’dhikṛtāḥ karmaṇy anātma-vido, yeṣāṃ ca moha-nimittas tyāgaḥ sambhavati kāya-kleśa-bhayāc ca, ta eva tāmasās tyāgino rājasāś ceti nindyante karmiṇām anātma-jñānāṃ karma-phala-tyāga-stuty-artham | sarvārambha-parityāgī maunī santuṣṭo yena kenacit | aniketaḥ sthira-matir [gītā 12.19] iti guṇātīta-lakṣaṇe ca paramārtha-saṃnyāsino viśeṣitvāt | vakṣyati ca niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā [gītā 18.10] iti | tasmāt jñāna-niṣṭhāḥ saṃnyāsino na iha vivakṣitāḥ | karma-phala-tyāga eva sāttvikatvena guṇena tāmasatvādy-apekṣayā saṃnyāsocyate, na mukhyaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ ||

sarva-karma-saṃnyāsāsambhave ca na hi deha-bhṛtā [gītā 18.11] iti hetu-vacanāt mukhya eveti cet, na | hetu-vacanasya stuty-arthatvāt | yathā tyāgāc chāntir anantaraṃ [gītā 12.12] iti karma-phala-tyāga-stutir eva yathoktāneka-pakṣānuṣṭhānāśaktimantam arjunam ajñaṃ prati vidhānāt | tathedam api na hi deha-bhṛtā śakyaṃ [gītā 18.11] iti karma-phala-tyāga-stuty-artham | na sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya naiva kurvan na kārayann āste [gītā 5.12] ity asya pakṣasyāpavādaḥ kenacid darśayituṃ śakyaḥ | tasmat karmaṇy adhikṛtān praty evaiṣa saṃnyāsa-tyāga-vikalpaḥ | ye tu paramārtha-darśinaḥ sāṃkhyāḥ, teṣāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāyām eva sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-lakṣaṇāyām adhikāraḥ, nānyatra, iti na te vikalpārhāḥ | tac copapāditam asmābhir vedāvināśinaṃ [gītā 2.21] ity asmin pradeśe, tṛtīyādau ca

 

Rāmānuja


eke manīṣiṇaḥ kāpilāḥ vaidikāś ca tanmatānusāriṇaḥ rāgādidoṣavad bandhakatvāt sarvaṃ yajñādikaṃ karma mumukṣuṇā tyājyam iti prāhuḥ; apare paṇḍitāḥ yajñādikaṃ karma na tyājyam iti prāhuḥ
 

Śrīdhara


aviduṣaḥ phala-tyāga-mātram eva tyāga-śabdārthaḥ | na karma-tyāga iti | etad eva matāntara-nirāsena dṛḍhīkartuṃ mata-bhedaṃ darśayati tyājyam iti | doṣavad dhiṃsādi-doṣakatvena kevalaṃ bandhakam iti hetoḥ sarveṣām api karma tyājyam iti eke sāṅkhyāḥ prāhur manīṣiṇa iti | asyāyaṃ bhāvaḥ – mā hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtānīti niṣedhaḥ puruṣasyānartha-hetur hiṃsā ity āha | agnīṣomīyaṃ paśum ālabhetety ādi-prākaraṇiko vidhis tu hiṃsāyāḥ kratūpakārakatvam āha | ato bhinna-viṣayakatvena sāmānya-viśeṣa-nyāyāgocaratvād vādhyavādhakatā nāsti | dravya-sādhyeṣu ca sarveṣv api karmasu hiṃsādeḥ sambhavāt sarvam api karma tyājyam eveti | tad uktaṃ – dṛṣṭavad ānuśravikaḥ sa hy aviśuddhi-kṣayātiśaya-yukta iti | asyārthaḥ guru-pāṭhād anuśrūyata iti anuśravo vedaḥ | tad bodhita upāyo jyotiṣṭhomādir ānuśravikaḥ | tatrāviśuddhir hiṃsā | tathā kṣayo vināśaḥ | agnihotra-jyotiṣṭhomādi-janyeṣu svargeṣu tāratamyaṃ ca vartate | parotkarṣas tu sarvān duḥkhīkaroti |

apare tu mīmāṃsakā yajñādikaṃ karma na tyājyam iti prāhuḥ | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ kratv-arthāpi satīyaṃ hiṃsā puruṣeṇa kartavyā | sā cānyoddeśenāpi kṛtā puruṣasya pratyavāya-hetur eva | yathā hi vidhir vidheyasya tad-uddeśyenānuṣṭhānaṃ vidhatte | tādarthya-lakṣaṇatvāc cheṣatvasya | na tv evaṃ niṣedho niṣedhasya tādarthyam apekṣate prāpti-mātrāpekṣitatvāt | anyathājñāna-pramādādi-kṛte doṣābhāva-prasaṅgāt | tad evaṃ samāna-viṣayakatvena sāmānya-śāstrasya viśeṣeṇa bādhān nāsti doṣavattvam | ato nityaṃ yajñādi-karma na tyājyam iti | anena vidhi-niṣedhayoḥ samāna-balatā bādhyate sāmānya-viśeṣa-nyāyaṃ sampādayitum

 

Viśvanātha


tyāge punar api mata-bhedam upakṣipati tyājyam iti | doṣavat hiṃsādi-doṣavattvāt karma svarūpata eva tyājyām ity eke sāṅkhyāḥ | pare mīmāṃsakā yajñādikaṃ karma śāstre vihitatvān na tyājyam ity āhuḥ
 

Baladeva


tyāge punar api mata-bhedam āha tyājyam iti | eke manīṣiṇo doṣavat na hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtānīti śruti-nidarśinaḥ kāpilāḥ karma-doṣavat paśu-hiṃsādi-doṣa-yuktaṃ bhavaty atas tyājyaṃ svarūpato heyam ity āhuḥ | agnīṣomīyaṃ paśum ālabheteti śrutis tu hiṃsāyāḥ kratv-aṅgatvam āha tv anartha-hetutvaṃ tasyā nivārayati | tathā ca dravya-sādhyatvena hiṃsāyāḥ sambhavāt | sarvaṃ karma tyājyam iti | apare jaiminīyās tu yajñādikarma na tyājyaṃ tasya veda-vihitatvena nirdoṣatvād ity āhuḥ – yadyapi hiṃsānugrahātmakaṃ karma tathāpi tasya vedena dharmatvābhidhānān na doṣavattvam ataḥ kāryam evety arthaḥ | na hiṃsyāt iti sāmānyato niṣedhas tu krator anyatra tasyāḥ pāpatām āheti na kiñcid avadyam
 
 


BhG 18.4

niścayaṃ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharata-sattama
tyāgo hi puruṣa-vyāghra tri-vidhaḥ saṃprakīrtitaḥ

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he bharata-sattama (O best of the Bharatas) he puruṣa-vyāghra (O tiger among men),
tena (therefore) me (my) niścayam (conclusion) śṛṇu (you must listen).
tyāgaḥ hi (indeed abandonment) tri-vidhaḥ (threefold) saṁprakīrtitaḥ (it is proclaimed).

 

grammar

niścayam niścaya 2n.1 m.certainty, fixed opinion (from: niś-ci – to ascertain, to determine);
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
tatra av. there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
tyāge tyāga 7n.1 m.in leaving, in abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
bharata-sattama bharata-sattama 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇām sattama tiO the best of the Bharatas (from: from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, maintained, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, superlative of: sat – sat-tara, sat-tama);
tyāgaḥ tyāga 1n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
puruṣa-vyāghra puruṣa-vyāghra 8n.1 m.; KD: puruṣo vyāghra ivaO man being a tiger! (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; vyāghra – tiger);
or [TP]: puruṣāṇām vyāghretiO tiger among men!;
tri-vidhaḥ tri-vidha 1n.1 m.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
saṁprakīrtitaḥ saṁ-pra-kīrtita (pra-kīrt – to praise, to glorify) [PP] 1n.1 m.praised, celebrated, proclaimed, known (from: kīrti – fame, glory);

 

textual variants


niścayamniścayaḥ (who is certain);
bharata-sattamabhārata-sattama (the best of the sons of Bharata);
saṁprakīrtitaḥ → saṁpradarśitaḥ / parikīrtitaḥ (shown / glorified);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tatraiteṣu vikalpa-bhedeṣu—
niścayaṃ sṛṇv avadhāraya me mama vacanāt | tatra tyāge tyāga-saṃnyāsa-vikalpe yathā-darśite bharata-sattama bharatānāṃ sādhutama ! tyāgo hi | tyāga-saṃnyāsa-śabda-vācyo hi yo’rthaḥ sa eka evety abhipretyāha—tyāgo hīti | puruṣa-vyāghra ! tri-vidhas tri-prakāras tāmasādi-prakāraiḥ samprakīrtitaḥ śāstreṣu samyak kathitaḥ | yasmāt tāmasādi-bhedena tyāga-saṃnyāsa-śabda-vācyo’rtho’dhikṛtasya karmiṇo’nātma-jñasya tri-vidhaḥ sambhavati, na paramārtha-darśina ity ayam artho durjñānaḥ, tasmād atra tattvaṃ nānyo vaktuṃ samarthaḥ | tasmān niścayaṃ paramārtha-śāstrārtha-viṣayam adhyavasāyam aiśvaraṃ me mattaḥ sṛṇu
 

Rāmānuja


tatra evaṃ vādivipratipanne tyāge tyāgaviṣayaṃ niścayaṃ mattaś śṛṇu; tyāgaḥ kriyamāṇeṣv eva vaidikeṣu karmasu phalaviṣayatayā, karmaviṣayatayā, kartṛtvaviṣayatayā ca pūrvam eva hi mayā trividhas saṃprakīrtitaḥ, „mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṃnyasyādhyātmacetasā / nirāśīr nirmamo bhūtvā yuddhyasva vigatajvaraḥ” iti / karmajanyaṃ svargādikaṃ phalaṃ mama na syād iti phalatyāgaḥ; madīyaphalasādhanatayā madīyam idaṃ karmeti karmaṇi mamatāyāḥ parityāgaḥ karmaviṣayas tyāgaḥ; sarveśvare kartṛtvānusaṃdhānenātmanaḥ kartṛtātyāgaḥ kartṛtvaviṣayas tyāgaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ mata-bhedam upanyasya svamataṃ kathayitum āha niścayam iti | tatraivaṃ vipratipanne tyāge niścayaṃ ye vacanāt śṛṇu | tyāgasya loka-prasiddhatvāt kim atra śrotavym iti māvamaṃsthā ity āha he puruṣa-vyāghra puruṣa-śreṣṭha | tyāgo ‚yaṃ durbodhaḥ | hi yasmād ayaṃ karma-tyāgas tattvavidhbis tāmasādi-bhedena trividhaḥ samyag-vivekena prakīrtitaḥ | traividhyaṃ ca niyatasya tu sannyāsaḥ karmaṇa ity ādinā vakṣyati
 

Viśvanātha


svamatam āha niścayam iti | trividhaḥ sāttviko rājasas tāmasaś ceti | atra tyāgasya traividhyam uktramya niyatasya tu sannyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate | mohāt tasya parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ || iti tasya eva tāmasa-bhedaiḥ sannyāsa-śabda-prayogād bhagavan-mate tyāga-sannyāsa-śabdayor aikyārtham evety avagamyate
 

Baladeva


evaṃ mata-bhedam upavarṇya svamatam āha niścayam iti | mata-bheda-graste tyāge me parameśvarasya sarvajñasya niścayaṃ śṛṇu | nanu tyāgasya khyātatvāt tatra śrotavyaṃ kim asti | tatrāha tyāgo hīti | hi yatas tyāgas tāmasādi-bhedena vijñais trividhaḥ samprakīrtito vivicyoktaḥ | tathā ca durbodho ‚sau śrotavya iti tyāga-traividhyam | niyatasya tu ity ādibhir agre vācyam
 
 


BhG 18.5

yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma na tyājyaṃ kāryam eva tat
yajño dānaṃ tapaś caiva pāvanāni manīṣiṇām

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syntax


yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma (sacrifice, charity and austerity) na tyājyaṁ (not to be abandoned) [asti] (it is),
[parantu] (but) tat kāryam eva [asti] (that is to be done).
yajñaḥ (sacrifice) dānam (charity) tapaḥ ca eva (and indeed austerity) manīṣiṇāṁ (of wise people) pāvanāni (purifiers) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma 1n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: yajñānāṁ ca dānānāṁ ca tapasāṁ ca karmetisacrifices, acts of charity and austerities (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu; – to give, dāna – gift, charity; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
na av.not;
tyājyam tyājya (tyaj – to abandon, to give up) PF 1n.1 n.to be abandoned;
kāryam kārya (kṛ to do) PF 1n.1 n.to be done, work, duty, especially religious one;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
yajñaḥ yajña 1n.1 m. sacrifice, worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
dānam dāna 1n.1 n. gift, charity (from: – to give);
tapaḥ tapas 1n.1 n.heat, austerity (from: tap – to scorch);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
pāvanāni pāvana 1n.3 n.purifiers (from: – to purify);
manīṣiṇām manīṣin 6n.3 m. –  of those who are thoughtful, of the wise (from: man – to think, to believe);

 

textual variants


yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karmayajño dānaṁ tapaḥ-karma (sacrifice, charity and act of austerity);

The first pada of verse 18.5 is similar to the second pada of verse BhG 17.24 and is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 18.3;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kaḥ punar asau niścayaḥ ? ity ata āha—
yajño dānaṃ tapa ity etat tri-vidhaṃ karma na tyājyaṃ na tyaktavyam, kāryaṃ karaṇīyam eva tat | kasmāt ? yajño dānaṃ tapaś caiva pāvanāni viśuddhi-karāṇi manīṣiṇāṃ phalānabhisaṃdhīnām ity etat
 

Rāmānuja


yajñadānatapaḥprabhṛti vaidikaṃ karma mumukṣuṇā na kadācid api tyājyam, api tu ā prayāṇād aharahaḥ kāryam eva
kutaḥ ?
yajñadānatapaḥprabhṛtīni varṇāśramasaṃbandhīni karmāṇi manīṣiṇāṃ mananaśīlānāṃ pāvanāni / mananam upāsanam; mumukṣūṇāṃ yāvajjīvam upāsanaṃ kurvatām upāsananiṣpattivirodhiprācīnakarmavināśanānītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


prathamaṃ tāvan niścayam āha yajñeti dvābhyām | manīṣiṇāṃ vivekināṃ pāvanāni citta-śuddhi-karāṇi
 

Viśvanātha


kāmyānām api madhye bhagavan-mate sāttvikāni yajña-dāna-tapāṃsi phalākāṅkṣā-rahitaiḥ kartavyānīty āha yajñādikaṃ kartavyam eva | tatra hetuḥ pāvanānīti citta-śuddhikaratvād ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


prathamaṃ tasmin svaniścayam āha yajñeti dvābhyām | yajñādīni manīṣiṇāṃ kāryāṇy eva na tyājyāni yad amūni viṣa-tantuvad antarabhyudita-jñāna-dvārā pāvanāni saṃsṛti-doṣa-vināśakāni bhavanti
 
 


BhG 18.6

etāny api tu karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalāni ca
kartavyānīti me pārtha niścitaṃ matam uttamam

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!)
saṅgam (attachment) phalāni ca (and fruits) tyaktvā (after abandoning)
etāni api tu karmāṇi (but these activities) kartavyāni iti (they are to be done)
me niścitam (my settled) uttamam (highest) matam (opinion).

 

grammar

etāni etat sn. 1n.3 n.these;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
karmāṇi karman 2n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
saṅgam saṅga 2n.1 m.clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
phalāni phala 2n.3 n.fruits, results (from: phal – to ripen);
ca av.and;
kartavyāni kartavya (kṛ to do) PF 1n.3 n.to be done, duties;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
niścitam niścita (nir-ci – to ascertain, to resolve) [PP] 1n.1 n.ascertained, settled,
matam mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 n.regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;
uttamam uttama 1n.1 n.uppermost, highest, most elevated (superlative of: ud – upwards, above);

 

textual variants


tu → ca (and);
saṅgaṁ tyaktvā → tyaktvā saṅgaṁ (after abandoning attachment);
 
 



Śāṃkara


etāny api tu karmāṇi yajña-dāna-tapāṃsi pāvanāny uktāni | saṅgam āsaktiṃ teṣu tyaktvā phalāni ca teṣāṃ parityajya kartavyānīty anuṣṭheyānīti me mama niścitaṃ matam uttamam ||
niścayaṃ śṛṇu me tatra iti pratijñāya, pāvanatvaṃ ca hetum uktvā, etāny api karmāṇi kartavyāni ity etat niścitaṃ matam uttamam iti pratijñātārthopasaṃhāra eva, nāpūrvārthaṃ vacanam, etāny apīti prakṛta-saṃnikṛṣṭārthatvopapatteḥ | sāsaṅgasya phalārthino bandha-hetava etāny api karmāṇi mumukṣoḥ kartavyānīty api-śabdasyārthaḥ | na tv anyāni karmāṇy apekṣya etāny apīti ucyate ||

anye tu varṇayanti—nityānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalābhāvāt saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalāni ceti nopapadyate | ata etāny apīti yāni kāmyāni karmāṇi nityebhyo’nyāni, etāny api kartavyāni, kim uta yajña-dāna-tapāṃsi nityānīti | tad asat, nityānām api karmaṇām iha phalavattvasya upapāditatvād yajño dānaṃ tapaś caiva pāvanānīty ādinā vacanena | nityāny api karmāṇi bandha-hetutvāśaṅkayā jihāsor mumukṣoḥ kutaḥ kāmyeṣu prasaṅgaḥ ? dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma [gītā 15.8] iti ca ninditatvāt, yajñārthāt karmaṇo’nyatra [gītā 3.9] iti ca kāmya-karmaṇāṃ bandha-hetutvasya niścitatvāt | traiguṇya-viṣayā vedāḥ [gītā 2.45] traividyā māṃ somapāḥ [gītā 9.20] kṣīṇe puṇye martya-lokaṃ viśantīti [gītā 9.21] ca, dūra-vyavahitatvāc ca, na kāmyeṣu etāny apīti vyapadeśaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yasmān manīṣiṇāṃ yajñadānatapaḥprabhṛtīni pāvanāni, tasmād upāsanavad etāny api yajñādikarmāṇi madārādhanarūpāṇi, saṅgam karmaṇi mamatāṃ phalāni ca tyaktvā aharahar āprayāṇād upāsananivṛttaye mumukṣuṇā kartavyānīti mama niścitam uttamaṃ matam
 

Śrīdhara


yena prakāreṇa kṛtāny etāni pāvanāni bhavanti taṃ prakāraṃ darśayann āha etānīti | yāni yajñādīni karmāṇi mayā pāvanānīty uktam etāny apy eva kartavyāni | katham? saṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārādhantayā kartavyānīti | phalāni ca tyaktvā kartavyāni iti ca me mataṃ niścitam | ata evottamam
 

Viśvanātha


yena prakāreṇa kṛtāny etāni pāvanāni bhavanti taṃ prakāraṃ darśayati etāny apīti | saṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ phalābhisandhiṃ ca | phalābhisandhi-kartṛtvābhiniveśayos tyāga eva tyāgaḥ sannyāsaś cocyata ity bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


yajñādīnāṃ pāvanatā-prakāram āha etāny apīti | saṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ phalāni ca pratipaoktāni pitṛ-lokādīni ca sarvāṇi tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārcana-dhiyā kartavyānīti me mayā niścitam ata uttamam idaṃ matam | kartṛtvābhiniveśa-tyāgasyāpi praveśāt pārtha-sārather mataṃ varīyaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.7

niyatasya tu saṃnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate
mohāt tasya parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ

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syntax


niyatasya tu (of the regulated) karmaṇaḥ (activity) sannyāsaḥ (renunciation) na upapadyate (it is not suitable),
mohāt (out of bewilderment) tasya (its) parityāgaḥ (abandonment) tāmasaḥ (as tamasic) parikīrtitaḥ [asti] (it is proclaimed).

 

grammar

niyatasya niyata (ni-yam – to hold back, to regulate) [PP] 6n.1 m.of the regulated, of restrained;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
saṁnyāsaḥ saṁnyāsa 1n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
karmaṇaḥ karman 6n.1 n.in activity (from: kṛ – to do);
na av.not;
upapadyate upa-pad (to approach, to exist, to be suitable, to attain) Praes. Ā 1v.1 it is suitable, it exists;
mohāt moha 5n.1 m.out of bewilderment (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.its;
parityāgaḥ pari-tyāga 1n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: pari-tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
tāmasaḥ tāmasa 1n.1 m. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);
parikīrtitaḥ pari-kīrtita (pari-kīrt – to praise, to glorify) [PP] 1n.1 m.praised, celebrated, proclaimed, known (from: kīrti – fame, glory);

 

textual variants


tu → ca (and);
mohāt tasya mohārtasya (suffering out of bewilderment);
parikīrtitaḥ → parikīrtyate (it is proclaimed);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tasmād ajñasyādhikṛtasya mumukṣoḥ—
niyatasya tu nityasya saṃnyāsaḥ parityāgaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate, ajñasya pāvanatvasya iṣṭatvāt | mohād ajñānāt tasya niyatasya parityāgaḥ—niyataṃ cāvaśyaṃ kartavyaṃ tyajyate ceti vipratiṣiddham | ati moha-nimittaḥ parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ | mohaś ca tama iti
 

Rāmānuja


niyatasya nityanaimittikasya mahāyajñādeḥ karmaṇaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ tyāgo nopapadyate, „śarīrayātrāpi ca tena prasiddhyed akarmaṇaḥ” iti śarīrayātrāyā evāsiddheḥ, śarīrayātrā hi yajñaśiṣṭāśanena nirvartyamānā samyagjñānāya prabhavati; anyathā, „te tv aghaṃ bhuñjate pāpāḥ” ity ayajñaśiṣṭāgharūpāśanāpyāyanaṃ manaso viparītajñānāya bhavati / „annamayaṃ hi somya manaḥ” ity annena hi mana āpyāyate / „āhāraśuddhau sattvaśuddhis sattvaśuddhau dhruvā smṛtiḥ / smṛtilambhe sarvagranthīnāṃ vipramokṣaḥ // BhGR_18.” iti brahmasākṣātkārarūpaṃ jñānam āhāraśuddhyāyattaṃ śrūyate / tasmān mahāyajñādinityanaimittikaṃ karma ā prayāṇād brahmajñānāyaivopādeyam iti tasya tyāgo nopapadyate / evaṃ jñānotpādinaḥ karmaṇo bandhakatvamohāt parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ / tamomūlas tyāgas tāmasaḥ / tamaḥkāryājñānamūlatvena tyāgasya tamomūlatvam / tamo hy ajñānasya mūlaṃ, „pramādamohau tamaso bhavato ‚jñānam eva ca” ity atroktam / ajñānaṃ tu jñānavirodhi viparītajñānam; tathā ca vakṣyate, „adharmaṃ dharmam iti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā / sarvārthān viparītāṃś ca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī” iti / ato nityanaimittikādeḥ karmaṇas tyāgo viparītajñānamūla evetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


pratijñātaṃ tyāgasya traividhyam idānīṃ darśayati niyatasyeti tribhiḥ | kāmyasya karmaṇo bandhakatvāt sannyāso yuktam | niyatasya tu nityasya punaḥ karmaṇaḥ sannyāsas tyāgo nopapadyate | sattva-śuddhi-dvārā mokṣa-hetutvāt | atas tasya parityāga upādeyatve ‚pi tyājyam ity evaṃ lakṣaṇān mohād eva bhavet | sa ca mohasya tāmasatvāt tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


prakrāntasya trividha-tyāgasya tāmasaṃ bhedam āha niyatasya nityasya | mohāt śāstra-tātparyājñānāt | sannyāsī kāmya-karmaṇy āvaśyakatvābhāvāt parityajatu nāma, nityasya tu karmaṇas tyāgo nopapadyate iti tu śabdārthaḥ | mohād ajñānāt | tāmasa iti tāmasa-tyāgasya phalam ajñāna-prāptir eva | na tv abhīpsita-jñāna-prāptir iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


pratijñātaṃ tyāga-traividhyam āha niyatasyeti tribhiḥ | kāmyasya karmaṇo bandhakatvāt tyāgo yuktaḥ | niyatasya nitya-naimittikasya mahā-yajñādeḥ karmaṇaḥ sannyāsas tyāgo nopapadyate | ātmoddeśād viśīrṇādivad antargata-jñānasya tasya mocakatvād dehayātrā-sādhakatvāc ca tat-tyāgo na yuktaḥ | tena hi devatā-bhagavad-vibhūtir arcatāṃ tac-cheṣaiḥ pūtaiḥ siddhā deha-yātrā tattva-jñānāya sampadyate | vaiparītye pūrvam abhihitaṃ nityataṃ kuru karma tvam ity ādibhis tṛtīyae tasyāpi mohād bandhakam idam ity ajñānāt paritaḥ svarūpeṇa tyāgas tāmaso bhavati – mohasya tamo-dharmatvāt
 
 


BhG 18.8

duḥkham ity eva yat karma kāya-kleśa-bhayāt tyajet
sa kṛtvā rājasaṃ tyāgaṃ naiva tyāga-phalaṃ labhet

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syntax


duḥkham iti eva ([it is] a distress indeed)
[matvā yaḥ] (he who after thinking) kāya-kleśa-bhayāt (out of fear of bodily suffering) yat karma (which activity) tyajet (he would abandon),
saḥ (he) rājasam tyāgam (rajasic abandonment) kṛtvā (after doing)
tyāga-phalam (the fruit of abandonment) na labhet (he would not obtain).

 

grammar

duḥkham duḥkha 1n.1 n.distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kāya-kleśa-bhayāt kāya-kleśa-bhaya 5n.1 n.; [TP]: kāyasya kleśād bhayād itiout of fear of bodily suffering (from: kāya – body; kliś – to trouble, to afflict; kleśa – pain, affliction, anguish, trouble; five troubles in the yoga system: avidyā, asmitā, rāga, dveṣa, abhiniveśa);
tyajet tyaj (to abandon, to give up) Pot. Ā 1v.1 he would abandon;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
rājasam rājasa 2n.1 m. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);
tyāgam tyāga 2n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
na av.not;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tyāga-phalam tyāga-phala 2n.1 m.; [TP]: tyāgasya phalam iti fruit of abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up; tyāga leaving, abandonment; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result);
labhet labh (to obtain) Pot. Ā 1v.1he would obtain;

 

textual variants


yat karma → yaḥ karma / yat kāryaṁ (which activity / which duty);
kāya-kleśa-bhayāt → kārya-kleśa-bhayāt / kāla-kleśa-bhayāt (out of fear of duty-troubles / out of fear of troubles caused by the flow of time);
rājasaṁ → rājasāt (out of rajas);
tyāga-phalaṁ tatra phalaṁ / tyāgaṁ phalaṁ (there fruit / abandonment and the fruit);
labhet → bhavet (it would be);
 
 



Śāṃkara


duḥkham ity eva yat karma kāya-kleśa-bhayāt śarīra-duḥkha-bhayāt tyajet, sa kṛtvā rājasaṃ rajo-nirvartyaṃ tyāgaṃ naiva tyāga-phalaṃ jñāna-pūrvakasya sarva-karma-tyāgasya phalaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ na labhen naiva labheta
 

Rāmānuja


yady api paraṃparayā mokṣasādhanabhūtaṃ karma, tathāpi duḥkhātmakadravyārjanasādhyatvād bahvāyāsarūpatayā kāyakleśakaratvāc ca manaso ‚vasādakaram iti tadbhītyā yoganiṣpattaye jñānābhyāsa eva yatanīya iti / yo mahāyajñādyāśramakarma parityajet, sa rājasaṃ rajomūlaṃ tyāgaṃ kṛtvā tad ayathāvasthitaśāstrārtharūpam iti jñānotpattirūpaṃ tyāgaphalaṃ na labhate; „ayathāvat prajānāti buddhis sā pārtha rājasī” iti hi vakṣyate / na hi karma dṛṣṭadvāreṇa manaḥprasādahetuḥ, api tu bhavagatprasādadvāreṇa
 

Śrīdhara


rājasaṃ tyāgam āha duḥkham iti | yaḥ kartā ātma-bodhaṃ vinā kevalaṃ duḥkham ity evaṃ matvā śarīrāyāsa-bhayāt nityaṃ karma tyajet iti yat tādṛśas tyāgo rājaso duḥkhasya rājasatvāt | atas taṃ rājasaṃ tyāgaṃ kṛtvā sa rājasaḥ puruṣas tyāgasya phalaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaṃ naiva labhata ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


duḥkham ity eveti | yadyapi nitya-karmaṇām āvaśyakam eva tat-karaṇe guṇa eva na tu doṣa iti jānāmy eva | tad apii taiḥ śarīraṃ mayā kathaṃ vṛthā kleśayitavyam iti bhāvaḥ | tyāga-phalaṃ jñānaṃ na labheta
 

Baladeva


niṣkāmatayānuṣṭhitaṃ vihitaṃ karma muktihetur iti jānann api dravopyārjana-prātaḥ-snānādinā duḥkha-rūpam iti kāya-kleśa-bhayāc caitan mumukṣur api tyajet | sa tyāgo rājasaḥ duḥkhasya rajo-dharmatvāt | taṃ tyāgaṃ kṛtvāpi janas tasya phalaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ na labheta
 
 


BhG 18.9

kāryam ity eva yat karma niyataṃ kriyate rjuna
saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna),
kāryam iti (to be done) eva [matvā] (just after thinking)
saṅgam (attachment) phalam ca eva (and indeed the fruit) tyaktvā (after abandoning)
yat niyatam karma (which regulated activity) kriyate (it is done),
sa tyāgaḥ (that abandonment) sāttvikaḥ (sattvic) mataḥ [asti] (it is considered).

 

grammar

kāryam kārya (kṛ to do) PF 1n.1 n.to be done, work, duty, especially religious one;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
niyatam niyata (ni-yam – to restrain, to control) [PP] 1n.1 n.regulated, restrained;
kriyate kṛ (to do) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is done;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
saṅgam saṅga 2n.1 m.clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
phalam phala 2n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
tyāgaḥ tyāga 1n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
sāttvikaḥ sāttvika 1n.1 m. related to sattva, sattvic (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);
mataḥ mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 m. regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;

 

textual variants


kriyate → kurute (he does);
tyāgaḥtyāgī (one who abandons);
mataḥ → smṛtaḥ (remembered);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kaḥ punaḥ sāttvikas tyāgaḥ ? ity āha—
kāryaṃ kartavyam ity eva yat karma niyataṃ nityaṃ kriyate nirvartyate, he arjuna ! saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva | etan nityānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalavattve bhagavad-vacanaṃ pramāṇam avocāma | athavā, yady api phalaṃ na śrūyate nityasya karmaṇaḥ, tathāpi nityaṃ karma kṛtam ātma-saṃskāraṃ pratyavāya-parihāraṃ vā phalaṃ karoti ātmana iti kalpayaty evājñaḥ | tatra tām api kalpanāṃ nivārayati phalaṃ tyaktvā ity anena | ataḥ sādhūktaṃ saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ ceti | sa tyāgo nitya-karmasu saṅga-phala-parityāgaḥ sāttvikaḥ sattva-nirvṛtto mato ’bhipretaḥ ||

nanu karma-parityāgas tri-vidhaḥ saṃnyāsa iti ca prakṛtaḥ | tatra tāmaso rājasaś coktas tyāgaḥ | katham iha saṅga-phala-tyāgas tṛtīyatvenocyate ? yathā trayo brāhmaṇā āgatāḥ, tatra ṣaḍ-aṅga-vidau dvau, kṣatriyas tṛtīya iti tadvat | naiṣa doṣas tyāga-sāmānyena stuty-arthatvāt | asti hi karma-saṃnyāsasya phalābhisaṃdhi-tyāgasya ca tyāgatva-sāmānyam | tatra rājasa-tāmasatvena karma-tyāga-nindayā karma-phalābhisaṃdhi-tyāgaḥ sāttvikatvena stūyate sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ iti

 

Rāmānuja


nityanaimittikamahāyajñādivarṇāśramavihitaṃ karma madārādhanarūpatayā kāryaṃ svayaṃprayojanam iti matvā saṅgam karmaṇi mamatāṃ phalaṃ ca tyaktvā yat kriyate, sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ, sa sattvamūlaḥ, yathāvasthitaśāstrārthajñānamūla ityarthaḥ / sattvaṃ hi yathāvasthitavastujñānam utpādayatīty uktam, „sattvāt saṃjāyate jñānam” iti / vakṣyate ca, „pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca kāryākāryaṃ bhayābhaye / bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī// ” iti
 

Śrīdhara


sāttvikaṃ tyāgam āha kāryam iti | kāryam ity evaṃ niyatam avaśya-kartavyatayā vihitaṃ karma saṅgaṃ phalaṃ ca tyaktvā kriyate iti yat tādṛśas tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kāryam avaśya-kartavyam iti buddhyā niyataṃ nityaṃ karma, sāttvika iti tyāgāt tyāga-phalaṃ jñānaṃ sa labhetaiveti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


kāryam avaśya-kartavyatayā vihitaṃ karma niyataṃ yathā bhavati, tathā saṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ phalaṃ ca nikhilaṃ tyaktvā kriyata iti yat sa tyāgaḥ sāttvikas tādṛśa-jñānasya sattva-dharmatvāt
 
 


BhG 18.10

na dveṣṭy akuśalaṃ karma kuśale nānuṣajjate
tyāgī sattva-samāviṣṭo medhāvī chinna-saṃśayaḥ

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syntax


sattva-samāviṣṭaḥ (filled with sattva) medhāvī (the intelligent) chinna-saṁśayaḥ (whose doubts are cut) tyāgī (an ascetic) akuśalam karma (bad activity) na dveṣṭi (he does not hate),
kuśale (to the good) na anuṣajjate (he does not cling).

 

grammar

na av.not;
dveṣṭi dviṣ (to hate) Praes. P 1v.1he hates;
akuśalam a-kuśala 2n.1 n.wrong, bad, not skilful;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kuśale kuśala 7n.1 n.to the good, to healthy;
na av.not;
anuṣajjate anu-sañj (to attach, to stick, to embrace) Praes Ā 1v.1he clings to, is attached;
tyāgī tyāgin 1n.1 m. who abandons, an ascetic (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
sattva-samāviṣṭaḥ sattva-samāviṣṭa 1n.1 m.; [TP]: sattvena samāviṣṭaḥfilled with sattva (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas; ā-viś – to approach, to enter, [PP] āviṣṭa – entered, filled);
medhāvī medhāvin 1n.1 m.who is learned, intelligent (from: medhas = medhā – intelligence, understanding, sacrifice; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
chinna-saṁśayaḥ chinna-saṁśaya 1n.1 m.; yasya saṁchinnāḥ saṁśayāḥ santi saḥwhose doubts are cut (from: sam-chid – to cut, [PP] saṁchinna – cut, destroyed; sam-śī – to waver, saṁśaya – hesitation, doubt);

 

textual variants


nānuṣajjatenānuṣajyate / nānuṣajjati / nānusajjate (he is not attached / he does not cling / he does not cling);
sattva-samāviṣṭo → satya-samāviṣṭo (filled with truth);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yas tv adhikṛtaḥ saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalābhisaṃdhiś ca nityaṃ karma karoti, tasya phala-rāgādinākaluṣī-kriyamāṇam antaḥ-karaṇaṃ nityaiś ca karmabhiḥ saṃskriyamāṇaṃ viśudhyati | tat viśuddhaṃ prasannam ātmālocana-kṣamaṃ bhavati | tasyaiva nitya-karmānuṣṭhānena viśuddhāntaḥ-karaṇasyātma-jñānābhimukhasya krameṇa yathā tan-niṣṭhā syāt, tad vaktavyam ity āha—

na dveṣṭy akuśalam aśobhanaṃ kāmyaṃ karma, śarīrārambha-dvāreṇa saṃsāra-kāraṇaṃ ‘‘kim anena ?’’ ity evam | kuśale śobhane nitye karmaṇi sattva-śuddhi-jñānotpatti-tan-niṣṭhā-hetutvena mokṣa-kāraṇam idam ity evaṃ nānuṣajjate’nuṣaṅgaṃ prītiṃ na karotīty etat | kaḥ punar asau ? tyāgī pūrvoktena saṅga-phala-tyāgena tadvān tyāgī, yaḥ karmaṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā tat-phalaṃ ca nitya-karmānuṣṭhāyī sa tyāgī | kadā punar asau akuśalaṃ karma na dveṣṭi, kuśale ca nānuṣajjate ? ity ucyate—sattva-samāviṣṭo yadā sattvena ātmānātma-viveka-vijñāna-hetunā samāviṣṭaḥ saṃvyāptaḥ, saṃyukta ity etat | ata eva ca medhāvī medhayā ātma-jñāna-lakṣaṇayā prajñayā saṃyuktas tadvān medhāvī | medhāvitvād eva cchinna-saṃśayaś chinno’vidyā-kṛtaḥ saṃśayo yasyātma-svarūpāvasthānam eva paraṃ niḥśreyasa-sādhanam, nānyat kiṃcid ity evaṃ niścayena cchinna-saṃśayaḥ ||

yo’dhikṛtaḥ puruṣaḥ pūrvoktena prakāreṇa karma-yogānuṣṭhānena krameṇa saṃskṛtātmā san janmādi-vikriyā-rahitatvena niṣkriyam ātmānam ātmatvena sambuddhaḥ, saḥ sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya naiva kurvan na kārayan āsīno naiṣkarmya-lakṣaṇāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhām aśnuta ity etat | pūrvoktasya karma-yogasya prayojanam anenaiva lokena uktam |

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ sattvasamāviṣṭo medhāvī yathāvasthitatattvajñānaḥ, tata eva cchinnasaṃśayaḥ, karmaṇi saṅgaphalakartṛtvatyāgī, na dveṣṭy akuśalaṃ karma; śukale ca karmaṇi nānuṣajjate / akuśalaṃ karma aniṣṭaphalam, kuśalaṃ ca karma iṣṭarūpasvargaputrapaśvannādyādiphalam / sarvasmin karmaṇi mamatārahitatvāt, tyaktabrahmavyatiriktasarvaphalatvāt, tyaktakartṛtvāc ca tayoḥ kriyamāṇayoḥ prītidveṣau na karoti / aniṣṭaphalaṃ pāpaṃ karmātra prāmādikam abhipretam; „nāvirato duścaritān nāśānto nāsamāhitaḥ / nāśāntamānaso vāpi prajñānenainam āpnuyāt // BhGR_18.” iti duścaritāvirater jñānotpattivirodhitvaśravaṇāt / ataḥ karmaṇi kartṛtvasaṅgaphalānāṃ tyāgaḥ śāstrīyatyāgaḥ, na karmasvarūpatyāgaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


evambhūta-sāttvika-tyāga-pariniṣṭhitasya lakṣaṇam āha na dveṣṭīty ādi | sattva-samāviṣṭaḥ sattvena saṃvyāptaḥ sāttvika-tyāgī | akuśalaṃ duḥkhāvahaṃ śiśire prātaḥ-snānādikaṃ karma na dveṣṭi | kuśale ca sukha-kare karmaṇi nidāghe madhyāhna-snānādau nānuṣajjate prītiṃ na karoti | tatra hetuḥ medhāvī sthira-buddhiḥ | yatra para-paribhavādi mahad api duḥkhaṃ sahate svargādi-sukhaṃ ca tyajati tatra kiyad etat tātkālikaṃ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca ity evam anusandhānavān ity arthaḥ | ataeva chinnaḥ saṃśayo mithyā-jñānaṃ daihika-sukha-duḥkhayor upāditsā-parijihīrṣā-lakṣaṇaṃ yasya saḥ
 

Viśvanātha


evambhūta-sāttvika-tyāga-pariniṣṭhitasya lakṣaṇam āha na dveṣṭīty ādi | akuśalaṃ asukhadaṃ śīte prātaḥ-snānādikaṃ na dveṣṭi | kuśale sukha-grīṣma-snānādau
 

Baladeva


sāttvika-tyāgino lakṣaṇam āha dveṣṭīti | akuśalaṃ duḥkhadaṃ hemanta-prātaḥ-snānādi na dveṣṭi | kuśale sukhade nidāgha-madhyāhne snānādau na sajjate | yataḥ sattva-samāviṣṭo ‚tidhāro medhāvī sthiradhīś chinno vihitāni karmāṇi kleśānuṣṭhitāni jñānaṃ janayeyur na vety evaṃ lakṣaṇaḥ saṃśayo yena saḥ || īdṛśaḥ sāttvika-tyāgī bodhyaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.11

na hi deha-bhṛtā śakyaṃ tyaktuṃ karmāṇy aśeṣataḥ
yas tu karma-phala-tyāgī sa tyāgīty abhidhīyate

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syntax


deha-bhṛtā (by the holder of the body) karmāṇi (activities) aśeṣataḥ (completely) tyaktum (to abandon) na hi śakyam (indeed it is not possible),
yaḥ tu (but he who) karma-phala-tyāgī [asti] (is one who abandons the fruits of action),
saḥ tyāgī iti (he is an ascetic) abhidhīyate (he is called).

 

grammar

na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
deha-bhṛtā deha-bhṛt 3n.1 m.; ye dehaṁ bibhrati teṣām – by one who holds a body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, bhṛt – suffix: bearer, holder);
śakyam śakya (śak – to be able to) PF 1n.1 n. it is possible;
tyaktum tyaj (to abandon, to give up) [inf.] – to abandon;
karmāṇi karman 2n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
aśeṣataḥ av.completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
karma-phala-tyāgī karma-phala-parityāgin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇaḥ phalānāṁ parityāgīti who abandons the fruits of action (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
tyāgī tyāgin 1n.1 m. who abandons, an ascetic (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
abhidhīyate abhi-dhā (to name, to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is called;

 

textual variants


deha-bhṛtā deha-bhṛtāṁ / deha-kṛtā (of those who hold the body  / by creator of the body);
yas tu → yat tu (but which);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yaḥ punar adhikṛtaḥ san dehātmābhimānitvena deha-bhṛd ajño’bādhitātma-kartṛtva-vijñānatayāhaṃ kartā iti niścita-buddhis tasyāśeṣa-karma-parityāgasyāśakyatvāt karma-phala-tyāgena codita-karmānuṣṭhāne evādhikāraḥ, na tat-tyāga ity etam, arthaṃ darśayitum āha—
na hi yasmād deha-bhṛtā, dehaṃ bibharti deha-bhṛt | dehātmābhimānavān deha-bhṛd ucyate, na vivekī | sa hi vedāvināśinaṃ [gītā 2.21] ity ādinā kartṛtvādhikārān nivartitaḥ | atas tena deha-bhṛtājñena na śakyaṃ tyaktuṃ saṃnyasituṃ karmāṇy aśeṣato niḥśeṣeṇa | tasmād yas tv ajño’dhikṛto nityāni karmāṇi kurvan karma-phala-tyāgī karma-phalābhisaṃdhi-mātra-saṃnyāsī sa tyāgī ity abhidhīyate karmy api sann iti stuty-abhiprāyeṇa | tasmāt paramārtha-darśitvenaivādeha-bhṛtā dehātma-bhāva-rahitenāśeṣa-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ śakyate kartum
 

Rāmānuja


tad āha
na hi dehabhṛtā dhriyamāṇaśarīreṇa karmāṇy aśeṣatas tyaktuṃ śakyam; dehadhāraṇārthānām aśanapānādīnāṃ tadanubandhināṃ ca karmaṇām avarjanīyatvāt / tad arthaṃ ca mahāyajñādyanuṣṭhānam avarjanīyam / yas tu teṣu mahāyajñādikarmasu phalatyāgī sa eva, „tyāgenaike amṛtatvam ānaśuḥ” ityādiśāstreṣu tyāgīty abhidhīyate / phalatyāgīti pradarśanārthaṃ phalakartṛtvakarmasaṅgānāṃ tyāgīti; „trividhaḥ saṃprakīrtitaḥ” iti prakramāt
 

Śrīdhara


nanv evambhutāt karma-phala-tyāgād varaṃ sarva-karma-tyāgaḥ | tathā sati karma-vikṣepābhāvena jñāna-niṣṭhā sukhaṃ sampadyate tatrāha na hīti | deha-bhṛtā dehātmābhimānavatā niḥśeṣeṇa sarvāṇi karmāṇi tyaktuṃ na hi cākyam | tad uktaṃ na hi kaścit kṣaṇam api jātu tiṣṭhaty akarma-kṛd ity ādinā | tasmād yas tu karmāṇi kurvann api karma-phala-tyāgī sa eva mukhas tyāgīty abhidhīyate
 

Viśvanātha


ito ‚pi śāstrīyaṃ karma na tyājyam ity āha na hīti | tyaktuṃ na śakyaṃ na śakyāni | tad uktaṃ na hi kaścit kṣaṇam api jātu tiṣṭhaty akarma-kṛd iti
 

Baladeva


nanv īdṛśāt phala-tyāgāt svarūpataḥ karma-tyāgo varīyān vikṣepābhāvena jñāna-niṣṭhā sādhakatvād iti cet tatrāha na hīti | deha-bhṛtā karmāṇy aśeṣatas tyaktuṃ na hi śakyaṃ na śakyāni | yad uktaṃ na hi kaścit kṣaṇam apītyādi | tasmād yaḥ karmāṇi kurvann eva tat-phala-tyāgo, sa eva tyāgīty ucyate | tathā ca saniṣṭho ‚dhikārī kartṛtvābhiniveśa-phalecchā-śūnyo yathā-śakti sarvāṇi karmāṇi jñānārthī san kuryād iti pārtha-sārather matam
 
 


BhG 18.12

aniṣṭam iṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca tri-vidhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam
bhavaty atyāgināṃ pretya na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kva-cit

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syntax


atyāginām (of those not abandoning) pretya (after death) aniṣṭam (undesired) iṣṭam (desired) miśram ca (and mixed) tri-vidham (threefold) karmaṇaḥ phalam (the fruit of activity) bhavati (there is).
sannyāsinām tu (but of renunciants) kvacit (anywhere) [tat] na [bhavati] (that there is not).

 

grammar

aniṣṭam an-iṣṭa (iṣ – to desire) [PP] 1n.1 n.undesired, unworshipped;
iṣṭam iṣṭa (iṣ – to desire) [PP] 1n.1 n.desired, worshipped;
miśram miśra 1n.1 n.mixed (from: miśr – to mix);
ca av.and;
tri-vidham tri-vidha 1n.1 n.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
karmaṇaḥ karman 6n.1 n.of activity (from: kṛ – to do);
phalam phala 1n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
atyāginām a-tyāgin 6n.3 m. of those who do not abandon, of non-ascetics (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
pretya pra-i (to go away, to die) absol.having died, after death, in the next world (opposite to: iha – here);
na av.not;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
saṁnyāsinām saṁnyāsin 6n.3 m. of the renunciants (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, saṁnyāsa laying aside, resignation, renunciation, -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
kva-cit av.anywhere (from: kva – where? in what place?; -cit – indefinitive particle);

 

textual variants


iṣṭaṁ miśraṁ iṣṭa-miśraṁ (desired and mixed);
bhavaty atyāgināṁ → bhavaṁti atyāgināṁ / bhavaty asaṁgināṁ (there are of non-ascetics / there is of non-attached);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ punas tat prayojanam, yat sarva-karma-saṃnyāsāt syāt ? ity ucyate—
aniṣṭaṃ naraka-tiryag-ādi-lakṣaṇam | iṣṭaṃ devādi-lakṣaṇam | miśram iṣṭāniṣṭa-saṃyuktaṃ manuṣya-lakṣaṇaṃ ca | tat tri-vidhaṃ tri-prakāraṃ karmaṇaḥ dharmādharma-lakṣaṇasya phalaṃ bāhyāneka-kāraka-vyāpāra-niṣpannaṃ sad avidyā-kṛtam indrajāla-māyopamaṃ mahā-moha-karaṃ pratyag-ātmopasarpīha—phalgutayā layam adarśanaṃ gacchatīti phala-nirvacanaṃ—tad etad evaṃ-lakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ bhavaty atyāginām ajñānāṃ karmiṇām aparamārtha-saṃnyāsināṃ pretya śarīra-pātād ūrdhvam | na tu saṃnyāsināṃ paramārtha-saṃnyāsināṃ paramahaṃsa-parivrājakānāṃ kevala-jñāna-niṣṭhānāṃ kvacit | na hi kevala-samyag-darśana-niṣṭhā avidyādi-saṃsāra-bījaṃ nonmūlayati kadācid ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


nanu karmāṇy agnihotradarśapūrṇamāsajyotiṣṭomādīni, mahāyajñādīni ca svargādiphalasaṃbandhitayā śāstrair vidhīyante; nityanaimittikānām api „prājāpatyaṃ gṛhasthānām” ityādiphalasaṃbandhitayaiva hi codanā / ataḥ tattatphalasādhanasvabhāvatayāvagatānāṃ karmaṇām anuṣṭhāne, bījāvāpādīnām iva, anabhisaṃhitaphalasyāpi iṣṭāniṣṭarūpaphalasaṃbandhaḥ avarjanīyaḥ / ato mokṣavirodhiphalatvena mumukṣuṇā na karmānuṣṭheyam ity ata uttaram āha
aniṣṭam narakādiphalam, iṣṭam svargādi, miśram aniṣṭasaṃbhinnaṃ putrapaśvannādyādi; etat trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam, atyāginām kartṛtvamamatāphalatyāgarahitānāṃ pretya bhavati / pretya karmānuṣṭhānottarakālam ityarthaḥ / na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit na tu kartṛtvādiparityāgināṃ kvacid api mokṣavirodhi phalaṃ bhavati / etad uktaṃ bhavati yady apy agnihotramahāyajñādīni tāny eva, tathāpi jīvanādhikārakāmādhikārayor iva mokṣādhikāre ca viniyogapṛthaktvena parihriyate / mokṣaviniyogaś ca, „tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena” ityādibhir iti / tad evaṃ kriyamāṇeṣv eva karmasu
kartṛtvādiparityāgaḥ śāstrasiddhiḥ saṃnyāsaḥ; sa eva ca tyāga ity uktaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtasya karma-phala-tyāgasya phalam āha aniṣṭam iti | aniṣṭam nārakitvam | iṣṭaṃ devatvam | miśraṃ manuṣyatvam | evaṃ trividhaṃ pāpasya puṇyasya cobhaya-miśrasya ca karmaṇo yat phalaṃ prasiddham | tat sarvam atyāgināṃ sakāmānām eva pretya paratra bhavati | teṣāṃ trividha-karma-sambhavāt | na tu sannyāsināṃ kvacid api bhavati | sannyāsi-śabdenātra phala-tyāga-sāmyāt prakṛtāḥ karma-phala-tyāgino ‚pi gṛhyante | anāśritaḥ karma-phalaṃ kāryaṃ karma karoti yaḥ | sa sannyāsī ca yogī cety evam ādau ca karma-phala-tyāgiṣu sannyāsi-śabda-yoga-darśanāt | teṣāṃ sāttvikānāṃ pāpāsambhavād īśvarārpaṇena ca puṇya-phalasya tyaktatvāt trividham api karma-phalaṃ na bhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


evambhūta-tyāgābhāve doṣam āha – aniṣṭaṃ naraka-duḥkhaṃ iṣṭaṃ svarga-sukhaṃ miśraṃ manuṣya-janmani sukha-duḥkham atyāgināṃ evambhūta-tyāga-rahitānām eva bhavati pretya paraloke
 

Baladeva


īdṛśa-tyāgābhāve doṣam āha aniṣṭam iti | aniṣṭaṃ nārakitvam | iṣṭaṃ svargitvaṃ miśraṃ manuṣyatvam | duḥkha-sukha-yogīti trividhaṃ karma-phalam | atyāginām ukta-tyāga-rahitānāṃ pretya para-kāle bhavati | na tu sannyāsinām ukta-tyāgavatām | teṣāṃ tu karmāntargatena jñānena mokṣo bhavatīti tyāga-phalam uktam
 
 


BhG 18.13

pañcaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me
sāṃkhye kṛtānte proktāni siddhaye sarva-karmaṇām

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syntax


he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
[tvam] (you) etāni pañca kāraṇāni (these five causes) me (from me) nibodha (you must know).
sāṅkhye (in sāṁkhya) kṛtānte [ca] (and in the conclusion done) sarva-karmaṇām (of all activities) siddhaye (for perfection) [etāni] proktāni (which are declared) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

pañca pañca 2n.3 n.five;
etāni etat sn. 2n.3 n.these;
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO mighty-armed one! (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
kāraṇāni kāraṇa 2n.3 n.cause, motive, principle, the means (from: kṛ – to do, karaṇa – deed, direct cause, instrument, helper);
nibodha ni-budh (to know) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
sāṁkhye sāṁkhya 7n.1 n.in sāṁkhya (from: sam-khyā – to count, sāmkhya – relating to number, rational, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
kṛtānte kṛta-anta 7n.1 n.; BV: yasyāntaḥ kṛto ‘sti tasminin that which has the conclusion, in Vedānta (from: kṛ – to do, kṛta [PP] – done, made; anta – the end, limit, boundary);
proktāni prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.3 n.which are declared, which are spoken;
siddhaye siddhi 4n.1 f.for accomplishment, for fulfilment, for perfection, for success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
sarva-karmaṇām sarva-karman 6n.3 n.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ karmaṇām itiof all activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);

 

textual variants


pañcaitāni → pañcemāni (these five);
mahābāho → mahābhāga (O fortunate one!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ataḥ paramārtha-darśina evāśeṣa-karma-saṃnyāsitvaṃ sambhavaty avidyādhyāropitatvād ātmani kriyā-kāraka-phalānām | na tv ajñasyādhiṣṭhānādīni kriyā-kartṛ-kārakāṇy ātmatvenaiva paśyato’śeṣa-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ sambhavati | tad etad uttaraiḥ ślokair darśayati—
pañcaitāni vakṣyamāṇāni | he mahābāho ! kāraṇāni nirvartakāni | nibodha me mameti uttaratra cetaḥ-samādhānārtham, vastu-vaiṣamya-pradarśanārthaṃ ca | tāni ca kāraṇāni jñātavyatayā stauti—sāṅkhye jñātavyāḥ padārthāḥ saṃkhyāyante yasmin śāstre tat sāṃkhyaṃ vedāntaḥ | kṛtānte iti tasyaiva viśeṣaṇam | kṛtam iti karmocyate, tasyāntaḥ parisamāptir yatra sa kṛtāntaḥ, karmānta ity etat | yāvān artha udapāne [gītā 2.46] sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate [gītā 4.33] ity ātma-jñāne saṃjāte sarva-karmaṇāṃ nivṛttiṃ darśayati | atas tasmin ātma-jñānārthe sāṃkhye kṛtānte vedānte proktāni kathitāni siddhaye niṣpatty-arthaṃ sarva-karmaṇām
 

Rāmānuja


idānīṃ bhagavati puruṣottame antaryāmiṇi kartṛtvānusaṃdhānena ātmani akartṛtvānusaṃdhānaprakāram āha, tata eva phalakarmaṇor api mamatāparityāgo bhavatīti / paramapuruṣo hi svakīyena jīvātmanā svakīyaiś ca karaṇakalevaraprāṇaiḥ svalīlāprayojanāya karmāṇy ārabhate / ato jīvātmagataṃ kṣunnivṛttyādikam api phalam, tatsādhanabhūtaṃ ca karma paramapuruṣasyaiva /
sāṃkhyā buddhiḥ, sāṃkhye kṛtānte yathāvasthitatattvaviṣayayā vaidikyā buddhyā anusaṃhite nirṇaye sarvakarmaṇāṃ siddhaye utpattaye, proktāni pañcaitāni kāraṇāni nibodhe me mama sakāśād anusaṃdhatsva / vaidikī hi buddhiḥ śarīrendriyaprāṇajīvātmopakaraṇaṃ paramātmānam eva kartāram avadhārayati, „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan ātmano ‚ntaro yam ātmā na veda yasyātmā śarīraṃ ya ātmānam antaro yamayati sa ta ātmāntaryāmy amṛtaḥ”, „antaḥpraviṣṭaḥ śāstā janānāṃ sarvātmā” ityādiṣu
 

Śrīdhara


nanu karma kurvataḥ karma-phalaṃ kathaṃ na bhaved ity āśaṅkya saṅga-tyāgino nirahaṅkārasya sataḥ karma-phalena lepo nāstīty upapādayitum āha pañceti pañcabhiḥ | sarva-karmaṇāṃ siddhaye niṣpattaya imāni vakṣyamāṇāni pañca-kāraṇāni me vacanān nibodha jānīhi | ātmanaḥ kartṛtvābhimāna-nivṛtty-artham avaśyam etāni jñātavyānīty evam | teṣāṃ stuty-artham evāha sāṅkhya iti | samyak khyāyate jñāyate paramātmā ‚neneti sāṅkhyaṃ tattva-jñānam | prakāśamāna ātma-bodhaḥ sāṅkhyam | tasmin kṛtaṃ karma tasyāntaḥ samāptir asminn iti sāṅkhyam | kṛto ‚nto nirṇaye ‚sminn iti kṛtāntaṃ sāṅkhya-śāstram eva | tasmin proktāni | ataḥ samyaṅ nibodha ity arthaḥ |
 

Viśvanātha


nanu karmakurvataḥ karma-phalaṃ kathaṃ na bhaved ity āśaṅkya nirahaṅkāratve sati karma-lepo nāstīty upapādayitum āha pañcamānīti pañcabhiḥ | sarva-karmaṇāṃ siddhaye niṣpattaya imāni pañca-kāraṇāni me mama vacanān nibodha jānīhi | samyak paramātmānaṃ khyāti kathayati iti saṅkhyam eva sāṅkhyaṃ vedānta-śāstraṃ tasmin | kīdṛśe kṛtaṃ karma tasyānto nāśo yasmāt tasmin proktāni |
 

Baladeva


nanu karmāṇi kurvatāṃ tat-phalāni kuto na syur iti cet svasmin kartṛtvābhiniveśa-tyāgena parameśvare mukha-kartṛtva-niścayena bhavatīty āśayenāha pañcaitānīti pañcabhiḥ | he mahābāho sarva-karmaṇāṃ siddhaye niṣpattaye etāni pañca-kāraṇāni me matto nibodha jānīhi | pramāṇam āha sāṅkhya iti | sāṅkhyaṃ jñānaṃ tat-pratipādakaṃ vedānta-śāstram sāṅkhyaṃ tasmin | kīdṛśīty āha kṛtānte kṛta-nirṇaye sarveṣāṃ karma-hetūnāṃ pravartakaḥ paramātmeti nirṇaya-kāriṇīty arthaḥ | antaryāmi-brahmaṇe viditam etat | ihāpi sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi (Gītā 15.15) ity ādy uktaṃ | vakṣyate ca īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānām (Gītā 18.61) ity ādi |
 
 


BhG 18.14

adhiṣṭhānaṃ tathā kartā karaṇaṃ ca pṛthag-vidham
vividhāś ca pṛthak ceṣṭā daivaṃ caivātra pañcamam

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syntax


adhiṣṭhānam (basis) tathā kartā (and a doer) pṛthak-vidham karaṇam ca (and different kinds of the senses) pṛthak (separately) vividhāḥ (manifold) ceṣṭā (efforts) atra (here) pañcamam daivam ca eva (and indeed destiny as the fifth).

 

grammar

adhiṣṭhānam adhiṣṭhāna 1n.1 n.basis, position, abode, place (from: adhi-sthā – to stand upon, to superintend);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
kartā kartṛ 1n.1 m.a doer (from: kṛ – to do);
karaṇam karaṇa 1n.1 n.deed, direct cause, instrument, helper, a sense organ (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
pṛthag-vidham pṛthag-vidha 1n.1 n.which has separate parts, of different kinds (from: pṛth – to extend, av. pṛthak – separately, one by one; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
vividhāḥ vi-vidha 1n.3 f. manifold;
ca av.and;
pṛthak av.separately, one by one (from: pṛth – to extend);
ceṣṭāḥ ceṣṭā 1n.3 f.gestures, activities, behaviours, efforts (from: ceṣṭ – to move, to endeavour, to act);
daivam daiva 1n.1 n. divine will, destiny, fate (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
atra av.here;
pañcamam pañcama 1n.1 n. fifth (from: pañca – five);

 

textual variants


karaṇaṁkāraṇaṁ (cause);
vividhāś ca vividhā ca (and manifold);
ciaiva → eva (just);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kāni tāni ? ity ucyate—
adhiṣṭhānam icchā-dveṣa-sukha-duḥkha-jñānādīnām abhivyakter āśrayo’dhiṣṭhānaṃ śarīram | tathā kartā upādhi-lakṣaṇo bhoktā | karaṇaṃ ca śrotrādi śabdādy-upalabdhaye pṛthag-vidhaṃ nānā-prakāraṃ tad dvādaśa-saṃkhyam | vividhāś ca pṛthak-ceṣṭaḥ vāyavīyāḥ prāṇāpānādyāḥ | daivaṃ caiva | daivam eva cātraiteṣu caturṣu pañcamaṃ pañcānāṃ pūraṇam ādityādi- cakṣur-ādy-anugrāhaka
 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 18.15
 

Śrīdhara


tāny evāha adhiṣṭhānam iti | adhiṣṭhānaṃ śarīram | kartā cid-acid-granthir ahaṅkāraḥ | pṛthag-vidham aneka-prakāram | karaṇaṃ cakṣuḥ-śrotrādi | vividhāḥ kāryataḥ svarūpataś ca | pṛthag-bhūta-ceṣṭā prāṇāpānādīnāṃ vyāpārāḥ | atraitad eva pañcamaṃ kāraṇaṃ daivam | cakṣur-ādy-anugrāhakam ādityādi-sarva-prerako ‚ntaryāmī vā
 

Viśvanātha


tāny eva gaṇayati adhīti | adhiṣṭhānaṃ śarīraṃ | kartā cij-jaḍa-granthir ahaṅkāraḥ, karaṇaṃ cakṣuḥ-śrotrādi | pṛthag-vidham aneka-prakāram | pṛthak-ceṣṭā prāṇāpānādīnāṃ pṛthag-vyāpārāḥ | daivaṃ sarva-prerako ‚ntaryāmī ca
 

Baladeva


tāny eva gaṇayati adhīti | adhiṣṭhīyate jīvenety adhiṣṭhānaṃ śarīraṃ kartā jīvaḥ asya jñātṛtva-kartṛtve śrutir āha eṣa hi draṣṭā sraṣṭā ity (PraśnaU 4.9) ādinā | sūtrakāraś ca jño ‚ta eva (Vs 2.3.18) iti kartā śāstrārthavattvāt (Vs 2.3.26) ity ādi ca | karaṇaṃ śrotrādisamanaskam | pṛthag-vidhaṃ karma-niṣpattau pṛthag-vyāpāram | vividhā ca pṛthak-ceṣṭā prāṇāpānādīnāṃ nānā-vidhā pṛthag-vyāpārāḥ | daivaṃ cety atra karma-niṣpādake hetu-pracaye daivaṃ sarvārādhyaṃ paraṃ brahma pañcamam | karma-niṣpattāv antaryāmī harir mukhyo hetur ity arthaḥ | dehendriya-prāṇa-jīvopakaraṇo ‚sau karma-pravartaka iti niścayavatāṃ karma tat-phaleṣu kartṛtvābhiniveśa-spṛhā-virahitānāṃ karmāṇi na bandhakānīti bhāvaḥ |

nanu jīvasya kartṛtve pareśāyatte sati tasya karma sva-niyojyatvāpattiḥ, kāṣṭhādi-tulyatvāt | vidhi-niṣedha-śāstrāṇi ca vyarthāni syuḥ | svadhiyā pravartituṃ na śakto niyojyo dṛṣṭaḥ | ucyate — pareśena dattair dehendriyādibhis tenaivāhita-śaktibhis tad-ādhāra-bhūto jīvas tad-āhita-śaktibhis tad-ādhāra-bhūto jīvas tad-āhita-śaktikaḥ san karma-siddhaye svecchayaiva dehendriyādikam adhitiṣṭhati | pareśas tu tat-sarvāntaḥ-sthas tasminn anumatiṃ dadānas taṃ prerayatīti jīvasya sva-dhiyā pravṛtti-nivṛttimattvam astīti na kiñcic codyam | evam eva sūtrakāro niṛṇītavān parāt tat tac chakteḥ (? parāt tac-chruteḥ, 2.3.40) ity ādinā | nanu muktasya jīvasya kartṛtvaṃ na syāt, tasya dehendriya-prāṇānāṃ vigamād iti cen na, tadā saṅkalpa-siddhānāṃ divyānāṃ teṣāṃ sattvāt |

 
 


BhG 18.15

śarīra-vāṅ-manobhir yat karma prārabhate naraḥ
nyāyyaṃ vā viparītaṃpañcaite tasya hetavaḥ

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syntax


naraḥ (a person) śarīra-vāṅ-manobhiḥ (with body, speech and mind) yat nyāyyam vā viparītam vā (which is right or wrong) karma (activity) prārabhate (he undertakes),
ete pañca (these five) tasya (of that) hetavaḥ (the causes) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

śarīra-vāṅ-manobhiḥ śarīra-vāk-manas 3n.3 m.; DV: śarīrena ca vācā ca manasā cetiwith body, speech and mind (from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body; from: vac – to speak, vāk – speech; man – to think, manas – the mind);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.which;
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
prārabhate pra-ā-rabh (to reach, to undertake, to begin) Praes. Ā 1v.1he begins, he undertakes;
naraḥ nara 1n.1 m.a man, a person (from: nṛ man, mankind);
nyāyyam nyāyya 2n.1 n.customary, right, usual, proper (from: – to lead, nyāya – rule, manner, system);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
viparītam viparīta (vi-pari-xi – to turn round, to return) [PP] 2n.1 n.reversed, wrong, contrary;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
pañca pañca 1n.3 n.five;
ete etat sn. 1n.3 m.these;
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.of that;
hetavaḥ hetu 1n.3 m.causes, motives, reasons;

 

textual variants


yat → hi (indeed);
karma prārabhate → yat karmārabhate (which activity he begins);
naraḥ → ‘rjuna (O Arjuna!);
karma prārabhate naraḥ → karma prārabhyate naraiḥ (activity begun by people);
nyāyyaṁ → nyāyaṁ (the rule);
nyāyyaṁ vā viparītaṁ vā → vāpi parītaṁ ca (or wrong and);
pañcaite → paṁca te (these five);
 
 



Śāṃkara


śarīra-vāṅ-manobhir yat karma tribhir etaiḥ prārabhate nirvartayati naraḥ nyāyyaṃ vā dharmyaṃ śāstrīyam, viparītaṃ vāśāstrīyam adharmyaṃ yac cāpi nimiṣita-ceṣṭitādi jīvana-hetus tad api pūrva-kṛta-dharmādharmayor eva kāryam iti nyāyya-viparītayor eva grahaṇena gṛhītam, pañcaite yathoktās tasya sarvasyaiva karmaṇo hetavaḥ kāraṇāni |

nanv etāny adhiṣṭhānādīni sarva-karmaṇāṃ nirvartakāni katham ucyate śarīra-vāṅ-manobhir yat karma prārabhata iti ? naiṣa doṣaḥ | vidhi-pratiṣedha-lakṣaṇaṃ sarvaṃ karma śarīrādi-traya-pradhānam | tad-aṅgatayā darśana-śravaṇādi ca jīvana-lakṣaṇaṃ tridhaiva rāśīkṛtam ucyate śarīrādibhir ārabhyata iti | phala-kāle’pi tat-pradhānaiḥ sādhanair bhujyata iti pañcānām eva hetutvaṃ na virudhyata iti |

 

Rāmānuja


tad idam āha
nyāyye śāstrasiddhe, viparīte pratiṣiddhe vā sarvasmin karmaṇi śarīre, vācike, mānase ca pañcaite hetavaḥ / adhiṣṭhānam śarīram; adhiṣṭhīyate jīvātmaneti mahābhūtasaṃghātarūpaṃ śarīram adhiṣṭhānam / tathā kartā jīvātmā; asya jīvātmano jñātṛtvaṃ kartṛtvaṃ ca, „jño ‚ta eva”, „kartā śāstrārthavattvāt ” iti ca sūtropapāditam / karaṇaṃ ca pṛthagvidham vākpāṇipādādipañcakaṃ samanaskaṃ karmendriyaṃ pṛthagvidham karmaniṣpattau pṛthagvyāpāram / vividhā ca pṛthakceṣṭā / ceṣṭāśabdena pañcātmā vāyur abhidhīyate tadvṛttivācinā; śarīrendriyadhāraṇasya prāṇāpānādibhedabhinnasya vāyoḥ pañcātmano vividhā ca ceṣṭā vividhā vṛttiḥ / daivaṃ caivātra pañcamam atra karmahetukalāpe daivaṃ pañcamam paramātmā antaryāmī karmaniṣpattau pradhānahetur ityarthaḥ / uktaṃ hi, „sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṃ ca” iti / vakṣyati ca, „īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṃ hṛddeśe ‚rjuna tiṣṭhati / bhrāmayan sarvabhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā//” iti / paramātmāyattaṃ ca jīvātmanaḥ kartṛtvam, „parāt tu tacchruteḥ” ityādyupapāditam / nanv evaṃ paramātmāyatte jīvātmanaḥ kartṛtve jīvātmā karmaṇy aniyojyo bhavatīti vidhiniṣedhaśāstrāṇy anarthakāni syuḥ // idam api codyaṃ sūtrakāreṇa parihṛtam, „kṛtaprayatnāpekṣas tu vihitapratiṣiddhāvaiyārthyādibhyaḥ” iti / etad uktaṃ bhavati paramātmanā dattais tadādhāraiś ca karaṇakalebarādibhis tadāhitaśaktibhiḥ svayaṃ ca jīvātmā tadādhāras tadāhitaśaktis san karmaniṣpattaye svecchayā karaṇādyadhiṣṭhānākāraṃ prayatnaṃ cārabhate; tadantaravasthitaḥ paramātmā svānumatidānena taṃ pravartayatīti jīvasyāpi svabuddhyaiva pravṛttihetutvam asti; yathā gurutaraśilāmahīruhādicalanādiphalapravṛttiṣu bahupuruṣasādhyāsu bahūnāṃ hetutvaṃ vidhiniṣedhabhāktvaṃ ceti
 

Śrīdhara


eteṣām eva sarva-karma-hetutvam āha śarīreti | yathoktaiḥ pañcabhiḥ prārabhyamānaṃ karma triṣv evāntarbhāvyam | śarīra-vāṅ-manobhir ity uktaṃ śārīraṃ vācikaṃ mānasaṃ ca trividhaṃ karmeti prasiddheḥ | śarīrādibhiḥ yat karma dharmyam adharmyaṃ vā karoti naras tasya karmaṇa ete pañca hetavaḥ |
 

Viśvanātha


śarīrādibhir iti śārīraṃ vācikaṃ mānasaṃ ceti karma trividham | tac ca sarvaṃ dvividham | nyāyyaṃ dharmyaṃ viparītam anyāyyam adharmyaṃ | tasya sarvasyāpi karmaṇa ete pañca-hetavaḥ |
 

Baladeva


śarīreti – nyāyyaṃ śāstrīyam, viparītam aśāstrīyam |
 
 


BhG 18.16

 tatraivaṃ sati kartāram ātmānaṃ kevalaṃ tu yaḥ
paśyaty akṛta-buddhitvān na sa paśyati durmatiḥ

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syntax


evam sati (when thus it is) tatra (here) akṛta-buddhitvāt (out of undeveloped intelligence) yaḥ tu (but he who) kevalam (only) ātmānam kartāram (the self as the doer) paśyati (he sees),
saḥ durmatiḥ (he, foolish) na paśyati (he does not see).

 

grammar

tatra av. there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
evam av.thus;
sati sant (as – to be) PPr 7n.1 m. loc.abs.when [thus] it is;
kartāram kartṛ 2n.1 m.the doer (from: kṛ – to do);
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
kevalam av.only, merely (from: kevala – alone, simple, entire);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
akṛta-buddhitvāt akṛta-buddhitva abst. 5n.1 n.; KD: akṛtād buddhitvād itiout of undeveloped intelligence (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made, a-kṛta – udone, incomplete, undeveloped; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
na av.not;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
durmatiḥ dur-mati 1n.1 f.whose thought is wrong; ignorant, fool (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; man – to think, mati – thought, opinion, view);

 

textual variants


tatraivaṁ → tatraiva (indeed here);
sati kartāram → satya-kartāram (the true doer);
tu yaḥ → tu yat (but which);
paśyaty akṛta-buddhitvānpaśyate ‘kṛta-buddhitvān (he sees out of undeveloped intelligence);
sa paśyati → saṁpaśyati (he sees well);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tatra iti prakṛtena sambadhyate | evaṃ sati evaṃ yathoktaiḥ pañcabhir hetubhir nirvartye sati karmaṇi | tatraivaṃ satīti durmatitvasya hetutvena sambadhyate | tatraiteṣv ātmānanyatvenāvidyā-parikalpitaiḥ kriyamāṇasya karmaṇo’ham eva kartā iti kartāram ātmānaṃ kevalaṃ śuddhaṃ tu yaḥ paśyaty avidvān | kasmāt ? vedāntācāryopadeśa-nyāyair akṛta-buddhitvād asaṃskṛta-buddhitvāt | yo’pi dehādi-vyatiriktātma-vādy ātmānam eva kevalaṃ kartāraṃ paśyati, asāv apy akṛta-buddhiḥ | ato’kṛta-buddhitvān na sa paśyaty ātmanas tattvaṃ karmaṇo vety arthaḥ | ato durmatiḥ, kutsitā viparītā duṣṭājasraṃ janana-maraṇa-pratipatti-hetu-bhūtā matir asyeti durmatiḥ | sa paśyann api na paśyati, yathā taimiriko’nekaṃ candram, yathā vābhreṣu dhāvatsu candraṃ dhāvantam, yathā vā vāhane upaviṣṭo’nyeṣu dhāvatsv ātmānaṃ dhāvantam
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ vastutaḥ paramātmānumatipūrvake jīvātmanaḥ kartṛtve sati, tatra karmaṇi kevalam ātmānam eva kartāraṃ yaḥ paśyati, sa durmatiḥ viparītamatiḥ akṛtabuddhitvād aniṣpannayathāvasthitavastubuddhitvān na paśyati na yathāvasthitaṃ kartāraṃ paśyati
 

Śrīdhara


tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha tatreti | tatra sarvasmin karmaṇi ete pañca hetava iti | evaṃ sati kevalaṃ nirupādhim asaṅgam ātmānaṃ tu yaḥ kartāraṃ paśyati śāstrācāryopadeśābhyām asaṃskṛta-buddhitvād durmatir asau samyak na paśyati
 

Viśvanātha


tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha tatreti | tatra sarvasmin karmaṇi ete pañcaiva hetava ity evaṃ sati kevalaṃ vastutaḥ niḥsaṅgam evātmānaṃ jīvaṃ yaḥ kartāraṃ paśyati, so ‚haṅkṛta-buddhitvād asaṃskṛta-buddhitvād durmatir naiva paśyati | so ‚jñānī anda evocyata iti bhāvaḥ |
 

Baladeva


tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha tatreti | tatreti | evaṃ sati jīvasya kartṛtve pareśānumati-pūrvake tad-datta-dehādi-sāpekṣe ca sati, tatra karmaṇi kevalam evātmānaṃ jīvam eva yaḥ kartāraṃ paśyati | sa durmatir akṛta-buddhitvād alabdha-jñānatvān na paśyati yathāndhaḥ |
 
 


BhG 18.17

yasya nāhaṃ-kṛto bhāvo buddhir yasya na lipyate
hatvāpi sa imāṃl lokān na hanti na nibadhyate

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yasya (he whose) ahaṁ-kṛtaḥ bhāvaḥ (nature made of ‘I’) na [asti] (it is not),
yasya (whose) buddhiḥ (intelligence) na lipyate (it is not smeared),
saḥ (he) imān lokān (these people) hatvā api (even after killing) na hanti (he does not kill) [tena] (therefore) na nibadhyate (he is not bound).

 

grammar

yasya yat sn. 6n.1 m.he whose;
na av.not;
ahaṁ-kṛtaḥ ahaṁ-kṛta 1n.1 m. made of ‘I’ (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made);
bhāvaḥ bhāva 1n.1 m.state, existence, nature, emotions (from: bhū – to be);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
yasya yat sn. 6n.1 m.he whose;
na av.not;
lipyate lip (to smear, to anoint, to stain, to stick) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is stained, it is smeared;
hatvā han (to kill) absol.after killing;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
imān idam sn. 2n.3 m.these;
lokān loka 2n.3 m.worlds, people;
na av.not;
hanti han (to kill, to strike, to beat) Praes. P 1v.1he kills;
na av.not;
nibadhyate ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. pass 1v.1he is bound;

 

textual variants


nāhaṁ-kṛto nāhaṁ-kṛte (not in one made of ‘I’);
buddhir yasya yasya buddhir (whose intelligence);
hatvā → kṛtvā / hivtā (after doing / after hitting);
na hanti na nibadhyate → na nihaṁti na badyate (he does not kill, he is not bound);

 
 



Śāṃkara


kaḥ punaḥ sumatiḥ ? yaḥ samyak paśyatīty ucyate—
yasya śāstrācāryopadeśa-nyāya-saṃskṛtātmano na bhavaty ahaṃkṛto’haṃ kartā ity evaṃ-lakṣaṇo bhāvo bhāvanā pratyayaḥ | eta eva pañcādhiṣṭhānādayo’vidyayātmani kalpitāḥ sarva-karmaṇāṃ kartāraḥ, nāham | ahaṃ tu tad-vyāpārāṇāṃ sākṣi-bhūtaḥ | aprāṇo hy amanāḥ śubhro hy akṣarāt parataḥ paraḥ kevalo’vikriya [mu.u. 2.1.2] ity evaṃ paśyatīti etat | buddhir antaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya ātmana upādhi-bhūtā na lipyate nānuśayinī bhavati—idam aham akārṣam, tenāhaṃ narakaṃ gamiṣyāmīty evaṃ yasya buddhir na lipyate—sa sumatiḥ, sa paśyati | hatvāpi sa imān lokān, sarvān imān prāṇinaḥ ity arthaḥ, na hanti hanana-kriyāṃ na karoti, na nibadhyate nāpi tat-kāryeṇādharma-phalena sambadhyate |

nanu hatvāpi na hantīti vipratiṣiddham ucyate yady api stutiḥ | naiṣa doṣaḥ | laukika-pāramārthika-dṛṣṭy-apekṣayā tad-upapatteḥ | dehādy-ātma-buddhyā hantāham iti laukikīṃ dṛṣṭim āśritya hatvāpīty āha | yathā-darśitāṃ pāramārthikīṃ dṛṣṭim āśritya na hanti na nibadhyata iti | etad ubhayam upapadyata eva |

nanv adhiṣṭhānādibhiḥ sambhūya karoty evātmā | kartāram ātmānaṃ kevalaṃ tv [gītā 18.16] iti kevala-śabda-prayogāt | naiṣa doṣaḥ | ātmano’vikriya-svabhāvatve’dhiṣṭhānādibhiḥ saṃhatatvānupapatteḥ | vikriyāvato hy anyaiḥ saṃhananaṃ sambhavati, saṃhatya vā kartṛtvaṃ syāt | na tv avikriyasyātmanaḥ kenacit saṃhananam astīti na sambhūya kartṛtvam upapadyate | ataḥ kevalatvam ātmanaḥ svābhāvikam iti kevala-śabdo’nuvāda-mātram |

avikriyatvaṃ cātmanaḥ śruti-smṛti-nyāya-prasiddham | avikāryo’yam ucyate [gītā 2.15] guṇair eva karmāṇi kriyante [gītā 3.27] śarīra-stho’pi na karotīty [gītā 13.31] ādy asakṛd upapāditaṃ gītāsv eva tāvat | śrutiṣu ca dhyāyatīva lelāyatīva [bhāvāū 4.3.7] ity evam ādyāsu | nyāyataś ca niravayavam aparatantram avikriyam ātma-tattvam iti rāja-mārgaḥ | vikriyāvattvābhyupagame’py ātmanaḥ svakīyaiva vikriyā svasya bhavitum arhati, nādhiṣṭhānādīnāṃ karmāṇy ātma-kartṛkāṇi syuḥ | na hi parasya karma pareṇākṛtam āgantum arhati |

yat tv avidyayā gamitam, na tat tasya | yathā rajatatvaṃ na śuktikāyāḥ | yathā vā tala-malinatvaṃ bālair gamitam avidyayā, nākāśasya, tathādhiṣṭhānādi-vikriyāpi teṣām eva, nātmanaḥ | tasmād yuktam uktam ahaṃkṛtatva-buddhi-lepābhāvād vidvān na hanti vā nibadhyata iti | nāyaṃ hanti vā hanyate [gītā 2.19] iti pratijñāya na jāyate [gītā 2.20] ity ādi-hetu-vacanenāvikriyatvam ātmana uktvā, vedāvināśinaṃ [gītā 2.21] iti viduṣaḥ karmādhikāra-nivṛttiṃ śāstrādau saṃkṣepata uktvā, madhye prasāritāṃ tatra tatra prasaṅgaṃ kṛtveha upasaṃharati śāstrārtha-piṇḍīkaraṇāya vidvān na hanti na nibadhyate iti |

evaṃ ca sati deha-bhṛttvābhimānānupapattau avidyā-kṛtāśeṣa-karma-saṃnyāsopapatteḥ saṃnyāsinām aniṣṭādi tri-vidhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ na bhavati [gītā 18.12] ity upapannam | tad-viparyayāc cetareṣāṃ bhavatīty etac cāparihāryam ity eṣa gītā-śāstrārtha upasaṃhṛtaḥ | sa eṣa sarva-vedārtha-sāro nipuṇa-matibhiḥ paṇḍitair vicārya pratipattavya iti tatra tatra prakaraṇa-vibhāgena darśito’smābhiḥ śāstra-nyāyānusāreṇa

 

Rāmānuja


paramapuruṣakartṛtvānusaṃdhānena yasya bhāvaḥ kartṛtvaviṣayo manovṛttiviśeṣaḥ nāhaṃkṛtaḥ nāhamabhimānakṛtaḥ / ahaṃ karomīti jñānaṃ yasya na vidyata ityarthaḥ / buddhir yasya na lipyate asmin karmaṇi mama kartṛtvābhāvād etatphalaṃ na mayā saṃbadhyate, na ca madīyaṃ karmeti yasya buddhir jāyata ityarthaḥ / sa imān lokān yuddhe hatvāpi tān na nihanti; na kevalaṃ bhīṣmādīn ityarthaḥ / tatas tena yuddhākhyena karmaṇā na nibadhyate / tatphalaṃ nānubhavatītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kas tarhi sumatir yasya karma-lepo nāstīty uktam ity apekṣāyām āha – yasyeti | aham iti kṛto ‚haṃ kartā ity evambhūto bhāvaḥ | yad vā ahaṅkṛto ‚haṅkārasya bhāvaḥ svabhāvaḥ | kartṛtvābhiniveśo yasya nāsti | śarīrādīnām eva karma-kartṛtvālocanād ity arthaḥ | ataeva yasya buddhir na lipyate iṣṭāniṣṭa-buddhyā karmasu na sajjate | na evambhūto dehādi-vyatiriktātma-darśī imān lokān sarvān api prāṇino loka-dṛṣṭyā hatvāpi viviktatayā sva-dṛṣṭyā na hanti, na tat-phalair nibadhyate bandhaṃ na prāpnoti | kiṃ punaḥ sattva-śuddhi-dvārā parokṣa-jñānotpatti-hetubhiḥ karmabhis tasya baddha-śaṅkety arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ – brahmaṇy ādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ | lipyate na sa pāpena padma-patram ivāmbhasā || (Gītā 5.10)
 

Viśvanātha


kas tarhi sumatiś cakṣuṣmān ity ata āha yasyeti | ahaṅkṛto ahaṅkārasya bhāvaḥ svabhāvaḥ kartṛtvābhiniveśo yasya nāsti ataeva yasya buddhir na lipyate iṣṭāniṣṭa-buddhyā karmasu nāsajjati, sa hi karma-phalaṃ na prāpnotīti kiṃ kartavyam | sa hi karma bhadrābhadraṃ kurvann api naiva karotīty āha hatvāpīti, sa imān sarvān api prāṇino loka-dṛṣṭyā hatvāpi sva-dṛṣṭyā naiva hanti | nirabhisandhitvād iti bhāvaḥ | ato na badhyate karma-phalaṃ na prāpnotīti |
 

Baladeva


kas tarhi cakṣuṣmān sumatis tatrāha yasyeti | yasya puruṣasya manovṛtti-lakṣaṇo bhāvo nāhaṅkṛtaḥ sva-kartṛtve pareśāyatte ‚nusandhite sati karmāṇy aham eva karomīty abhimāna-kṛto na bhavet | yasya ca buddhir na lipyate karma-phala-spṛhayā, sa imāṅl lokān na kevalaṃ bhīṣmādīn hatvāpi na hanti, na ca tena sarva-loka-hananena karmaṇā nibadhyate lipyate |
 
 


BhG 18.18

jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ parijñātā tri-vidhā karma-codanā
karaṇaṃ karma karteti tri-vidhaḥ karma-saṃgrahaḥ

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jñānam (knowledge) jñeyam (object of knowledge) parijñātā [iti] (the knower) tri-vidhā karma-codanā [asti] (there is a threefold impetus to activities).
karaṇam (the instrument) karma (activity) kartā iti (a doer) tri-vidhaḥ karma-saṅgrahaḥ [asti] (there is a threefold constitution of activities).

 

grammar

jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
jñeyam jñeya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be learnt;
parijñātā parijñātṛ 1n.1 m.the knower (from: pari-jñā – to distinguish, to perceive, to understand);
tri-vidhā tri-vidha 1n.1 f.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
karma-codanā karma-codanā 1n.1 f.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ codanetithe impetus to activties (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; cud – to impel, to incite, to accelerate, codanā – impetus, rule, direction);
karaṇam karaṇa 1n.1 n.deed, the instrument, helper, a sense organ (from: kṛ – to do);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kartā kartṛ 1n.1 m.a doer (from: kṛ – to do);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
tri-vidhaḥ tri-vidha 1n.1 m.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
karma-saṁgrahaḥ karma-saṁgraha 1n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ saṅgraha iticonstitution of activities (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; sam-grah – to hold together, to support, saṁ-graha – holding together, collection, protection);

 

textual variants


karma-codanā → karma-vedanā / karma-nodanā (knowledge of activity / the impetus to activities);
karaṇaṁ → kāraṇaṁ / trividhaṁ (cause / threefold);
karma-saṅgrahaḥ → karma-saṁśrayaḥ / karma-saṁgrahaṁ (refuge for activities / constitution of activities);
 
 



Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ karmaṇāṃ pravartakam ucyate—
jñānaṃ jñāyate’neneti sarva-viṣayam aviśeṣeṇocyate | tathā jñeyaṃ jñātavyam, tad api sāmānyenaiva sarvam ucyate | tathā parijñātā upādhi-lakṣaṇo’vidyā-kalpito bhoktā | ity etat trayam eṣām aviśeṣeṇa sarva-karmaṇāṃ pravartikā tri-vidhā tri-prakārā karma-codanā | jñānādīnāṃ hi trayāṇāṃ saṃnipāte hānopādānādi-prayojanaḥ sarva-karmārambhaḥ syāt | tataḥ pañcabhir adhiṣṭhānādibhir ārabdhaṃ vāṅ-manaḥ-kāyāśraya-bhedena tridhā rāśī-bhūtaṃ triṣu karaṇādiṣu saṃgṛhyate ity etad ucyate—karaṇaṃ kriyate’neneti bāhyaṃ śrotrādi, antaḥ-sthaṃ buddhyādi, karma īpsitatamaṃ kartuḥ kriyayā vyāpyamānam, kartā karaṇānāṃ vyāpārayitopādhi-lakṣaṇa iti tri-vidhas tri-prakāraḥ karma-saṃgrahaḥ | saṃgṛhyate’sminn iti saṃgrahaḥ, karmaṇaḥ saṃgrahaḥ karma-saṃgrahaḥ | karmaiṣu hi triṣu samavaiti, tenāyaṃ tri-vidhaḥ karma-saṃgrahaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


sarvam idam akartṛtvādyanusandhānaṃ sattvaguṇavṛddhyaiva bhavatīti sattvasyopādeyatājñāpanāya karmaṇi sattvādiguṇakṛtaṃ vaiṣamyaṃ prapañcayiṣyan karmacodanāprakāraṃ tāvad āha
jñānam kartavyakarmaviṣayaṃ jñānam, jñeyaṃ ca kartavyaṃ karma, parijñātā tasya boddheti trividhā karmacodanā / bodhaboddhavyaboddhṛyukto jyotiṣṭomādikarmavidhir ityarthaḥ / tatra boddhavyarūpaṃ karma trividhaṃ saṃgṛhyate karaṇaṃ karma karteti / karaṇam sādhanabhūtaṃ dravyādikam; karma yāgādikam; kartā anuṣṭhāteti
 

Śrīdhara


hatvāpi na hanti na nibadhyate ity etad evopapādayituṃ karma-codanāyāḥ karmāśrayasya ca karma-phalādīnāṃ ca triguṇātmakatvān nirguṇasyātmanas tat-sambandho nāstīty abhiprāyeṇa karma-codanāṃ karmāśrayaṃ cāha – jñānam iti | jñānam iṣṭa-sādhanam etad iti bodhaḥ | jñeyam iṣṭa-sādhanaṃ karma | parijñātā evambhūta-jñānāśrayaḥ | evaṃ trividhā karma-codanā | codyate pravartyate ‚nayā iti codanā | jñānādi-trayaṃ karma-pravṛtti-hetur ity arthaḥ | yad vā codaneti vidhir ucyate | tad uktaṃ bhaṭṭaiḥ – codanā copadeśaś ca vidhiś caikārtha-vācina iti | tataś cāyam arthaḥ ukta-lakṣaṇaṃ triguṇātmakaṃ jñānādi-trayam avalambhya karma-vidhiḥ pravartate iti | tad uktaṃ traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā iti | tathā ca karaṇaṃ sādhakatamam | karma ca kartur īpsitatamam | kartā kriyā-nirvartakaḥ | karma saṅgṛhyate ‚sminn iti karma-saṅgrahaḥ | karaṇādi trividhaṃ kārakam | kriyāśraya ity arthaḥ | sampradānādi kāraka-trayaṃ tu parasparayā kriyā-pravartakam eva kevalam | na tu sākṣāt kriyāyāṃ āśrayaḥ | ataḥ karaṇādi-trayam eva kriyāśraya ity uktam |
 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 18.19
 

Baladeva


jñāna-kāṇḍavat karma-kāṇḍe ‚pi jñānādi-trayam asti | tac ca saniṣṭhena karmaṭhena bodhyam iti upadiśati jñānam iti | jñānaṃ jñeyam parijñātety evaṃ trika-yuktā karma-codanā jyotiṣṭomādi-karma-vidhiḥ codanā copadeśaś ca vidhiś caikārtha-vācina ity abhiyuktokteḥ | tat trikaṃ svayam eva vyākhyāti karaṇam iti | yaj jñānaṃ tat karaṇaṃ jñāyate ‚nena iti nirukteḥ karaṇa-kārakam ity arthaḥ | yaj-jñeyaṃ kartavyaṃ jyotiṣṭomādi tat karma-kārakam | yas tu tasya parito ‚nuṣṭhānena jñātā, sa karteti kartṛ-kārakam | evaṃ karma-saṅgraho jyotiṣṭomādi karma-vidhis trividhaḥ karaṇādi-kāraka-traya-sādhyaś codanā-saṅgraha-śabdayor aikyārthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.19

jñānaṃ karma ca kartā ca tri-dhaiva guṇa-bhedataḥ
procyate guṇa-saṃkhyāne yathā-vac chṛṇu tāny api

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syntax


guṇa-saṁkhyāne (in enumeration of the guṇas) jñānam (knowledge) karma ca (and activity) kartā ca (and a doer)
guṇa-bhedataḥ (according to the division of the guṇas) tri-dhā eva (just threefold) procyante (it is said),
tāni [jñānādīni] api (just to those beginning with knowledge) yathā-vat (properly) śṛṇu (you must listen).

 

grammar

jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
kartā kartṛ 1n.1 m.a doer (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
tri-dhā av.threefold (from: tri – three; -dhā – suffix to form manifold numerals);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
guṇa-bhedataḥ av. – [TP]: guṇānāṁ bhedata itiaccording to the division of the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; bhid – to split, bheda – splitting, breaking, separation, division; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
procyate pra-vac (to declare, to speak) Praes. pass. 1n.1it is said;
guṇa-saṁkhyāne guṇa-saṁkhyāna 7n.1 n.; guṇānāṁ saṁkhyāna itiin enumeration of the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; sam-khyā – to count, saṁkhya – counting, conflict, saṁkhyāna – enumeration, calculation);
yathā-vat av.properly, rightly, exactly;
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
tāni tat sn. 2n.3 n.they;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;

 

textual variants


tri-dhaiva → tri-dheva (as if threefold);
guṇa-bhedataḥkarma-bhedataḥ (according to the division of activities);
procyate → procyaṁte / prāpyate / ucyate (they are called / it is obtained / it is said);
 
 



Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ kriyā-kāraka-phalānāṃ sarveṣāṃ guṇātmakatvāt sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇa-bhedatas tri-vidho bhedo vaktavya ity ārabhyate—
jñānaṃ karma ca, karma kriyā, na kārakaṃ pāribhāṣikam īpsitatamaṃ karma | kartā ca nirvartakaḥ kriyāṇāṃ tridhā | eva avadhāraṇaṃ guṇa-vyatirikta-jāty-antarābhāva-pradarśanārthaṃ guṇa-bhedataḥ sattvādi-bhedena ity arthaḥ | procyate kathyate guṇa-saṃkhyāne kāpile śāstre tad api guṇa-saṃkhyāna-śāstraṃ guṇa-bhoktṛ-viṣaye pramāṇam eva | paramārtha-brahmaikatva-viṣaye yady api virūdhyate, tathāpi te hi kāpilāḥ guṇa-gauṇa-vyāpāra-nirūpaṇe’bhiyuktā iti tac-chāstram api vakṣyamāṇārtha-stuty-arthatvenopādīyata iti na virodhaḥ | yathāvat yathā-nyāyaṃ yathā-śāstraṃ sṛṇu tāny api jñānādīni tad-bheda-jātāni guṇa-bheda-kṛtāni sṛṇu, vakṣyamāṇe’rthe manaḥ-samādhiṃ kurv ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


kartavyakarmaviṣayaṃ jñānam, anuṣṭhīyamānaṃ ca karma, tasyānuṣṭhātā ca sattvādiguṇabhedatas trividhaiva procyate guṇasaṃkhyāne guṇakāryagaṇane / yathāvac chṛṇu tāny api tāni guṇato bhinnāni jñānādīni yathāvac chṛṇu
 

Śrīdhara


tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha jñānam iti | guṇāḥ samyak kārya-bhedena khyāyate pratipādyante ‚sminn iti guṇa-saṅkhyānaṃ sāṅkhya-śāstram | tasmin jñānaṃ ca karma ca kartā ca pratyekaṃ sattvādi-guṇa-bhedena tridhaivocyate | tāny api jñānādīni vakṣyamāṇāni yathāvat śṛṇu | tridhaivety eva-kāro guṇa-trayopādhi-vyatirekeṇātmanaḥ svataḥ karmāṇi pratiṣedhārthaḥ | caturdeśe ‚dhyāye tatra sattvaṃ nirmalatvād ity ādinā guṇānāṃ bandhakatva-prakāro nirūpitaḥ | saptadaśe ‚dhyāye yajante sāttvikā devān ity ādinā guṇa-kṛta-trividha-svabhāva-nirūpaṇena rajas-tamaḥ-svabhāvaṃ parityajya sāttvikāhārādi-sevayā sāttvikaḥ svabhāvaḥ sampādanīya ity uktam | iha tu kriyā-kāraka-phalādīnām ātma-sambandho nāstīti darśayituṃ sarveṣāṃ triguṇātmakatvam ucyate iti viśeṣo jñātavyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tad evaṃ bhagavan-mata ukta-lakṣaṇaḥ sāttvikas tyāga eva sannyāso jñāninām, bhaktānāṃ tu karma-yogasya svarūpeṇaiva tyāgo ‚vagamyate | yad uktam ekādaśe bhagavataiva
ājñāyaiva guṇān doṣān
mayādiṣṭān api svakān |
dharmān santyajya yaḥ sarvān
māṃ bhajet sa ca sattamaḥ || (BhP 11.11.37) iti |

asyārthaḥ svāmi-caraṇair vyākhyāto yathā – mayā veda-rūpeṇādiṣṭān api svadharmān santyajya yo māṃ bhajet sa ca sattama iti | kim ajñānato nāstikyād vā ? na dharmācaraṇe sattva-śuddhyādīn guṇān vipakṣe doṣān pratyavāyāṃś cājñāya jñātvāpi mad-dhyāna-vikṣepatayā mad-bhaktyaiva sarvaṃ bhaviṣyatīti dṛḍha-niścayenaiva dharmān santyajya ity
atra dharmān dharma-phalāni santyajyeti tu vyākhyā na ghaṭate | na hi dharma-phala-tyāge kaścid atra pratyavāyo bhaved ity avadheyam | ayaṃ bhāvo bhagavad-vākyānāṃ tad-vyākhyātṝṇāṃ ca – jñānaṃ hi citta-śuddhim avaśyam evāpekṣate, niṣkāma-karmabhiś citta-śuddhi-tāratamye vṛtte eva jñānodaya-tāratamyaṃ bhaven nānyathā | ataeva samyag jñānodaya-siddhy-arthaṃ sannyāsibhir api niṣkāma-karma na kartavyam eva | yad uktam –
ārurukṣor muner yogaṃ
karma kāraṇam ucyate |
yogārūḍhasya tasaiva
śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyate || (Gītā 6.2) iti |
yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād
ātma-tṛptaś ca mānavaḥ |
ātmany eva ca santuṣṭas
tasya kāryaṃ na vidyate || (Gītā 3.17) iti |

bhaktis tu paramā svatantrā mahā-prabalā citta-śuddhiṃ naivāpekṣate, yad uktam –
vikrīḍitaṃ vraja-vadhūbhir idaṃ ca viṣṇoḥ
śraddhānvito yaḥ śṛṇuyād ity ādau
bhaktiṃ parāṃ bhagavati parilabhya kāmaṃ
hṛd-rogam āśv apahinoty acireṇa dhīraḥ || (BhP 10.33.42) iti |

atra tv ātma-pratyayeṇa hṛd-rogavattve vādhikāriṇi paramāyā bhakter api prathamam eva praveśas tatas tatraiva kāmādīnām apagamaś ca | tathā –
praviṣṭaḥ karṇa-randhreṇa
svānāṃ bhāva-saroruham |
dhunoti śamalaṃ kṛṣṇaḥ
salilasya yathā śarat || (BhP 2.8.5)

iti ca ity ato bhaktyaiva yadi tādṛśī citta-śuddhiḥ syāt, tadā bhaktaiḥ kathaṃ karma kartavyam iti |
atha prakṛam anusarāmaḥ – kiṃ ca na kevalaṃ dehādi-vyātiriktasyātmanaḥ jñānam eva jñānam, tathātma-tattvam api jñeyam, tādṛśa-jñānāśraya eva jñānī, kintv etat trike karma-sambandho vartate | tad api sannyāsibhir jñeyam ity āha jñānam iti | atra codanā śabdena vidhir ucyate, yad uktaṃ bhaṭṭaiḥ – codanā copadeśaś ca vidhiś caikārtha-vācina iti | uktaṃ ślokārdhaṃ svayam eva vyācaṣṭe karaṇam iti yaj jñānaṃ tat karaṇa-kārakam | jñāyate ‚neneti jñānam iti vyutpatteḥ | yaj jñeyaṃ jīvātma-tattvaṃ, tad eva karma-kārakam | yas tasya parijñātā sa kartā iti trividhaḥ karaṇaṃ karma kartā iti trividhaṃ kārakam ity arthaḥ |
karma-saṅgrahaḥ karmaṇā niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhānenaiva saṅgṛhyata iti karma-codanā pada-vyākhyā | jñānatvaṃ jñeyatvaṃ jñātṛtvaṃ caitat trayaṃ niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhāna-mūlakam iti bhāvaḥ |

 

Baladeva


jñānam iti guṇa-saṅkhyāne guṇa-nirūpake śāstre caturdaśe tatra sattvaṃ nirmalatvād ity ādinā guṇānāṃ bandhakatā-prakāraḥ | saptadaśe yajante sāttvikā devān ity ādinā guṇa-kṛta-svabhāva-bhedaś coktaḥ | iha tu guṇa-saṃjñānāṃ jñānādīnāṃ traividhyam ucyata iti bodhyam |
 
 


BhG 18.20

sarva-bhūteṣu yenaikaṃ bhāvam avyayam īkṣate
avibhaktaṃ vibhakteṣu taj jñānaṃ viddhi sāttvikam

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syntax


yena [jñānena] (that knowledge by which) [saḥ] (he) vibhakteṣu sarva-bhūteṣu (in all divided beings) avibhaktam (undivided) ekam avyayam bhāvam (one unchangeable state) īkṣate (he sees),
[tvam] (you) tat jñānam (that knowledge) sāttvikam (as sattvic) viddhi (you must know).

 

grammar

sarva-bhūteṣu sarva-bhūta 7n.3 m.; sarveṣu bhūteṣu itiin all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
yena yat sn. 3n.1 n.that by which, wherefore;
ekam eka sn. 2n.1 m.one;
bhāvam bhāva 2n.1 m.being, existence, nature (from: bhū – to be);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
īkṣate īkṣ (to see) Praes. Ā 1v.1he sees;
avibhaktam a-vi-bhakta (vi-bhāj – to divide, to separate) [PP] 2n.1 n.being undivided;
vibhakteṣu vi-bhakta (vi-bhāj – to divide, to separate) [PP] 7n.3 n.in those divided;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
sāttvikam sāttvika 2n.1 n. related to sattva (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


avyayam → avyaktam (unmanifested);
īkṣateīkṣyate (it is seen);
taj jñānaṁ → yaj jñānaṁ (which knowledge);
 
 



Śāṃkara


jñānasya tu tāvat tri-vidhatvam ucyate—
sarva-bhūteṣu avyaktādi-sthāvarānteṣu bhūteṣu yena jñānena ekaṃ bhāvaṃ vastu—bhāva-śabdo vastu-vācī, ekam ātma-vastv ity arthaḥ | avyayaṃ na vyeti svātmanā sva-dharmeṇa vā, kūṭastham ity arthaḥ | īkṣate paśyati yena jñānena, taṃ ca bhāvam avibhaktaṃ pratidehaṃ vibhakteṣu deha-bhedeṣu na vibhaktaṃ tad ātma-vastu, vyomavat nirantaram ity arthaḥ | taj jñānaṃ sākṣāt samyag darśanam advaitātma-viṣayaṃ sāttvikaṃ viddhīti
 

Rāmānuja


brāhmaṇakṣatriyabrahmacārigṛhasthādirūpeṇa vibhakteṣu sarveṣu bhūteṣu karmādhikāriṣu yena jñānenaikam ātmākhyaṃ bhāvaṃ, tatrāpy avibhaktam brāhmaṇatvādyanekākāreṣv api bhūteṣu sitadīrghādivibhāgavatsu jñānākāre ātmani vibhāgarahitam, avyayaṃ vyayasvabhāveṣv api brāhmaṇādiśarīreṣu avyayam avikṛtaṃ phalādisaṅgānarhaṃ ca karmādhikāravelāyām īkṣate, taj jñānaṃ sāttvikaṃ viddhi
 

Śrīdhara


tatra jñānasya sāttvikādi-traividhyam āha sarva-bhūteṣv iti tribhiḥ | sarveṣu bhūteṣu brahmādi-sthāvarās teṣu vibhakteṣu parasparaṃ vyavṛtteṣv avibhaktam anusyutam ekam avyayaṃ nirvikāraṃ bhāvaṃ paramātma-tattvaṃ yena jñānenekṣata ālocayati taj jñānaṃ sāttvikaṃ viddhi
 

Viśvanātha


sāttvikaṃ jñānam āha — sarva-bhūteṣv iti | ekaṃ bhāvam ekam eva jīvātmānaṃ nānā-vidha-phala-bhogārthaṃ krameṇa sarva-bhūteṣu manuṣya-deva-tiryag-ādiṣu vartamānam avyayaṃ naśvareṣv api teṣv anaśvaraṃ vibhakteṣu parasparaṃ vibhinneṣv apy avibhaktam eka-rūpaṃ yena karma-sambandhinā jñānenekṣate tat sāttvikaṃ jñānam
 

Baladeva


sāttvika-jñānam āha — sarveti | sarva-bhūteṣu deva-manuṣyādiṣu deheṣu nānā-karma-phala-bhogāt krameṇa vartamāna-bhāvaṃ jīvātmānaṃ yenaikaṃ vīkṣyate | avyayaṃ naśvareṣu teṣv anaśvaraṃ vibhakteṣu mitho-bhinneṣu teṣv avibhaktam eka-rūpaṃ ca yena taṃ vīkṣyate taj jñānaṃ sāttvikam aupaniṣad-aviviktātma-jñānaṃ tad ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.21

pṛthaktvena tu yaj jñānaṃ nānā-bhāvān pṛthag-vidhān
vetti sarveṣu bhūteṣu taj jñānaṃ viddhi rājasam

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syntax


yat jñānam (that knowledge which) pṛthaktvena tu (but by separation) sarveṣu bhūteṣu (in all beings) nānā-bhāvān (different natures) pṛthak-vidhān (as being of separate kinds) vetti (he knows),
tat jñānam (that knowledge) rājasam (as rajasic) viddhi (you must know).

 

grammar

pṛthaktvena pṛthaktva abst. 3n.1 n.by separation (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one);
or av. (3n.1) – one by one, separately (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
nānā-bhāvān nānā-bhāva 2n.3 n.different states, different natures (from: nānā – differently, variously / different; xbhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
pṛthag-vidhān pṛthag-vidha 1n.3 n.which has separate parts, of different kinds (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 n.in all;
bhūteṣu bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 7n.3 m.in beings, in creatures;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
rājasam rājasa 2n.1 n. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


tu → ca (and);
yaj jñānaṁ yaj jñānān / taj jñānaṁ (which knowledge / that knowledge);
bhūteṣu → bhāveṣu (in states);
taj jñānaṁ viddhi rājasam → tad rājasam iti smṛtam (that rajasic, thus it is known);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yāni dvaita-darśanāni tāny asamyag-bhūtāni rājasāni tāmasāni ceti ca sākṣāt saṃsārocchittaye bhavanti—
pṛthaktvena tu bhedena prati-śarīram anyatvena yaj jñānaṃ nānā-bhāvān bhinnān ātmanaḥ pṛthag-vidhān pṛthak-prakārān bhinna-lakṣaṇān ity arthaḥ | vetti vijānāti yaj jñānaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu, jñānasya kartṛtvāsambhavāt yena jñānena vettīty arthaḥ, taj jñānaṃ viddhi rājasaṃ rajo-guṇa-nirvṛttam
 

Rāmānuja


sarveṣu bhūteṣu brāhmaṇādiṣu brāhmaṇādyākārapṛthaktvenātmākhyān api bhāvān nānābhūtān sitadīrghādipṛthaktvena ca pṛthagvidhān phalādisaṃyogayogyān karmādhikāravelāyāṃ yaj jñānaṃ vetti, taj jñānaṃ rājasaṃ viddhi
 

Śrīdhara


rājasa-jñānam āha pṛthaktveneti | pṛthaktvena tu yaj jñānam ity asyaiva vivaraṇam | sarveṣu bhūteṣu nānā-bhāvān vastuta evānekān kṣetrajñān pṛthag-vidhān sukhitva-duḥkhitvādi-rūpeṇa vilakṣaṇān yena jñānena vetti taj jñānaṃ rājasaṃ viddhi
 

Viśvanātha


rājasaṃ jñānam āha sarva-bhūteṣu jīvātmanaḥ pṛthaktvena yaj jñānam iti | deha-nāśa evātmano nāśa ity asurāṇāṃ matam | ataeva pṛthak pṛthag deheṣu pṛthak pṛthag evātmeti tathā śāstra-karaṇāt pṛthag-vidhān nānābhāvān nānābhiprāyān | ātmā sukha-duḥkhāśraya iti | sukha-duḥkhādyanāśraya itii jaḍa iti cetana iti vyāpaka iti | aūu-svarūpa iti | aneka iti ityādi kalpān yena eka ityādi veda tad rājasam
 

Baladeva


rājasa-jñānam āha pṛthaktveneti | sarveṣu bhūteṣu deva-manuṣyādi-deheṣu jīvātmanaḥ pṛthaktvena yaj jñānaṃ deha-vināśa evātma-vināśa iti yaj jñānam ity arthaḥ | yena ca nānā-vidhān bhāvān abhiprāyān vetti | deha evātmeti dehād anyo deha-parimāṇa ātmeti | kṣaṇika-vijñānam ātmeti nityāvajñāna-mātra-vibhur ātmeti | dehād anyo nava-viśeṣa-guṇāśrayo ‚jaḍo vibhur ātmety evaṃ lokāyatika-jaina-bauddha-māyi-tārkikādi-vādān yena jānāti tad rājasaṃ jñānam
 
 


BhG 18.22

yat tu kṛtsnavad ekasmin kārye saktam ahaitukam
atattvārthavad alpaṃ ca tat tāmasam udāhṛtam

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syntax


yat [jñānam] tu (but that knowledge which) ekasmin kārye (in one duty) kṛtsnavat (as a whole) saktam (attached) ahaitukam (without reasoning) atattvārthavat (as if without truth and meaning) alpam ca (and small),
tat [jñānam] (that knowledge) tāmasam (as tamasic) udāhṛtam (it is declared).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
kṛtsnavat av.as a whole (from: kṛtsna – whole; -vat – suffix: as, like);
ekasmin eka sn. 7n.1 n.in one;
kārye kārye (kṛ to do) PF 7n.1 n.in what is to be done, in a duty;
saktam sakta (sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace) [PP] 1n.1 n. attached;
ahaitukam a-haituka 1n.1 n.causeless, without reasoning (from: hetu – cause, motive, reason; haituka – caused by, dependent on);
a-tattva-artha-vat av.as if without truth and meaning (from: tat – that, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use; -vat – suffix: as, like);
alpam alpa 1n.1 n. small, minute;
ca av.and;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
tāmasam tāmasa 1n.1 n. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);
udāhṛtam ud-ā-hṛta (ud-ā-hṛ – to set up, to declare) [PP] 1n.1 n.set up, declared;

 

textual variants


yat tu kṛtsnavad yat tu kṛtsnavid / yat tv akṛtsnavid / yat tu kṛtsnas tad (but which, knower of all / but which, knowing of nothing / but which whole, this);
kārye saktam → kārya-saktam (attached to activity);
kārye saktam ahaitukam → kāryam etam ahetukaṁ (this duty without a reason);
atattvārthavadatattvārthavid (not knowing th emeaning of the truth);
tat tāmasam udāhṛtam → taj jñānaṁ vidhi tāmasam (that knowledge you must know as tamasic);

The fourth pada of verse 18.22 is similar to the fourth pada of verses: BhG 17.19, 17.22 and 18.39;

 
 



Śāṃkara


yaj jñānaṃ kṛtsnavat samastavat sarva-viṣayam iva ekasmin kārye dehe bahir vā pratimādau saktam etāvān evātmeśvaro vā, nātaḥ param astīti, yathā nagna-kṣapaṇakādīnāṃ śarīrāntarvatī deha-parimāṇo jīvaḥ, īśvaro vā pāṣāṇa-dārv-ādi-mātram, ity evam ekasmin kārye saktam | ahaitukaṃ hetu-varjitaṃ niryuktikam | atattvārthavad ayathā-bhūtārthavat, yathā-bhūto’rthas tattvārthaḥ, so’sya jñeya-bhūto’stīti tattvārthavat, na tattvārthavat atattvārthavat | ahaitukatvād eva alpaṃ ca, alpa-viṣayatvād alpa-phalatvād vā | tat tāmasam udāhṛtam | tāmasānāṃ hi prāṇinām avivekinām īdṛśaṃ jñānaṃ dṛśyate
 

Rāmānuja


yat tu jñānam, ekasmin kārye ekasmin kartavye karmaṇi pretabhūtagaṇādyārādhanarūpe atyalpaphale kṛtsnaphalavat saktam, ahetukam vastutas tv akṛtsnaphalavattayā tathāvidhasaṅgaheturahitam atattvārthavat pūrvavad evātmani pṛthaktvādiyuktatayā mithyābhūtārthaviṣayam, atyalpaphalaṃ ca pretabhūtādyārādhanaviṣayatvād alpaṃ ca, taj jñānaṃ tāmasam udāhṛtam
 

Śrīdhara


tāmasaṃ jñānam āha yad iti | ekasmin kārye dehe pratimādau yā kṛtsnavat paripūrṇavat sattama etāvān eva ātmeśvaro yā ity abhiniveśa-yuktam ahaitukaṃ nirupapattikaṃ | atattvārthavat paramārthāvalambana-śūnyam | ataevālpaṃ tuccham | alpa-viṣayatvāt | alpa-phalatvāc ca | yad evambhūtaṃ jñānaṃ tat tāmasam udāhṛtam
 

Viśvanātha


tāmasaṃ jñānam āha yat tu jñānam ahaitukam autpattikam eva ataeva ekasmin kārye laukika eva snāna-bhojana-pāna-strī-sambhoge tat-sādhane ca karmaṇi saktam | na tu vaidike karmaṇi yajña-dānādau | ataevātattvārthavat tatra tattva-rūpo ‚rthaḥ ko ‚pi nāstīty arthaḥ | alpaṃ paśūnām iva yat kṣudraṃ tat tāmasaṃ jñānam | dehādy-atiriktatvena tat-padārtha-jñānaṃ sāttvikam | nānāvāda-pratipādakaṃ nyāyādi-śāstra-jñānaṃ rājasam | snāna-bhojanādi-vyavahārika-jñānaṃ tāmasam iti saṅkṣepaḥ
 

Baladeva


tāmasaṃ jñānam āha yat tv iti | yat tu jñānam ahaitukaṃ svābhāvikaṃ na tu śāstrād dhetor jñānam | ataevaikasmin laukike snānaa-bhojana-yoṣita-prasaṅgādau kārye | na tu vaidike yāga-dānādau saktaṃ kṛtsnavat pūrṇaṃ nāto ‚dhikam astīty arthaḥ | ataevātattvārthavad yatra tattva-rūpo ‚rtho nāsti | alpaṃ paśv-ādi-sādhāraṇyāt tucchaṃ tal laukika-snāna-bhojanādi-jñānaṃ tāmasam
 
 


BhG 18.23

niyataṃ saṅga-rahitam arāga-dveṣataḥ kṛtam
aphala-prepsunā karma yat tat sāttvikam ucyate

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syntax


aphala-prepsunā [puruṣeṇa] (by a person not desiring the fruit) yat niyatam (which is steady) saṅga-rahitam (without attachment) arāga-dveṣataḥ (out of lack of passion and hatred) kṛtam [bhavati] (it is done),
tat karma (that activity) sāttvikam (sattvic) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

niyatam niyata (ni-yam – to hold back, to regulate) [PP] 1n.1 n.regular, steady;
or av.constantly, decidedly;
saṅga-rahitam saṅga-rahita 1n.1 n.; yat saṅgena rahitam asti tat who is without attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment; rahita – deserted, lonely, deprived of what? requires instrumental or genitive);
a-rāga-dveṣataḥ av.out of lack of passion and hatred (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty; dviṣ – to hate, dveṣa – hatred, enmity; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
kṛtam kṛta (kṛ – to do) [PP] 1n.1 n.done, made;
a-phala-prepsunā a-phala-prepsu 3n.1 m.; [TP]: yaḥ phalam āptuṁ necchati tena by one not desiring the fruit (from: phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; pra-āp – to obtain, to reach, des. pra-īpsu – desiring to obtain);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
sāttvikam sāttvika 1n.1 n. related to sattva (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


sāttvikam → satyakam / sāmasam;
tat sāttvikam ucyate → tat sāttvikam udāhṛtam (that is declared sattvic);
 
 



Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ karmaṇas traividhyam ucyate—
niyataṃ nityam | saṅga-rahitam āsakti-varjitam | arāga-dveṣataḥ kṛtaṃ rāga-prayuktena dveṣa-prayuktena ca kṛtaṃ rāga-dveṣataḥ kṛtam, tad-viparītam arāga-dveṣataḥ kṛtam | aphala-prepsunā phalaṃ prepsatīti phala-prepsuḥ phala-tṛṣṇas tad-viparītenāphala-prepsunā kartrā kṛtaṃ karma yat, tat sāttvikam ucyate
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ kartavyakarmaviṣayajñānasyādhikāravelāyām adhikāryaṃśena guṇatas traividhyam uktvā anuṣṭheyasya karmaṇo guṇatas traividhyam āha
niyatam svavarṇāśramocitam, saṅgarahitam kartṛtvādisaṅgarahitam, arāgadveṣataḥ kṛtam kīrtirāgād akīrtidveṣāc ca na kṛtam; adambhena kṛtam ityarthaḥ; aphalaprepsunā aphalābhisandhinā kāryam ity eva kṛtaṃ yat karma, tat sāttvikam ucyate
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ trividhaṃ karmāha – niyatam iti tribhiḥ | niyataṃ nityatayā vihitam | saṅga-rahitam abhiniveśa-śūnyam | arāga-dveṣataḥ putrādi-prītyā vāśatru-dveṣeṇa vā yat kṛtaṃ na bhavati | phalaṃ prāptum icchatīti phala-prepsuḥ | tad-vilakṣaṇena niṣkāmeṇa kartrā yat kṛtaṃ karma tat sāttvikam ucyate
 

Viśvanātha


trividhaṃ jñānam uktvā trividhaṃ karmāha – niyataṃ nityatayā vihitaṃ saṅga-rahitam abhiniveśa-śūnyam ataevārāga-dveṣato rāga-dveṣābhyāṃ vinaiva kṛtam aphalepsunā phalākāṅkṣā-rahitenaiva kartrā kṛtaṃ karma yat sāttvikam
 

Baladeva


atha karma-traividhyam āha – niyatam iti tribhiḥ | niyataṃ sva-varṇāśrama-vihitam | saṅga-rahitam kartṛtvābhiniveśa-varjitam | arāga-dveṣataḥ kṛtaṃ kīrtau rāgād akīrtau dveṣāc ca yan na kṛtaṃ, kintv īśvarārcanatayivāphala-prepsunā phalecchā-śūnyena yat karma kṛtaṃ tat sāttvikam
 
 


BhG 18.24

yat tu kāmepsunā karma sāhaṃ-kāreṇa vā punaḥ
kriyate bahulāyāsaṃ tad rājasam udāhṛtam

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syntax


punaḥ (again) kāmepsunā [puruṣeṇa] (by a person desiring to obtain pleasures) sāhaṅkāreṇa vā (or by one with the notion of ‘I’) yat tu bahulāyāsam (but in which there is much effort) karma (activity) kriyate (it is done),
tat (that) rājasam (rajasic) udāhṛtam (it is declared).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
kāmepsunā kāma-īpsu 3n.1 m.; [TP]: yaḥ kāmam āptum icchati tena by one desiring to obtain pleasures (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; āp – to obtain, to reach, des. īpsu – desiring to obtain);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
sāhaṁ-kāreṇa sa-ahaṁ-kāra 2n.1 m.; BV: yo ‘haṁ-kārena sahāsti tena by one with egotism (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer, ahaṁ-kāra – ego, egotism, pride);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
punaḥ av.back, again;
kriyate kṛ (to do) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is done;
bahulāyāsam bahula-āyāsa 1n.1 n.; BV: yasmin āyāsaḥ bahulo ‘sti tat in which there is much effort (from: bahula – abundant, numerous; ā-yāsa – effort, exertion, fatigue);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
rājasam rājasa 1n.1 n. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);
udāhṛtam ud-ā-hṛta (ud-ā-hṛ – to set up, to declare) [PP] 1n.1 n.set up, declared;

 

textual variants


sāhaṁ-kāreṇa sāhaṁ-krūreṇa (by th cru one with the notio of ‘I’);
vā → vai (indeed);
bahulāyāsaṁ → kleśa-bahulaṁ (full of much suffering);
tad rājasam udāhṛtam → tad rājasam iti smṛtam (this as rajasic is known);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yat tu kāmepsunā karma-phala-prepsunā ity arthaḥ, karma sāhaṃkāreṇeti na tattva-jñānāpekṣayā | kiṃ tarhi ? laukika-śrotriya-nirahaṃkārāpekṣayā | yo hi paramārtha-nirahaṃkāra ātma-vit, na tasya kāmepsutva-bahulāyāsa-kartṛtva-prāptir asti | sāttvikasyāpi karmaṇo’nātma-vit sāhaṃkāraḥ kartā, kim uta rājasa-tāmasayoḥ | loke’nātma-vid api śrotriyo nirahaṃkāra ucyate nirahaṃkāro’yaṃ brāhmaṇa iti | tasmāt tad-apekṣayaiva sāhaṃkāreṇa vā ity uktam | punaḥ-śabdaḥ pāda-pūraṇārthaḥ | kriyate bahulāyāsaṃ kartrā mahatāyāsena nirvartyate, tat karma rājasam udāhṛtam
 

Rāmānuja


yat tu punaḥ kāmepsunā phalaprepsunā sāhaṃkāreṇa vā vāśabdaś cārthe kartṛtvābhimānayuktena ca, bahulāyāsaṃ yat karma kriyate, tad rājasam bahulāyāsam idaṃ karma mayaiva kriyata ity evaṃrūpābhimānayuktena yat karma kriyate, tad rājasam ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


rājasaṃ karmāha yad iti | yat tu karma kāmepsunā phalaṃ prāptum icchatā sāhaṅkāreṇa mat-samaḥ ko ‚nyaḥ śrotriyo ‚stīty evaṃ nirūḍhāhaṅkāra-yuktena ca kriyate | yac ca punar bahulāyāsam atikleśa-yuktaṃ tat karma rājasam udāhṛtam
 

Viśvanātha


kāmepsunālpāhaṅkāravatety arthaḥ | sāhaṅkāreṇātyahaṅkāravatety arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


yat kāmepsunā phalākāṅkṣiṇā sāhaṅkāreṇa kartṛtvābhiniveśinā janena bahulāyāsam atikleśa-yuktaṃ karma kriyate tad rājasam
 
 


BhG 18.25

anubandhaṃ kṣayaṃ hiṃsām anapekṣya ca pauruṣam
mohād ārabhyate karma yat tat tāmasam ucyate

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syntax


anubandham (bondage) kṣayam (destruction) hiṁsām (violence) pauruṣam ca (and capacity) anapekṣya (after not considering)
mohāt (out of bewilderment) yat karma (which activity) ārabhyate (it is undertaken),
tat (that) tāmasam (tamasic) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

anubandham anu-bandha 2n.1 m.fetters, bondage (from: anu-bandh – to bind, to fetter);
kṣayam kṣaya (from: kṣi – to decrease) PF 2n.1 n.diminution, destruction;
hiṁsām hiṁsā 2n.1 f.violence, harm (from: hiṁs – to injure, to harm, to kill);
anapekṣya na apa-īkṣ (to look away, to respect, to wait for) absol. after not considering;
ca av.and;
pauruṣam pauruṣa 2n.1 n.manhood, capacity (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people, puruṣa – a person);
mohāt moha 5n.1 m.out of bewilderment (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
ārabhyate ā-rabh (to reach, to undertake, to begin) Praes pass. 1v.1it is undertaken, it is begun;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
tāmasam tāmasa 2n.1 m. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


anubandhaṁ kṣayaṁ anubaṁdha-kṣayaṁ (destruction of bondage);
anapekṣya → anavekṣya / anavīkṣya / anapekṣa / anavekṣa (after not considering / after not seeing / without considering);
ārabhyate → ārabhate / prārabhyate (it begins / it is undertaken);
tat tāmasam ucyate → tat tāmasam udāhṛtam (that is declared tamasic);
 
 



Śāṃkara


anubandhaṃ paścād-bhāvi yad vastu so’nubandha ucyate taṃ cānubandham, kṣayaṃ yasmin karmaṇi kriyamāṇe śakti-kṣayo’rthāvakṣayo vā syāt taṃ kṣayam | hiṃsāṃ prāṇi-bādhāṃ ca | anapekṣya ca pauruṣaṃ puruṣa-kāraṃ śaknomīdaṃ karma samāpayitum ity evam ātma-sāmarthyam, ity etāny anubandhādīny anapekṣya pauruṣāntāni mohād avivekata ārabhyate karma yat, tat tāmasaṃ tamo-nirvṛttam ucyate
 

Rāmānuja


kṛte karmaṇy anubadhyamānaṃ duḥkham anubandhaḥ; kṣayaḥ karmaṇi kriyamāṇe arthavināśaḥ; hiṃsā tatra prāṇipīḍā; pauruṣam ātmanaḥ karmasamāpanasāmarthyam; etāni anavekṣya avimṛśya, mohāt paramapuruṣakartṛtvājñānād yat karmārabhyate, tat tāmasam ucyate
 

Śrīdhara


tāmasaṃ karmāha anubandham iti | anubadhyata iti anubandhaḥ paścād-bhāvi śubhāśubham | kṣayaṃ vitta-vyayam | hiṃsāṃ para-pīḍām | pauruṣaṃ ca sva-sāmarthyam anapekṣyāparyālocya kevalaṃ mohād eva yat karmārabhyate tat tāmasam ucyate
 

Viśvanātha


anu karmānuṣṭhānānantaram āyatyāṃ bhāvinaṃ bandhaṃ rāja-dasyu-yama-dūtādibhir bandhanaṃ | kṣayaṃ dharma-jñānādy-apacayam | hiṃsāṃ svasya nāśaṃ ca anapekṣyāparyālocya pauruṣaṃ vyavahārika-puruṣa-mātra-kartavyaṃ karma mohād ajñānād eva yad ārabhyate tat tāmasam
 

Baladeva


anu karmānuṣṭhānānantaram bandhaṃ rāja-dūta-yama-dūta-kṛtam | kṣayaṃ dharmādi-vināśam | hiṃsāṃ prāṇi-pīḍām | pauruṣaṃ sabalaṃ cānavekṣya yat karma mohād ārabhyate tat tāmasam
 
 


BhG 18.26

mukta-saṅgo nahaṃ-vādī dhṛty-utsāha-samanvitaḥ
siddhy-asiddhyor nirvikāraḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate

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mukta-saṅgaḥ (whose attachment is gone) anahaṁ-vādī (declaring „not I”) dhṛty-utsāha-samanvitaḥ (endowed with energy and firmness) siddhy-asiddhyoḥ (in success and failure) nirvikāraḥ (without a change) kartā (a doer) sāttvikaḥ (sattvic) ucyate (he is called).

 

grammar

mukta-saṅgaḥ mukta-saṅga 1n.1 m.; BV: yena saṅgo mukto ‘sti saḥwhose attachment is gone (from: muc – to liberate, to release, [PP] mukta – liberated, gone; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment);
anahaṁ-vādī an-ahaṁ-vādin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: an-aham iti vādīti declaring „not I” (from: aham – I; vad – to speak, vāda – speech, dispute, doctrine; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses; vādin – who speaks, who explains, who discusses);
dhṛty-utsāha-samanvitaḥ dhṛty-utsāha-samanvita 1n.1 m.; DV / [TP]: dhṛtyotsāhena ca samanvita itiendowed with energy and firmness (from: dhṛ – to hold dhṛti – firmness, determination; ut-sāha –energy, strength; anu-i – to go along, [PP] anv-ita – endowed: with what? – requires instrumental);
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ siddhy-asiddhi 7n.2 f.; DV: siddhyāṁ ca asiddhyāṁ ca itiin success and failure (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect, siddhi – success, perfection);
nirvikāraḥ nir-vikāra 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya vikāro nāsti saḥwithout a change (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; vi-kṛ to transform, vikāra – change, transformation);
kartā kartṛ 1n.1 m.a doer (from: kṛ – to do);
sāttvikaḥ sāttvika 1n.1 m. related to sattva (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants

nirvikāraḥ → nirākāraṃ (without a form);
 
 



Śāṃkara


idānīṃ kartṛ-bheda ucyate—
mukta-saṅgaḥ muktaḥ parityaktaḥ saṅgo yena sa mukta-saṅgaḥ | anahaṃvādī nāhaṃ-vadana-śīlaḥ | dhṛty-utsāha-samanvito dhṛtir dhāraṇam utsāha udyamas tābhyāṃ samanvitaḥ saṃyukto dhṛty-utsāha-samanvitaḥ | siddhy-asiddhyoḥ kriyamāṇasya karmaṇaḥ phala-siddhāv asiddhau ca siddhy-asiddhyor nirvikāraḥ, kevalaṃ śāstra-pramāṇena prayukto na phala-rāgādinā yaḥ sa nirvikāra ucyate | evaṃ-bhūtaḥ kartā yaḥ sa sāttvika ucyate
 

Rāmānuja


muktasaṅgaḥ phalasaṅgarahitaḥ anahaṃvādī kartṛtvābhimānarahitaḥ, dhṛtyutsāhasamanvitaḥ ārabdhe karmaṇi yāvatkarmasamāptyavarjanīyaduḥkhadhāraṇaṃ dhṛtiḥ; utsāhaḥ udyuktacetastvam; tābhyāṃ samanvitaḥ, siddhyasiddhyor nirvikāraḥ yuddhādau karmaṇi tadupakaraṇabhūtadravyārjanādiṣu ca siddhyasiddhyor avikṛtacittaḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate
 

Śrīdhara


kartāraṃ trividham āha mukta-saṅga iti tribhiḥ | mukta-saṅgas tyaktābhiniveśaḥ | anahaṃvādī garvokti-rahitaḥ | dhṛtir dhairyam | utsāha udyamaḥ | tābhyāṃ samanvitaḥ saṃyuktaḥ | ārabdhasya karmaṇaḥ siddhāv asiddhau ca nirvikāro harṣa-viṣāda-śūnyaḥ | evambhūtaḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate
 

Viśvanātha


trividhaṃ karmoktam | trividhaṃ kartāram āha mukta-saṅga iti
 

Baladeva


atha kartṛ-traividhyam āha mukteti tribhiḥ | mukta-saṅgaḥ kartṛtvābhiniveśa-phalecchā-śūnyaḥ | anahaṃvādī garvokti- śūnyaḥ | dhṛtir ārabdha-karma-pūrti-paryantāvarjanīya-duḥkha-sahiṣṇutā | utsāhas tad-anuṣṭhānodyata-cittatā tābhyāṃ samanvitaḥ | ānuṣaṅgika-phalasya siddhāv asiddhau ca nirvikāro sukhena duḥkhena ca rahitaḥ | īdṛśaḥ kartā sāttvikaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.27

rāgī karma-phala-prepsur lubdho hiṃsātmako śuciḥ
harṣa-śokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ

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rāgī (passionate) karma-phalepsuḥ (desiring to obtain the fruit of activity) lubdhaḥ (greedy) hiṁsātmakaḥ (whose nature is violence) aśuciḥ (impure) harṣa-śokānvitaḥ (endowed with elation and despair) kartā (a doer) rājasaḥ (as rajasic) parikīrtitaḥ (known).

 

grammar

rāgī rāgin 1n.1 m.colourful, passionate, loving, attached (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
karma-phala-prepsuḥ karma-phala-prepsu 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yaḥ karmaṇaḥ phalam āptum icchati saḥ desiring to obtain the fruit of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; pra-āp – to obtain, to reach, des. pra-īpsu – desiring to obtain);
lubdhaḥ lubdha (lubh – to be greedy) [PP] 1n.1 m.greedy;
hiṁsātmakaḥ hiṁsā-ātmaka 1n.1 n.whose nature is violence (from: hiṁs – to injure, to harm, to kill; hiṁsā – przemoc, krzywdzenie; ātmaka – in compounds: being of this nature);
aśuciḥ aśuci 1n.1 m.impure (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci pure);
harṣa-śokānvitaḥ harṣa-śoka-anvita 1n.1 m.; DV / [TP]: harṣeṇa śokena cānvita itiendowed with elation and despair (from: hṛṣ – to be excited, to become erect, harṣa – bristling, erection, excitement; śuc – to grieve,  to burn, śoka – grief, despair, heat; anu-i – to go along, [PP] anv-ita – endowed: with what? – requires instrumental);
kartā kartṛ 1n.1 m.a doer (from: kṛ – to do);
rājasaḥ rājasa 2n.1 m. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);
parikīrtitaḥ pari-kīrtita (pari-kīrt – to praise, to glorify) [PP] 1n.1 m.praised, celebrated, proclaimed, known (from: kīrti – fame, glory);

 

textual variants


rāgī → rāge (in passion);
karma-phala-prepsur karma-phale prepsur (desiring gains in the fruit of activity);
lubdho → labdho (obtained);
hiṁsātmako hiṁsātmake (in the nature of violence);
parikīrtitaḥ → parikīrtityate (it is known);
 
 



Śāṃkara


rāgī rāgo’syāstīti rāgī | karma-phala-prepsuḥ karma-phalārthīty arthaḥ | lubdhaḥ para-dravyeṣu saṃjāta-tṛṣṇaḥ | tīrthādau sva-dravyāparityāgī vā | hiṃsātmakaḥ para-pīḍā-kara-svabhāvaḥ | aśucir bāhyābhyantara-śauca-varjitaḥ | harṣa-śokānvitaḥ iṣṭa-prāptau harṣa aniṣṭa-prāptāv iṣṭa-viyoge ca śokas tābhyāṃ harṣa-śokābhyām anvitaḥ saṃyuktas tasyaiva ca karmaṇaḥ sampatti-vipattibhyāṃ harṣa-śokau syātām, tābhyāṃ saṃyukto yaḥ kartā sa rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


rāgī yaśo’rthī, karmaphalaprepsuḥ karmaphalārthī; lubdhaḥ karmāpekṣitadravyavyayasvabhāvarahitaḥ, hiṃsātmakaḥ parān pīḍayitvā taiḥ karma kurvāṇaḥ, aśuciḥ karmāpekṣitaśuddhirahitaḥ, harṣaśokānvitaḥ yuddhādau karmaṇi jayādisiddhyasiddhyor harṣaśokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


rājasaṃ kartāram āha rāgīti | rāgī putrādiṣu prītimān | karma-phala-prepsuḥ karma-phala-kāmī | lubdhaḥ parasvābhilāṣī | hiṃsātmako māraka-svabhāvaḥ | lābhālābhayor harṣa-śokābhyām anvitaḥ saṃyuktaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


rāgī karmaṇy āsaktaḥ | lubdho viṣayāsaktaḥ
 

Baladeva


rāgī strī-putrādiṣv āsaktaḥ | karma-phala-prepsuḥ paśu-putrānna-svargādiṣv atispṛhayāluḥ | lubdhaḥ karmāpekṣita-dravya-vyayākṣamaḥ | hiṃsātmakaḥ parān prapīḍya karma kurvāṇaḥ | aśuciḥ karmāpekṣita-vihita-śuddhi-śūnyaḥ karma-phala-siddhi-tad-asiddhyor harṣa-śokābhyām anvitaḥ | īdṛśaḥ kartā rājasaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.28

ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ śaṭho naikṛtiko lasaḥ
viṣādī dīrgha-sūtrī ca kartā tāmasa ucyate

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ayuktaḥ (not engaged) prākṛtaḥ (vulgar) stabdhaḥ (arrogant) śaṭhaḥ (cheater) naikṛtikaḥ (dishonest) alasaḥ (lazy) viṣādī (dejected) dīrgha-sūtrī ca (and slow) kartā (a doer) tāmasaḥ (tamasic) ucyate (he is called).

 

grammar

ayuktaḥ a-yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.not yoked, not endowed with, not suited, not engaged;
prākṛtaḥ prākṛta 1n.1 m.natural, ordinary, vulgar (from: pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause);
stabdhaḥ stabdha (stambh – to stand firmly, to stop) [PP] 1n.1 m.fixed, puffed up, arrogant;
śaṭhaḥ śaṭha 1n.1 m.cheater, rogue, wicked (from: ???);
naikṛtikaḥ naikṛtika 1n.1 m.dishonest, insulting, destroying (from: ni-kṛ – to bring down, to humiliate, to overcome);
alasaḥ alasa 1n.1 m.inactive, without energy, lazy (from: las – to shine, to glitter, to play);
viṣādī viṣādin 1n.1 m.dejected, sad (from: vi-sad – to grieve, to be dejected; viṣāda – sorrow, despair; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
dīrgha-sūtrī dīrgha-sūtrin 1n.1 m.slow, dilatory (from: dīrgha – long, great, deep; siv – to sew, to stitch, to join, sūtra – thread, line, short sentence; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
ca av.and;
kartā kartṛ 1n.1 m.a doer (from: kṛ – to do);
tāmasaḥ tāmasa 1n.1 m. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


naikṛtiko naiṣkṛtiko / naiḥ-kṛtiko (neglecting);
dīrgha-sūtrī → dīrgha-sūtraś (whose thread [of activity] is long);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ayukto na yukto’samāhitaḥ | prākṛto’tyantāsaṃskṛta-buddhir bāla-samaḥ | stabdho daṇḍāvat na namati kasmaicit | śaṭhaḥ māyāvī śakti-gūhana-kārī | naikṛtikaḥ para-vibhedana-paraḥ | alaso’pravṛtti-śīlaḥ kartavyeṣv api | viṣādī viṣādavān sarvadāvasanna-svabhāvaḥ | dīrgha-sūtrī ca kartavyānāṃ dīrgha-prasāraṇaḥ sarvadā manda-svabhāvaḥ, yad adya śvo vā kartavyaṃ tan māsenāpi na karoti | yaś caivambhūtaḥ, sa kartā tāmasa ucyate
 

Rāmānuja


ayuktaḥ śāstrīyakarmāyogyaḥ, vikarmasthaḥ, prākṛtaḥ anadhigatavidyaḥ, stabdhaḥ anārambhaśīlaḥ, śaṭhaḥ abhicārādikarmaruciḥ, naikṛtikaḥ vañcanaparaḥ, alasaḥ ārabdheṣv api karmasu mandapravṛttiḥ, viṣādī atimātrāvasādaśīlaḥ dīrghasūtrī abhicārādikarma kurvan pareṣu dīrghakālavartyanarthaparyālocanaśīlaḥ, evaṃbhūto yaḥ kartā, sa tāmasaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tāmasaṃ kartāram āha ayukta iti | ayukto ‚navahitaḥ | prākṛto viveka-śūnyaḥ | stabdho ‚namraḥ | śaṭhaḥ śakti-gūhana-kārī | naikṛtikaḥ para-vṛtti-chedana-paraḥ | alaso ‚pravṛtti-śīlaḥ [viṣādī] kartavyeṣv api sarvadā ‚vasanna-svabhāvaḥ | dīrgha-sūtrī ca kartavyānāṃ dīrgha-prasāraṇaḥ sarvadā manda-svabhāvaḥ | yad adya śvo vā kartavyaṃ tan māsenāpi na karoti | yaś caivambhūtaḥ sa kartā tāmasa ucyate
 

Viśvanātha


ayukto ‚naucitya-kārī prākṛtaḥ prakṛtau sva-svabhāva eva vartamānaḥ, yad eva sva-manasi āyāti tad evānutiṣṭhati, na tu guror api vacaḥ pramāṇayatīty arthaḥ | naikṛtikaḥ parāpamāna-kartā |
tad evaṃ jñānibhir ukta-lakṣaṇaḥ sāttvika eva tyāgaḥ kartavyaḥ sāttvikam eva karma-niṣṭhaṃ jñānam āśrayaṇīyaṃ sāttvikam eva karma kartavyaṃ sāttvikenaiva kartrā bhavitavyaṃ | eṣa eva sannyāso jñāninām iti me jñānaṃ prakaraṇārtha-niṣkarṣaḥ | bhaktānāṃ tu triguṇātītam eva jñānaṃ triguṇātītaṃ me karma bhakti-yogākhyaṃ triguṇātītā eva kartāraḥ | yad uktaṃ bhagavataiva śrīmad-bhāgavate –
kaivalyaṃ sāttvikaṃ jñānaṃ
rajo vaikalpikaṃ tu yat |
prākṛtaṃ tāmasaṃ jñānaṃ
man-niṣṭhaṃ nirguṇaṃ smṛtam || (BhP 11.25.24) iti |
lakṣaṇaṃ bhakti-yogasya
nirguṇasya hy udāhṛtam || (BhP 3.29.11) iti |
sāttvikaḥ kārako ‚saṅgī
rāgāndho rājasaḥ smṛtaḥ |
tāmasaḥ smṛti-vibhraṣṭo
nirguṇo mad-apāśrayaḥ || (BhP 11.25.26) iti |
kiṃ ca na kevalam etat trikam eva bhakti-mate guṇātītam api tu bhakti-sambandhi sarvam eva guṇātītam | yad uktaṃ tatraiva –
sāttvikyādhyātmikī śraddhā
karma-śraddhā tu rājasī |
tāmasy adharme yā śraddhā
mat-sevāyāṃ tu nirguṇā || (BhP 11.25.27) iti |
vanaṃ tu sāttviko vāso
grāmo rājasa ucyate |
tāmasaṃ dyuta-sadanaṃ
man-niketaṃ tu nirguṇam || (BhP 11.25.25) iti |
sāttvikaṃ sukham ātmotthaṃ
viṣayotthaṃ tu rājasam |
tāmasaṃ moha-dainyotthaṃ
nirguṇaṃ mad-apāśrayam || (BhP 11.25.29) iti |
tad evaṃ guṇātītānāṃ bhaktānāṃ bhakti-sambandhīni jñāna-karma-śraddhādau sva-sukhādīni sarvāṇy eva guṇātītāni | sāttvikānāṃ jñānināṃ jñāna-sambandhīni tāni sarvāṇi sāttvikāny eva | rājasānāṃ karmiṇāṃ tāni sarvāṇi rājasāny eva | tāmasānām ucchṛṅkhalānāṃ tāni sarvāṇi tāmasāny eveti śrī-gītā-bhāgavatārtha-dṛṣṭyā jñeyam | jñāninām api punar antima-daśāyāṃ jñāna-sannyāsānantaram urvaritayā kevalayā bhaktyaiva guṇātītatvaṃ caturdaśādhyāya uktam
 

Baladeva


ayukto ‚naucitya-kṛt | prākṛtaḥ prakṛtau svabhāve vartamānaḥ sva-prakṛty-anusāreṇaiva, na tu śāstrānusāreṇa karma-kṛd ity arthaḥ | stabdho ‚namraḥ śaṭhaḥ sva-śakti-gopana-kṛt | naikṛtikaḥ parāpamāna-kṛt | alasaḥ prārabdhe karmaṇi śithilaḥ | viṣādī śokākulaḥ | dīrgha-sūtrī divasaika-kartavyaṃ varṣeṇāpi yo na karoti | īdṛśaḥ kartā tāmasa
 
 


BhG 18.29

buddher bhedaṃ dhṛteś caiva guṇatas tri-vidhaṃ śṛṇu
procyamānam aśeṣeṇa pṛthaktvena dhanaṃjaya

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he dhanañjaya (O winner of wealth!),
[tvam] (you) buddheḥ (intelligence) dhṛteḥ ca eva (and indeed firmness) pṛthaktvena (separately) aśeṣeṇa (completely) guṇataḥ (according to the guṇas) tri-vidham (threefold) procyamānam (being described) bhedam (division) śṛṇu (you must listen).

 

grammar

buddheḥ buddhi 6n.1 f.of intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
bhedam bheda 2n.1 m.splitting, breaking, separation, division (from: bhid – to split);
dhṛteḥ dhṛti 6n.1 f.of firmness, of determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
guṇataḥ av.according to the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
tri-vidham tri-vidha 2n.1 m.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
procyamānam procyamāna (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) PPr pass. 2n.1 m.being said, being described;
aśeṣeṇa av.completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end; formed from: 3n.1);
pṛthaktvena av. (3n.1) – one by one, separately (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one);
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.; yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥO winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (from: dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);

 

textual variants


guṇatas tri-vidhaṃ śṛṇu → traividhyaṃ gunataḥ śṝṇu / guṇatas tu vidhiṃ śṛṇu (you must listen to the threefold according to the guṇas / but you must listen to the rule according to the guṇas);
 
 



Śāṃkara


buddher bhedaṃ dhṛteś caiva bhedaṃ guṇataḥ sattvādi-guṇatas tri-vidhaṃ sṛṇv iti sūtropanyāsaḥ | procyamānaṃ kathyamānam aśeṣeṇa niravaśeṣato yathāvat pṛthaktvena vivekato dhanaṃjaya, dig-vijaye mānuṣaṃ daivaṃ ca prabhūtaṃ dhanaṃ jitavān, tenāsau dhanaṃjayo’rjunaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ kartavyakarmaviṣayajñāne kartavye ca karmaṇi anuṣṭhātari ca guṇatas traividhyam uktam; idānīṃ sarvatattvasarvapuruṣārthaniścayarūpāyā buddher dhṛteś ca guṇatas traividhyam āha
buddhiḥ vivekapūrvakaṃ niścayarūpaṃ jñānam; dhṛtiḥ ārabdhāyāḥ kriyāyā vighnopanipāte ‚pi dhāraṇam, tayos sattvādiguṇatas trividhaṃ bhedaṃ pṛthaktvena procyamānaṃ yathāvac chṛṇu
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ buddher dhṛteś ca traividhyaṃ pratijānīte buddher bhedam iti | spaṣṭo ‚rthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


jñānibhiḥ sarvam api vastu sāttvikam evopādeyam iti jñāpayituṃ buddhy-ādīnām api traividhyam āha buddher iti
 

Baladeva


evaṃ jñāna-jñeya-parijñātṝṇāṃ traividhyam uktvā buddhi-dhṛtyos tad vaktuṃ pratijānīte buddher iti | sphuṭārtham
 
 


BhG 18.30

pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye
bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
[buddhiḥ] (which intelligence) pravṛttim ca nivṛttim ca (and activity and cessation) kāryākārye (what is to be done and what is not to be done) bhayābhaye (fear and fearlessness) bandham mokṣam ca (bondage and liberation) vetti (it knows),
sā buddhiḥ (that intelligence) sāttvikī [asti] (is sattvic).

 

grammar

pravṛttim pravṛtti 2n.1 f.activity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);
ca av.and;
nivṛttim nivṛtti 2n.1 f.cessation, stopping (from: ni-vṛt – to stop, to turn back);
ca av.and;
kāryākārye kārya-akārya 2n.2 n.duty and improper act (from: kṛ to do, PF kārya – to be done, work, duty, especially religious one);
bhayābhaye bhaya-abhaya 2n.2 n.fear and fearlessness (from: bhī – to scare, bhaya – fear);
bandham bandha 2n.1 m.fetters, bondage (from: bandh – to bind, to fetter);
mokṣam mokṣa 2n.1 m. liberation, deliverance, casting away (from: muc – to liberate);
ca av.and;
yat sn. 1n.1 f.which;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1it knows;
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
tat sn. 1n.1 f.that;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
sāttvikī sāttvikī 1n.1 f. pertaining to sattva, sattvic (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


kāryākārye → kāryākāryau (duty and improper activity);
yā → yo (that which);
vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī → buddhir veda sā sātvikī matā (you must know that this intelligence is considered sattvic);

The first pada of verse 18.30 is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 16.7;

 
 



Śāṃkara


pravṛttiṃ ca pravṛttiḥ pravartanaṃ bandha-hetuḥ karma-mārgaḥ śāstra-vihita-viṣayaḥ | nivṛttiṃ ca nirvṛttir mokṣa-hetuḥ saṃnyāsa-mārgaḥ | bandha-mokṣa-samāna-vākyatvāt pravṛtti-nivṛttī karma-saṃnyāsa-mārgāv ity avagamyate | kāryākārye vihita-pratiṣiddhe laukike vaidike vā śāstra-buddheḥ kartavyākartavye karaṇākaraṇe ity etat | kasya ? deśa-kālādy-apekṣayā dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthānāṃ karmaṇām | bhayābhaye bibhety asmād iti bhayaṃ cora-vyāghrādi, na bhayam abhayam, bhayaṃ cābhayaṃ ca bhayābhaye, dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-viṣayayor bhayābhayayoḥ kāraṇe ity arthaḥ | bandhaṃ sa-hetukaṃ mokṣaṃ ca sa-hetukaṃ yā vetti vijānāti buddhiḥ, sā pārtha sāttvikī | tatra jñānaṃ buddher vṛttir buddhis tu vṛttimatī | dhṛtir api vṛtti-viśeṣa eva buddheḥ
 

Rāmānuja


pravṛttiḥ abhyudayasādhanabhūto dharmaḥ, nivṛttiḥ mokṣasādhanabhūtaḥ, tav ubhau yathāvasthitau yā buddhir vetti; kāryākārye sarvavarṇānāṃ pravṛttinivṛttidharmayor anyataraniṣṭhānāṃ deśakālāvasthāviśeṣeṣu „idaṃ kāryam, idam akāryam” iti yā vetti; bhayābhaye śāstrātivṛttir bhayasthānaṃ tadanuvṛttir abhayasthānam, bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca saṃsārayāthātmyaṃ tadvigamayāthātmyaṃ ca yā vetti; sā sāttvikī buddhiḥ
 

Śrīdhara


atra buddhes traividhyam āha pravṛttiṃ ceti tribhiḥ | pravṛttiṃ dharme | nivṛttim adharme | yasmin deśe kāle ca yat kāryam akāryaṃ ca | bhayābhaye kāryākārya-nimittau arthānarthau | kathaṃ bandhaḥ kathaṃ vā mokṣe iti yā buddhir antaṃkaraṇaṃ vetti sā sāttvikī | yayā pumān vettīti vaktavye karaṇe kartṛtvopacāraḥ kāṣṭhāni pacantītivat
 

Viśvanātha


bhayābhaye saṃsārāsaṃsāra-hetuke
 

Baladeva


tatra buddhes traividhyam āha pravṛttiṃ ceti tribhiḥ | yā buddhir dharme pravṛttim adharmān nivṛttiṃ ca vetti, yayā vettīti vaktavya yā vettīti karaṇe kartṛtvam upacaritam | kuṭhāraś chinattītivat | niṣkāmaṃ karma kāryaṃ sa-kāmaṃ tv akāryam iti kāryākārye yā vetti aśāstrīya-pravṛttito bhayaṃ śāstrīya-pravṛttitas tv abhayam iti bhayābhaye yā vetti, bandhaṃ saṃsāra-yāthātmyaṃ mokṣaṃ tac-cheda-yāthāmyaṃ ca yā vetti sā buddhiḥ sāttvikī
 
 


BhG 18.31

yayā dharmam adharmaṃ ca kāryaṃ cākāryam eva ca
ayathāvat prajānāti buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
yayā [buddhyā] (that intelligence by which) [puruṣaḥ] (a person) dharmam adharmam ca (the law and lawlessness) kāryam akāryam eva ca (duty and improper activity) ayathāvat (improperly) prajānāti (he understands),
sā buddhiḥ (that intelligence) rājasī [asti] (is rajasic).

 

grammar

yayā yat sn. 3n.1 f.that by which;
dharmam dharma 2n.1 m.the law (from: dhṛ – to hold);
adharmam adharma 2n.1 m.lawlessness (from: dhṛ – to hold);
ca av.and;
kāryam kārya (kṛ to do) PF 2n.1 n.to be done, work, duty, especially religious one;
ca av.and;
akāryam akārya (kṛ to do) PF 2n.1 n.not to be done, improper activity;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
ayathāvat av.improperly, incorrectly (do: yathā – as; -vat – suffix: as, like);
prajānāti pra-jñā (to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he understands;
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
tat sn. 1n.1 f.that;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
rājasī rājasī 1n.1 f. pertaining to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


yayā → yathā (as);
cākāryam → vākāryam (or improper activity);
ayathāvat → atha yāvat (thus as);
ayathāvat prajānāti → yathā-van nābhijānāti (he does not understand properly);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yayā dharmaṃ śāstra-coditam adharmaṃ ca tat-pratiṣiddhaṃ kāryaṃ cākāryam eva ca pūrvokte eva kāryākārye ayathāvan na yathāvat sarvato nirṇayena na prajānāti, buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī
 

Rāmānuja


yathā pūrvoktaṃ dvividhaṃ dharmaṃ tadviparītaṃ ca tanniṣṭhānāṃ deśakālāvasthādiṣu kāryaṃ cākāryaṃ ca yathāvan na jānāti, sā rājasī buddhiḥ
 

Śrīdhara


rājasīṃ buddhim āha yayeti | ayathāvat sandehāspadatvenety arthaḥ | spaṣṭam anyat
 

Viśvanātha


ayathāvat asmayaktayety arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


rājasīṃ buddhim āha yayeti | ayathāvad asamyatvena
 
 


BhG 18.32

adharmaṃ dharmam iti manyate tamasāvṛtā
sarvārthān viparītāṃś ca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
tamasā (by darkness) yā āvṛtā [buddhiḥ] (which intelligence is covered) adharmam dharmam iti („lawlessness is the law”) manyate (it thinks),
sarvārthān ca viparītān (all things as reverse) [manyate] (it thinks),
sā buddhiḥ (that intelligence) tāmasī [asti] (is tamasic).

 

grammar

adharmam adharma 2n.1 m.lawlessness (from: dhṛ – to hold);
dharmam dharma 2n.1 m.the law (from: dhṛ – to hold);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
yat sn. 1n.1 f.which;
manyate man (to think) Praes. Ā 1v.1it thinks;
tamasā tamas 3n.1 n. by darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
āvṛtā āvṛtā (ā-vṛ – to cover) [PP] 1n.1 f. covered;
sarvārthān sarva-artha 2n.3 m.; sarvān arthān iti all things (from: sarva – all, whole; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use);
viparītān viparīta (vi-pari-xi – to turn round, to return) [PP] 2n.3 m.reversed, wrong, contrary;
ca av.and;
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
tat sn. 1n.1 f.that;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
tāmasī tāmasī 1n.1 f. pertaining to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


adharmaṁ dharmam iti adharmyaṁ dharmyam iti (lawlessness is the law);
manyatebudhyate (he understands);
tamasāvṛtā → tamasānvitā / tamaso ‘nvitā (covered by darkness / because of darkness covered);
ca → tu (but);
sarvārthān viparītāṁś ca → sarvārtha-rūpa-retāṁś ca;
pārtha tāmasī → tāmasī matā (considered tamasic);
 
 



Śāṃkara


adharmaṃ pratiṣiddhaṃ dharmaṃ vihitam iti yā manyate jānāti tamasāvṛtā satī, sarvārthān sarvān eva jñeya-padārthān viparītāṃś ca viparītān eva vijānāti, buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī
 

Rāmānuja


tāmasī tu buddhiḥ tamasāvṛtā satī sarvārthān viparītān manyate / adharmaṃ dharmaṃ, dharmaṃ cādharmaṃ, santaṃ cārtham asantam, asantam cārthaṃ santaṃ, paraṃ ca tattvam aparam, aparaṃ ca tattvaṃ param / evaṃ sarvaṃ viparītaṃ manyata ity arthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tāmasīṃ buddhim āha adharmam iti | viparīta-grāhiṇī buddhis tāmasīty arthaḥ | buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ pūrvoktam | jñānaṃ tu tad-vṛttiḥ | dhṛtir api tad-vṛttir eva | yad vā antaḥkaraṇasya dharmiṇo buddhir apy adhyavasāya-lakṣaṇā vṛttir eva | icchā-dveṣādīnāṃ tad-vṛttīnāṃ bahutve ‚pi dharmādharma-bhayābhaya-sādhanatvena prādhānyād etāsāṃ traividhyam uktam | upalakṣaṇaṃ caitad anyāsām
 

Viśvanātha


yā manyata iti | kuṭhāraś chinattītivat yayā manyata ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


tāmasīṃ buddhim āha adharmam iti | viparīta-grāhiṇī buddhis tāmasīty arthaḥ | sarvārthān viparītāni sādhum asādhum asādhuṃ ca sādhuṃ, paraṃ tattvam aparam aparaṃ ca tattvaṃ param ity evaṃ sarvān arthān viparītān manyata ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.33

dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manaḥ-prāṇendriya-kriyāḥ
yogenāvyabhicāriṇyā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
yogena (by yoga) avyabhicāriṇyā (by undeviating) yayā dhṛtyā (by which firmness) [puruṣaḥ] (a person) manaḥ-prāṇendriyā-kriyāḥ (activities of mind, breaths and of the senses) dhārayate (he causes to hold),
sā dhṛtiḥ (that firmness) sāttvikī [asti] (is sattvic).

 

grammar

dhṛtyā dhṛti 3n.1 f.by firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
yayā yat sn. 3n.1 f.by which;
dhārayate dhṛ (to hold up) Praes. caus. Ā 2v.1he causes to hold, he understands;
manaḥ-prāṇendriya-kriyāḥ manaḥ-prāṇa-indriya-kriyā 2n.3 f.; [TP]: manasaḥ prāṇānām indriyāṇāṁ ca kriyāḥ activities of mind, breaths and of the senses (from: man – to think, manas – the mind; pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – breath, life; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; √xkṛ – to do, kriyā – act, work, especially religious one);
yogena yoga 3n.1 m.by yoga, by yoking, by application, by means (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
avyabhicāriṇyā a-vyabhicāriṇī 3n.1 f.by undeviating, by devoted (from: vi-abhi-√car – to act in an unfriendly way, to offend, vyabhicārin – who acts improperly, vyabhicāriṇī – unchaste wife, wanton woman);
dhṛtiḥ dhṛti 1n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
tat sn. 1n.1 f.that;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
sāttvikī sāttvikī 1n.1 f. pertaining to sattva, sattvic (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


dhārayatedhārayati (he causes to hold);
avyabhicāriṇyāavyabhicāreṇa / avyabhicāriṇyo (by undeviating [yoga] / devoted);
pārtha sāttvikī → sāttvikī matā (considered sattvic);
 
 



Śāṃkara


dhṛtyā yayā avyabhicāriṇyeti vyavahitena sambandho, dhārayate | kiṃ ? manaḥ-prāṇendriya-kriyāḥ | manaś ca prāṇāś ca indriyāṇi ca manaḥ-prāṇendriyāṇi, teṣāṃ kriyāś ceṣṭaḥ, tā ucchāstra-mārga-pravṛtter dhārayate dhārayati | dhṛtyā hi dhāryamāṇā ucchāstra-mārga-viṣayā na bhavanti | yogena samādhinā | avyabhicāriṇyā nitya-samādhy-anugatayety arthaḥ | etad uktaṃ bhavati—avyabhicāriṇyā dhṛtyā manaḥ-prāṇendriya-kriyā dhāryamāṇā yogena dhārayatīti | yaivaṃ-lakṣaṇā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī
 

Rāmānuja


yayā dhṛtyā yogenāvyabhicāriṇyā manaḥprāṇendriyāṇāṃ kriyāḥ puruṣo dhārayate; yogaḥ mokṣasādhanabhūtaṃ bhagavadupāsanam; yogena prayojanabhūtenāvyabhicāriṇyā yogoddeśena pravṛttās tatsādhanabhūtā manaḥprabhṛtīnāṃ kriyāḥ yayā dhṛtyā dhārayate, sā sāttvikītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ dhṛtes traividhyam āha dhṛtyeti tribhiḥ | yogena cittaigāgreṇa hetunā ‚vyabhicāriṇyā viṣayāntaram adhārayantyā yayā dhṛtyā manasaḥ prāṇānām indriyāṇāṃ ca kriyā dhārayate niyacchati sā dhṛtiḥ sāttvikī
 

Viśvanātha


dhṛtes traividhyam āha dhṛtyeti
 

Baladeva


dhṛtes traividhyam āha dhṛtyeti tribhiḥ | yayā manaḥ-prāṇendriyāṇāṃ yogopāya-bhūtāḥ kriyāḥ puruṣo dhārayate, sā dhṛtiḥ sāttvikī | kīdṛśety āha yogeneti | yogaḥ parātma-cintanaṃ tenāvyabhicāriṇyā tad anyaṃ viṣayam agṛhṇantyety arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.34

yayā tu dharma-kāmārthān dhṛtyā dhārayate rjuna
prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ pārtha rājasī

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna), he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
yayā dhṛtyā tu (but by which firmness) prasaṅgena (by attachment) phalākāṅkṣī (desiring the fruit) dharma-kāmārthān (law, desire and wealth) dhārayate (he causes to hold),
sā dhṛtiḥ (that firmness) rājasī [asti] (is rajasic).

 

grammar

yayā yat sn. 3n.1 f.by which;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
dharma-kāmārthān dharma-kāma-artha 2n.3 m.; DV: dharmaś ca kāmaś cārthaś cetilaw, desire and wealth (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law; kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth);
dhṛtyā dhṛti 3n.1 f.by firmness, by determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
dhārayate dhṛ (to hold up) Praes. caus. Ā 2v.1he causes to hold, he understands;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
prasaṅgena pra-saṅga 3n.1 m.by attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment);
phalākāṅkṣī phala-ākāṅkṣin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yaḥ phalam ākāṅkṣati saḥ desiring the fruit (from: phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; ā-kāṅkṣ – to desire, to expect, ākāṅkṣā – eager desire, longing; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
dhṛtiḥ dhṛti 1n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
tat sn. 1n.1 f.that;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
rājasī rājasī 1n.1 f. pertaining to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


yayā → yathā (as);
dharma-kāmārthān karma-kāmārthān (activities, desires and wealth);
prasaṅgena → prasannena (by satisfaction);
sā → yā (which);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yayā tu dharma-kāmārthān dharmaś ca kāmaś cārthaś ca dharma-kāmārthās tān dharma-kāmārthān dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manasi nityam eva kartavya-rūpān avadhārayati he’rjuna, prasaṅgena yasya yasya dharmāder dhāraṇa-prasaṅgas tena tena prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī ca bhavati yaḥ puruṣaḥ, tasya dhṛtir yā sā pārtha rājasī
 

Rāmānuja


phalākāṅkṣī puruṣaḥ prakṛṣṭasaṅgena dharmakāmārthān yayā dhṛtyā dhārayate, sā rājasī / dharmakāmārthaśabdena tatsādhanabhūtā manaḥprāṇendriyakriyā lakṣyante / phalākāṅkṣīty atrāpi phalaśabdena rājasatvād dharmakāmārthā eva vivakṣitāḥ / ato dharmakāmārthāpekṣayā manaḥprabhṛtīnāṃ kriyā yayā dhṛtyā dhārayate, sā rājasīty uktaṃ bhavati
 

Śrīdhara


rājasīṃ dhṛtim āha yayā tv iti | yayā tu dhṛtyā dharmārtha-kāmān prādhānyena dhārayate na vimuñcati | tat-saṅgena phalākāṅkṣī ca bhavati sā rājasī dhṛtiḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 18.37
 

Baladeva


sa-kāma-vidvat-prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī puruṣaḥ | yayā dharmādīn tat-sādhana-bhūtā manaḥ-prāṇendriya-kriyā dhārayatee, sā dhṛtiḥ rājasī
 
 


BhG 18.35

yayā svapnaṃ bhayaṃ śokaṃ viṣādaṃ madam eva ca
na vimuñcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ pārtha tāmasī

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
durmedhāḥ (fool) yayā [dhṛtyā] (by which firmness) svapnam (sleep) bhayam (fear) śokam (sorrow) viṣādam (dejection) madam eva ca (and indeed madness) na vimuñcati (he does not give up),
sā dhṛtiḥ (that firmness) tāmasī [asti] (is tamasic).

 

grammar

yayā yat sn. 3n.1 f.by which;
svapnam svapna 2n.1 m.sleep (from: svap – to sleep);
bhayam bhaya 2n.1 n. fear (from: bhī – to scare);
śokam śoka 2n.1 m.sorrow, heat (from: śuc – to grieve,  to burn);
viṣādam viṣāda 2n.1 m.sorrow, despair, dejection (from: vi-sad – to grieve, to be dejected);
madam mada 2n.1 m. intoxication, madness, pride, arrogance (from: mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
na av.not;
vimuñcati vi-muc (to liberate, to release) Praes. P 1v.1he gives up, he releases;
durmedhāḥ dur-medhas 2n.1 m.fool, ignorant (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; medhas = medhā – intelligence, understanding, sacrifice);
dhṛtiḥ dhṛti 1n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
tat sn. 1n.1 f.that;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
tāmasī tāmasī 1n.1 f. pertaining to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


yayā → yathā (as);
svapnaṁ → svāsthyaṁ / svapna- / svapnaḥ (good state / sleep / sleepy);
śokaṁ → krodhaṁ / śokaḥ (anger / sorrowful);
madaṁ → moham / damam (bewilderment / sense-control);
pārtha tāmasī → tāmasī matā / tāmasī smṛtā (considered tamasic / known as tamasic);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yayā svapnaṃ nidrāṃ bhayaṃ trāsaṃ śokaṃ viṣādaṃ viṣaṇṇatāṃ madaṃ viṣaya-sevām ātmano bahu-manyamāno matta iva madam eva ca manasi nityam eva kartavya-rūpatayā kurvan na vimuñcayati dhārayaty eva durmedhāḥ kutsita-medhāḥ puruṣo yaḥ, tasya dhṛtir yā sā tāmasī matā
 

Rāmānuja


yayā dhṛtyā /svapnaṃ nidrām / madaṃ viṣayānubhavajanitaṃ madam / svapnamadav uddiśya pravṛttā manaḥprāṇādīnāṃ kriyāḥ durmedhā na vimuñcati dhārayati / bhayaśokaviṣādaśabdāś ca bhayaśokādidāyiviṣayaparāḥ; tatsādhanabhūtāś ca manaḥprāṇādikriyā yayā dhārayate, sā dhṛtis tāmasī
 

Śrīdhara


tāmasīṃ dhṛtim āha yayeti duṣṭāviveka-bahulā medhā yasya sa durmedhāḥ puruṣo yayā dhṛtyā svapnādīn na vimuñcati punaḥ punar āvartayati | svapno ‚tra nidrā sā dhṛtis tāmasī
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 18.37
 

Baladeva


yayā svapnādīn na vimuñcati durmedhās tān dhārayaty eva, sā dhṛtis tāmasī | svapno nidrā, mado viṣaya-bhoga-jo garvaḥ | svapnādi-śabdais tad-dhetu-bhūtā manaḥ-prāṇendriya-kriyā yayā dhārayate sā tāmasī dhṛtir ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.36

sukhaṃ tv idānīṃ tri-vidhaṃ śṛṇu me bharata-rṣabha
abhyāsād ramate yatra duḥkhāntaṃ ca nigacchati

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syntax


he bharatarṣabha (O best of the Bharatas!),
idānīm tu (but now) [tvam] (you) tri-vidham sukham (threefold happiness) me (from me) śṛṇu (you must listen).
yatra [sukhe] (in which happiness) [puruṣaḥ] (a person) abhyāsāt (from practice) ramate (he rejoices),
duḥkhānta ca (and end of distress) nigacchati (he obtains).
 

grammar

sukham sukha 2n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
idānīm av.now, today;
tri-vidham tri-vidha 2n.1 n.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
bharata-rṣabha bharata-rṣabha 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇāṁ ṛṣabha itiO best of the Bharatas (from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, maintained, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; ṛṣabha – bull, the best of any kind);
abhyāsāt abhy-āsa 5n.1 m.from repetition, from practice, from discipline (from: abhi-as – to repeat, to study);
ramate ram (to play, to rejoice) Praes. Ā 1v.1he rejoices;
yatra av.where, in which place, when (correlative of: tatra);
duḥkhāntam duḥkha-anta 2n.1 m.; [TP]: duḥkhasyāntam itiend of distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
ca av.and;
nigacchati ni-gam (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


tri-vidhaṁ interchanges with śṛnu me;
ca nigacchati → ca niyacchati / na nigacchati / ca na gacchati (and he obtains / he does not obtain / and he does not go);
 
 



Śāṃkara


guṇa-bhedena kriyāṇāṃ kārakāṇāṃ ca tri-vidho bheda uktaḥ | athedānīṃ phalasya sukhasya tri-vidho bheda ucyate—
sukhaṃ tv idānīṃ tri-vidhaṃ śṛṇu samādhānaṃ kurv ity etat, me mama bharatarṣabha | abhyāsāt paricayād āvṛtte ramate ratiṃ pratipadyate yatra yasmin sukhānubhave duḥkhāntaṃ ca duḥkhāvasānaṃ duḥkhopaśamaṃ ca nigacchati niścayena prāpnoti
 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 18.37
 

Śrīdhara


commentary under the verse BhG 18.37
 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 18.37
 

Baladeva


commentary under the verse BhG 18.37
 
 


BhG 18.37

yat tad-agre viṣam iva pariṇāme ‘mṛtopamam
tat sukhaṃ sāttvikaṃ proktam ātma-buddhi-prasāda-jam

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syntax


tat-agre (at the beginning of that) yat [sukham] (that  happiness which) viṣam iva [asti] (is like a poison),
pariṇāme (in maturity) [yat sukham] (that  happiness which) amṛtopamam [asti] (is resembling nectar),
tat ātma-buddhi-prasāda-jam (that which results from satisfaction of the self and intelligence) sukham (happiness) sāttvikam (sattvic) proktam (is called).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.which;
tat-agre av. (7n.1) – at the beginning of that (from: tat sn. – that; agra – foremost, first, summit, goal);
viṣam viṣa 1n.1 n.active, poison, venom (from: viṣ – to be active, to perform);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
pariṇāme pariṇāma 7n.1 n.in a change, in maturity (from: pari-xnam – to change, to ripen);
amṛtopamam amṛta-upama 1n.1 n.; yasyāmṛtam upametiresembling nectar (from: mṛ – to die; mṛta [PP] – dead, a-mṛta – not dead, eternal, nectar of immortality; upa- – to measure, to compare, upamā – comparison, similarity, upama – suffix: similar, resembling);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
sukham sukha 1n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
sāttvikam sāttvika 1n.1 n. related to sattva (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);
proktam prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.spoken, called;
ātma-buddhi-prasāda-jam ātma-buddhi-prasāda-ja 1n.1 n.; yad ātmano buddheś ca prasādād jāyate tat which results from satisfaction of the self and intelligence (from: ātman – self; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; pra-sad – to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful, prasāda satisfaction, favour, calmness, clearness, success, kindness; jan – to be born; ja – suffix: born);

 

textual variants


yat tad agre → yat tadā-tve / tat tad-agre (that which i snow / that at the beginning of that);
proktam → vidyād (he should know);
ātma-buddhi-prasāda-jam → ātma-buddhi-prasādanam (purity of the self and intelligence);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yat tat sukham agre pūrvaṃ prathama-saṃnipāte jñāna-vairāgya-dhyāna-samādhy-ārambhe’tyantāyāsa-pūrvakatvāt viṣam iva duḥkhātmakaṃ bhavati, pariṇāme jñāna-vairāgyādi-paripāka-jaṃ sukham amṛtopamam, tat sukhaṃ sāttvikaṃ proktaṃ vidvadbhiḥ | ātmano buddhir ātma-buddhiḥ, ātmabuddheḥ prasādo nairmalyaṃ salilasya iva svacchatā, tato jātam ātma-buddhi-prasādajam | ātma-viṣayā vā ātmāvalambanā vā buddhir ātma-buddhiḥ, tat-prasāda-prakarṣād vā jātam ity etat | tasmāt sāttvikaṃ tat
 

Rāmānuja


pūrvoktāḥ sarve jñānakarmakartrādayo yac cheṣabhūtāḥ, tac ca sukhaṃ guṇatas trividham idānīṃ śṛṇu /

yasmin sukhe cirakālābhyāsāt krameṇa niratiśayāṃ ratiṃ prāpnoti, duḥkhāntaṃ ca nigacchati nikhilasya sāṃsārikasya duḥkhasyāntaṃ nigacchati // tad eva viśinaṣṭi yat tat sukham, agre yogopakramavelāyāṃ bahvāyāsasādhyatvād viviktasvarūpasyānanubhūtatvāc ca viṣam iva duḥkham iva bhavati, pariṇāme ‚mṛtopamam / pariṇāme vipāke abhyāsabalena viviktātmasvarūpāvirbhāve amṛtopamaṃ bhavati, tac ca ātmabuddhiprasādajam ātmaviṣayā buddhiḥ ātmabuddhiḥ, tasyāḥ nivṛttasakaletaraviṣayatvaṃ prasādaḥ, nivṛttasakaletaraviṣayabuddhyā viviktasvabhāvātmānubhavajanitaṃ sukham amṛtopamaṃ bhavati; tat sukhaṃ sāttvikaṃ proktam

 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ sukhasya traividhyaṃ pratijānīte ‚rdhena sukham iti | spaṣṭo ‚rthaḥ ||36|| tatra sāttvikaṃ sukham āha abhyāsād iti sārdhena | yatra yasmiṃś ca sukhe ‚bhyāsād atiparicayād ramate | na tu viṣaya-sukha iva sahasā ratiṃ prāpnoti | yasmin ramamāṇaś ca duḥkhasyāntam avasānaṃ nitarāṃ gacchati prāpnoti | kīdṛśaṃ tat ? yat tat kim apy agre prathamaṃ viṣam iva manaḥ-saṃyamādhīnatvād duḥkhāvaham iva bhavati | pariṇāme tv amṛta-sadṛśam | ātma-viṣayā buddhir ātma-buddhiḥ | tasyāḥ prasādo rajas-tamo-mala-tyāgena svacchatayāvasthānam | tato jātaṃ yat sukhaṃ tat sāttvikaṃ proktaṃ yogibhiḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sāttvikaṃ sukham āha sārdhena abhyāsāt punar anuśīlanād eva ramate, na tu viṣayeṣv ivotpattyaiva ramata ity arthaḥ | duḥkhāntaṃ nigacchati yasmin ramamāṇaḥ saṃsāra-duḥkhaṃ taratīty arthaḥ | viṣam iveti indriya-mano-nirodho hi prathamaṃ duḥkhada eva bhavatīti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha sukha-traividhyaṃ pratījānīte sukhaṃ tv ity ardhakena | tatra sāttvikaṃ sukham āha abhyāsād iti sārdhakena | abhyāsāt punaḥ punaḥ pariśīlanād yatra ramate, na tu viṣayeṣv ivotpattyā | yasmin ramamāṇo duḥkhāntaṃ nigacchati saṃsāraṃ tarati | yac cāgre prathamaṃ viṣam iva manaḥ-saṃyama-kleśa-sattvād viviktātma-prakāśāc cātiduḥkhāvaham iva bhavati | pariṇāme samādhi-paripāke saty amṛtopamaṃ vivikātma-prakāśāt pīyūṣa-pravāha-nipātavad bhavati | yac cātma-sambandhinyā buddheḥ prasādāj jāyate tat sāttvikaṃ sukham | tat-prasādaś ca viṣaya-sambaandha-mālinya-vinivṛttiḥ
 
 


BhG 18.38

viṣayendriya-saṃyogād yat tad-agre ‘mṛtopamam
pariṇāme viṣam iva tat sukhaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam

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syntax


viṣayendriya-saṁyogāt (from contact of the senses and the objects of the senses) yat [sukhaṁ] (that  happiness which)
tat-agre (at the beginning of that) amṛtopamam [asti] (is resembling nectar),
pariṇāme (in maturity) viṣam iva [asti] (is like a poison),
tat sukham (that happiness) rājasam (as rajasic) smṛtam (known).

 

grammar

viṣayendriya-saṁyogāt viṣaya-indriya-saṁyoga 5n.1 n.; [TP]: viṣayāṇām indriyāṇāṁ ca saṁyogād itifrom contact of the senses and the objects of the senses (from: viṣ – to be active, to perform; viṣa – active, poison, viṣaya – sphere, territory, scope, sense object, subject; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; sam-yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, saṁyoga – connection, union);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.which;
tat-agre av. (7n.1) – at the beginning of that (from: tat sn. – that; agra – foremost, first, summit, goal);
amṛtopamam amṛta-upama 1n.1 n.; yasyāmṛtam upametiresembling nectar (from: mṛ – to die; mṛta [PP] – dead, a-mṛta – not dead, eternal, nectar of immortality; upa- – to measure, to compare, upamā – comparison, similarity, upama – suffix: similar, resembling);
pariṇāme pariṇāma 7n.1 n.in a change, in maturity (from: pari-xnam – to change, to ripen);
viṣam viṣa 1n.1 n.active, poison, venom (from: viṣ – to be active, to perform);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
sukham sukha 1n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
rājasam rājasa 1n.1 n. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);
smṛtam smṛta (smṛ – to think, to remember) [PP] 1n.1 n.it is known, it is remembered;

 

textual variants


yat tad-agre → yat tadā-tve (that which now);
sukhaṁ rājasaṁ smṛtam → tad rājasam iti smṛtam (that rajasic, thus it is known);
 
 



Śāṃkara


viṣayendriya-saṃyogāt jāyate yat sukhaṃ tat sukham agre prathama-kṣaṇe’mṛtopamam amṛta-samam, pariṇāme viṣam iva, bala-vīrya-rūpa-prajñā-medhā-dhanotsāha-hāni-hetutvāt adharma-taj-janita-narakādi-hetutvāc cya pariṇāme tad-upabhoga-pariṇāmānte viṣam iva, tat sukhaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam
 

Rāmānuja


agre anubhavavelāyāṃ viṣayendriyasaṃyogād yat tad amṛtam iva bhavati, pariṇāme vipāke viṣayāṇāṃ sukhatānimittakṣudādau nivṛtte tasya ca sukhasya nirayādinimittatvād viṣam iva pītaṃ bhavati, tat sukhaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam
 

Śrīdhara


rājasaṃ sukham āha viṣayeti viṣayāṇām indriyāṇāṃ ca saṃyogād yat tat prasiddhaṃ strī-saṃsargādi-sukham amṛtam upamā yasya tādṛśaṃ bhavaty agre prathamam | pariṇāme tu viṣa-tulyam ihāmutra ca duḥkha-hetutvāt | tat sukhaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam
 

Viśvanātha


yad amṛtopamaṃ para-strī-sambhogādikam
 

Baladeva


viṣayair yuvati-rūpa-sparśādibhiḥ sahendriyāṇāṃ cakṣus tv agādīnāṃ saṃyogāt sambandhāt yad agre pūrvam amṛtopamam atisvādu-pariṇāme ‚vasāne tu niraya-hetutvād viṣopamam atiduḥkhāvahaṃ bhavati tad rājasaṃ sukham
 
 


BhG 18.39

yad agre cānubandhe ca sukhaṃ mohanam ātmanaḥ
nidrālasya-pramādotthaṃ tat tāmasam udāhṛtam

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agre (at the beginning) anubandhe ca (and in consequence) yat sukham (that  happiness which) nidrālasya-pramādottham (what have risen from sleepiness, laziness and madness) ātmanaḥ mohana (bewilderment of the self),
tat [sukham] (that happiness) tāmasam (tamasic) udāhṛtam (declared).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.which;
agre av. (7n.1) – at the beginning (from: agra – foremost, first, summit, goal);
ca av.and;
anubandhe anu-bandha 7n.1 m.in bondage, in consequence, in result (from: anu-bandh – to bind, to fetter);
ca av.and;
sukham sukha 1n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
mohanam mohana 1n.1 n.bewildering, perplexing (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied; moha – bewilderment, confusion);
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
nidrālasya-pramādottham nidrālasya-pramāda-uttha 1n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: yad nidrāyā ālasyāt pramādāc ca uttiṣṭati tatwhat have risen from sleepiness, laziness and madness (from: ni-√xdrā – to fall asleep, ni-drā – sleep, sloth; las – to shine, to glitter, to play, alasa – inactive, without energy, lazy, ālasya – inactivity, laziness, idleness; pra-mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude, pramāda madness; ut-sthā – to rise, uttha – risen);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
tāmasam tāmasa 1n.1 n. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);
udāhṛtam ud-ā-hṛta (ud-ā-hṛ – to set up, to declare) [PP] 1n.1 n.set up, declared;

 

textual variants


sukhaṁ mohanamsukha-mohanam (bewilderment of happiness);
tat tāmasam udāhṛtamtat tāmasam iti smṛtaṁ / tat sukhaṁ tāmasam smṛtaṁ (that tamasis, thus it is known / that happiness is known as tamasic);

The fourth pada of verse 18.39 is similar to the fourth pada of verses: BhG 17.19, 17.22 and 18.22;

 
 



Śāṃkara


yad agre cānubandhe cāvasānottara-kāle ca sukhaṃ mohanaṃ moha-karam ātmano nidrālasya-pramādotthaṃ nidrā cālasyaṃ ca pramādaś ca tebhyaḥ samuttiṣṭhatīti nidrālasya-pramādottham, tat tāmasam udāhṛtam
 

Rāmānuja


yat sukham agre cānubandhe ca anubhavavelāyāṃ vipāke ca ātmano mohanaṃ mohahetur bhavati; moho ‚tra yathāvasthitavastvaprakāśo ‚bhipretaḥ; nidrālasyapramādottham nidrālasyapramādajanitam, nidrādayo hy anubhavavelāyām api mohahetavaḥ / nidrāyā mohahetutvaṃ spṛṣṭam / ālasyam indriyavyāpāram āndyam / indriyavyāpāram āndye ca jñānam āndyaṃ bhavaty eva / pramādaḥ kṛtyānavadhānarūpa iti tatrāpi jñānam āndyaṃ bhavati / tataś ca tayor api mohahetutvam / tat sukhaṃ tāmasam udāhṛtam / ato mumukṣuṇā rajastamasī abhibhūya sattvam evopādeyam ity uktaṃ bhavati
 

Śrīdhara


tāmasaṃ sukham āha yad iti | agre ca prathama-kṣaṇe ‚nubandhe ca paścād api yat sukham ātmano moha-karam | tad evāha nidrā ālasyaṃ ca pramādaś ca kartavyārthāvadhāraṇa-rāhityena mano-grāhyam etebhya uttiṣṭhati yat sukhaṃ tat tāmasam udāhṛtam
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 18.40
 

Baladeva


yad-agre ‚nubhava-kāle anubandhe paścād vipāka-kāle cātmano mohanaṃ vastu-yāthātmyāvarakaṃ, yac ca nidrādibhya uttiṣṭhati jāyate tat tāmasaṃ sukham | ālasyam inidriya-vyāpāram āndyam | pramādaḥ kāryākāryāvadhānābhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.40

na tad asti pṛthivyāṃ vā divi deveṣu vā punaḥ
sattvaṃ prakṛti-jair muktaṃ yad ebhiḥ syāt tribhir guṇaiḥ

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syntax


pṛthivyām vā (or on earth) divi deveṣu vā (or in heaven among the divinities) punaḥ (again) tat sattvam (that being) na asti (it does not exist),
yat (which) ebhiḥ prakṛti-jaiḥ (from these born from nature) tribhiḥ guṇaiḥ (from the three guṇas) muktam (freed) syāt (it would be).

 

grammar

na av.not;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it exists;
pṛthivyām pṛthivī 7n.1 f.on earth (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthu – broad, extensive, great);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
divi div 7n.1 f.in heaven (from: div – to shine);
deveṣu deva 7n.3 m.among gods, among the divinities (from: div – to shine, to play);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
punaḥ av.back, again;
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
prakṛti-jaiḥ prakṛti-ja 3n.3 m.by these born from nature (from: pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
muktam mukta (muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.1 n.freed;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
ebhiḥ idam sn. 3n.3 m.by these;
syāt as (to be) Pot. P 1v.1it would be;
tribhiḥ tri 3n.3 m.by three;
guṇaiḥ guṇa 3n.3 m.by qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);

 

textual variants


pṛthivyāṁ vā pṛthivyāṁ ca / pṛthivyāṁ no (and on earth / on earth our);
punaḥ → kvacit (in some place);
 
 



Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ prakaraṇopasaṃhārārthaḥ loka ārabhyate—
na tad asti tan nāsti pṛthivyāṃ vā manuṣyādiṣu sattvaṃ prāṇi-jātam anyad vā prāṇi, divi deveṣu vā punaḥ sattvam, prakṛti-jaiḥ prakṛtito jātair ebhis tribhiḥ guṇaiḥ sattvādibhir muktaṃ parityaktaṃ yat syāt, na tad astīti pūrveṇa sambandhaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


pṛthivyāṃ manuṣyādiṣu divi deveṣu vā prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭeṣu brahmādiṣu sthāvarānteṣu prakṛtijair ebhis tribhir guṇair muktaṃ yat sattvaṃ prāṇijātam, na tad asti
 

Śrīdhara


anuktam api saṅgṛhṇan prakaraṇārtham upasaṃharati na tad iti | ebhiḥ prakṛti-sambhavaiḥ sattvādibhis tribhir guṇair muktaṃ prāṇi-jātam | anyad vā yat syāt tat | pṛthivyāṃ manuṣya-lokādiṣudivi deveṣu ca kvāpi nāstīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


anuktam api saṅgṛhṇan prakaraṇārtham upasaṃharati neti tat sattvaṃ prāṇi-jātam anyac ca vastu-mātraṃ kvāpi nāsti yad ebhiḥ prakṛtijais tribhir guṇair muktaṃ rahitaṃ syād ataḥ sarvam eva vastu-jātaṃ triguṇātmakaṃ | tatra sāttvikam evopādeyaṃ rājasa-tāmase tu nopādeya iti prakaraṇa-tātparyam
 

Baladeva


prakaraṇārtham upasaṃhann anuktam api saṅgṛhṇāti na tad iti | pṛthivyāṃ manuṣyādiṣu divi svargādau deveṣu ca prakṛtiṃ saṃsṛṣṭeṣu brahmādi-stambānteṣv ity arthaḥ | tat sattvaṃ prāṇi-jātam anyac ca vastu nāsti | yad ebhiḥ prakṛtijais tribhir guṇair muktaṃ virahitaṃ syāt | tathā ca triguṇātmakeṣu vastuṣu sāttvikasyaivopayogitvāt tad eva grāhyam anyat tu tyājyam iti prakaraṇārthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.41

brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśāṃ śūdrāṇāṃ ca paraṃtapa
karmāṇi pravibhaktāni sva-bhāva-prabhavair guṇaiḥ

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syntax


he paraṁtapa (O scorcher of enemies!)
brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśām (of brahmins, of kṣatriyas and of vaiśyas) śūdrāṇām ca (and of śūdras) karmāṇi (activities) svabhāva-prabhavaiḥ guṇaiḥ (by the guṇas born from own’s nature) pravibhaktāni [santi] (they are divided).

 

grammar

brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśām brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viś 6n.3 m.; DV: brāhmaṇānāṁ ca kṣatriyānāṁ ca viśāṁ ca of brahmins, of kṣatriyas and of vaiśyas (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas, brāhmaṇa brahmin; kṣi – to own, to reign or kṣi – to destroy, kṣatriya – kṣatriya; viś – to enter, viś – settlement, tribe , people, vaiśya);
śūdrāṇām śūdra 6n.3 m.of servants, of śūdras;
ca av.and;
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥO you who torment enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
karmāṇi karman 1n.3 n. activities (from: kṛ – to do);
pravibhaktāni pra-vi-bhakta (pra-vi-bhāj – to divide, to separate) [PP] 1n.3 n.being divided;
sva-bhāva-prabhavaiḥ sva-bhāva-prabhava 3n.3 m.; BV: yasya sva-bhāvāt prabhavo ‘sti taiḥby those born from own’s nature (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state; pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, prabhava – birth, source);
guṇaiḥ guṇa 3n.3 m. by qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);

 

textual variants


pravibhaktāni → pravibhuktāni ([activities] with which he enjoys);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvaḥ saṃsāraḥ kriyā-kāraka-phala-lakṣaṇaḥ sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇātmako’vidyā-parikalpitaḥ sa-mūlo’nartha uktaḥ, vṛkṣa-rūpa-kalpanayā ca ūrdhva-mūlaṃ [gītā 15.1] ity ādinā, taṃ ca asaṅga-śastreṇa dṛḍhena cchittvā tataḥ padaṃ tat-parimārgitavyaṃ [gītā 15.3-4]iti coktam | tatra ca sarvasya triguṇātmakatvāt saṃsāra-kāraṇa-nivṛtty-anupapattau prāptāyām, yathā tan-nivṛttiḥ syāt tathā vaktavyam, sarvaś ca gītā-śāstrārtha upasaṃhartavyaḥ, etāvān eva ca sarva-veda-smṛty-arthaḥ puruṣārtham icchadbhir anuṣṭheya ity evam arthaṃ brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśām ity ādir ārabhyate—

brāhmaṇāś ca kṣatriyāś ca viśaś ca brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśaḥ, teṣāṃ brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśām | śūdrāṇāṃ ca—śūdrāṇām asamāsa-karaṇam eka-jātitve sati vedānadhikārāt—he paraṃtapa ! karmāṇi pravibhaktāni itaretara-vibhāgena vyavasthāpitāni | kena ? svabhāva-prabhavair guṇaiḥ, svabhāva īśvarasya prakṛtis triguṇātmikā māyā sā prabhavo yeṣāṃ guṇānāṃ te svabhāva-prabhavāḥ, taiḥ | śamādīni karmāṇi pravibhaktāni brāhmaṇādīnām | athavā brāhmaṇa-svabhāvasya sattva-guṇaḥ prabhavaḥ kāraṇam, tathā kṣatriya-svabhāvasya sattvopasarjanaṃ rajaḥ prabhavaḥ kāraṇam, tathā kṣatriya-svabhāvasya sattvopasarjanaṃ rajaḥ prabhavaḥ, vaiśya-svabhāvasya tama-upasarjanaṃ rajaḥ prabhavaḥ, śūdra-svabhāvasya raja-upasarjanaṃ tamaḥ prabhavaḥ praśānty-aiśvaryehā-mūḍhatā-svabhāva-darśanāc caturṇām |

athavā, janmāntara-kṛta-saṃskāraḥ prāṇināṃ vartamāna-janmani sva-kāryābhimukhatvenābhivyaktaḥ svabhāvaḥ, sa prabhavo yeṣāṃ guṇānāṃ te svabhāva-prabhavāḥ guṇāḥ | guṇa-prādurbhāvasya niṣkāraṇatvānupapatteḥ | svabhāvaḥ kāraṇam iti ca kāraṇa-viśeṣopādānam | evaṃ svabhāva-prabhavaiḥ prakṛti-bhavaiḥ sattva-rajas-tamobhiḥ guṇaiḥ svakāryānurūpeṇa śamādīni karmāṇi pravibhaktāni |

nanu śāstra-pravibhaktāni śāstreṇa vihitāni brāhmaṇādīnāṃ śamādīni karmāṇi | katham ucyate sattvādi-guṇa-pravibhaktānīti ? naiṣa doṣaḥ | śāstreṇāpi brāhmaṇādīnāṃ sattvādi-guṇa-viśeṣāpekṣayaiva śamādīni karmāṇi pravibhaktāni, na guṇānapekṣayā, iti śāstra-pravibhaktāny api karmāṇi guṇa-pravibhaktānīti ucyate

 

Rāmānuja


„tyāgenaike amṛtatvam ānaśuḥ” ityādiṣu mokṣasādhanatayā nirdiṣṭas tyāgaḥ saṃnyāsaśabdārthād ananyaḥ; sa ca kriyamāṇeṣv eva karmasu kartṛtvatyāgamūlaḥ phalakarmaṇos tyāgaḥ; kartṛtvatyāgaś ca paramapuruṣe kartṛtvānusaṃdhānenety uktam / etat sarvaṃ sattvaguṇavṛddhikāryam iti sattvopādeyatājñāpanāya sattvarajastamasāṃ kāryabhedāḥ prapañcitāḥ / idānīm evaṃbhūtasya mokṣasādhanatayā kriyamāṇasya karmaṇaḥ paramapuruṣārādhanaveṣatāṃ tathānuṣṭhitasya ca karmaṇas tatprāptilakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ pratipādayituṃ brāhmaṇādyadhikāriṇāṃ svabhāvānubandhisattvādiguṇabhedabhinnaṃ vṛttyā saha kartavyakarmasvarūpam āha

brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṃ svakīyo bhāvaḥ svabhāvaḥ brāhmaṇādijanmahetubhūtaṃ prācīnakarmety arthaḥ; tatprabhavāḥ sattvādayo guṇāḥ / brāhmaṇasya svabhāvaprabhavo rajastamo’bhibhavenodbhūtaḥ sattvaguṇaḥ; kṣatriyasya svabhāvaprabhavaḥ tamassattvābhibhavenodbhūto rajoguṇaḥ; vaiśyasya svabhāvaprabhavaḥ sattvarajo’bhibhavenālpodriktas tamoguṇaḥ; śūdrasya svabhāvaprabhavas tu rajassattvābhibhavenātyudriktas tamoguṇaḥ / ebhiḥ svabhāvaprabhavair guṇaiḥ saha pravibhaktāni karmāṇi śāstraiḥ pratipāditāni / brāhmaṇādaya evaṃguṇakāḥ, teṣāṃ caitāni karmāṇi, vṛttayaś caitā iti hi vibhajya pratipādayanti śāstrāṇi

 

Śrīdhara


nanu ca yady evaṃ sarvam api kriyā-kāraka-phalādikaṃ prāṇi-jātaṃ ca triguṇātmakam eva tarhi katham asya mokṣa ity apekṣāyāṃ sva-svādhikāra-vihitaiḥ karmabhiḥ parameśvarārādhanāt tat-prasāda-labdha-jñānenety evaṃ sarva-gītārtha-sāraṃ saṅgṛhya pradarśayituṃ prakaraṇāntaram ārabhate | brāhmaṇety ādi yāvad adhyāya-samāpti | he parantapa he śatru-tāpana | brāhmaṇānāṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ viśāṃ ca śūdrāṇāṃ ca karmāṇi pravibhaktāni prakarṣeṇa vibhāgato vihitāni | śūdrāṇāṃ samāsāt pṛthak-karaṇaṃ dvijatvābhāvena vailakṣaṇyāt | vibhāgopalakṣaṇam āha svabhāvaḥ sāttvikādiḥ prabhavati prādurbhavati yebhyas tair guṇair upakakṣaṇa-bhūtaiḥ | yad vā svabhāvaḥ pūrva-janma-saṃskāraḥ | tasmāt prādurbhūtair ity arthaḥ | sattvopasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyāḥ | tama-upasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyāḥ | raja-upasarjana-tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrāḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca triguṇātmakam api prāṇi-jātaṃ svādhikāra-prāptena vihita-karmaṇā parameśvaram ārādhya kṛtārthībhivatītyāha brāhmaṇeti ṣaḍbhiḥ | sva-bhāvenotpattyaiva prabhavanti prādurbhavanti ye guṇāḥ sattvādayas taiḥ prakarṣeṇa vibhaktāni pṛthak-kṛtāni karmāṇi brāhmaṇādīnāṃ vihitāni santīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


yadyapi sarvāṇi vastūni triguṇātmakāni tathāpi brāhmaṇādayaś cet sva-vihitāni karmāṇi bhagavad-ārādhana-bhāvenānutiṣṭheyus tadā tāni jñāna-niṣṭhām utpādya mocakāni bhavantiīti vaktuṃ prakaraṇam ārabhate brāhmaṇeti ṣaṭkena | śūdrāṇaṃ samāsāt pṛthak-karaṇaṃ dvijatvābhāvāt | brāhmaṇādīnāṃ caturṇāṃ karmāṇi svabhāv-prabhavair guṇaiḥ saha śāstreṇa pravibhaktāni, svabhāvaḥ prāktana-saṃskāras tasmāt prabhavanti ye guṇāḥ sattvādyās taiḥ saha śāstreṇa teṣāṃ karmāṇi vibhajyoktāni | evaṃ guṇaka-brāhmaṇādayas teṣām etāni karmāṇīti tatra sattva-pradhāno brāhmaṇaḥ praśāntatvāt sattvopasarjan-rajaḥ-pradhānaḥ kṣatriya īśvara-svabhāvatvāt, tama-upasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhāno viṭ ihāpradhānatvāt rajaupasarjanatamaḥpradhānaḥ śūdro mūḍha-svabhāvatvāt | karmāṇi tv agre vācyāni
 
 


BhG 18.42

śamo damas tapaḥ śaucaṃ kṣāntir ārjavam eva ca
jñānaṃ vijñānam āstikyaṃ brahma-karma sva-bhāva-jam

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syntax


śamaḥ (tranquility) damaḥ (sense-control) tapaḥ (austerity) śaucam (purity) kṣāntiḥ (forbearance) ārjavam (simplicity) jñānam (knowledge) vijñānam (wisdom) āstikyam eva (and indeed piety) sva-bhāva-jam (born from one’s own nature) brahma-karma (activity of a brahmin) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

śamaḥ śama 1n.1 m.tranquility, calmness (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
damaḥ dama 1n.1 m.taming, sense-control (from: dam – to tame, to control, to subdue);
tapaḥ tapas 1n.1 n.heat, austerity (from: tap – to scorch);
śaucam śauca 1n.1 n.purity (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci – pure);
kṣāntiḥ kṣānti 1n.1 f.tolerance, forbearance, endurance (from: kṣam – to forgive, to tolerate);
ārjavam ārjava 1n.1 n.simplicity, honesty, sincerity (from: arj – to obtain; ṛju – upright, honest, sincere);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
vijñānam vijñāna 2n.1 n.comprehension, understanding, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence);
āstikyam āstikya 1n.1 n.belief in God, piety (from: as – to be, āstika – who believes in God, pious);
brahma-karma brahma-karma 1n.1 n.; [TP]: brahmaṇaḥ karmeti activity of a brahmin (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
sva-bhāva-jam sva-bhāva-ja 1n.1 n.born from one’s own nature (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);

 

textual variants


tapaḥ śaucaṁ yathā śaucaṁ (as purity);
brahma-karma → brāhmaṁ karma (brahmin activity);
sva-bhāva-jam → prabhāva-jam (born from the source);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kāni punas tāni karmāṇīti, ucyate—
śamo damaś ca yathā-vyākhyātārthau | tapo yathoktaṃ śārīrādi | śaucaṃ vyākhyātam | kṣāntiḥ kṣamā | ārjavam ṛjutaiva ca | jñānaṃ vijñānam | āstikyam āstika-bhāvaḥ śraddadhānatā āgamārtheṣu | brahma-karma brāhmaṇa-jāteḥ karma svabhāva-jam | yad uktaṃ svabhāva-prabhavair guṇaiḥ pravibhaktānī iti tad evoktaṃ svabhāva-jam iti
 

Rāmānuja


śamaḥ bāhyendriyaniyamanam; damaḥ antaḥkaraṇaniyamanam; tapaḥ bhoganiyamanarūpaḥ śāstrasiddhaḥ kāyakleśaḥ; śaucaṃ śāstrīyakarmayogyatā; kṣāntiḥ paraiḥ pīḍyamānasyāpy avikṛtacittatā; ārjavaṃ pareṣu mano’nurūpaṃ bāhyaceṣṭāprakāśanam; jñānaṃ parāvaratattvayāthātmyajñānam; vijñānaṃ paratattvagatāsādhāraṇaviśeṣaviṣayaṃ jñānam; āstikyaṃ vaidikasya kṛtsnasya satyatāniścayaḥ prakṛṣṭaḥ; kenāpi hetunā cālayitum aśakya ityarthaḥ / bhagavān puruṣottamo vāsudevaḥ parabrahmaśabdābhideyo nirastanikhiladoṣagandhaḥ svābhāvikānavadhikātiśayajñānaśaktyādyasaṅkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇagaṇo nikhilavedavedāntavedyaḥ; sa eva nikhilajagadekakāraṇaṃ nikhilajagadādhārabhūtaḥ; nikhilasya sa eva pravartayitā; tadārādhanabhūtaṃ ca vaidikaṃ kṛtsnaṃ karma; tais tair ārādhito dharmārthakāmamokṣākhyaṃ phalaṃ prayacchatīty asyārthasya satyatāniścaya āstikyam; „vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ”, „ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate „, „mayi sarvam idaṃ protam”, „bhoktāraṃ yajñatapasāṃ ….. jñātvā māṃ śāntim ṛcchati”, „mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya”, „yataḥ pravṛttir bhūtānāṃ yena sarvam idaṃ tatam / svakarmaṇā tam abhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ”, „yo mām ajam anādiṃ ca vetti lokamaheśvaram” iti hy ucyate / tad etad brāhmaṇasya svabhāvajaṃ karma
 

Śrīdhara


tatra brāhmaṇasya svābhāvikāni karmāṇy āha śama iti | śamaś cittoparamaḥ | damo bāhyendriyoparamaḥ | tapaḥ pūrvoktaṃ śārītādi | śaucaṃ bāhyābhyantaram | kṣāntiḥ kṣamā | ārjavam ṛjutaiva ca | jñānaṃ vijñānaṃ | āstikyam āstika-bhāvaḥ śraddadhāntāgamārtheṣu | brāhmyaṃ karma brāhmaṇa-jāte karma svabhāvajam | yad uktaṃ svabhāva-prabhavair guṇaiḥ pravibhaktānīti tad evoktaṃ svabhāvajam iti
 

Viśvanātha


tatra sattva-pradhānānāṃ brāhmaṇānāṃ svabhāvikāni karmāṇy āha śama iti | śamo ‚ntarindirya-nigrahaḥ | damo bāhyendriya-nigrahas tapaḥ śarīrādi jñāna-vijñāne śāstrānubhavotthe āstikyaṃ śāstrārthe dṛḍha-viśvāsa evam ādi brahma-karma brāhmaṇasya karma svabhāvajaṃ svābhāvikam
 

Baladeva


brāhmaṇasya svābhāvikaṃ karmāha śama iti | śamo ‚ntaḥ-karaṇasya saṃyamaḥ | damo bahiḥ-karaṇasya tapaḥ śāstrīya-kāya-kleśaḥ | śaucaṃ dvividham uktam | kṣāntiḥ sahiṣṇutā ārjavam avakratvam | jñānaṃ śāstrāt parāvara-tattvāvagamaḥ | vijñānaṃ tasmād eva tad-ekānta-dharmādhigamaḥ | āstikyaṃ sarvaveda-vedyo harir nikhilaika-karaṇaṃ sva-vvihitaiḥ karmabhir ārādhitaḥ kevalayā bhaktyā ca santoṣitaḥ sva-paryantaṃ sarvam arpayatīti śāstrādhigate ‚rthe satyatva-viniścayaḥ | etat svābhāvikaṃ brahma-karma | tathāpi sattva-prādhānyād brāhmaṇasyeti bhaṇitiḥ | evam uktaṃ viṣṇunā –
kṣamā satyaṃ damaḥ śaucaṃ
dānam indriya-saṃyamaḥ |
ahiṃsā guru-śuśrūṣā
tīrthānusaraṇaṃ dayā ||
ārjavaṃ lobha-śūnyatvaṃ
deva-brāhmaṇa-pūjanam |
anabhyasūyā ca tathā
dharma-sāmānya ucyate || iti |
 
 


BhG 18.43

śauryaṃ tejo dhṛtir dākṣyaṃ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam
dānam īśvara-bhāvaś ca kṣatra-karma sva-bhāva-jam

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syntax


śauryam (valour) tejaḥ (vigour) dhṛtiḥ (firmness) dākṣyam (cleverness) yuddhe apalāyanam (not fleeing from battle) dānam (charity) īśvara-bhāvaḥ ca (and lidership) svabhāva-jam (born from one’s own nature) kṣātra-karma (activity of a kṣatriya) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

śauryam śaurya 1n.1 n.heroism, valour (from: śūra – hero);
tejaḥ tejas 1n.1 n.sharpness, heat, splendour, vigour, semen (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
dhṛtiḥ dhṛti 1n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
dākṣyam dākṣya 1n.1 m. cleverness, dexterity (from: dakṣ – to be skilful, to be strong, dakṣa – fit, expert, dexterous, intelligent);
yuddhe yuddha 7n.1 n.in battle (from: yudh – to fight);
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
apalāyanam a-palāyana 1n.1 n.not fleeing (from: palā-xi – to run, to flee, palāyana – fleeing, escape);
dānam dāna 1n.1 n. gift, charity (from: – to give);
īśvara-bhāvaḥ īśvara-bhāva 1n.1 m.; [TP]: īśvarasya bhāva itistate of being a ruler, lidership (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord, īśvara – ruler, lord; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
ca av.and;
kṣatra-karma kṣatra-karma 1n.1 n.; [TP]: kṣatrasya karmeti activity of a kṣatriya (from: kṣi – to own, to reign or kṣi – to destroy, kṣatra – warrior; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
sva-bhāva-jam sva-bhāva-ja 1n.1 n.born from one’s own nature (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);

 

textual variants


dākṣyaṁ → dakṣaṁ / dākṣaṁ / dārḍhyaṁ (being an expert / dexterity / hardness);
cāpi → vāpi (or);
īśvara-bhāvaś aiśvara-bhāvaś (nature of a ruler);
kṣatra-karma → kṣatraṁ karma (kṣatriya activity);
 
 



Śāṃkara


śauryaṃ śūrasya bhāvaḥ | tejaḥ prāgalbhyam | dhṛtir dhāraṇam | sarvāvasthāsv anavasādo bhavati yayā dhṛtyā uttambhitasya | dākṣyaṃ dakṣasya bhāvaḥ, sahasā pratyutpanneṣu kāryeṣu avyāmohena pravṛttiḥ | yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam aparāṅ-mukhībhāvaḥ śatrubhyaḥ | dānaṃ deya-dravyeṣu mukta-hastatā | īśvara-bhāvaś ceśvarasya bhāvaḥ, prabhu-śakti-prakaṭī-karaṇam īśitavyān prati | kṣātraṃ karma kṣatriya-jāter vihitaṃ karma kṣātraṃ karma svabhāva-jam
 

Rāmānuja


śairyaṃ yuddhe nirbhayapraveśasāmarthyam, tejaḥ parair anabhibhavanīyatā, dhṛtiḥ ārabdhe karmaṇi vighnopanipāte ‚pi tatsamāpanasāmarthyam, dākṣyaṃ sarvakriyānirvṛttisāmarthyam, yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam yuddhe cātmamaraṇaniścaye ‚py anirvartanam; dānaṃ ātmīyasya dhanasya parasvatvāpādanaparyantas tyāgaḥ īśvarabhāvaḥ svavyatiriktasakalajananiyamanasāmarthyam; etat kṣatriyasya svabhāvajaṃ karma
 

Śrīdhara


kṣatriyasya svābhāvikāni karmāṇy āha śauryam iti | śauryaṃ parākramaḥ | tejaḥ prāgalbhyam | dhṛtir dhairyam | dākṣyaṃ kauśalam | yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam aparāṅmukhatā | dānam audāryam | īśvara-bhāvo niyamana-śaktiḥ | etat kṣatriyasya svābhāvikaṃ karma
 

Viśvanātha


sattvopasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānānāṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ karmāha – śauryaṃ parākramaḥ tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ dhṛtir dhairyaṃ īśvara-bhāvo loka-niyantṛtvam
 

Baladeva


kṣatriyasyāha śauryam iti | śauryaṃ yuddhe nirbhayā pravṛttiḥ | tejaḥ parair adhṛṣyatvam | dhṛtir mahaty api saṅkaṭe dehendriyānāvasādaḥ | dākṣyaṃ kriyā-siddh-kauśalam | yuddhe sva-mṛtyu-niścaye ‚py apalāyanam tatrāvaimukhyam | dānam asaṅkocaena sva-vitta-tyāgaḥ | īśvara-bhāvaḥ prajā-pālanārtha īśitavyeṣu śāsanātigeṣu prabhutva-śakti-prakāśaḥ | etat kṣatriyasya svābhāvikaṃ karma
 
 


BhG 18.44

kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṃ vaiśya-karma sva-bhāva-jam
paricaryātmakaṃ karma śūdrasyāpi sva-bhāva-jam

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syntax


kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyam (agriculture, cow protection and trade) svabhāva-jam (born from one’s own nature) vaiśya-karma (activity of a vaiśya) [asti] (it is).
śūdrasya api (and of a śūdra) paricaryātmakam (of the nature of service) karma (activity) svabhāva-jam (born from one’s own nature) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyam kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijya 1n.1 n.; DV: kṛṣiś ca gau-rakṣyaṁ ca vāṇijyaṁ cetiagriculture, cow protection and trade (from: xkṛṣ – to pull, to plough, kṛṣi – ploughing, land cultivation; go – cow, earth, an organ of sense; rakṣ – to protect, PF rakṣya – to be protected; vaṇij – merchant, trader, vāṇijya – trade);
vaiśya-karma vaiśya-karma 1n.1 n.; [TP]: vaiśyasya karmeti activity of a vaiśya (from: viś – to enter, vaiśya – wytwórca, rolnik, kupiec; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
sva-bhāva-jam sva-bhāva-ja 1n.1 n.born from one’s own nature (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
paricaryātmakam paricarya-ātmaka 1n.1 n.of the nature of service (from: pari-car – to walk about, to attend upon, to serve, paricaryā – attendance, service; ātmaka – in compounds: being of this nature);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
śūdrasya śūdra 6n.1 m.of a servant;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
sva-bhāva-jam sva-bhāva-ja 1n.1 n.born from one’s own nature (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);

 

textual variants


kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ kṛṣi-go-rakṣa-vāṇijyaṁ / kṛṣi-vāṇijya-go-rakṣaṁ / kṛṣi-gau-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ (agriculture, cow protection and trade);
vaiśya-karma vaiśyaṁ karma (vaiśya activity);
paricaryātmakaṁ karma → paryutthānātmakaṁ karma / parīcaryātmakaṁ karma (activity of the nature of rising / activity of the nature of service);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kṛṣi-gaurakṣya-vāṇijyaṃ kṛṣiś ca gaurakṣyaṃ ca vāṇijyaṃ ca kṛṣi-gaurakṣya-vāṇijyam, kṛṣir bhūmer vilekhanam | gaurakṣyaṃ gāḥ rakṣatīti gorakṣas tasya bhāvo gaurakṣyam, pāśupālyam ity arthaḥ | vāṇijyaṃ vaṇik-karma kraya-vikrayādi-lakṣaṇaṃ vaiśya-karma vaiśya-jātaiḥ karma vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam | paricaryātmakaṃ śuśrūṣā-svabhāvaṃ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāva-jam
 

Rāmānuja


kṛṣiḥ satyotpādanaṃ karṣaṇam / gorakṣyam paśupālanam ityarthaḥ / vāṇijyam dhanasañcayahetubhūtaṃ krayavikrayātmakaṃ karma / etad vaiśyasya svabhāvajaṃ karma /

pūrvavarṇatrayaparicaryārūpaṃ śūdrasya svabhāvajaṃ karma / tad etac caturṇā varṇānāṃ vṛttibhis saha kartavyānāṃ śāstravihitānāṃ yajñādikarmaṇāṃ pradarśanārtham uktam / yajñādayo hi trayāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ sādhāraṇāḥ / śamādayo ‚pi trayāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ mumukṣūṇāṃ sādhāraṇāḥ / brāhmaṇasya tu sattvodrekasya svābhāvikatvena śamadamādayaḥ sukhopādānā iti kṛtvā tasya śamādaya svabhāvajaṃ karmety uktam / kṣatriyavaiśyayos tu svato rajastamaḥpradhānatvena śamadamādayo duḥkhopādānā iti kṛtvā na tat karmety uktam / brāhmaṇasya vṛttir yājanādhyāpanapratigrahāḥ; kṣatriyasya janapadaparipālanam; vaiśyasya ca kṛṣyādayo yathoktāḥ; śūdrasya tu kartavyaṃ vṛttiś ca pūrvavarṇatrayaparicaryaiva

 

Śrīdhara


vaiśya-śūdrayoḥ karmāṇy āha kṛṣīti | kṛṣiḥ karṣaṇam | gā rakṣatīti gau-rakṣaḥ | tasya bhāvo gaurakṣyam | pāśupālyam ity arthaḥ | vāṇijyaṃ kraya-vikrayādi | etad vaiśyasya svabhāvajaṃ karma | travarṇika-paricaryātmakaṃ śūdrasyāpi svabhāvajam
 

Viśvanātha


tama-upasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānānāṃ karmāha kṛṣīti | gā raksatīti go-rakṣas tasya bhāvo gaurakṣyam | raja-upasarjana-tamaḥ-pradhānānāṃ śūdrāṇāṃ karmāha paricaryātmakaṃ brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viśāṃ paricaryā-rūpam
 

Baladeva


vaiśyasyāha kṛṣīti | annādy-utpattaye halādinā bhūmer vilekhanaṃ kṛṣiḥ | pāśupālyaṃ gorakṣyam | vaṇik-karma vāṇijyaṃ kraya-vikraya-laksaṇam | vṛddhau dhana-prayogaḥ kuśīdam apy atrāntargatam etat svabhāva-siddhaṃ vaiśya-karma | atha śūdrasyāha parīti | brāhmaṇādīnāṃ dvijanmanāṃ paricaryā śūdrasya svābhāvikaṃ karma | etāni cāturāśramya-karmaṇām upalakṣaṇāni
 
 


BhG 18.45

sve sve karmaṇy abhirataḥ saṃsiddhiṃ labhate naraḥ
sva-karma-nirataḥ siddhiṃ yathā vindati tac chṛṇu

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syntax


sve sve (in one’s own) karmaṇi (in activity) abhirataḥ naraḥ (a person rejoicing) saṁsiddhim (perfection) labhate (he attains).
yathā (as) sva-karma-nirataḥ (one rejoicing one’s own activity) siddhim (perfection) vindati (he finds),
[tvam] (you) tat (that) śṛṇu (you must listen).

 

grammar

sve sve sva sn. 7n.1 n.in one’s own (distributive use);
karmaṇi karman 7n.1 n.in activity (from: kṛ – to do);
abhirataḥ abhirata (abhi-ram – to play, to rejoice) [PP] 1n.1 m.who is pleased, who rejoices (requires locative);
saṁsiddhim sam-siddhi 2n.1 f.accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
labhate labh (to obtain) Praes. Ā 1v.1he obtains;
naraḥ nara 1n.1 m.a man, a person (from: nṛ man, mankind);
sva-karma-nirataḥ sva-karma-nirata 1n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya karmaṇi nirata itirejoicing one’s own activity (from: sva – own; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; ni-ram – to play, to rejoice, [PP] nirata – rejoicing – what? requires locative);
siddhim siddhi 2n.1 f. accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
vindati vid (to find) Praes. P 1v.1 he finds;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;

 

textual variants


naraḥ → parām (supreme);
siddhiṁ → śuddhim (purity);
sva-karma-nirataḥ siddhiṁ → athātaḥ saṁpravakṣyāmi (now I will speak);
 
 



Śāṃkara


eteṣāṃ jāti-vihitānāṃ karmaṇāṃ samyag-anuṣṭhitānāṃ svarga-prāptiḥ phalaṃ svabhāvataḥ, varṇā āśramāś ca sva-karma-niṣṭhāḥ pretya karma-phalam anubhūya tataḥ śeṣeṇa viśiṣṭa-deśa-jāti-kula-dharmāyuḥ-śruta-vṛtta-vitta-sukha-medhaso janma pratipadyanta ity ādi-smṛtibhyaḥ | purāṇe ca varṇinām āśramiṇāṃ ca loka-phala-bheda-viśeṣa-smaraṇāt | kāraṇāntarāt tv idaṃ vakṣyamāṇaṃ phalaṃ—
sve sve yathokta-lakṣaṇa-bhede karmaṇy abhiratas tat-paraḥ saṃsiddhiṃ sva-karmānuṣṭhānād aśuddhi-kṣaye sati kāyendriyāṇāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-yogyatā-lakṣaṇāṃ saṃsiddhiṃ labhate prāpnoti naro’dhikṛtaḥ puruṣaḥ | kiṃ sva-karmānuṣṭhānata eva sākṣāt saṃsiddhiḥ ? na | kathaṃ tarhi ? sva-karma-nirataḥ siddhiṃ yathā yena prakāreṇa vindati, tac chṛṇu
 

Rāmānuja


sve sve yathodite karmaṇy abhirato naraḥ saṃsiddhiṃ paramapadaprāptiṃ labhate / svakarmanirato yathā siddhiṃ vindati paramapadaṃ prāpnoti, tathā śṛṇu
 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtasya brāhmaṇādi-karmaṇo jñāna-hetutvam āha sve sve iti | sva-svādhikāra-vihite karmaṇy abhirataḥ pariniṣṭhito naraḥ saṃsiddhiṃ jñāna-yogyatāṃ labhate | karmaṇāṃ jñāna-prāpti-prakāram āha sva-karmeti-sārdhena | sva-karma-pariniṣṭhito yathā yena prakāreṇa tattva-jñānaṃ labhate tat prakāraṃ śṛṇu
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 18.46
 

Baladeva


uktānāṃ karmaṇāṃ jñāna-hetutām āha sve sve iti | sva-sva-varṇāśrama-vihite karmaṇy abhiratas tad-anuṣṭhātā naraḥ saṃsiddhiṃ viśa-tantuvat karmāntargataṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ labhate | nanu bandhakena karmaṇāṃ vimocikā jñāna-niṣṭhā katham iti ced buddhi-viśeṣād ity āha sva-karmeti
 
 


BhG 18.46

yataḥ pravṛttir bhūtānāṃ yena sarvam idaṃ tatam
sva-karmaṇā tam abhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ

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syntax


yataḥ (he from whom) bhūtānām (of beings) pravṛttiḥ (activity) [asti] (it is),
yena (by whom) idam sarvam (that all) tatam [asti] (it is spread),
mānavaḥ (a man) sva-karmaṇā (with one’s own activity) tam (him) abhyarcya (after worshipping)
siddhim (perfection) vindati (he finds).

 

grammar

yataḥ av.he from whom (from: yat – which; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
pravṛttiḥ pravṛtti 1n.1 f.activity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);
bhūtānām bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 6n.3 m. of beings, of creatures (from: bhūta – been, real, world);
yena yat sn. 3n.1 n.that by which, wherefore;
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
tatam tata (tan – to spread, to pervade) [PP] 1n.1 n.spread, pervaded, covered over;
sva-karmaṇā sva-karma 3n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya karmaṇetiwith one’s own activity (from: sva – own; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.him;
abhyarcya abhi-xarc (to worship) absol.after worshipping;
siddhim siddhi 2n.1 f. accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
vindati vid (to find) Praes. P 1v.1 he finds;
mānavaḥ mānava 1n.1 m.a man, a person (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person);

 

textual variants


pravṛttir bhūtānāṁpravṛtti-bhūtānāṁ / pravṛttiṁ bhūtānāṁ (activity of beings);
sarvam → viśvam (world);
tam abhyarcya → akarmaṇo / tam evārcya (of inactivity [perfection] / him indeed after worshipping);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yato yasmāt pravṛttir utpattiś ceṣṭā vā yasmād antaryāmiṇa īśvarād bhūtānāṃ prāṇināṃ syāt, yeneśvareṇa sarvam idaṃ tataṃ jagad vyāptaṃ sva-karmaṇā pūrvoktena prativarṇaṃ tam īśvaram abhyarcya pūjayitvārādhya kevalaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-yogyatā-lakṣaṇāṃ siddhiṃ vindati mānavo manuṣyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


yato bhūtānām utpattyādikā pravṛttiḥ, yena ca sarvam idaṃ tatam, svakarmaṇā taṃ mām indrādyantarātmatayāvasthitam abhyarcya matprasādān matprāptirūpāṃ siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ / matta eva sarvam utpadyate, mayā ca sarvam idaṃ tatam iti pūrvam evoktam, „ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā / mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiṃcid asti dhanañjaya /”, „mayā tatam idaṃ sarvaṃ jagad avyaktamūrtinā”, „mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sacarācaram”, „ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate” ityādiṣu
 

Śrīdhara


tam evāha yata iti | yato ‚ntathāmiṇaḥ parameśvarād bhūtānāṃ prāṇināṃ pravṛttiś ceṣṭā bhavati | yena ca kāraṇātmanā sarvam idaṃ viśvaṃ tataṃ vyāptam | tam īśvaraṃ sva-karmaṇābhyarcya pūjayitvā siddhiṃ labhate manuṣyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


yataḥ parameśvarāt | tam evābhyarcya ity anena karmaṇā parameśaras tuṣyatv iti manasā tad-arpaṇam eva tad-abhyarcanam
 

Baladeva


yata iti | yataḥ parameśvarād bhūtānāṃ janmādi-lakṣaṇā pravṛttir bhavati , yena cedaṃ sarvaṃ jagat taṃ vyāptaṃ tam indrādi-devatātmanāvasthitaṃ sva-vihitena karmaṇābhyarcya etena karmaṇā sva-prabhus tuṣyatu iti manasā tasmiṃs tat samarpya mānavaḥ siddhiṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ vindati
 
 


BhG 18.47

śreyān sva-dharmo viguṇaḥ para-dharmāt svanuṣṭhitāt
sva-bhāva-niyataṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam

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syntax


sv-anuṣṭhitāt (than well practised) para-dharmāt (than the duties of others) viguṇaḥ (faulty) sva-dharmaḥ (one’s own duty) śreyān (better) [asti] (it is).
sva-bhāva-niyatam (controlled by one’s own nature) karma (activity) kurvan (while doing) kilbiṣam (sin) na āpnoti (he does not obtain).

 

grammar

śreyān śreyas 1n.1 m. better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
sva-dharmaḥ sva-dharma 1n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya dharma itiown duties (from: sva – own; dhṛ – to hold);
viguṇaḥ vi-guṇa 1n.1 m.defective, bad, faulty (from: vi – prefix: apart, off, without; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread);
para-dharmāt para-dharma 5n.1 m.; [TP]: parasya dharmād itithan duties of others (from: para – another, strange; dhṛ – to hold);
svanuṣṭhitāt su-anu-ṣṭhita (anu-sthā – to follow, to practise) [PP] 5n.1 m.than well practised;
sva-bhāva-niyatam sva-bhāva-niyata 2n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya bhāvena niyatam iticontrolled by one’s own nature (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state; ni-yam – to hold back, [PP] niyata – held back);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kurvan kurvant (kṛ to do) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] doing;
na av.not;
āpnoti āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he achieves;
kilbiṣam kilbiṣa 2n.1 n. fault, offence, sin;

 

textual variants


viguṇaḥ → viguṇāt (than faulty);

… → After the second pada of verse 18.47 there are two padas not found in critical edition (similar to the third and fourth pada of verse BhG 3.35):
svadharme nidhanaṁ śreyaḥ paradharmodayād api
Better is death in one’s own duty than the success in the duty of others.

The first two padas of verse 18.47 are the same as the first two padas of verse BhG 3.35;
the fourth pada of verse 18.47 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 4.21.

 
 



Śāṃkara


yata evam, ataḥ—
śreyān praśasyataraḥ svo dharmaḥ sva-dharmaḥ, viguṇo’pīty api-śabdo draṣṭavyaḥ | para-dharmāt | svabhāva-niyataṃ svabhāvena niyatam, yad uktaṃ svabhāva-jam iti, tad evoktaṃ svabhāva-niyatam iti | yathā viṣa-jātasya kṛmer viṣaṃ na doṣa-karam, tathā svabhāva-niyataṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣaṃ pāpam
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ tyaktakartṛtvādiko madārādhanarūpaḥ svadharmaḥ / svenaivopādātuṃ yogyo dharmaḥ; prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭena hi puruṣeṇendriyavyāpārarūpaḥ karmayogātmako dharmaḥ sukaro bhavati / ataḥ karmayogākhyaḥ svadharmo viguṇo ‚pi paradharmāt indriyajayanipuṇapuruṣadharmāj jñānayogāt sakalendriyaniyamanarūpatayā sapramādāt kadācit svanuṣṭhitāc śreyān / tad evopapādayati

prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭasya puruṣasya indriyavyāpārarūpatayā svabhāvata eva niyatatvāt karmaṇaḥ, karma kurvan kilbiṣaṃ saṃsāraṃ na prāpnoti; apramādatvāt karmaṇaḥ / jñānayogasya sakalendriyaniyamanasādhyatayā sapramādatvāt tanniṣṭhas tu pramādāt kilbiṣaṃ pratipadyetāpi

 

Śrīdhara


svakarmeti viśeṣaṇasya phalam āha śreyān iti | viguṇo ‚pi sva-dharmaḥ samyag-anuṣṭhitād api para-dharmāt śreyān śreṣṭhaḥ | na ca bandhu-vadhādi-muktād yuddhādeḥ svadharmād bhikṣāṭanādi para-dharmaḥ śreṣṭha iti mantavyam | yataḥ svabhāvena pūrvoktena niyataṃ niyamenoktaṃ karma kurvan kilbiṣaṃ nāpnoti
 

Viśvanātha


na ca kriyādibhiḥ sva-dharmaṃ rājasaṃ ca vīkṣya tatra anabhirucyā sāttvikaṃ karma kartavyam ity āha śreyān iti | para-dharmāt śreṣṭhād api svanuṣṭhitāt samyag anuṣṭhitād api svadharmo viguṇo nikṛṣṭo ‚pi samyag-anuṣṭhātum aśakyo ‚pi śreṣṭhaḥ | tena bandhu-vadhādi-doṣavattāt sva-dharmaṃ yuddhaṃ tyaktvā bhikṣāṭanādi-rūpa-para-dharmas tvayā nānusṭheya iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


nanu kṣatriyādi-dharmāṇāṃ rājasāditvāt teṣu ruci-śūnyaiḥ kṣatriyādibhiḥ sāttviko brahma-dharma evānuṣṭheya iti cet tatrāha śreyān iti | sva-dharmo viguṇaḥ nikṛṣṭo ‚pi samyag-anuṣṭhito ‚pi vā para-dharmād utkṛṣṭāt svanuṣṭhitāc ca śreyān atipraśasto vihitatvāt
 
 


BhG 18.48

saha-jaṃ karma kaunteya sa-doṣam api na tyajet
sarvārambhā hi doṣeṇa dhūmenāgnir ivāvṛtāḥ

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
sa-doṣam api (even faulty) saha-jam karma (natural activity) na tyajet (he should not abandon).
dhūmena (by smoke) agniḥ iva (as fire) [āvṛtaḥ asti] (is covered)
sarvārambhāḥ hi (indeed all undertakings) doṣeṇa (by fault) āvṛtāḥ [santi] (they are covered).

 

grammar

saha-jam saha-ja 2n.1 n.born together, inborn, natural (from: saha – together with, in the company of; ja – suffix: born);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kunti, matka of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
sa-doṣam sa-doṣa 1n.1 n.; BV: yad doṣena sahāsti tatfaulty (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; duṣ – to become bad, to be defiled, to perish, doṣa – evil, fault, guilt);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
na av.not;
tyajet tyaj (to abandon, to give up) Pot. Ā 1v.1he should abandon;
sarvārambhāḥ sarva-ārambha 1n.3 m.; sarvā ārambhā iti all undertakings (from: sarva – all, whole; ā-rabh – to reach, to undertake, to begin, ā-rambha – beginning, undertaking);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
doṣeṇa doṣa 3n.1 m.by evil, by fault, by guilt (from: duṣ – to become corrupted);
dhūmena dhūma 3n.1 m.by smoke (from: dhū – to shake, to kindle);
agniḥ agni 1n.1 m.fire (from: ag – to move tortuously);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
āvṛtāḥ ā-vṛta (ā-vṛ – to cover) [PP] 1n.3 n.covered;

 

textual variants


ivāvṛtāḥ → ivāvṛtaḥ (as if covered);
 
 



Śāṃkara


svabhāva-niyataṃ karma kurvāṇo viṣa-ja iva kṛmiḥ kilbiṣaṃ nāpnotīty uktam | para-dharmaś ca bhayāvahaḥ iti, anātmajñaś ca na hi kaścit kṣaṇam apy akarma-kṛt tiṣṭhati [gītā 3.5] iti | ataḥ—

sahajaṃ saha janmanaiva utpannam | kiṃ tat ? karma kaunteya sa-doṣam api triguṇātmakatvān na tyajet | sarvārambhāḥ ārabhyanta ity ārambhāḥ, sarva-karmāṇīty etat | prakaraṇāt ye kecit ārambhāḥ sva-dharmāḥ para-dharmāś ca te sarve | hi yasmāt | triguṇātmakatvam atra hetuḥ—triguṇātmakatvād doṣeṇa dhūmena sahajenāgnir iva, āvṛtāḥ | sahajasya karmaṇaḥ sva-dharmākhyasya parityāgena para-dharmānuṣṭhāne’pi doṣān naiva mucyate | bhayāvahaś ca para-dharmaḥ | na ca śakyate’śeṣatas tyaktum ajñena karma yataḥ, tasmān na tyajet ity arthaḥ |

kim aśeṣatas tyaktum aśakyaṃ karmeti na tyajet ? kiṃ vā sahajasya karmaṇas tyāge doṣo bhavatīti ? kiṃ cātaḥ ? yadi tāvat aśeṣatas tyaktum aśakyam iti na tyājyaṃ sahajaṃ karma, evaṃ tarhy aśeṣatas tyāge guṇa eva syād iti siddhaṃ bhavati | satyam evam | aśeṣatas tyāga eva nopapadyate iti cet, kiṃ nitya-pracalitātmakaḥ puruṣaḥ, yathā sāṃkhyānāṃ guṇāḥ ? kiṃ vā kriyaiva kārakam, yathā bauddhānāṃ skandhāḥ kṣaṇa-pradhvaṃsinaḥ ? ubhayathāpi karmaṇo’śeṣatas tyāgo na sambhavati |

atha tṛtīyo’pi pakṣaḥ—yadā karoti tadā sa-kriyaṃ vastu | yadā na karoti, tadā niṣkriyaṃ tad eva | tatra evaṃ sati śakyaṃ karmāśeṣatas tyaktum | ayaṃ tv asmin tṛtīye pakṣe viśeṣaḥ—na nitya-pracalitaṃ vastu, nāpi kriyaiva kārakam | kiṃ tarhi ? vyavasthite dravye’vidyamānā kriyā utpadyate, vidyamānā ca vinaśyati | śuddhaṃ tat dravyaṃ śaktimad avatiṣṭhate | iti evam āhuḥ kāṇādāḥ | tad eva ca kārakam iti | asmin pakṣe ko doṣaḥ iti | ayam eva tu doṣaḥ—yatas tv abhāgavataṃ matam idam | kathaṃ jñāyate ? yataḥ āha bhagavān nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ [gītā 2.16] ity ādi | kāṇādānāṃ hy asato bhāvaḥ, sataś cābhāvaḥ, itīdaṃ matam abhāgavatam | abhāgavatam api nyāyavac cet ko doṣaḥ ? iti cet, ucyate—doṣavat tv idam, sarva-pramāṇa-virodhāt | kathaṃ ? yadi tāvad dvy-aṇukādi dravyaṃ prāg utpatter atyantam evāsat, utpannaṃ ca sthitaṃ kaṃcit kālaṃ punar atyantam evāsattvam āpadyate | tathā ca saty asad eva sat jāyate, sad evāsattvam āpadyate, abhāvo bhāvo bhavati, bhāvaś cābhāvo bhavati |

tatrābhāvo jāyamānaḥ prāg utpatteḥ śaśa-viṣāṇa-kalpaḥ samavāyya-samavāyi-nimittākhyaṃ kāraṇam apekṣya jāyate iti | na caivam, abhāva utpadyate, kāraṇaṃ cāpekṣate iti śakyaṃ vaktum, asatāṃ śaśa-viṣāṇādīnām adarśanāt | bhāvātmakā ced ghaṭādayaḥ utpadyamānāḥ, kiṃcit abhivyakti-mātre kāraṇam apekṣya utpadyante iti śakyaṃ pratipattum | kiṃ ca, asataś ca sataś ca sad-bhāve’sad-bhāve na kvacit pramāṇa-prameya-vyavahāreṣu viśvāsaḥ kasyacit syāt, sat sad evāsat asad eveti niścayānupapatteḥ |

kiṃ ca, utpadyate iti dvy-aṇukāder dravyasya sva-kāraṇa-sattā-sambandham āhuḥ | prāg-utpatteś cāsat, paścāt sva-kāraṇa-vyāpāram apekṣya sva-kāraṇaiḥ paramāṇubhiḥ sattayā ca samavāya-lakṣaṇena sambandhena sambadhyate | sambaddhaṃ sat-kāraṇa-samavetaṃ sad bhavati | tatra vaktavyaṃ katham asataḥ svaṃ kāraṇaṃ bhavet sambandho vā kenacit syāt ? na hi vandhyā-putrasya svaṃ kāraṇaṃ sambandho vā kenacit pramāṇataḥ kalpayituṃ śakyate |

nanu, naiva vaiśeṣikair abhāvasya sambandhaḥ kalpyate | dvy-aṇukādīnāṃ hi dravyāṇāṃ sva-kāraṇena samavāya-lakṣaṇaḥ sambandhaḥ satām evocyate iti ? na, sambandhāt prāk-sattvānabhyupagamāt | na hi vaiśeṣikaiḥ kulāla-daṇḍa-cakrādi-vyāpārāt prāg ghaṭādīnām astitvam iṣyate | na ca mṛda eva ghaṭādy-ākāra-prāptim icchanti | tataś cāsata eva sambandhaḥ pāriśeṣyād iṣṭo bhavati |

nanu, asato’pi samavāya-lakṣaṇaḥ sambandho na viruddhaḥ ? na, vandhyā-putrādīnām adarśanāt | ghaṭāder eva prāg-abhāvasya sva-kāraṇa-sambandho bhavati, na vandhyā-putrādeḥ, abhāvasya tulyatve’pīti viśeṣo’bhāvasya vaktavyaḥ |

ekasyābhāvaḥ, dvayor abhāvaḥ, sarvasyābhāvaḥ, prāg-abhāvaḥ, pradhvaṃsābhāvaḥ, itaretarābhāvaḥ, atyantābhāvaḥ iti lakṣaṇato na kenacit viśeṣo darśayituṃ śakyaḥ | asati ca viśeṣe ghaṭasya prāg-abhāvaḥ eva kulāladibhiḥ ghaṭābhāvam āpadyate sambadhyate ca bhāvena kapālākhyena, sambaddhaś ca sarvavyavahārayogyaś ca bhavati, na tu ghaṭasyaiva pradhvaṃsābhāvo’bhāvatve saty api, iti pradhvaṃsādy-abhāvānāṃ na kvacit vyavahāra-yogyatvam, prāg-abhāvasyaiva dvyaṇukādi-dravyākhyasya utpatty-ādi-vyavahārārhatvam, ity etad asamañjasam | abhāvatvāviśeṣāt atyanta-pradhvaṃsābhāvayor iva ||

nanu, naivāsmābhiḥ prāg-abhāvasya bhāvāpattir ucyate | bhāvasyaiva tarhi bhāvāpattiḥ | yathā ghaṭasya ghaṭāpattiḥ, paṭasya vā paṭāpattiḥ | etad apy abhāvasya bhāvāpattivad eva pramāṇa-viruddham | sāṃkhyasyāpi yaḥ pariṇāma-pakṣaḥ, so’py apūrva-dharmotpatti-vināśāṅgī-karaṇāt vaiśeṣika-pakṣān na viśiṣyate | abhivyakti-tirobhāvāṅgī-karaṇe’py abhivyakti-tirobhāvayor vidyamānatvāvidyamānatva-nirūpaṇe pūrvavad eva pramāṇa-virodhaḥ | etena kāraṇasyaiva saṃsthānam utpatty-ādīty etad api pratyuktam |

pāriśeṣyāt sad ekam eva vastv avidyayā utpatti-vināśādi-dharmaiḥ anekadhā naṭavat vikalpyate iti | idaṃ bhāgavataṃ matam uktaṃ nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ ity asmin loke, sat-pratyayasyāvyabhicārāt, vyabhicārāc cetareṣām iti ||

kathaṃ tarhy ātmano’vikriyatve’śeṣataḥ karmaṇas tyāgo nopapadyate iti ? yadi vastu-bhūtā guṇāḥ, yadi vāvidyā-kalpitāḥ, tad-dharmaḥ karma, tadā ātmany avidyādhyāropitam eva, ity avidvān na hi kaścit kṣaṇam apy aśeṣatas tyaktuṃ śaknotīty uktam | vidvāṃs tu punar vidyayāvidyāyāṃ nivṛttāyāṃ śaknoty evāśeṣataḥ karma parityaktum, avidyādhyāropitasya śeṣānupapatteḥ | na hi taimirika-dṛṣṭyādhyāropitasya dvi-candrādes timirāpagame’pi śeṣo’vatiṣṭhate |

evaṃ ca satīdaṃ vacanam upapannaṃ sarva-karmāṇi manasā ity ādi, sve sve karmaṇy abhirataḥ saṃsiddhiṃ labhate naraḥ sva-karmaṇā tam abhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ iti ca

 

Rāmānuja


ataḥ karmaniṣṭhaiva jyāyasīti tṛtīyādhyāyoktaṃ smārayati
ataḥ sahajatvena sukaram apramādaṃ ca karma sadoṣaṃ saduḥkham api na tyajet; jñānayogayogyo ‚pi karmayogam eva kurvītetyarthaḥ / sarvārambhāḥ, karmārambhāḥ jñānārambhāś ca hi doṣeṇa duḥkhena dhūmenāgnir ivāvṛtāḥ / iyāṃs tu viśeṣaḥ karmayogaḥ sukaro ‚pramādaś ca, jñānayogas tadviparītaḥ iti
 

Śrīdhara


yadi punaḥ sāṅkhya-dṛṣṭya sva-dharme hiṃsā-lakṣaṇaṃ doṣaṃ matvā para-dharmaṃ śreṣṭhaṃ manyase tarhi sadoṣatvaṃ para-dharme ‚pi tulyam ity āśayenāha sahajam iti | sahajaṃ svabhāva-vihitaṃ karma sa-doṣam api na tyajet | hi yasmāt sarve ‚py ārambhāḥ dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthāni sarvāṇy api karmāṇi doṣeṇa kenacid āvṛtā vyāptā eva | yathā sahajena dhūmenāgnir āvṛta itivat | ato yathāgner dhūma-rūpaṃ doṣam apākṛtya pratāpa eva tamaḥ-śītādi-nivṛttaye sevyate tathā karmaṇo ‚pi doṣāṃśaṃ vihāya guṇāṃśa eva sattva-śuddhaye sevyata ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


na ca sva-dharme eva kevalaṃ doṣo ‚stīti mantavyam, yataḥ para-dharmeṣv api doṣaḥ kaścid asty evety āha sahajam iti | sahajaṃ svabhāva-vihitaṃ hi yataḥ sarve ‚py ārambhāḥ dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-sādhanāni karmāṇi doṣeṇāvṛtā eva | yathā dhūmena doṣeṇāvṛta eva vahnir dṛśyate | ato dhūma-rūpaṃ doṣam apākṛtya tasya tāpa eva tamaḥ-śītādi-nivṛttaye yathā sevyate tathā karmaṇo ‚pi doṣāṃśaṃ vihāya guṇāṃśa eva sattva-śuddhaye sevya ity bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


na khalu kṣatriyādi-dharmā eva yuddhādayaḥ sa-doṣāḥ | brahma-dharmāś ca tathety āha sahajam iti | sahajaṃ svabhāva-prāptaṃ karma sadoṣam api hiṃsādi-miśram api na tyajed api tu vihitatvāt kuryād eva | nirdoṣatva-buddhyā brahma-karmaṇā cared ity arthaḥ yataḥ sarveti | sarveṣāṃ brāhmaṇādi-varṇānām ārambhāḥ karmāṇi triguṇātmakatvād dravya-sādhyatvāc ca sāmānyataḥ kenacid doṣeṇāvṛtā vyāptā eva bhavanti | dhūmenevāgnir iti yathāgner dhūmāṃśam apākṛtya śītādi-nivṛttaye tāpaḥ sevyate | tathā karmaṇāṃ bhagavad-arpaṇena doṣāṃśaṃ nirdhūyātma-darśanāya jñāna-janakatvāṃśaḥ sevya iti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.49

asakta-buddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigata-spṛhaḥ
naiṣkarmya-siddhiṃ paramāṃ saṃnyāsenādhigacchati

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syntax


sarvatra (everywhere) asakta-buddhiḥ (whose intelligence is not attached) jitātmā (whose self is conquered) vigata-spṛhaḥ (whose hankering is gone) saṁnyāsena (by renunciation) paramām naiṣkarmya-siddhim (the supreme perfection of freedom of activity) adhigacchati (he obtains).

 

grammar

asakta-buddhiḥ asakta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya buddhir asaktāsti saḥwhose intelligence is not attached (from: sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, [PP] a-sakta – unattached; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
sarvatra av.everywhere, in every case (from: sarva – all; indeclinable locative with an ending –tra);
jitātmā jita-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā jito ‘sti saḥwhose self is conquered (from: ji – to conquer, [PP] jita – conquered, defeated; ātman – self);
vigata-spṛhaḥ vigata-spṛha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya spṛhā vigatāsti saḥwhose hankering is gone (from: vi-gam – to go away, [PP] vigata – gone; spṛh – to desire to obtain, to long for, spṛhā – eager desire, longing);
naiṣkarmya-siddhim naiṣ-karmya-siddhim 2n.1 f.; [TP]: naiṣkarmyasya siddhim itiperfction of freedom from activity (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; niṣ-karman – freedom from activity and its results, naiṣ-karmya – freedom from activity and its results; sidh – to succeed, to become perfect, siddhi – success, perfection);
paramām paramā 2n.1 f.the supreme (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
saṁnyāsena saṁnyāsa 3n.1 m. by laying aside, by resignation, by renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
adhigacchati adhi-gam (to cross over, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


asakta-buddhiḥ → asaktaḥ buddhiḥ / asakti-buddhiḥ (unattached, intelligence / intelligent because of the lack of attachment);
naiṣkarmya-siddhiṁ → niṣkarma-siddhiṁ / naiṣkarma-siddhiṁ / naiḥ-karmya-siddhim (perfection of inactivity);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yā karmajā siddhir uktā jñāna-niṣṭhā-yogyatā-lakṣaṇā, taryāḥ phala-bhūtā naiṣkarmya-siddhir jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇā ca vaktavyeti śloka ārabhyate—

asakta-buddhir asaktā saṅgarahitā buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ yasya so’sakta-buddhiḥ sarvatra putra-dārādiṣu āsakti-nimitteṣu, jitātmā jito vaśīkṛtaḥ ātmāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya sa jitātmā, vigata-spṛho vigatā spṛhā tṛṣṇā deha-jīvita-bhogeṣu yasmāt sa vigata-spṛhaḥ | ya evaṃ-bhūta ātmajñaḥ sa naiṣkarmya-siddhiṃ nirgatāni karmāṇi yasmān niṣkriya-brahmātma-sambodhāt sa niṣkarmā tasya bhāvo naiṣkarmyam | naiṣkarmyaṃ ca tat siddhiś ca sā naiṣkarmya-siddhiḥ | niṣkarmatvasya vā niṣkriyātma-rūpāvasthāna-lakṣaṇasya siddhiḥ niṣpattiḥ | tāṃ naiṣkarmya-siddhiṃ paramāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ karmaja-siddhi-vilakṣaṇāṃ sadyo-mukty-avasthāna-rūpāṃ saṃnyāsena samyag-darśanena tat-pūrvakeṇa vā sarva-karma-saṃnyāsena | adhigacchati prāpnoti | tathā coktaṃ—sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya naiva kurvan na kārayann āste iti

 

Rāmānuja


sarvatra phalādiṣu asaktabuddhiḥ, jitātmā jitamanāḥ, paramapuruṣakartṛtvānusaṃdhānenātmakartṛtve vigataspṛhaḥ, evaṃ tyāgād ananyatvena nirṇītena saṃnyāsena yuktaḥ karma kurvan paramāṃ naiṣkarmyasiddhim adhigacchati paramāṃ dhyānaniṣṭhāṃ jñānayogasyāpi phalabhūtam adhigacchatītyarthaḥ / vakṣyamāṇadhyānayogāvāptiṃ sarvendriyakarmoparatirūpām adhigacchati
 

Śrīdhara


nanu karmaṇi kriyamāṇe kathaṃ doṣāṃśa-prahāṇena guṇāṃśa eva sampadyata ity apekṣāyām āha asakta-buddhir iti | asaktā saṅga-śūnyā buddhir yasya | jitātmā nirahaṅkāraḥ | vigata-spṛhaḥ vigatā spṛhā phala-viṣayecchā yasmāt saḥ | evambhūtena saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ (Gītā 18.9) | ity evaṃ pūrvoktena karmāsakti-tat-phalayos tyāga-lakṣaṇena sannyāsena naiṣkarmyasiddhiṃ sarva-karma-nivṛtti-lakṣaṇāṃ sattva-śuddhim adhigacchati | yadyapi saṅga-phalayos tyāgena karmānuṣṭhānam api naiṣkarmyam eva kartṛtvābhiniveśābhāvāt ( yad uktam – naiva kiñcit karomīti yukto manyeta tattvavit (Gītā 5.8) ity ādi śloka-catuṣṭayena ), tathāpy anenokta-lakṣaṇena sannyāsena paramāṃ naiṣkarmya-siddhiṃ sarva-karmāṇi manasā sannyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī (Gītā 5.13) ity evaṃ-lakṣaṇa-pāramahaṃsyāpara-paryāyām āpnoti
 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ sati karmaṇi doṣāṃsān kartṛtvābhiniveśa-phalābhisandhi-lakṣaṇān tyaktavataḥ prathama-sannyāsinas tasya kālena sādhana-paripākato yogārūḍhatva-daśāyāṃ karmaṇāṃ svarūpeṇāpi tyāga-rūpaṃ dvitīya-sannyāsam āha asakta-buddhiḥ sarvatrāpi prākṛta-vastuṣu na saktā āsakti-śūnyā buddhir yasya saḥ | ato jitātmā vaśīkṛta-citto vigatā brahma-loka-paryanteṣv api sukheṣu spṛhā yasya saḥ | tataś ca sannyāsena karmaṇāṃ svarūpeṇāpi tyāgena naiṣkarmyasya paramāṃ śreṣṭhāṃ siddhim adhigacchati prāpnoti | yogārūḍha-daśāyāṃ tasya naiṣkarmyam atiśayena siddhir bhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


evam ārurukṣuḥ san-niṣṭho jñāna-garbhayā karma-niṣṭhayānubhūta-svarūpas tataḥ karma-niṣṭhāṃ svarūpatas tyajed ity āha asakteti | sarvatrātmātirikteṣu vastuṣv asakta-buddhir yato jitātmā svātmānandāsvādena vaśīkṛta-manā ataeva vigata-spṛha ātmātirikta-vastu-sādhyeṣu nānā-vidheṣv ānandeṣu spṛhā-śūnyaḥ | svātmānandāsvāda-vikṣepakānāṃ karmaṇāṃ sannyāsena svarūpatas tyāgena paramāṃ naiṣkarmya-lakṣaṇāṃ siddhim adhigacchati yogārūḍhaḥ san | evam evoktaṃ tṛtīye yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād (Gītā 3.17) ity ādinā
 
 


BhG 18.50

siddhiṃ prāpto yathā brahma tathāpnoti nibodha me
samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
siddhim (perfection) prāptaḥ (who has obtained) yathā (as) brahma (Brahmana) prāpnoti (he obtains),
jñānasya (knowledge) yā parā niṣṭhā (which is the supreme stage)
tathā (in that manner) samāsena eva (only in summary) me nibodha (from me you must know).

 

grammar

siddhim siddhi 2n.1 f.accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
prāptaḥ prāpta ( pra-āp – to obtain, to reach) [PP] 1n.1 m.obtained, who has obtained;
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
brahma brahman 2n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
āpnoti āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he achieves;
nibodha ni-budh (to know) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
samāsena av. (3n.1) – in summary (from: sam-ās – to sit together, to join, samāsa – compound);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
niṣṭhā ni-ṣṭhā 1n.1 f. – state, firmness, devotion, faith, perfection, conclusion, death (from: sthā – to stay, to exist);
 jñānasya jñāna 6n.1 n.of knowledge, of wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
yat sn. 1n.1 f.which;
parā parā 1n.1 f.supreme;

 

textual variants


siddhiṁ prāpto yathā brahma → siddhim āpnoti ca yathā (and as he obtains perfection);
athāpnoti → tadāpnoti / prāpnoti tan (then he obtains / that he obtains);
samāsenaivasamāsena tu (but in summary);
jñānasyadhyānasya (of contemplation);
yā parā→ cāparā (and other, which has no higher);
 
 



Śāṃkara


pūrvoktena sva-karmānuṣṭhānena īśvarābhyarcana-rūpeṇa janitāṃ prāg-ukta-lakṣaṇāṃ siddhiṃ prāptasya utpannātma-viveka-jñānasya kevalātma-jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpā naiṣkarmya-lakṣaṇā siddhir yena krameṇa bhavati, tat vaktavyam ity āha—

siddhiṃ prāptaḥ sva-karmaṇā īśvaraṃ samabhyarcya tat-prasādajāṃ kāyendriyāṇāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-yogyatā-lakṣaṇāṃ siddhiṃ prāptaḥ—siddhiṃ prāptaḥ iti tad-anuvāda uttarārthaḥ | kiṃ tad-uttaram, yad-artho’nuvāda iti, ucyate—yathā yena prakāreṇa jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpeṇa brahma paramātmānam āpnoti, tathā taṃ prakāraṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-prāpti-kramaṃ me mama vacanān nibodha tvaṃ niścayenāvadhāraya ity etat | kiṃ vistareṇa ? neti āha—samāsenaiva saṃkṣepeṇaiva | he kaunteya ! yathā brahma prāpnoti tathā nibodheti | anena yā pratijñātā brahma-prāptiḥ, tām idaṃtayā darśayitum āha—niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā iti | niṣṭhā paryavasānaṃ parisamāptiḥ ity etat | kasya ? brahma-jñānasya yā parā | kīdṛśī sā ? yādṛśam ātma-jñānam | kīdṛk tat ? yādṛśaḥ ātmā | kīdṛśaḥ saḥ ? yādṛśo bhagavatā uktaḥ, upaniṣad-vākyaiś ca nyāyataś ca ||

nanu viṣayākāraṃ jñānam | na jñāna-viṣayaḥ, nāpi ākāravān ātmā iṣyate kvacit | nanu āditya-varṇaṃ bhā-rūpaḥ svayaṃ-jyotiḥ iti ākāravattvam ātmanaḥ śrūyate | na | tamo-rūpatva-pratiṣedhārthatvāt teṣāṃ vākyānāṃ—dravya-guṇādy-ākāra-pratiṣedhe ātmanas tamo-rūpatve prāpte tat-pratiṣedhārthāni āditya-varṇam ity ādīni vākyāni | arūpam iti ca viśeṣataḥ rūpa-pratiṣedhāt | aviṣayatvāc ca—na sadṛśe tiṣṭhati rūpam asya na cakṣuṣā paśyati kaścanainaṃ [śve.u. 4.20] aśabdam asparśaṃ [ka.u. 1.3.15] ity ādyaiḥ | tasmāt ātmākāraṃ jñānam ity anupapannam |

kathaṃ tarhy ātmano jñānaṃ ? sarvaṃ hi yad-viṣayaṃ yaj-jñānaṃ tat-tad-ākāraṃ bhavati | nirākāraś ca ātmā ity uktam | jñānātmano ca ubhayoḥ nirākāratve kathaṃ tad-bhāvanā-niṣṭhā iti ? na | atyanta-nirmalatvātisvacchatvātisūkṣmatvopapatter ātmanaḥ | buddheś ca ātmavat nairmalyādy-upapatteḥ ātma-caitanyākārābhāsatvopapattiḥ | buddhy-ābhāsaṃ manaḥ, tad-ābhāsānīndriyāṇi, indriyābhāsaś ca dehaḥ | ataḥ laukikair deha-mātre eva ātma-dṛṣṭiḥ kriyate ||

deha-caitanya-vādinaś ca lokāyatikāś caitanya-viśiṣṭaḥ kāyaḥ puruṣaḥ ity āhuḥ | tathānye indriya-caitanya-vādinaḥ, anye manaś-caitanya-vādinaḥ, anye buddhi-caitanya-vādinaḥ | tato’py antara-vyaktam avyākṛtākhyam avidyāvastham ātmatvena pratipannāḥ kecit | sarvatra hi buddhy-ādi-dehānte ātma-caitanyābhāsatā ātma-bhrānti-kāraṇam iti | ataś cātma-viṣayaṃ jñānaṃ na vidhātavyam | kiṃ tarhi ? nāma-rūpādy-anātmādhyāropaṇa-nivṛttir eva kāryā, ātma-caitanya-vijñānaṃ kāryam, avidyādhyāropita-sarva-padārthākārair aviśiṣṭatayā dṛśyamānatvāt iti | ata eva hi vijñāna-vādino bauddhāḥ vijñāna-vyatirekeṇa vastv eva nāstīti pratipannāḥ, pramāṇāntara-nirapekṣatāṃ ca sva-saṃvidi tattvābhyupagamena | tasmāt avidyādhyāropita-nirākaraṇa-mātraṃ brahmaṇi kartavyam, na tu brahma-vijñāne yatnaḥ, atyanta-prasiddhatvāt | avidyā-kalpita-nāma-rūpa-viśeṣākārāpahṛta-buddhīnām atyanta-prasiddhaṃ suvijñeyam āsannataram ātma-bhūtam api, aprasiddhaṃ durvijñeyam atidūram anyad iva ca pratibhāty avivekinām | bāhyākāra-nivṛtta-buddhīnāṃ tu labdha-gurv-ātma-prasādānāṃ nātaḥ paraṃ sukhaṃ suprasiddhaṃ suvijñeyaṃ svāsannataram asti | tathā coktaṃ—pratyakṣāvagamaṃ dharmyam [gītā ity ādi |

kecit tu paṇḍitaṃ-manyāḥ nirākāratvāt ātmavastu na upaiti buddhiḥ | ato duḥsādhyā samyag-jñāna-niṣṭhā ity āhuḥ | satyam | evaṃ guru-sampradāya-rahitānām aśruta-vedāntānām atyanta-bahir-viṣayāsakta-buddhīnāṃ samyak-pramāṇeṣu akṛta-śramāṇām | tad-viparītānāṃ tu laukika-grāhya-grāhaka-dvaita-vastuni sad-buddhiḥ nitarāṃ duḥsampādā, ātma-caitanya-vyatirekeṇa vastv-antarasyānupalabdheḥ, yathā ca etat evam eva, nānyathā ity avocāma | uktaṃ ca bhagavatā yasyā jāgrati bhūtāni sā niśā paśyato muneḥ [gītā iti |

tasmāt bāhyākāra-bheda-buddhi-nivṛttir eva ātma-svarūpāvalambana-kāraṇam | na hy ātmā nāma kasyacit kadācit aprasiddhaḥ prāpyo heya upādeyo vā | aprasiddhe hi tasmin ātmani svārthāḥ sarvāḥ pravṛttayo vyarthāḥ prasajyeran | na ca dehādy-acetanārthatvaṃ śakyaṃ kalpayitum | na ca sukhārthaṃ sukham, duḥkhārthaṃ duḥkham | ātmāvagaty-avasānārthatvāc ca sarva-vyavahārasya | tasmāt yathā sva-dehasya paricchedāya na pramāṇāntarāpekṣā, tato’pi ātmano’ntaratamatvāt tad-avagatiṃ prati na pramāṇāntarāpekṣā | iti ātma-jñāna-niṣṭhā vivekināṃ suprasiddhā iti siddham |

yeṣām api nirākāraṃ jñānam apratyakṣam, teṣām api jñāna-vaśenaiva jñeyāvagatir iti jñānam atyanta-prasiddhaṃ sukhādivad eva ity abhyupagantavyam | jijñāsānupapatteś ca—aprasiddhaṃ cet jñānaṃ jñeyavat jijñāsyeta | yathā jñeyaṃ ghaṭādi-lakṣaṇaṃ jñānena jñātā vyāptum icchati, tathā jñānam api jñānāntareṇa jñātavyam āptum icchet | na caitad asti | ato’tyanta-prasiddhaṃ jñānam, jñātāpy ata eva prasiddha iti | tasmāt jñāne yatno na kartavyaḥ, kiṃ tv anātmani ātma-buddhi-nivṛttāv eva | tasmāt jñāna-niṣṭhā susampādyā

 

Rāmānuja


siddhiṃ prāptaḥ āprayāṇādaharaharanuṣṭhīyamānakarmayoganiṣpādyadhyānasidddhiṃ prāptaḥ, yathā yena prakāreṇa vartamāno brahma prāpnoti, tathā samāsena me nibodha / tad eva brahma viśeṣyate niṣṭhā jñānasya yā pareti / jñānasya dhyānātmakasya yā parā niṣṭhā paramaprāpyam ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtasya paramahaṃsasya jñāna-niṣṭhāyā brahma-bhāva-prakāram āha siddhiṃ prāpta iti ṣaḍbhiḥ | naiṣkarmya-siddhiṃ prāptaḥ san yathā yena prakāreṇa brahma prāpnoti tathā taṃ prakāraṃ saṅkṣepeṇaiva me vacanān nibodha | pratiṣṭhitā yā brahma-prāptiḥ tām imāṃ tathā darśayitum āha niṣṭhā jñānasya yā pareti | niṣṭhā paryavasānaṃ parisamāptir ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca yathā yena prakāreṇa brahma prāpnoti brahmānubhavatīty arthaḥ | saiva jñānasya niṣṭhā parā paramo ‚nta ity arthaḥ | niṣṭhā niṣpatti-nāśāntāḥ ity amaraḥ | avidyāyām uparata-prāyāyāṃ vidyāyā apy uparamārambhe yena prakāreṇa jñāna-sannyāsaṃ kṛtvā brahmānubhavet taṃ budhyasvety arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


siddhim iti | vihitena karmaṇā harim ārādhya tat-prasāda-jāṃ sarva-karma-tyāgāntāṃ ātma-dhyāna-niṣṭhāṃ prāpto yathā yena prakāreṇa sthito brahma prāpnoti āvirbhāvita-guṇāṣṭakaṃ svarūpam anubhavati | tathā taṃ prakāraṃ samāsena gadato me matto nibodha | jñānasya yā parā niṣṭhā pareśa-viṣayā jñāna-niṣṭhā tvāṃ prati mayocyate tāṃ ca śṛṇu
 
 


BhG 18.51-53

buddhyā viśuddhayā yukto dhṛtyātmānaṃ niyamya ca
śabdādīn viṣayāṃs tyaktvā rāga-dveṣau vyudasya ca
vivikta-sevī laghv-āśī yata-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ
dhyāna-yoga-paro nityaṃ vairāgyaṃ samupāśritaḥ
ahaṃ-kāraṃ balaṃ darpaṃ kāmaṃ krodhaṃ parigraham
vimucya nir-mamaḥ śānto brahma-bhūyāya kalpate

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syntax


vivikta-sevī (dwelling in a solitary place) laghv-āśī (who eats little) yata-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ (whose words, body and thoughts are restrained) nityam (constantly) dhyāna-yoga-paraḥ (devoted to yoga of contemplation) viśuddhayā buddhyā (with purified intelligence) yuktaḥ (endowed)
dhṛtyā ca (and with firmness) ātmānam (self) niyamya (after restraining),
śabdādīn viṣayān (objects beginning with sound) tyaktvā (after abandoning),
rāga-dveṣau ca (and passion and hatred) vyudasya (after rejecting),
vairāgyam (of detachment) samupāśritaḥ (having taken shelter),
ahaṁ-kāram (egotism) balam (strength) darpam (pride) kāmam (desire) krodham (anger) parigraham ca (and property) vimucya (after giving up),
nirmamaḥ (without [the notion of] ‘mine’) śāntaḥ (peaceful) [bhūtvā] (after becoming)
brahma-bhūyāya (for the state of Brahman) kalpate (he is eligible).

 

grammar

 

 

buddhyā buddhi 3n.1 f. with intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
viśuddhayā viśuddhā (vi-śudh – to become pure) [PP] 3n.1 f.with purified;
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
dhṛtyā dhṛti 3n.1 f.with firmness, determination (from: dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
ātmānam   ātman 2n.1 m.self;
niyamya ni-yam (to restrain) absol.after restraining;
ca av.and;
śabdādīn śabda-ādi 2n.3 m.beginning with sound (from: śabda – sound; ādi – suffix: beginning with, etc.);
viṣayān viṣaya 2n.3 m. spheres, territories, scopes, sense objects, subjects (from: viṣ – to be active, to perform);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
rāga-dveṣau rāga-dveṣa 2n.2 m.; DV: rāgaṁ ca dveṣaṁ cetipassion and hatred (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty; dviṣ – to hate, dveṣa – hatred, enmity);
vyudasya vi-ud-as (to reject) absol.after rejecting;
ca av.and;

*****

vivikta-sevī vivikta-sevin 1n.1 n.; [TP]: yo viviktaṁ sevata itidwelling in a solitary place (from: vic – to separate, [PP] vivikta – separated, kept apart, solitary; sev – to dwell, to serve, seva – dwelling, service, resorting to, honouring; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
laghv-āśī laghv-āśin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yo laghv aśnātīti saḥ who eats little (from: laghu – light, small; – to reach, to eat, to enjoy, āśin – one who eats, enjoys; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
yata-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ yata-vāk-kāya-mānasa 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya vāk ca kāyaś ca mānasaṁ ca yatāni santi saḥwhose words, body and thoughts are restrained (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; √xvac – to speak, vāk – speech; kāya – body; man – to think, manas – the mind, mānasa – related to mind, imagination, thoughts, mind);
dhyāna-yoga-paraḥ dhyāna-yoga-para 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya dhyānasya yogaḥ paro ‘sti saḥfor whom yoga of contemplation is the supreme (from: dhyai – to think, dhyāna – meditation, contemplation; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
nityam av.constantly, eternally, always (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
vairāgyam vai-rāgya 2n.1 m. freedom from passion, aversion; detachment (from: vi-rañj – to discolour, to change affection, to become indifferent, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty);
samupāśritaḥ sam-upāśrita (upa-ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.1 m.having taken shelter – of what? – requires accusative);

*****

ahaṁ-kāram ahaṁ-kāra 2n.1 m. ego, egotism, pride (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer);
balam bala 2n.1 n.strength;
darpam darpa 2n.1 m.pride, arrogance (from: dṛp – to be extravagant, to be proud);
kāmam kāma 2n.1 m. wish, desire, pleasure (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for);
krodham krodha 2n.1 m.anger, wrath (from: krudh – to be angry);
parigraham parigraha 2n.1 m.taking, attaining, household, property (from: pari-grah – to take hold, to embrace);
vimucya vi-muc (to liberate, to release) absol.after giving up;
nir-mamaḥ nir-mama 1n.1 m.without [the notion of] ‘mine’, unselfish, uninterested (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; mama – my);
śāntaḥ śānta (śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy) [PP] 1n.1 m.tranquil, peaceful;
brahma-bhūyāya brahma-bhūya 4n.1 ṁ.; [TP]: brahmaṇo bhūyāyetifor the state of Brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; bhū – to be, bhūya – being);
kalpate kḷp (to be fit for, to correspond, to be able) Praes. Ā 1v.1he is eligible;

 

textual variants


śabdādīn viṣayāṁs śabdādi-viṣayāṁs (objects beginning with sound);
vyudasya → niyamya (after holding back);
laghv-āśī → labdhāśī (who eats what is obtained);
yata-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ → jita-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ / yattva-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ (who conquered words, body and thoughts / );
kāmaṁ krodhaṁ kāma-krodhau (desire and anger);
kalpatekalpyate (is eligible);

The first and second pada of verse 18.53 are similar to the first and second pada of verse BhG 16.18;
the fourth pada of verse 18.53 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 14.26.

 
 



Śāṃkara


seyaṃ jñānasya parā niṣṭhocyate, kathaṃ kāryā iti—
buddhyādhyavasāya-lakṣaṇayā viśuddhayā māyā-rahitayā yuktaḥ sampannaḥ | dhṛtyā dhairyeṇa ātmānaṃ kārya-karaṇa-saṃghātaṃ niyamyaś ca niyamanaṃ kṛtvā vaśīkṛtya, śabdādīn śabda ādir yeṣāṃ tān viṣayān tyaktvā | sāmarthyāt śarīra-sthiti-mātra-hetu-bhūtān kevalān muktvā tato’dhikān sukhārthān tyaktvā ity arthaḥ, śarīra-sthity-arthatvena prāpteṣu rāga-dveṣau vyudasya ca parityajyaś ca |

tataḥ—
vivikta-sevī araṇya-nadī-pulina-giri-guhādīn viviktān deśān sevituṃ śīlam asyeti vivikta-sevī | laghv-āśī laghv-aśana-śīlaḥ | vivikta-sevā-laghv-aśanayoḥ nidrādi-doṣa-nivartakatvena citta-prasāda-hetutvād grahaṇam | yata-vāk-kāya-mānaso vāk ca kāyaś ca mānasaṃ ca yatāni saṃyatāni yasya jñāna-niṣṭhasya sa jñāna-niṣṭho yatir yata-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ syāt | evam uparata-sarva-karaṇaḥ san dhyāna-yoga-paro dhyānam ātma-svarūpa-cintanam, yogaḥ ātma-viṣaye ekāgrī-karaṇaṃ tau paratvena kartavyau yasya sa dhyāna-yogaparo nityaṃ nitya-grahaṇaṃ mantra-japādy-anya-kartavyābhāva-pradarśanārtham, vairāgyaṃ virāgasya bhāvo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭeṣu viṣayeṣu vaitṛṣṇyaṃ samupāśritaḥ samyak upāśrito nityam eva ity arthaḥ |

kiṃ ca—
ahaṃkāram ahaṃkaraṇam ahaṃkāro dehādiṣu tam, balaṃ sāmarthyaṃ kāma-rāga-saṃyuktaṃ—netarat śarīrādi-sāmarthyaṃ svābhāvikatvena tat-tyāgasyāśakyatvāt—darpaṃ darpo nāma harṣānantara-bhāvī dharmātikrama-hetuḥ hṛṣṭo dṛpyati dṛpto dharmam atikrāmatīti smaraṇāt | taṃ ca, kāmam icchāṃ krodhaṃ dveṣaṃ parigraham indriya-mano-gata-doṣa-parityāge’pi śarīra-dhāraṇa-prasaṅgena dharmānuṣṭhāna-nimittena vā bāhyaḥ parigrahaḥ, taṃ ca vimucya parityajya, paramahaṃsa-parivrājako bhūtvā, deha-jīva-mātre’pi nirgata-mama-bhāvo nirmamaḥ, ata eva śānta uparataḥ, yaḥ saṃhṛta-harṣāyāso yatir jñāna-niṣṭho brahma-bhūyāya brahma-bhavanāya kalpate samartho bhavati

 

Rāmānuja


buddhyā viśuddhayā yathāvasthitātmatattvaviṣayayā yuktaḥ, dhṛtyā ātmānaṃ niyamya ca viṣayavimukhīkaraṇena yogayogyaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā, śabdādīn viṣayān tyaktvā asannihitān kṛtvā, tannimittau ca rāgadveṣau vyudasya, viviktasevī sarvair dhyānavirodhibhir vivikte deśe vartamānaḥ, laghvāśī atyaśanānaśanarahitaḥ, yatavākkāyamānasaḥ dhyānābhimukhīkṛtakāyavāṅmanovṛttiḥ, dhyānayogaparo nityam evaṃbhūtas san ā prāyāṇād aharahardhyānayogaparaḥ, vairāgyaṃ samupāśritaḥ dhyeyatattvavyatiriktaviṣayadoṣāvamarśena tatra tatra virāgatāṃ vardhayan, ahaṃkāram anātmani ātmābhimānaṃ, balaṃ tadvṛddhihetubhūtavāsanabalaṃ, tannimittaṃ darpaṃ kāmaṃ krodhaṃ parigrahaṃ vimucya, nirmamaḥ sarveṣv anātmīyeṣv ātmīyabuddhirahitaḥ, śāntaḥ ātmānubhavaikasukhaḥ, evaṃbhūto dhyānayogaṃ kurvan brahmabhūyāya kalpate sarvabandhavinirmukto yathāvasthitam ātmānam anubhavatītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tad evam āha buddhyeti | uktena prakāreṇa viśuddhayā pūrvoktayā sāttvikyā buddhyā yukto dhṛtyā sāttvikyā ātmānaṃ tām eva buddhiṃ niyamya niścalāṃ kṛtvā śabdādīn viṣayāṃs tyaktvā tad-viṣayau rāga-dveṣau vyudasya buddhyā viśuddhayā yukta ity ādīnāṃ brahma-bhūyāya kalpata iti tṛtīyenānvayaḥ |
kiṃ ca vivikteti | vivikta-sevī śuci-deśāvasthāyī laghvāśī mita-bhojī etair upāyair yata-vāk-kāya-mānasaḥ saṃyata-vāg-deha-citto bhūtvā nityaṃ sarvadā dhyānena yo yogo brahma-saṃsparśas tat-paraḥ san dhyānāvicchedārthaṃ punaḥ punar dṛḍhaṃ vairāgyaṃ samyag upāśrito bhūtvā |
tataś cāhaṃkāram iti | virakto ‚ham ity ādy ahaṃkāraṃ balaṃ durāgrahaṃ darpaṃ yoga-balād unmārga-pravṛtti-lakṣaṇaṃ prārabdha-vaśāt prāpyamāneṣv api viṣayeṣu kāmaṃ krodhaṃ parigrahaṃ ca vimucya viśeṣeṇa tyaktvā balād āpanneṣu nirma
maḥ san śāntaḥ paramām upaśāntiṃ prāpto brahma-bhūyāya brahmāham iti naiścalyenāvasthānāya kalpate yogyaś ca bhavati
 

Viśvanātha


buddhyā viśuddhayā sāttvikyā dhṛtyāpi sāttvikyātmānaṃ mano niyamya | dhyānena bhagavac-cintanenaiva yaḥ paro yogas tat-parāyaṇaḥ | balaṃ kāma-rāga-yuktaṃ na tu sāmarthyam | ahaṅkārādīn vimucyety avidyoparamaḥ | śāntaḥ sattva-guṇasyāpy upaśāntimān iti kṛta-jñāna-sannyāsa ity arthaḥ | jñānaṃ ca mayi sannyaset (BhP 11.19.1) ity ekādaśokteḥ | ajñāna-jñānayor uparamaṃ vinā brahmānubhavānupattir iti bhāvaḥ | brahma-bhūyāya brahmānubhavāya kalpate samartho bhavati
 

Baladeva


taṃ prakāram āha buddhyeti | viśuddhayā sāttvikyā buddhyā yuktas tādṛśyā dhṛtyā cātmānaṃ mano niyamya samādhi-yogyaṃ kṛtvā śabdādīn viṣayāṃs tyaktvā tān sannihitān vidhāya rāga-dveṣau ca tad-dhetukau vyudasya dūrataḥ parihṛtya | vivikta-sevī nirjana-sthaḥ laghvāśī mita-bhuk yatāni dhyeyābhimukhīkṛtāni vāgādīni yena saḥ | nityaṃ dhyāna-yoga-paro hari-cintana-nirataḥ | vairāgyam ātmetara-vastu-mātra-viṣayakam | aham iti | ahaṃkāro dehātmābhimānaḥ | balaṃ tad-vardhakaṃ vāsanā-rūpam | darpas tad-dhetukaḥ prārabdha-śeṣa-vaśād upāgateṣu bhogyeṣu kāmo ‚bhilāṣaḥ, teṣv anyair apahṛteṣu krodhaḥ | parigrahaś ca tat-karmakaḥ | tan etān ahaṅkārādīn vimucya nirmamaḥ san brahma-bhūyāya guṇāṣṭaka-viśiṣṭa-svātma-rūpatvāya kalpate tad anubhavati | śānto nistaraṅga-sindhur iva sthitaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.54

brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati
samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu mad-bhaktiṃ labhate parām

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syntax


brahma-bhūtaḥ (being Brahman) prasannātmā (of a joyful self) na śocati (he does not lament) na kāṅkṣati [ca] (and does not desire).
[saḥ] (he) sarveṣu bhūteṣu (towards all beings) samaḥ (the same) parām mad-bhaktim (supreme devotion for me) labhate (he obtains).

 

grammar

brahma-bhūtaḥ brahma-bhūta 1n.1 m..; [TP]: brahmaṇi bhūta itibeing in brahman / being brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
prasannātmā prasanna-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā prasanno ‘sti saḥwhose self is pleased (from: pra-sad – to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful, [PP] prasanna – clear, pleased, soothed; ātman – self);
na av.not;
śocati śuc (to lament, to bewail) Praes. P 1v.1he laments;
na av.not;
kāṅkṣati kāṅkṣ (to desire, to expect) Praes. P 1v.1he desires;
samaḥ sama sn. 1n.1 n.the same, equal, equivalent;
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 m. loc.abs.in all;
bhūteṣu bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 7n.3 m. loc.abs.in beings;
mad-bhaktim mad-bhakti 2n.1 f.; [TP]: mama bhaktim itidevotion for me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakti – devotion, love, fondness);
labhate labh (to obtain) Praes. Ā 1v.1he obtains;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;

 

textual variants


kāṅkṣati → hṛṣyati (he excites);
parām → naraḥ (a person);

The second pada of verse 18.54 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 12.17;

 
 



Śāṃkara


anena krameṇa—
brahma-bhūto brahma-prāptaḥ prasannātmā labdhādhyātma-prasāda-svabhāvo na śocati, kiṃcit artha-vaikalyam, ātmano vaiguṇyaṃ vā uddiśya na śocati na santapyate | na kāṅkṣati, na hy aprāpta-viṣayākāṅkṣā brahma-vida upapadyate | ato brahma-bhūtasyāyaṃ svabhāvo’nūdyate—na śocati na kāṅkṣatīti | na hṛṣyatīti vā pāṭhāntaram | samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu, ātmaupamyena sarva-bhūteṣu sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ vā samam eva paśyatīty arthaḥ | nātma-sama-darśanam iha, tasya vakṣyamāṇatvāt bhaktyā mām abhijānāti [gītā 18.55] iti | evaṃ-bhūto jñāna-niṣṭhaḥ, mad-bhaktiṃ mayi parameśvare bhaktiṃ bhajanaṃ parām uttamāṃ jñāna-lakṣaṇāṃ catur thī labhate, caturvidhā bhajante mām [gītā 7.16] ity uktam
 

Rāmānuja


brahmabhūtaḥ āvirbhūtāparicchinnajñānaikākāramaccheṣataikasvabhāvātmasvarūpaḥ, „itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām” iti hi svaśeṣatoktā / prasannātmā kleśakarmādibhir akaluṣasvarūpo madvyatiriktaṃ na kaṃcana bhūtaviśeṣaṃ prati śocati; na kiṃcana kāṅkṣati; api tu madvyatirikteṣu sarveṣu bhūteṣu anādaraṇīyatāyāṃ samo nikhilaṃ vastujātaṃ tṛṇavan manyamāno madbhaktiṃ labhate parām mayi sarveśvare nikhilajagadudbhavasthitipralayalīle nirastasamastaheyagandhe ‚navadhikātiśayāsaṃkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇagaṇaikatāne lāvaṇyāmṛtasāgare śrīmati puṇḍarīkanayane svasvāmini atyarthapriyānubhavarūpāṃ parāṃ bhaktiṃ labhate
 

Śrīdhara


brahmāham iti naiścalyenāvasthānasya phalam āha brahmeti | brahma-bhūto brahmaṇy avasthitaḥ prasanna-cittaḥ naṣṭaṃ na śocati na cāprāptaṃ kāṅkṣati dehādya-abhimānābhāvāt | ataeva sarveṣv api bhūteṣu samaḥ san rāga-dveṣam ādikṛta-vikṣepābhāvāt sarva-bhūteṣu mad-bhāvanā-lakṣaṇṃṃ parāṃ bhaktiṃ labhate
 

Viśvanātha


tataś copādhy-apagame sati brahma-bhūto ‚nāvṛtta-caitanyatvena brahma-rūpa ity arthaḥ | guṇa-mālinyāpagamāt | prasannaś cāsāv ātmā ceti saḥ | tataś ca pūrva-daśāyām iva naṣṭaṃ na śocati na cāprāptaṃ kāṅkṣati dehādy-abhimānābhāvād iti bhāvaḥ | sarveṣu bhūteṣu bhadrābhadreṣu bālaka iva samaḥ bāhyānusandhānābhāvād iti bhāvaḥ |

tataś ca nirindhanāgnāv iva jñāne śānte ‚py anaśvarāṃ jñānāntarbhūtāṃ mad-bhaktiṃ śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-rūpāṃ labhate | tasyā mat-svarūpa-śakti-vṛttitvena māyā-śakti-bhinnatvād avidyāvidyayor apagame ‚py anapagamāt | ataeva parāṃ jñānād anyāṃ śreṣṭhāṃ niṣkāma-karma-jñānādy-urvaritatvena kevalām ity arthaḥ | labhata iti pūrvaṃ jñāna-vairāgyādiṣu mokṣa-siddhy-arthaṃ kalayā vartamānāyā api sarva-bhūteṣv antaryāmina iva tasyāḥ spaṣṭopalabdhir nāsīd iti bhāvaḥ | ataeva kuruta ity anuktvā labhata iti prayuktam | māṣam udgādiṣu militāṃ teṣu naṣṭeṣv apy anaśvarāṃ kāñcana-maṇikām iva tebhyaḥ pṛthaktayā kevalāṃ labhata itivat | sampūrṇāyāḥ prema-bhaktes tu prāyas tadānīṃ lābha-sambhavo ‚sti nāpi tasyāḥ phalaṃ sāyujyam ity ataḥ parā-śabdena prema-lakṣaṇeti vyākhyeyam

 

Baladeva


tasya brahma-bhūyottara-bhāvinaṃ lābham āha brahmeti | brahma-bhūtaḥ sākṣāt-kṛtāṣṭa-guṇaka-sva-svarūpaḥ | prasannātmā kleśa-karma-vipākāśayānāṃ vigamād atisvacchaḥ – nadyaḥ prasanna-salilāḥ ity ādāv ativaimalyaṃ prasnna-śabdārthaḥ | sa evambhūto mad-anyāt kāṃścit prati na śocati na ca tān kāṅkṣati | sarveṣu mad-anyeṣūccāvaceṣu bhūteṣu samaḥ heyatvāviśeṣālloṣṭra-kāṣṭhavattvāni manyamānaḥ īdṛśaḥ san parāṃ mad-bhaktiṃ niṣṭhāṃ jñānasya yā parā ity (Gītā 18.50) uktāṃ mad-anubhava-lakṣaṇāṃ mad-vīkṣaṇa-samānākārāṃ sādhyāṃ bhaktiṃ vindatīty arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.55

bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ
tato māṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tad-anantaram

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[aham] (I) yaḥ (he who) yāvān ca (and as much) asmi (I am)
bhaktyā (with devotion) mām (me) tattvataḥ (truly) abhijānāti (he understands).
tataḥ (then) mām (me) tattvataḥ (truly) jñātvā (after knowing)
tad-anantaram (thereafter) [mām] (in me) viśate (he enters).

 

grammar

bhaktyā bhakti 3n.1 f. with devotion, with love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
abhijānāti abhi-jñā (to distinguish) Praes. P 1v.1he distinguishes, he understands;
yāvān yāvat 1n.1 m.how much;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
tattvataḥ av.truly (from: tatthat, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
tattvataḥ av.truly (from: tatthat, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
viśate viś (to enter) Praes. Ā 1v.1he enters;
tad-anantaram av.thereafter (from: tat sn.that; antara – inside; anantara – uninterrupted, continuous);

 

textual variants


yāvān yaś → yo ‘haṃ yaś / yāvad yaś (who I that / as much, which);
tattvataḥ → yādṛśaḥ (someone);
tato māṁ → yato ‘sau (then he);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tato jñāna-lakṣaṇayā—
bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān aham upādhi-kṛta-vistara-bhedaḥ, yaś cāham asmi vidhvasta-sarvopādhi-bheda uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ ākāśakalpaḥ, taṃ mām advaitaṃ caitanya-mātraika-rasam ajaram, abhayam, anidhanaṃ tattvato’bhijānāti | tataḥ mām evaṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tadanantaraṃ mām eva jñānānantaram | nātra jñāna-praveśa-kriye bhinne vivakṣite jñātvā viśate tad-anantaram iti | kiṃ tarhi ? phalāntarābhāvāt jñāna-mātram eva, kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi [gītā 13.2] iti uktatvāt
 

Rāmānuja


tatphalam āha
svarūpataḥ svabhāvataś ca yo ‚ham; guṇato vibhūtito ‚pi yāvāṃś cāham, taṃ mām evaṃrūpayā bhaktyā tattvato ‚bhijānāti; māṃ tattvato jñātvā tadanantaram tattvajñānānantaraṃ tataḥ bhaktitaḥ māṃ viśate praviśati / tattvatas svarūpasvabhāvaguṇavibhūtidarśanottarakālabhāvinyā anavadhikātiśayabhaktyā māṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ / atra tata iti prāptihetutayā, nirdiṣṭā bhaktir evābhidhīyate; „bhaktyā tv ananyayā śakyaḥ” iti tasya eva tattvataḥ praveśahetutvābhidhānāt
 

Śrīdhara


tataś ca bhaktyeti | tathā ca parayā bhaktyā tattvato mām abhijānāti | kathambhūtam, yāvān sarva-vyāpī yaś cāsmi sac-cid-ānanda-ghanas tathābhutaṃ | tataś ca mām evaṃ tattvato jñātvā tad-anantaraṃ tasya jñānasya uparame sati māṃ viśate paramānanda-rūpo bhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


nanu tayā labdhayā bhaktyā tadānīṃ tasya kiṃ syād ity ato ‚rthāntra-nyāsenāha bhaktyeti | ahaṃ yāvān yaś cāsmi taṃ māṃ tat-padārthaṃ jñānī vā nānāvidho bhakto vā bhaktyaiva tattvato ‚bhijānāti | bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ iti mad-ukteḥ (BhP 11.14.11) | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt prastutaḥ sa jñānī tatas tayā bhaktyaiva tad-anantaraṃ vidyoparamād uttara-kāla eva māṃ jñātvā māṃ viśati mat-sāyujya-sukham anubhavati | mama māyātītatvād avidyāyāś ca māyātvād vidyayāpy aham avagamya[*ENDNOTE] iti bhāvaḥ |

yat tu sāṅkhya-yogau ca vairāgyaṃ tapo bhaktiś ca keśave | pañca-parvaiva vidyā iti nārada-pañcarātre vidyā-vṛttitvena bhaktiḥ śrūyate | tat khalu hlādinī-śakti-vṛtter bhakter eva kalā kācid vidyā-sāphalyārthaṃ vidyāyāṃ praviṣṭā | karma-sāphalyārthaṃ karma-yoge ‚pi praviśati | tayā vinā karma-jñāna-yogādīnāṃ śrama-mātratvokteḥ | yato nirguṇā bhaktiḥ sad-guṇamayyā vidyāyā vṛttir vastuto na bhavati, ato hy ajñāna-nivartakatvenaiva vidyāyāḥ kāraṇatvaṃ tat-padārtha-jñāne tu bhakter eva |

kiṃ ca – sattvāt sañjāyate jñānam iti smṛteḥ (Gītā 14.17) sattvajaṃ jñānaṃ sattvam eva | tac ca sattvaṃ vidyā-śabdenocyate yathā tathā bhakty-utthaṃ jñānaṃ bhaktir eva saiva kvacit bhakti-śabdena kvacit jñāna-śabdena cocyata iti jñānam api dvividhaṃ draṣṭavyam | tatra prathamaṃ jñānaṃ saṃnyasya dvitīyena jñānena brahma-sāyujyam āpnuyād ity ekādaśa-skandha-pañcaviṃśaty-adhyāya-dṛṣṭyāpi jñeyam | atra kecid bhaktyā vinaiva kevalenaiva jñānena sāyujyārthinas te jñāni-māninaḥ kleśa-mātra-phalā ativigītā eva | anye tu bhaktyā vinā kevalena jñānena na muktir iti jñātvā bhakti-miśram eva jñānam abhasyanto bhagavāṃs tu māyopādhir eveti bhagavad-vapur guṇa-mayaṃ manyamānā yogārūḍhatva-daśām api prāptās te ‚pi jñānino vimukta-mānino vigītā eva | yad uktam –
mukha-bāhūru-pādebhyaḥ
puruṣasyāśramaiḥ saha |
catvāro jajñire varṇā
guṇair viprādayaḥ pṛthak || (BhP 11.5.2)
ya evaṃ puruṣaṃ sākṣād
ātma-prabhavam īśvaram |
na bhajanty avajānanti
sthānād bhraṣṭāḥ patanty adhaḥ || (BhP 11.5.3) iti |

asyārthaḥ ye na bhajanti ye ca bhajanto ‚py avajānanti te sannyāsino ‚pi vinaṣṭa-vidyā apy adhaḥ patanti | tathā ca hy uktam –
ye ‚nye ‚ravindākṣa vimukta-māninas
tvayy asta-bhāvād aviśuddha-buddhayaḥ |
āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṃ padaṃ tataḥ
patanty adho ‚nādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghrayaḥ || (BhP 10.2.32) iti |

atra āṅghri-padaṃ bhaktyaiva prayuktaṃ vivakṣitam | anādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghraya iti tanor guṇa-mayatva-buddhir eva tanor anādaraḥ | yad uktaṃ –
avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā
mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam | (Gītā 9.11) iti |

vastutas tu mānuṣī sā tanuḥ saccidānandam apy eva | tasyāḥ dṛśyatvaṃ tu dustarkya-tadīya-kṛpā-śakti-prabhāvād eva | yad uktam nārāyaṇādhyātma-vacanam –
nityāvyakto ‚pi bhagavān
īkṣ(y)ate nija-śaktitaḥ |
tām ṛte paramānandaṃ
kaḥ paśyet tam imaṃ prabhum || iti |

evaṃ ca bhagavat-tanoḥ saccidānandamayatve k ptaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-vigraham śrī-vṛndāvana-sura-bhūruha-talāsīnam iti (GTU 1.33) | śābdaṃ brahma vapur dadhat ity ādi śrutiḥ-smṛti-para-sahasra-vacaneṣu pramāṇeṣu satsv api – māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaram iti (ŚvetU 4.2) iti śruti-dṛṣṭyaiva bhagavān api māyopādhir iti manyante kintu svarūpa-bhūtayā nitya-śaktyā māyākhyayā yutaḥ | ato māya-mayaṃ viṣṇuṃ pravadanti sanātanam iti mādhva-bhāṣya-pramāṇita-śruteḥ | māyāṃ tv ity atra māyā-śabdena svarūpa-bhūtā cic-chaktir evābhidhīyate na tv asvarūpa-bhūtā triguṇa-mayy eva śaktir iti tasyāḥ śruter arthaṃ na manyante | yad vā prakṛtiṃ durgāṃ māyinaṃ tu maheśvaraṃ śambhuṃ vidyād ity artham api naiva manyante |

ato bhagavad-aparādhena jīvan-muktva-daśāṃ prāptā api te ‚dhaḥ patanti | yad uktaṃ vāsanā-bhāṣya-dhṛtaṃ pariśiṣṭa-vacanam |
jīvan-muktā api punar
yānti saṃsāra-vāsanām |
yady acintya-mahā-śaktau
bhagavaty aparādhinaḥ || iti |

te ca phala-prāptau satyām arthāt nāsti sādhanopayoga iti matvā jñāna-sannyāsa-kāle jñānaṃ tatra guṇī-bhūtāṃ bhaktim api santyajya, mithyaivāparokṣānubhavaṃ tv asya manyante | śrī-vigrahāparādhena bhaktyā api jñānena sārdham antardhānād bhaktiṃ te punar naiva labhante | bhaktyā vinā ca tat-padārthānanubhāvān mṛṣā-samādhayo jīvan-mukta-mānina eva te jñeyāḥ | yad uktam – ye ‚nye ‚ravindākṣa vimukta-māninaḥ iti |

ye tu bhakti-miśraṃ jñānam abhyasyanto bhagavan-mūrtiṃ sac-cid-ānandamayīm eva mānayānāḥ krameṇāvidyāvidyayor uparāme parāṃ bhaktiṃ labhante | te jīvan-muktā dvividhāḥ | eke sāyujyārthaṃ bhaktiṃ kurvantas tayaiva tat padārtham aparokṣīkṛtya tasmin sāyujyaṃ labhante te saṅgītā eva | apare bhūribhāgā yādṛcchika-śānta-mahā-bhāgavata-saṅga-prabhāvena tyakta-mumukṣāḥ śukādivad bhakti-rasa-mādhuryāsvāda eva nimajjanti, te tu parama-saṅgītā eva | yad uktam –
ātmārāmāś ca munayo
nirgranthā apy urukrame
kurvanty ahaitukīṃ bhaktim
itthambhūta-guṇo hariḥ || (BhP 1.7.10) iti |
tad evaṃ caturvidhā jñānino dvaye vigītāḥ patanti, dvaye saṅgītās taranti saṃsāram iti

 

Baladeva


tataḥ kiṃ tad āha bhaktyeti | svarūpato guṇataś ca yo ‚haṃ vibhūtitaś ca yāvān aham asmi taṃ mām parayā mad-bhaktyā tat tv abhijānāty anubhavati | tato mat-parama-bhaktito hetor ukta-lakṣaṇaṃ māṃ tattvato yāthātmyena jñātvānubhūya tad-anantaraṃ tata eva hetor māṃ viśate mayā saha yujyate | puraṃ praviśati ity atra pura-saṃyoga eva pratīyate na tu purātmakatvam |

atra tattvato ‚bhijñāne praveśe ca bhaktir eva hetur ukto bodhyaḥ | bhaktyā tv ananyayā śakyaḥ ity (Gītā 11.54) ādi pūrvokteḥ | tad-anantaram iti mat-svarūpa-guṇa-vibhūti-tāttvikānubhavād uttarasmin kāle ity arthaḥ | yad vā, parayā bhaktyā māṃ tattvato jñātvā tatas tāṃ bhaktim ādāyaiva māṃ viśate | lyab-lope karmaṇi pañcamī | mokṣe ‚pi bhaktir astīty āha sūtra-kṛt āprāyaṇāt tatrāpi hi dṛṣṭam iti (Vs 4.1.12) āprāyaṇād āmokṣāt tatrāpi ca mokse bhaktir anuvartate iti śrutau dṛṣṭam iti sūtrārthaḥ | bhaktyā vinaṣṭāvidyānāṃ bhaktyāḥ svādo vivardhate sitayā naṣṭa-pittānāṃ sitāsvādavad iti rahasya-vidaḥ | itthaṃ ca sa-niṣṭhānāṃ sādhana-sādhya-paddhatir uktā

 
 


BhG 18.56

sarva-karmāṇy api sadā kurvāṇo mad-vyapāśrayaḥ
mat-prasādād avāpnoti śāśvataṃ padam avyayam

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mad-vyapāśrayaḥ (whose shelter I am) sarva-karmāṇi api (although all activities) kurvāṇaḥ (doing) mat-prasādāt (from my satisfaction) śāśvatam avyayam padam (eternal imperishable abode) avāpnoti (he obtains).

 

grammar

sarva-karmāṇi sarva-karman 2n.3 n.; [TP]: sarvāṇi karmāṇi itiall activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
sadā av.always;
kurvāṇaḥ kurvāṇa (kṛ to do) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] doing;
mad-vyapāśrayaḥ mad-vyapāśraya 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyāhaṁ vyapāśrayo ‘smi saḥwhose shelter I am (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; vi-apa-ā-śri – to go to for refuge, to have recourse to, vyapāśraya – place of refuge, shelter);
mat-prasādāt mat-prasāda 5n.1 m.; [TP]: mama prasādād itifrom my satisfaction (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; pra-sad – to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful, prasāda satisfaction, favour, calmness, clearness, success, kindness);
avāpnoti ava-āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he achieves;
śāśvatam śāśvata 2n.1 n.eternal, permanent, constant;
padam pada 2n.1 n.step, pace, footmark, site, part, portion, word (from: pad – to fall, to go, to apply to);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 n.unchangeable, imperishable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


sadā → naraḥ / tadā (a person / then);
mad-vyapāśrayaḥ → mayi apāśrayaḥ (in me sheltered);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sva-karmaṇā bhagavato’bhyarcana-bhakti-yogasya siddhi-prāptiḥ phalaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-yogyatā, yan-nimittā jñāna-niṣṭhā mokṣa-phala-vasānā | so bhagavad-bhakti-yogo’dhunā stūyate śāstrārthopāsaṃhāra-prakaraṇe śāstrārtha-niścaya-dārḍhyāya—
sarva-karmāṇy api pratiṣiddhāny api sadā kurvāṇo’nutiṣṭhan mad-vayapāśrayo’haṃ vāsudevaḥ īśvaro vyapāśrayo vyapāśrayaṇaṃ yasya saḥ, mad-vayapāśrayaḥ mayy arpita-sarva-bhāvaḥ ity arthaḥ | so’pi mat-prasādāt mama īśvarasya prasādāt avāpnoti śāśvataṃ nityaṃ vaiṣṇavaṃ padam avyayam
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ varṇāśramocitanityanaimittikakarmaṇāṃ parityaktaphalādikānāṃ paramapuruṣārādhanarūpeṇānuṣṭhitānāṃ vipāka uktaḥ / idānīṃ kāmyānām api karmaṇām uktenaiva prakāreṇānuṣṭhitānāṃ sa eva vipāka ity āha
na kevalaṃ nityanaimittikāni karmāṇi, api tu sarvāṇi kāmyāny api karmāṇi, madvyāśrayaḥ mayi saṃnyastakartṛtvādikaḥ kurvāṇo matprasādāc chāśvataṃ padam avyayam avikalaṃ prāpnoti / padyate gamyata iti padam; māṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


sva-karmabhiḥ parameśvarārādhanād uktaṃ mokṣa-prakāram upasaṃharati sarva-karmāṇīti | sarvāṇi nityāni naimittikāni ca karmāṇi purvokta-krameṇa sarvadā kurvāṇaḥ mad-vyapāśrayaḥ aham eva vyāpāśrayaḥ āśrayaṇīyo na tu svargādi-phalaṃ yasya sa mat-prasādād śāśvatam anādi sarvotkṛṣṭaṃ padam prāpnoti
 

Viśvanātha


tad evaṃ jñānī yathā-krameṇaiva karma-phala-sannyāsa-karma-sannyāsair mat-sāyujyaṃ prāpnotīty uktam | mad-bhaktas tu māṃ yathā prāpnoti tad api śṛṇv ity āha sarveti | mad-vyapāśrayo māṃ viśeṣato ‚pakarṣeṇa sakāmatayāpi ya āśrayate so ‚pi kiṃ punar niṣkāma-bhakta ity arthaḥ | sarva-karmāṇy api nitya-naimittika-kāmyāni putra-kalatrādi-poṣaṇa-lakṣaṇāni vyavahārikāṇy api sarvāṇi kurvāṇaḥ kiṃ punas tyakta-karma-yoga-jñāna-devatāntaropāsanānya-kāmāny abhakta ity arthaḥ |
atrāśrayate samyag sevata iti āḍ-upasargena sevāyāḥ pradhānībhūtatvam | karmāṇy apīty api-śabdenāpakarṣa-bodhakena karmaṇāṃ guṇībhūtatvam | ato ‚yaṃ karma-miśra-bhaktimān, na tu bhakti-miśra-karmavān iti prathama-ṣaṭkokte karmaṇi nātivyāptiḥ | śāśvataṃ mahat-padaṃ mad-dhāma vaikuṇṭha-mathurā-dvārakāyodhyādikam āpnoti |
nanu mahā-pralaye tat tad dhāma kathaṃ sthāsyati | tatrāha – avyayaṃ mahā-pralaye mad-dhāmnaḥ kim api na vyayati mad-atarkya-prabhāvād iti bhāvaḥ |
nanu jñānī khalv anekair janmabhir aneka-tapa-ādi-kleśaiḥ sarva-viṣayendriyoparāmeṇaiva naiṣkarmye saty eva yat sāyujyaṃ prāpnoti | tasya te nityaṃ dhāma sakarmakatve sakāmakatve ‚pi tvad-āśrayaṇa-mātreṇaiva kathaṃ prāpnoti | tatrāha mat-prasādād iti mat-prasādasyātarkyam eva prabhāvatvaṃ jānīhīti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha pariniṣṭhitānām āha sarveti sārdha-dvayābhyām | mad-vyapāśrayo mad-ekāntī sarvāṇi sva-vihitāni karmāṇi yathā-yogaṃ kurvāṇaḥ | api-śabdād gauṇa-kāle mad-ekāntinas tasya mukhya-kālābhāvāt | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ – sarvathāpi tatra vobhaya-liṅgāt (Vs 3.4.34) iti | īdṛśaḥ sa mat-prasādān mad-atyanugrahāt śāśvataṃ nityam avyayam apariṇāmi-jñānānandātmakaṃ padaṃ param-vyomākhyam avāpnoti labhate
 
 


BhG 18.57

cetasā sarva-karmāṇi mayi saṃnyasya mat-paraḥ
buddhi-yogam upāśritya mac-cittaḥ satataṃ bhava

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[tvam] (you) mat-paraḥ (for whom I am the supreme) cetasā (with the mind) sarva-karmāṇi (all activities) mayi (in me) sannyasya (after renouncing),
buddhi-yogam (of yoga of intelligence) upāśritya (after taking shelter)
satatam (constantly) mac-cittaḥ (with the mind in me) bhava (you must be).

 

grammar

cetasā cetas 3n.1 n.with the mind (from: cit – to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
sarva-karmāṇi sarva-karman 2n.3 n.; [TP]: sarvāṇi karmāṇi itiall activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
saṁnyasya sam-ni-as (to lay aside, to renounce, to give up) absol.after renouncing, after giving up;
mat-paraḥ mat-para 1n.1 m.yasyāhaṁ paro ‘smi saḥfor whom I am the supreme, devoted to me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; suffix: para – devoted, engaged in, mat-para – devoted to me);
buddhi-yogam buddhi-yoga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: buddhyā kṛtaṁ yogam iti yoga evolved from intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
upāśritya upa-ā-śri (to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) absol.after taking shelter – of whom? – requires accusative);
mac-cittaḥ mac-citta 1n.1 m.yasya cittaṁ mayi asti saḥwhose mind is in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness);
satatam av.constantly (from: sa-tata – constant, uninterrupted);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;

 

textual variants


mat paraḥ → bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!);
buddhi-yogam śuddhi-yogam (yoga of purity);
upāśrityasamāśritya / apāśritya (after taking shelter / after using);

The second pada of verse 18.57 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 12.6;

 
 



Śāṃkara


yasmāt evaṃ—
cetasā vivekabuddhyā sarva-karmāṇi dṛṣṭadṛṣṭarthāni mayi īśvare saṃnyasya yat karoṣi yada nāsīti uktanyāyena, mat-paro’haṃ vāsudevaḥ paro yasya tava sa tvaṃ mat-paraḥ san mayyarpitasarvātmabhāvo buddhi-yogaṃ samāhitabuddhitvaṃ buddhi-yogas taṃ buddhi-yogam apāśrityāpāśrayo’nanyaśaraṇatvaṃ mac-cittaḥ mayy evaś cittaṃ yasya tava sa tvaṃ mac-cittaḥ satataṃ sarvadā bhava
 

Rāmānuja


yasmād evam, tasmāt
cetasā ātmano madīyatvamanniyāmyatvabuddhyā / uktaṃ hi, „mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṃnyasyādhyātmacetasā” iti / sarvakarmāṇi sakartṛkāṇi sārādhyāni mayi saṃnyasya, matparaḥ aham eva phalatayā prāpya ity anusaṃdhānaḥ, karmāṇi kurvan imam eva buddhiyogam upāśritya satataṃ maccitto bhava
 

Śrīdhara


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt cetaseti | sarvāṇi karmāṇi | cetasā mayi saṃnyasya samarpya mat-paraḥ aham eva paraḥ prāpyaḥ puruṣārtho yasya sa vyavasāyātmikayā buddhyā yogam upāśritya satataṃ karmānuṣṭhāna-kāle ‚pi brahmārpaṇaṃ brahma-havir iti (Gītā 4.24) nyāyena mayy eva cittaṃ yasya tathābhūto bhava
 

Viśvanātha


nanu tarhi māṃ prati tvaṃ niścayena kim ājñāpayasi | kim aham ananya-bhakto bhavāmi, kiṃ vānantarokta-lakṣaṇaḥ sakāma-bhakta eva | tatra sarva-prakṛṣṭo ‚nanya-bhakto bhavituṃ na prabhaviṣyasi | nāpi sarva-bhakteṣv apakṛṣṭaḥ sakāma-bhakto bhava | kintu tvaṃ madhyama-bhakto bhavety āha cetaseti | sarva-karmāṇi svāśrama-dharmān vyavahārika-karmāṇi ca mayi sannyasya samarpya, mat-paro ‚ham eva paraḥ prāpyaḥ puruṣārtho yasya sa niṣkāma ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ pūrvam eva
yat karoṣi yad aśnāsi
yaj juhoṣi dadāsi yat |
yat tapasyasi kaunteya
tat kuruṣva mad-arpaṇam || iti | (Gītā 9.27)
buddhi-yogaṃ vyavasāyātmikayā buddhyā yogaṃ satataṃ mac-cittaḥ karmānuṣṭhāna-kāle ‚nyadāpi māṃ smaran bhava
 

Baladeva


tādṛśatvād eva tvaṃ sarvāṇi sva-vihitāni karmāṇi kartṛtvābhimānādi-śūnyenacetasā svāmini mayi sannyasyārpayitvā mat-paro mad-eka-puruṣārtho mām eva buddhi-yogam upāśritya satataṃ karmānuṣṭhāna-kāle mac-citto bhava | etac ca tvāṃ prati prāg apy uktaṃ yat karoṣīty ādinā arpayitvaiva karmāṇi kuru, na tu kṛtvārpayeti
 
 


BhG 18.58

mac-cittaḥ sarva-durgāṇi mat-prasādāt tariṣyasi
atha cet tvam ahaṃ-kārān na śroṣyasi vinaṅkṣyasi

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syntax


[tvam] (you) mac-cittaḥ (whose mind is in me) mat-prasādāt (by my satisfaction) sarva-durgāṇi (all difficulties) tariṣyasi (you will cross).
atha cet (but if) tvam (you) ahaṁ-kārāt (out of egotism) na śroṣyasi (you will not listen) [tadā] (then) vinaṅkṣyasi (you will perish).

 

grammar

mac-cittaḥ mac-citta 1n.1 m.yasya cittaṁ mayi asti saḥwhose mind is in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness);
sarva-durgāṇi sarva-durga 2n.3 n.; sarvāṇi durgāṇītiall difficulties (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; gam – to go; durga – difficult path, trouble, danger);
mat-prasādāt mad-prasāda 5n.1 m.; [TP]: mama prasādād itifrom my satisfaction (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; pra-sad – to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful, prasāda satisfaction, favour, calmness, clearness, success, kindness);
tariṣyasi tṝ (to cross over) Fut. P 2v.1you will cross;
atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
cet av.if;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
ahaṁ-kārāt ahaṁ-kāra 5n.1 m. from ego, from egotism, from pride (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer);
na av.not;
śroṣyasi śru (to hear, to listen) Fut. P 2v.1you will listen;
vinaṅkṣyasi vi-naś (to destroy, to vanish, to be lost) Fut. P 2v.1you will perish;

 

textual variants


sarva-durgāṇi → sarva-duḥkhāṇi / sarva-karmāṇi (all miseries / all activities);
tariṣyasitariṣyati (he will cross);
ahaṁ-kārān śroṣyasiahaṁ-kāraṁ mokṣayasi (you will be freed from egotism);
vinaṅkṣyasi → na kāṁkṣasi (you will not desire);
 
 



Śāṃkara


mac-citaḥ sarva-durgāṇi sarvāṇi dustarāṇi saṃsāra-hetu-jātāni mat-prasādāt tariṣyasy atikramiṣyasi | atha cet yadi tvaṃ mad-uktam ahaṃkārāt paṇḍito’ham iti na śroṣyasi na grahīṣyasi, tatas tvaṃ vinaṅkṣayasi vināśaṃ gamiṣyasi
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ maccittaḥ sarvakarmāṇi kurvan sarvāṇi sāṃsārikāṇi durgāṇi matprasādād eva tariṣyasi / atha tvam ahaṃkārād aham eva kṛtyākṛtyaviṣayaṃ sarvaṃ jānāmīti bhāvān maduktaṃ na śroṣyasi cet, vinaṅkṣyasi vinaṣṭo bhaviṣyasi / na hi kaścin madvyatiriktaḥ kṛtsnasya prāṇijātasya kṛtyākṛtyayor jñātā praśāsitā vāsti
 

Śrīdhara


tato yad bhaviṣyati tac chṛṇu – mac-citta iti | mac-cittaḥ san mat-prasādāt sarvāṇy api durgāṇi dustarāṇi sāṃsārika-duḥkhāni tariṣyasi | vipakṣe doṣam āha — atha cet yadi punas tvam ahaṃkārān jñātṛtvābhimānāt mad uktam evaṃ na śroṣyasi tarhi vinaṅkṣyasi puruṣārthād bhraṣṭo bhaviṣyasi
 

Viśvanātha


tataḥ kim ata āha mac-citta iti
 

Baladeva


evaṃ mac-cittas tvaṃ mat-prasādād eva sarvāṇi durgāṇi dustarāṇi saṃsāra-duḥkhāni tariṣyasi | tatra te na cintā | tāny ahaṃ bhakta-bandhur apaneṣyami dāsyāmi cātmānam iti pariniṣṭhitānāṃ sādhana-sādhya-paddhatir uktā | atha ced ahaṅkārāt kṛtyākṛtya-viṣayaka-jñānābhimānāt tvaṃ mad-uktaṃ na śroṣyasi tarhi vinaṅkṣyasi svārthāt vibhraṣṭo bhaviṣyasi | na hi kaścit prāṇināṃ kṛtyākṛtyor vijñātā praśāstā vā matto ‚nyo vartate
 
 


BhG 18.59

yad ahaṃ-kāram āśritya na yotsya iti manyase
mithyaiṣa vyavasāyas te prakṛtis tvāṃ niyokṣyati

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syntax


[tvam] (you) ahaṁ-kāram (of egotism) āśritya (after taking shelter)
[aham] (I) na yotsye iti (I will not fight) yat (if) manyase (you think),
[tarhi] (then) te (your) eṣaḥ vyavasāyaḥ (this resolve) mithyā (false).
prakṛtiḥ (nature) tvām (you) niyokṣyati (it will engage).

 

grammar

yat av.if (from: yat sn. – that which);
ahaṁ-kāram ahaṁ-kāra 2n.1 m. ego, egotism, pride (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer);
āśritya ā-śri (to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) absol.after taking shelter (of whom? – requires accusative);
na av.not;
yotsye yudh (to fight) Fut. Ā 3v.1I will fight;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
manyase man (to think) Praes. Ā 2v.1you think;
mithyā av.incorrectly, falsely, deceitfully;
eṣaḥ etad sn. 1n.1 m.ten;
vyavasāyaḥ vyavasāya 1n.1 m.strenuous effort, determination, resolve (from: vi-ava-so – to settle down, to determine);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
prakṛtiḥ prakṛti 1n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
niyokṣyati ni-yuj (to join, to engage) Fut. P 1v.1it will engage;

 

textual variants


yad ahaṁ-kāram āśritya → yo ‘haṁ-kāram upāśritya / yady ahaṁ-kāram āśritya (he who has taken shelter of egotism / if taken shelter of egotism);
na yotsya iti → na yotsyāmīti (I will not fight);
mithyaiṣa → mithyaiva / mayyeva (indeed false /);
vyavasāyas te vyavasāyās te (resolve your);
mithyaiṣa vyavasāyas te mithyaivādhyavasāyas te (falsely, your resolve);
prakṛtis tvāṁ prakṛtis tvā / prakṛtiṁ tvā (nature, you / nature and you);
niyokṣyati → niyokṣyate / niyokṣyasi / nirakṣyati (it will engage / you will engage / it will pervade);
 
 



Śāṃkara


idaṃ ca tvayā na mantavyaṃ svatantro’ham, kim-arthaṃ paroktaṃ kariṣyāmi ? iti—
yadi cet tvam ahaṃkāram āśritya na yotsye iti na yuddhaṃ kariṣyāmīti manyase cintayasi niścayaṃ karoṣi, mithyaiṣa vyavasāyo niścayas te tava | yasmāt prakṛtiḥ kṣatriya-svabhāvas tvāṃ niyokṣyati
 

Rāmānuja


yadi ahaṃkāram ātmani hitāhitajñāne svātantryābhimānam āśritya manniyogam anādṛtya na yotsya iti manyase, eṣa te svātantryavyavasāyo mithyā bhaviṣyati; yataḥ prakṛtis tvāṃ yuddhe niyokṣyati matsvātantryodvignaṃ tvām ajñaṃ prakṛtir niyokṣati
 

Śrīdhara


kāmaṃ vinaṅkṣyasi na tu bandhubhir yuddhaṃ kariṣyāmīti cet tatrāha
yad ahaṃkāram iti | mad-uktam anādṛtya kevalam ahaṅkāram avalambya yuddhaṃ na kariṣyāmīti yan manyase tvam adhyavasyasi eṣa tava vyavasāyo mithyaiva asvatantratvāt tava | tad evāha prakṛtis tvāṃ rajo-guṇa-rūpeṇa pariṇatā satī niyokṣyati pravartayiṣyatīti
 

Viśvanātha


nanu kṣatriyasya mama[lub necchasīti] yuddham eva paro dharmas tatra bandhu-vadha-pāpād bhīta eva pravartituṃ necchāmīti tatra sa-tarjanam āha yad aham iti | prakṛtiḥ svabhāvaḥ | adhunā tvaṃ mad-vacanaṃ na mānayasi, yadā tu mahāvīrasya tava svābhāviko yuddhotsāho durvāra evodbhaviṣyati tadā yudhyamānaḥ svayam eva bhīṣmādīn gurūn haniṣyan mayā hasiṣyasa iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


yadyapi kṣatriyasya yuddham eva dharmas tathāpi guru-viprādi-vadha-hetukāt pāpād bhītasya me na tatra pravṛttir iti kṛtyākṛtya-vijñātṛtvābhimānam ahaṅkāram āśritya nāhaṃ yotsye iti yadi tvaṃ manyase, tarhi tavaiṣa vyavasāyo niścayo mithyā niṣphalo bhāvī, prakṛtir man-māyā rajo-guṇātmanā pariṇatā mad-vākyāvahelinaṃ tvāṃ gurv-ādi-vadhe nimitte yuddhe niyokṣyati pravartayiṣyaty eva
 
 


BhG 18.60

sva-bhāva-jena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā
kartuṃ necchasi yan mohāt kariṣyasy avaśo pi tat

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī),
mohāt (out of bewilderment) [tvam] (you) yat [karma] (which activity) kartuṁ (to do) na icchasi (you do not want),
svena svabhāva-jena karmaṇā (by that which is born from one’s own nature activity) nibaddhaḥ (who is bound)
avaśaḥ [san] (being unwilling) tat api [karma] (just that activity) kariṣyati (you will do).

 

grammar

sva-bhāva-jena sva-bhāva-ja 3n.1 n.by that which is born from one’s own nature (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
nibaddhaḥ ni-baddha (ni-bandh – to bind, to fetter) [PP] 1n.1 m.who is bound;
svena sva sn. 3n.1 n.by one’s own;
karmaṇā karman 3n.1 n.by activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kartum kṛ (to do) [inf.] – to do;
na av.not;
icchasi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 2v.1you desire;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
mohāt moha 5n.1 m.out of bewilderment (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
kariṣyasi kṛ (to do) Fut. P 2v.1you will do;
avaśaḥ avaśa 1n.1 m. unwillingly, not under control (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command, vaśa – wish, power, control, dominion);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;

 

textual variants


sva-bhāva-jena sva-bhāva-jñena / sva-bhāvādyena (with knowledge of one’s own nature swoją naturę / with that which begins from one’s own nature);
necchasiicchasi (you desire);
yan mohāt tan mohāt (that out of bewilderment);
kariṣyasikariṣyati (he will do);
tat → san / taṁ (being / that);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yasmāc ca—
svabhāva-jena śauryādinā yathoktena kaunteya nibaddho niścayena baddhaḥ svena ātmīyena karmaṇā kartuṃ necchasi yat karma, mohād avivekataḥ kariṣyasy avaśo’pi paravaśa eva tat karma
 

Rāmānuja


tad upapādayati
svabhāvajaṃ hi kṣatriyasya karma śauryam / svabhāvajena śauryākhyena svena karmaṇā nibaddhaḥ, tad evāvaśaḥ, parair dharṣaṇam asahamānas tvam eva tad yuddhaṃ kariṣyasi, yad idānīṃ mohād ajñānāt kartuṃ necchasi
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca svabhāvajeneti | svabhāvaḥ kṣatriyatva-hetuḥ pūrva-janma-saṃskāras tasmāj jātena svīyena karmaṇā śauryādinā pūrvoktena nibaddhaḥ yantritas tvaṃ mohāt yat karma yuddha-lakṣaṇaṃ kartuṃ necchasi avaśaḥ san tat karma kariṣyasy eva
 

Viśvanātha


uktam evārthaṃ vivṛṇoti svabhāvaḥ kṣatriyatve hetuḥ pūrva-saṃskāras tasmāj jātena svīyena karmaṇā nibaddho yantritaḥ
 

Baladeva


uktam upapādayati svabhāveti | yadi tvaṃ mohād ajñānān mad-uktam api yuddhaṃ kartuṃ necchasi, tadā svabhāvajena svena karmaṇā śauryeṇa man-māyodbhāsitena nibaddho ‚vaśas tat kariṣyasi
 
 


BhG 18.61

īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ hṛd-deśe rjuna tiṣṭhati
bhrāmayan sarva-bhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna),
īśvaraḥ (lord) sarva-bhūtānām (of all beings) hṛd-deśe (in the heart) tiṣṭhati (he stands).
[saḥ] (he) māyayā (by illusion) yantrārūḍhāni [iva] (those which ascended as on a machine) sarva-bhūtāni (all beings) bhrāmayan [san] (he is driving).

 

grammar

īśvaraḥ īśvara 1n.1 m.ruler, lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
sarva-bhūtānām sarva-bhūta 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ bhūtānām itiof all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
hṛd-deśe hṛd-deśa 7n.1 n.; [TP]: hṛdo deśa itiin the place of the heart (from: hṛt – heart; diś – to show, deśa – place);
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
tiṣṭhati sthā (to stand) Praes P 1v.1he stands;
bhrāmayan bhrāmayant (bhram – to roam) PPr caus. 1n.1 m.while causing to move, while driving;
sarva-bhūtāni sarva-bhūta 2n.3 n.; KD: sarvāṇi bhūtānītiall beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
yantrārūḍhāni yantra-ārūḍha 2n.3 n.; [TP]: yantram āruḍhānītiwhich ascended on the machine, (from: yantr – to restrain, to bind, yantra – instrument, machine, amulet, mystical diagram; ā-ruh – to ascend, to rise, [PP] ārūḍha – who attained, who ascended);
māyayā māyā 3n.1 f.by magic, by illusion, by supernatural power;

 

textual variants


hṛd-deśe → hṛdy eṣa / hṛdaye (he in the heart / in the heart);
‘rjuna tiṣṭhativasate ‘rjuna (he dwells, O Arjuna);
yantrārūḍhāniyantrārūḍheva (as if ascended on a machine);
māyayā mānava (people);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yasmāt—
īśvaraḥ īśana-śīlo nārāyaṇaḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ sarva-prāṇināṃ hṛd-deśe hṛdaya-deśe’rjuna śuklāntarātma-svabhāvo viśuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ | ahaś ca kṛṣṇam ahar arjunaṃ ca [rādhāk 4.5.10.1] iti darśanāt | tiṣṭhati sthitiṃ labhate | teṣu sa kathaṃ tiṣṭhati ? ity āha—bhrāmayan bhramaṇaṃ kārayan sarva-bhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni yantrāṇy ārūḍhāny adhiṣṭhitānīva itīva-śabdo’tra draṣṭavyaḥ | yathā dāru-kṛta-puruṣādīni yantrārūḍhāni | māyayā cchadmanā bhrāmayan tiṣṭhatīti sambandhaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


sarvaṃ hi bhūtajātaṃ sarveśvareṇa mayā pūrvakarmānuguṇyena prakṛtyanuvartane niyamitam; tac chṛṇu /
īśvaraḥ sarvaniyamanaśīlo vāsudevaḥ sarvabhūtānāṃ hṛddeśe sakalapravṛttimūlajñānodayapradeśe tiṣṭhati / kathaṃ kiṃ kurvaṃs tiṣṭhati ? yantrārūḍhāni sarvabhūtāni māyayā bhrāmayan / svenaiva nirmitaṃ dehendriyāvasthaṃ prakṛtyākhyaṃ yantram ārūḍhāni sarvabhūtāni svakīyayā sattvādiguṇamayyā māyayā guṇānuguṇaṃ pravartayaṃs tiṣṭhatītyarthaḥ / pūrvam apy etad uktam, „sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṃ ca” iti; „mattas sarvaṃ pravartate” iti ca / „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan” ityādikā śrutiś ca
 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ śloka-dvayena sāṅkhyādi-mate prakṛti-pāratantryaṃ svabhāva-pāratantryaṃ coktam | idānīṃ svamatam āha īśvara iti dvābhyām | sarva-bhūtānāṃ hṛn-madhye īśvaro ‚ntaryāmī tiṣṭhati | kiṃ kurvan, sarvāṇi bhūtāni māyayā nija-śaktyā bhrāmayaṃs tat-tat-karmasu pravartayan, yathā dāru-yantram ārūḍhāni kṛtrimāni bhūtāni sūtradhāro loke bhrāmayati tadvad ity arthaḥ | yad vā yantrāṇi śarīrāṇi ārūḍhāni bhūtāni dehābhimānino jīvān bhramayann ity arthaḥ | tathā ca śvetāśvatārāṇāṃ mantraḥ —
eko devaḥ sarvabhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ
sarvavyāpī sarvabhūtāntarātmā |
karmādhyakṣaḥ sarvabhūtādhivāsaḥ
sākṣī cetā kevalo nirguṇaś ca || iti || (ŚvetU 6.11)

antaryāmi-brāhmaṇaṃ ca — ya ātmani tiṣṭhan ātmānam antaro yamayati yam ātmā na veda yasya ātmā śarīram eva te ātmāntaryāmy amṛtaḥ || ity ādi

 

Viśvanātha


śloka-dvayena svabhāva-vādināṃ matam uktvā sva-matam āha īśvaro nārāyaṇaḥ sarvāntaryāmī | yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhan pṛthivyā antaro, yaṃ pṛthivī na veda, yasya pṛthivī śarīraṃ, yaḥ pṛthivīm antaro yamayati (BAU 3.6.3) iti |
yac ca kiñcij jagaty asmin
dṛśyate śrūyate ‚pi vā |
antar-bahiś ca tat sarvaṃ
vyāpya nārāyaṇaḥ sthitaḥ || (Mahānārāyaṇa Upaniṣad 13.5)
ity ādi śruti-pratipādita īśvaro ‚ntaryāmī hṛdi tiṣṭhati | kiṃ kurvan? sarvāṇi
bhūtāni māyayā nija-śaktyā bhrāmayan bhramayan tat-tat-karmāṇi pravartayan, yathā sūtra-sañcārādi-yantram ārūḍhāni kṛtrimāṇi pāñcālikā-rūpāṇi sarva-bhūtāni māyā vibhramayati tadvad ity arthaḥ | yad vā yantrārūḍhāni śarīrārūḍhān sarva-jīvān ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


vijñātṛtvābhimānam ivālakṣyārjunam atyājyatvād vidhānterṇopadiśati īśvara iti dvābhyām | he arjuna tvaṃ cet svaṃ vijṇaṃ manyase, tarhy antaryāmi-brāhmaṇāt tvayā jñāto ya īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ brahmādi-sthāvarāntānāṃ hṛddeśe tiṣṭhati māyayā sva-śaktyā tāni bhrāmayan san | sarva-bhūtāni viśinaṣṭi yantreti | yat karmānuguṇaṃ māyā-nirmitaṃ dehendriya-prāṇa-lakṣaṇaṃ yantraṃ tad-ārūḍhāni | rūpakeṇopamātra vyajyate – yathā sūtra-dhāro dāru-yantrārūḍhāni kṛtrimāṇi bhūtāni bhrāmayati tadvat
 
 


BhG 18.62

tam eva śaraṇaṃ gaccha sarva-bhāvena bhārata
tat-prasādāt parāṃ śāntiṃ sthānaṃ prāpsyasi śāśvatam

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
sarva-bhāvena (with all [his] heart) tam eva (only to him) śaraṇam (being the shelter) gaccha (you must go),
tat-prasādāt (from his satisfaction) parām śāntim (the supreme tranquility) śāśvatam sthānam ca (and eternal abode) prāpsyasi (you will obtain).

 

grammar

tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.to him;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
śaraṇam śaraṇa 2n.1 n.to shelter, to refuge, to protection (from: śri – to turn towards, to lean on, to rest on, to resort);
gaccha gam (to go) Imperat. P 2v.1you must go;
sarva-bhāvena sarva-bhāva 3n.1 m.; sarvena bhāvenetiwith all his nature, with all his emotions, with all his heart (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
tat-prasādāt tad-prasāda 5n.1 m.; [TP]: tasya prasādād itifrom his satisfaction (from: tat sn. – that; pra-sad – to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful, prasāda satisfaction, favour, calmness, clearness, success, kindness);
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
śāntim śānti 2n.1 f.tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
sthānam sthāna 2n.1 n.state, place, position (from: sthā – to stand);
prāpsyasi pra-āp (to obtain) Fut. P 2v.1you will obtain;
śāśvatam śāśvata 2n.1 n.eternal, permanent, constant;

 

textual variants


tam eva tām eva (only to that);
bhārata → pāṁḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!);
tat-prasādāt mat-prasādāt (from my satisfaction);
śāntiṁ → siddhiṁ (perfection);
prāpsyasi → prāpsyati (he will obtain);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tam eva īśvaraṃ śaraṇam āśrayaṃ saṃsārārti-haraṇārthaṃ gacchāśraya sarva-bhāvena sarvātmanā he bhārata ! tatas tat-prasādād īśvarānugrahāt parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ śāntim uparatiṃ sthānaṃ ca mama viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ prāpsyasi śāśvataṃ nityam
 

Rāmānuja


etan māyānivṛttihetum āha
yasmād evam, tasmāt tam eva sarvasya praśāsitāram, āśritavātsalyena tvatsārathye ‚vasthitam, „itthaṃ kuru ” iti ca śāsitāraṃ sarvabhāvena sarvātmanā śaraṇaṃ gaccha / sarvātmanānuvartasva / anyathāpi tanmāyāpreritenājñena tvayā yuddhādikaraṇam avarjanīyam / tathā sati naṣṭo bhaviṣyasi / atas taduktaprakāreṇa yuddhādikaṃ kurv ityarthaḥ / evaṃ kurvāṇas tatprasādāt parāṃ śāntiṃ sarvakarmabandhopaśamaṃ śāśvataṃ ca sthānam prāpsyasi / yad abhidhīyate śrutiśataiḥ, „tadviṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ, „te ha nākaṃ mahimānaḥ sacante yatra pūrve sādhyāḥ santi devāḥ”, „yatra ṛṣayaḥ prathamajā ye purāṇāḥ”, „pareṇa nākaṃ nihitaṃ guhāyām”, „yo ‚syādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman”, „atha yad ataḥ paro divo jyotir dīpyate”, „so ‚dhvanaḥ pāram āpnoti tadviṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padam” ityādibhiḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tam iti | yasmād evaṃ sarve jīvāḥ parameśvara-paratantrāḥ tasmād ahaṅkāraṃ parityajya sarva-bhāvena sarvātmanā tam īśvaram eva śaraṇaṃ gaccha | tataś ca tasyaiva prasādāt parāṃ uttamāṃ śāntiṃ sthānaṃ ca pārameśvaraṃ śāśvataṃ nityaṃ prāpsyasi
 

Viśvanātha


etaj-jñāpana-prayojanam āha tam eveti | parām avidyāvidyayor nivṛttim | tataś ca śāśvataṃ sthānaṃ vaikuṇṭham | iyam antaryāmi-śaraṇāpattiḥ antaryāmy-upāsakānām eva | bhagavad-upāsakānāṃ tu bhagavac-charaṇāpattiḥ | agre vakṣyata eveti kecid āhuḥ | anyas tu yo mad-iṣṭa-devaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ sa eva mad-gurur māṃ bhakti-yogam anukūlaṃ hitaṃ copadeśam upadiśati ca | tam ahaṃ śaraṇaṃ prapadye ity aniśaṃ bhāvayeti | yad uktam uddhavena –
naivopayanty apacitiṃ kavayas taveśa
brahmayusāpi kṛtam ṛddha-mudaḥ smarantaḥ |
yo ‚ntar-bahis tanu-bhṛtām aśubhaṃ vidhunvan
ācārya-caittya-vapuṣā sva-gatiṃ vyanakti || (BhP 11.29.6) iti
 

Baladeva


tarhi tam eveśvaraṃ sarva-bhāvena kāyādi-vyāpāreṇa śaraṇaṃ gaccha | tataḥ kim iti cet tatrāha tad iti | parāṃ śāntiṃ nikhila-kleśa-viśleṣa-lakṣaṇāṃ | śāśvataṃ nityaṃ sthānaṃ ca, tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padam ity ādi śruti-gītaṃ tad dhāma prāpsyasi | sa ceśvaro ‚ham eva tvat-sakhaḥ sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ ity (Gītā 15.15) ādi mat-pūrvokter deva-rṣy-ādi-sammati-grāhiṇā tvayāpi paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma (Gītā 10.12) ity-ādinā svīkṛtatvāc ca | viśva-rūpa-darśane pratyakṣitatvāc ca | tasmān mad-upadeśe tiṣṭheti
 
 


BhG 18.63

iti te jñānam ākhyātaṃ guhyād guhyataraṃ mayā
vimṛśyaitad aśeṣeṇa yathecchasi tathā kuru

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syntax


iti mayā (thus by me) te (to you) guhyāt guhya-taram (more secret than secret) jñānam (knowledge) ākhyātam [asti] (it is said),
etat (this) aśeṣeṇa (completely) vimṛśya (after considering)
yathā (as) icchasi (you desire) tathā (so) kuru (you must do).

 

grammar

iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
ākhyātam ā-khyāta (ā-khyā – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.said;
guhyāt guhya (xguh – to cover, to hide) PF 5n.1 n.than secret (from: guhya – to be hidden, secret, mystery);
guhyataram guhyatara 1n.1 n.more secret (from: xguh – to cover, to hide, PF guhya – to be hidden, secret, mystery; comparative of: guhya – guhya-tara, guhya-tama);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
vimṛśya vi-mṛś (to touch, to examine, to consider) absol.after considering;
etad etad sn. 2n.1 n.this;
aśeṣeṇa av.completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end; formed from: 3n.1);
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
icchasi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 2v.1you desire;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
kuru kṛ (to do) Imperat. P 2v.1you must do;

 

textual variants


iti → idaṁ (this);
jñānam → dhyānam (contemplation);
guhyataraṁguhyatamaṁ (the most secret);
vimṛśyavimṛṣya (after purifying);
yathecchasi → yat icchasi (that which you desire);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ity etad te tubhyaṃ jñānam ākhyātaṃ kathitaṃ guhyād gopyād guhyataram atiśayena guhyaṃ rahasyam ity arthaḥ, mayā sarvajñena īśvareṇa | vimṛśya vimarśanam ālocanaṃ kṛtvaitat yathoktaṃ śāstram aśeṣeṇa samastaṃ yathoktaṃ cārtha-jātaṃ yathecchasi tathā kuru
 

Rāmānuja


iti evaṃ te mumukṣubhir adhigantavyaṃ jñānaṃ sarvasmād guhyād guhyataraṃ karmayogaviṣayaṃ jñānayogaviṣayaṃ bhaktiyogaviṣayaṃ ca sarvam ākhyātam / etadaśeṣeṇa vimṛśya svādhikārānurūpaṃ yathecchasi, tathā kuru karmayogaṃ jñānayogaṃ bhaktiyogaṃ vā yatheṣṭam ātiṣṭhetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


sarva-gītārtham upasaṃharann āha itīti | ity anena prakāreṇa te tubhyaṃ sarvajñena parama-kāruṇikena mayā jñānam ākhyātam upadiṣṭam | kathambhūtam | guhyād gopyād rahasya-mantra-yogādi-jñānād api guhyataraṃ | etan mayopadiṣṭaṃ gītā-śāstram aśeṣato paryālocya paścād yathecchasi tathā kuru | etasmin paryālocite sati tava moho nivartiṣyata iti bhāvaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sarva-gītārtham upasaṃharati itīti | karma-yogasyāṣṭāṅga-yogasya jñāna-yogasya ca jñānaṃ jñāyate ‚neneti jñānaṃ jñāna-śāstraṃ guhyād guhyataram ity atirahasyatvāt kair api vaśiṣṭa-bādarāyaṇa-nāradādyair api sva-sva-kṛta-śāstreṇāprakāśitam | yad vā, teṣāṃ sārvajñyam āpekṣikaṃ mama tu ātyantikam ity atas te tu etad atiguhyatvān na jānanti | mayāpi atiguhyatvād eva te sarvathaiva naitad upadiṣṭā iti bhāvaḥ | etad aśeṣeṇa niḥśeṣataḥ eva vimṛśya, yathā yena prakāreṇa svābhirucitaṃ, yat kartum icchasi tathā tat kuru, ity antyaṃ jñāna-ṣaṭkaṃ sampūrṇam | ṣaṭka-trikam idaṃ sarva-vidyā-śiro-ratnaṃ śrī-gītā-śāstraṃ mahānarghya-rahasyatama-bhakti-sampuṭaṃ bhavati | prathamaṃ karma-ṣaṭkaṃ yasyādhāra-pidhānaṃ kānakaṃ bhavati | antyaṃ jñāna-ṣaṭkaṃ yasyottara-pidhānaṃ maṇi-jaṭitaṃ kānakaṃ bhavati | tayor madhyavarti-ṣaṭka-gatā bhaktis trijagad-anarghyā śrī-kṛṣṇa-vaśīkāriṇī mahāmaṇi-matallikā virājate, yasyāḥ paricārikā tad-uttara-pidhānārdha-gatā man-manā bhava ity ādi padya-dvayī catuḥ-ṣaṣṭhy-akṣarā śuddhā bhavatīti budhyate
 

Baladeva


śāstram upasaṃharann āha itīti | iti pūrvokta-prakārakaṃ jñānaṃ gītā-śāstram jñāyante karma-bhakti-jñānāny anena iti nirukteḥ | tan-mayā te tubhyam ākhyātaṃ samproktam | guhyād rahasya-mantrādi-śāstrād guhyataram iti gopyam | etac chāstra-śeṣeṇa sāmastyena vimṛśya paścād yathecchasi tathā kuru | etasmin paryālocite tava moha-vināśo mad-vacasi sthitiś ca bhaviṣyatīti
 
 


BhG 18.64

sarva-guhyatamaṃ bhūyaḥ śṛṇu me paramaṃ vacaḥ
iṣṭosi me dṛḍham iti tato vakṣyāmi te hitam

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syntax


[tvam] (you) me (my) sarva-guhya-tamam (the most secret of all) paramam vacaḥ (supreme word) bhūyaḥ (again) śṛṇu (you must listen).
[tvam] (you) me (my) dṛḍham (firmly) iṣṭaḥ (beloved) asi (you are),
tataḥ (therefore) [aham] (I) te (to you) hitam (benefit) vakṣyāmi (I will declare).

 

grammar

sarva-guhyatamam sarva-guhyatama 2n.1 n.; [TP]: sarvebhyaḥ guhya-tamam iti the most secret of all (from: sarva – all, whole; xguh – to cover, to hide, PF guhya – to be hidden, secret, mystery; superlative of: guhya – guhya-tara, guhya-tama);
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
paramam parama 2n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
vacaḥ vacas 2n.1 n.word, the speech (from: vac – to speak);
iṣṭaḥ iṣṭa (from: iṣ – to desire or yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) [PP] 1n.1 m.desired, worshipped, beloved;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
dṛḍham av. – firmly, thoroughly, very well (from: dṛṁh – to make strong, [PP] dṛḍha – firm, hard, not to be bent);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
vakṣyāmi vac (to declare) Fut. P 3v.1I will declare;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
hitam hita (dhā – to put) [PP] 2n.1 m. set, beneficial; welfare, benefit;

 

textual variants


iṣṭo ‘si → dṛṣṭo ‘si (you are seen);
dṛḍham iti dṛḍha-matiḥ / dṛḍha-mataṁ / dṛḍha iti (who has firm conviction / firm opinion / firm);

The second pada of verse 18.64 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 10.1;

 
 



Śāṃkara


bhūyo’pi mayocyamānaṃ sṛṇu—
sarva-guhyatamaṃ sarvebhyo guhyebhyo’tyanta-guhyatamam atyanta-rahasyam, uktam apy asakṛd bhūyaḥ punaḥ sṛṇu me mama paramaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ vaco vākyam | na bhayān nāpy artha-kāraṇād vā vakṣyāmi | kiṃ tarhi ? iṣṭaḥ priyo’si me mama dṛḍham avyabhicāreṇeti kṛtvā tatas tena kāraṇena vakṣyāmi kathayiṣyāmi te tava hitaṃ paramaṃ jñāna-prāpti-sādhanam | tad dhi sarva-hitānāṃ hitatamam
 

Rāmānuja


sarveṣv eteṣu guhyeṣu bhaktiyogasya śraiṣṭhyād guhyatamam iti pūrvam evoktam „idaṃ tu te guhyatamaṃ pravakṣyāmy anasūyave” ityādau / bhūyo ‚pi tadviṣayaṃ paramaṃ me vacaḥ śṛṇu / iṣṭo ‚si me dṛḍham iti tatas te hitaṃ vakṣyāmi
 

Śrīdhara


ati-gambhīraṃ gītā-śāstram aśeṣataḥ paryālocayitum aśaknuvataḥ kṛpayā svayam eva tasya sāraṃ saṅgṛhya kathayati sarva-guhyatamam iti tribhiḥ | sarvebhyo ‚pu guhyebhyo guhyatamaṃ me vacas tatra tatroktam api bhūyaḥ punar api vakṣyamaṇaṃ śṛṇu | punaḥ punaḥ kathane hetum āha dṛḍham atyantaṃ me mama tvam iṣṭaḥ priyo ‚sīti matvā tata eva hetos te hitaṃ vakṣyāmi | yad vā tvaṃ mameṣṭo ‚si mayā vakṣyamāṇaṃ ca dṛḍhaṃ sarva-pramāṇopetam iti niścitya tatas te vakṣyāmīty arthaḥ | dṛḍha-matir iti kecit paṭhanti
 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca atigambhīrārthaṃ gītā-śāstraṃ paryālocayitum pravartamānaṃ tuṣṇīmbhūyaiva sthitaṃ sva-priya-sakham arjunam ālakṣya kṛpā-dravac-citta-nava-nīto bhagavān bhoḥ priyavayasya arjuna sarva-śāstra-sāram aham eva ślokāṣṭakena bravīmi | alaṃ te tat-tat-paryālocana-kleśenety āha sarveti | bhūya iti rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhyādhyāyānte pūrvam uktam |
man-manā bhava mad-bhakto
mad-yājī māṃ namaskuru |
mām evaiṣyasi yuktvaivam
ātmānaṃ mat-parāyaṇaḥ || (Gītā 9.34) iti
yat tad eva paramaṃ sarva-śāstrārtha-sārasya gītā-śāstrasyāpi sāraṃ guhyatamam iti nātaḥ paraṃ kiñcana guhyam asti kvacit kutaścit katham api akhaṇḍam iti bhāvaḥ | punaḥ kathane hetum āha | iṣṭo ‚si me dṛḍham atiśayena eva priyo me sakhā bhavasīti tata eva hetor hitaṃ te iti sakhāyaṃ vinātirahasyaṃ na kam api kaścid api brūta iti bhāvaḥ | dṛḍha-matir iti ca pāṭhaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha nirapekṣāṇāṃ sādhana-sādhya-paddhatim upadeksyann ādau tāṃ stauti sarveti | sarveṣu guhyeṣu madhye ‚tiśayitaṃ guhyam iti sarva-guhyatamam | bhūya iti rāja-vidyādhyāye man-manā bhava ity ādinā pūrvam api mamātipriyatvād ante punar ucyamānaṃ śṛṇu paramaṃ sarva-sārasyāpi gītā-śāstrasya sārabhūtam | punaḥ kathanena hetuḥ iṣṭo ‚sīti | tvaṃ mameṣṭaḥ priyatamo ‚si | mad-vākyaṃ dṛḍhaṃ nikhila-pramāṇopetam iti niścinoṣy atas te hitaṃ vakṣyāmi | tathāpy etad evānuṣṭheyam iti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.65

man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṃ namas kuru
mām evaiṣyasi satyaṃ te pratijāne priyosi me

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syntax


man-manāḥ (whose mind is in me) mad-bhaktaḥ (my devotee) mad-yājī (my worshipper) bhava (you must be),
mām (me) namas (obeisance) kuru (you must do).
[tvam] (you) mām eva (just to me) eṣyasi (you will come).
[tvam] (you) me (to me) priyaḥ (dear) asi (you are),
[ataḥ aham] (therefore I) te (to you) satyam (truly) pratijāne (I promise).

 

grammar

man-manāḥ man-manas 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya mano mayy asti saḥ whose mind is in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; man – to think, manas – the mind);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;
mad-bhaktaḥ mad-bhakta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mama bhakta itimy devotee (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
mad-yājī mad-yājin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yo mām yajata iti saḥwho worships me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
namaḥ namaḥ 2n.1 n.obeisance, salutation (from: nam – to bend, to bow);
kuru kṛ (to do) Imperat. P 2v.1you must do;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
eṣyasi i (to go, to come) Fut. P 2v.1you will come;
satyam av. (2n.1) – truly (from: as – to be, [PP] sant – being, satya – truth, truthfulness);
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
pratijāne prati-jñā (to promise) Praes. Ā. 3v.1I promise;
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);

 

textual variants


man-manā san-manā (whose mind is noble);
mām → mā (to me);

The first and second pada of verse 18.65 are the same as the first and second pada of verse BhG 9.34;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ tat iti, āha—
man-manā bhava mac-citto bhava | mad-bhakto bhava mad-bhajano bhava | mad-yājī mad-yajana-śīlo bhava | māṃ namaskuru namaskāram api mamaiva kuru | tatraivaṃ vartamāno vāsudeva eva samarpita-sādhya-sādhana-prayojano mām evaiṣyasy āgamiṣyasi | satyaṃ te tava pratijāne, satyāṃ pratijñāṃ karomy etasmin vastunīty arthaḥ | yataḥ priyo’si me | evaṃ bhagavataḥ satya-pratijñatvaṃ buddhvā bhagavad-bhakter avaśyambhāvi mokṣa-phalam avadhārya bhagavac-charaṇaika-parāyaṇo bhaved iti vākyārthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


vedānteṣu, „vedāham etaṃ puruṣaṃ mahāntam ādityavarṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt / tam evaṃ vidvān amṛta iha bhavati nānyaḥ panthā vidyate ‚yanāya” ityādiṣu vihitaṃ vedanaṃ dhyānopāsanādiśabdavācyaṃ darśanasamānākāraṃ smṛtisaṃtānam atyarthapriyam iha manmanā bhaveti vidhīyate / madbhaktaḥ atyarthamatpriyaḥ / atyarthamatpriyatvena niratiśayapriyāṃ smṛtisaṃtatiṃ kuruṣvetyarthaḥ / madyājī / tatrāpi madbhakta ity anuṣajyate / yajanaṃ pūjanam / atyarthapriyamadārādhanaparo bhava / ārādhanaṃ hi paripūrṇaśeṣavṛttiḥ / māṃ namaskuru / namaḥ namanam / mayy atimātraprahvībhāvam atyarthapriyaṃ kurv ityarthaḥ / evaṃ vartamāno mām evaiṣyasi / etat satyaṃ te pratijāne tava pratijñāṃ karomi; nopacchandanamātram; yatas tvaṃ priyo ‚si me / „priyo hi jñānino ‚tyartham ahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ” iti pūrvam evoktam / yasya mayy atimātratā prītir vartate, mamāpi tasmin atimātrā prītir bhavatīti tadviyogam asahamāno ‚haṃ taṃ māṃ prāpayāmi / ataḥ satyam eva pratijñātam, mām evaiṣyasīti
 

Śrīdhara


tad evam āha man-manā iti | man-manā mac-citto bhava | mad-bhakto mad-bhajana-śīlo bhava | mad-yājī mad-yajana-śīlo bhava | mām eva namaskuru evaṃ vartamānas tvaṃ mat-prasādāt labdha-jñānena mām evaiṣyasi prāpsyasi | atra ca saṃśayaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | tvaṃ hi me priyo ‚si | atha satyaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ tubhyam ahaṃ pratijāne pratijñāṃ karomi
 

Viśvanātha


manmanā bhava iti mad-bhaktaḥ sann eva māṃ cintaya | na tu jñānī yogī vā bhūtvā mad-dhyānaṃ kurv ity arthaḥ | yad vā man-manā bhava mahyaṃ śyāmasundarāya susnigdhākuñcita-kuntalakāya-sundara-bhrū-valli-madhura-kṛpā-kaṭākṣāmṛta-varṣi-vadana-candrāya svīyaṃ deyatvena mano yasya tathābhūto bhava | athavā śrotrādīndriyāṇi dehīty āha mad-bhakto bhava | śravaṇa-kīrtana-man-mūrti-darśana-man-mandira-mārjana-lepana-puspāharaṇa-man-mālālaṅkāra-cchatra-cāmarādibhiḥ sarvendriya-karaṇakaṃ mad-bhajanaṃ kuru | athavā mahyaṃ gandha-puṣpa-dhūpa-dīpa-naivedyāni dehīty āha mad-yājī bhava | mat-pūjanaṃ kuru | athavā mahyaṃ namaskāra-mātraṃ dehīty āha māṃ namaskuru bhūmau nipatya aṣṭāṅgaṃ vā praṇāmaṃ kuru | eṣāṃ caturṇāṃ mac-cintana-sevana-pūjana-praṇāmāṇāṃ samuccayam ekataraṃ vā tvaṃ kuru | mām evaiṣyasi prāpsyasi manaḥ-pradānaṃ śrotrādīndriya-pradānaṃ gandha-puṣpādi-pradānaṃ vā tvaṃ kuru | tubhyam aham ātmānam eva dāsyāmīti satyaṃ | te tavaiva | nātra saṃśayiṣṭhā iti bhāvaḥ | satyaṃ śapatha-tathyayoḥ ity amaraḥ |

nanu māthura-deśodbhūtā lokāḥ prativākyam eva śapathaṃ kurvanti satyaṃ tarhi pratijāne pratijñāṃ kṛtvā bravīmi | tvaṃ me priyo ‚si nahi priyaṃ ko ‚pi vañcayait iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


etad-vacaḥ prāha manmanā bhaveti | vyākhyātaṃ prāk man-manastvād viśiṣṭo mām eva nīlotpala-śyāmalatvādi-guṇakaṃ tvad-atipriyam devakī-nandanaṃ kṛṣṇam eva manuṣya-sanniveśitam eṣyasi | na tu mama rūpāntaraṃ sahasra-śīrṣatvādi-lakṣaṇam aṅguṣṭha-mātram antaryāmiṇaṃ vā nṛsiṃha-varāhādi-lakṣaṇaṃ vety arthaḥ | tubhyam aham ātmānam eva tvat-sakhaṃ dāsyāmīti te tava satyaṃ śapathaḥ satyaṃ śapatha-tathyayoḥ iti nānārthavargaḥ | atra na saṃśayiṣṭhā iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu māthuratvāt tava śapatha-karaṇād api me na saṃśaya-vināśas tatrāha pratijāne pratijñāṃ kṛtvāham abruvam | yat tvaṃ me priyo ‚si snigdha-manasā hi māthurāḥ priyaṃ na pratārayanti | kiṃ punaḥ preṣṭham iti bhāvaḥ | yasya mayy atiprītas tasmin mamāpi tathā | tad-viyogaṃ soḍhum ahaṃ na śaknomīti pūrvam eva mayoktaṃ priyo hi ityādinā | tasmān mad-vāci viśvasihi mām eva prāpsyasi

 
 


BhG 18.66

sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja
ahaṃ tvā sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmiśucaḥ

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syntax


[tvam] (you) sarva-dharmān (all duties) parityajya (after abandoning),
mām (to me) ekam śaraṇam (to the only shelter) vraja (you must go).
aham (I) tvā (you) sarva-pāpebhyaḥ (from all sins) mokṣayiṣyāmi (I will liberate),
mā śucaḥ (do not lament!).

 

grammar

sarva-dharmān sarva-dharma 1n.3 n.; sarvān dharmān itiall duties (from: sarva – all, whole; dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law);
parityajya pari-tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1to me;
ekam eka sn. 2n.1 m.to one;
śaraṇam śaraṇa 2n.1 n.to shelter, to refuge, to protection (from: śri – to turn towards, to lean on, to rest on, to resort);
vraja vraj (to go, to walk) Imperat. P 2v.1you must go;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
tvā yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you (shortened form of: tvām);
sarva-pāpebhyaḥ sarva-pāpa 5n.3 n.; sarvebhyaḥ pāpebhya itifrom all sins (from: sarva – all, whole; pāpa – evil, sin);
mokṣayiṣyāmi muc (to liberate, to release) Fut. caus. 3v.1I will liberate (from what? – requires instrumental or ablative);
av.not! (very strong negation mostly used with aorist deprived of  prefix ‘a-’);
śucaḥ śuc (to grieve,  to burn) Aor. P 2v.1 aśucaḥ – you lamented; used with particle loses prefix ‘a-’ and makes the imperative: do not lament!

 

textual variants


tvā → tvāṁ (you);
mā → mām (me);
śucaḥ → śuca;
 
 



Śāṃkara


karma-yoga-niṣṭhāyāḥ parama-rahasyam īśvara-śaraṇatām upasaṃhṛtya, athedānīṃ karma-yoga-niṣṭhā-phalaṃ samyag darśanaṃ sarva-vedānta-sāra-vihitaṃ vaktavyam ity āha—
sarva-dharmān sarve ca te dharmāś ca sarva-dharmās tān | dharma-śabdenātrādharmo’pi gṛhyate, naiṣkarmyasya vivakṣitatvāt | nāvirato duścaritāt [ka.u. 1.2.24], tyaja dharmam adharmaṃ ca [ma.bhā. 12.329.40] ity ādi-śruti-smṛtibhyaḥ | sarva-dharmān parityajya saṃnyasya sarva-karmāṇīty etat | mām ekaṃ sarvātmānaṃ samaṃ sarva-bhūta-stham īśvaram acyutaṃ garbha-janma-jarā-maraṇa-varjitaṃ « aham eva » ity evaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja | na matto’nyad astīty avadhāraya ity arthaḥ | ahaṃ tvā tvām evaṃ niścita-buddhiṃ sarva-pāpebhyaḥ sarva-dharmādharma-bandhana-rūpebhyaḥ mokṣayiṣyāmi svātma-bhāva-prakāśī-karaṇena | uktaṃ ca nāśayāmy ātma-bhāva-stho jñāna-dīpena bhāsvatā [gītā 10.11] iti | ato, mā śucaḥ śokaṃ mā kārṣīr ity arthaḥ |

asmin gītā-śāstre parama-niḥśreyasa-sādhanaṃ niścitaṃ kiṃ jñānam, karma vā, āho svid ubhayaṃ ? iti | kutaḥ saṃśayaḥ ? yaj jñātvāmṛtam aśnute [gītā 13.13], tato māṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tad anantaraṃ [gītā 18.55] ity ādīni vākyāni kevalāj jñānān niḥśreyasa-prāptiṃ darśayanti | karmaṇy evādhikāras te [gītā 2.47], kuru karmaiva [gītā 4.15] ity evam ādīni karmaṇām avaśya-kartavyatāṃ darśayanti | evaṃ jñāna-karmaṇoḥ kartavyatvopadeśāt samuccitayor api niḥśreyasa-hetutvaṃ syād iti bhavet saṃśayaḥ kasyacit | kiṃ punar atra mīmāṃsā-phalaṃ ? nanv etad eva—eṣām anyatamasya parama-niḥśreyasa-sādhanatvāvadhāraṇam | ato vistīrṇataraṃ mīmāṃsyam etat |

ātma-jñānasya tu kevalasya niḥśreyasa-hetutvam | bheda-pratyaya-nivartakatvena kaivalya-phalāvasānatvāt | kriyā-kāraka-phala-bheda-buddhir avidyayātmani nitya-pravṛttā—mama karma, ahaṃ kartāmuṣmai phalāyedaṃ karma kariṣyāmītīyam avidyānādi-kāla-pravṛttā | asyā avidyāyāḥ nivartakam, ayam aham asmi kevalo’kartākriyo’phalaḥ | na matto’nyo’sti kaścid ity evaṃ-rūpam ātma-viṣayaṃ jñānam utpadyamānam, karma-pravṛtti-hetu-bhūtāyā bheda-buddher nivartakatvāt | tu-śabdaḥ pakṣa-vyāvṛtty-arthaḥ | na kevalebhyaḥ karmabhyaḥ, na ca jñāna-karmabhyāṃ samuccitābhyāṃ niḥśreyasa-prāptir iti pakṣa-dvayaṃ nivartayati | akāryatvāc ca niḥśreyasasya karma-sādhanatvānupapattiḥ | na hi nityaṃ vastu karmaṇā jñānena vā kriyate |

kevalaṃ jñānam apy anarthakaṃ tarhi ? na, avidyā-nivartakatve sati dṛṣṭa-kaivalya-phalāvasānatvāt | avidyā-tamo-nivartakasya jñānasya dṛṣṭaṃ kaivalya-phalāvasānatvam | rajjv-ādi-viṣaye sarpādy-ajñāna-tamo-nivartaka-pradīpa-prakāśa-phalavat | vinivṛtta-sarpādi-vikalpa-rajju-kaivalyāvasānaṃ hi prakāśa-phalam | tathā jñānam | dṛṣṭārthānāṃ ca cchidi-kriyāgni-manthanādīnāṃ vyāpṛta-kartrādi-kārakāṇāṃ dvaidhī-bhāvāgni-darśanādi-phalād anya-phale karmāntare vā vyāpārānupapattir yathā, tathā dṛṣṭarthāyāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-kriyāyāṃ vyāpṛtasya jñātr-ādi-kārakasya ātma-kaivalya-phalāt karmāntare pravṛttir anupapannā iti na jñāna-niṣṭhā karma-sahitopapadyate |

bhujy-agnihotrādi-kriyā-vatsyād iti cet, na | kaivalya-phale jñāne kriyā-phalārthitvānupapatteḥ | kaivalya-phale hi jñāne prāpte, sarvataḥ samplutodaka-phale kūpa-taṭakādi-kriyā-phalārthitvābhāvavat, phalāntare tat-sādhana-bhūtāyāṃ vā kriyāyām arthitvānupapattiḥ | na hi rājya-prāpti-phale karmaṇi vyāpṛtasya kṣetra-mātra-prāpti-phale vyāpāra upapadyate, tad-viṣayaṃ vārthitvam | tasmān na karmaṇo’sti niḥśreyasa-sādhanatvam | na ca jñāna-karmaṇoḥ samuccitayoḥ | nāpi jñānasya kaivalya-phalasya karma-sāhāyyāpekṣā, avidyā-nivartakatvena virodhāt |

na hi tamas tamaso nivartakam | ataḥ kevalam eva jñānaṃ niḥśreyasa-sādhanam iti | na | nityākaraṇe pratyavāya-prāpteḥ, kaivalyasya ca nityatvāt | yat tāvat kevalāj jñānāt kaivalya-prāptir ity etat, tad asat | yato nityānāṃ karmaṇāṃ śruty-uktānām akaraṇe pratyavāyo narakādi-prāpti-lakṣaṇaḥ syāt |

nanv evaṃ tarhi karmabhyo mokṣo nāstīty anirmokṣa eva | naiṣa doṣaḥ | nityatvān mokṣasya | nityānāṃ karmaṇām anuṣṭhānāt pratyavāyasyāprāptiḥ | pratiṣiddhasya cākaraṇāt aniṣṭa-śarīrānupapattiḥ, kāmyānāṃ ca varjanād iṣṭa-śarīrānupapattiḥ, vartamāna-śarīrārambhakasya ca karmaṇaḥ phalopabhoga-kṣaye patite’smin śarīre dehāntarotpattau ca kāraṇābhāvāt ātmano rāgādīnāṃ cākaraṇe svarūpāvasthānam eva kaivalyam ity ayatna-siddhaṃ kaivalyam iti |

atikrāntāneka-janmāntara-kṛtasya svarga-narakādi-prāpti-phalasyānārabdha-kāryasya upabhogānupapatteḥ kṣayābhāva iti cet, na | nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhopabhogasya tat-phalopabhogatvopapatteḥ | prāyaścittavad vā pūrvopātta-durita-kṣayārthaṃ nityaṃ karma | ārabdhānāṃ ca karmaṇām upabhogenaiva kṣīṇatvād apūrvāṇāṃ ca karmaṇām anārambhe’yatna-siddhaṃ kaivalyam iti | na | tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti nānyaḥ panthā vidyate’yanāya [śve.u. 3.8, 6.15] iti vidyāyā anyaḥ panthā mokṣāya na vidyate iti śruteḥ, carmavad ākāśa-veṣṭanāsambhavavad aviduṣo mokṣāsambhava-śruteḥ, jñānāt kaivalyam āpnoti iti ca purāṇa-smṛteḥ | anārabdha-phalānāṃ puṇyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ kṣayānupapatteś ca |

yathā pūrvopāttānāṃ duritānām anārabdha-phalānāṃ sambhavaḥ, tathā puṇyānām anārabdha-phalānāṃ syāt sambhavaḥ | teṣāṃ ca dehāntaram akṛtvā kṣayānupapattau mokṣānupapattiḥ | dharmādharma-hetūnāṃ ca rāga-dveṣa-mohānām anyatra ātma-jñānād ucchedānupapatter dharmādharmocchedānupapattiḥ | nityānāṃ ca karmaṇāṃ puṇya-loka-phala-śruteḥ | varṇā āśramāś ca sva-karma-niṣṭhā [gau.dha.ṣū. 11.29] ity ādi-smṛte ca karma-kṣayānupapattiḥ |

ye tv āhur nityāni karmāṇi duḥkha-rūpatvāt pūrva-kṛta-durita-karmaṇāṃ phalam eva, na tu teṣāṃ svarūpa-vyatirekeṇānyat phalam asti, aśrutatvāt, jīvanādi-nimitte ca vidhānād iti | na, apravṛttānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phala-dānāsambhavāt | duḥkha-phala-viśeṣānupapattiś ca syāt |

yad uktaṃ pūrva-janma-kṛta-duritānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalaṃ nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhaṃ bhujyateti, tad asat | na hi maraṇa-kāle phala-dānāyānaṅkurī-bhūtasya karmaṇaḥ phalam anya-karmārabdhe janmany upabhujyate ity upapattiḥ | anyathā svarga-phalopabhogāyāgnihotrādi-karmārabdhe janmani naraka-phalopabhogānupapattir na syāt | tasya duritasya duḥkha-viśeṣa-phalatvānupapatteś ca—anekeṣu hi duriteṣu sambhavatsu bhinna-duḥkha-sādhana-phaleṣu nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkha-mātra-phaleṣu kalpyamāneṣu dvandva-rogādi-bādhanaṃ nirnimittaṃ na hi śakyate kalpayitum, nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkham eva pūrvopātta-durita-phalaṃ na śirasā pāṣāṇa-vahanādi-duḥkham iti |

aprakṛtaṃ cedam ucyate—nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhaṃ pūrva-kṛta-durita-karma-phalam iti | kathaṃ ? aprasūta-phalasya hi pūrva-kṛta-duritasya kṣayo na upapadyateti prakṛtam | tatra prasūta-phalasya karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkham āha bhavān, nāprasūta-phalasyeti | atha sarvam eva pūrva-kṛtaṃ duritaṃ prasūta-phalam eveti manyate bhavān, tato nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkham eva phalam iti viśeṣaṇam ayuktam | nitya-karma-vidhyānarthakya-prasaṅgaś ca, upabhogenaiva prasūta-phalasya durita-karmaṇaḥ kṣayopapatteḥ | kiṃ ca, śrutasya nityasya karmaṇo duḥkhaṃ cet phalam, nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsād eva tad dṛśyate vyāyāmādivat | tad anyasyeti kalpanānupapattiḥ | jīvanādi-nimitte ca vidhānāt, nityānāṃ karmaṇāṃ prāyaścittavat, pūrva-kṛta-durita-phalatvānupapattiḥ | yasmin pāpa-karmaṇi nimitte yad vihitaṃ prāyaścittaṃ na tu tasya pāpasya tat phalam | atha tasyaiva pāpasya nimittasya prāyaścitta-duḥkhaṃ phalam, jīvanādi-nimitte’pi nitya-karmānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhaṃ jīvanādi-nimittasyaiva phalaṃ prasajyeta, nitya-prāyaścittayor naimittikatvāviśeṣāt |

kiṃ cānyan nityasya kāmyasya cāgnihotrāder anuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhasya tulyatvān nityānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkham eva pūrva-kṛta-duritasya phalam, na tu kāmyānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkham iti viśeṣo nāstīti tad api pūrva-kṛta-durita-phalaṃ prasajyeta | tathā ca sati nityānāṃ phalāśravaṇāt tad-vidhānānyathānupapatteś ca nityānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhaṃ pūrva-kṛta-durita-phalam ity arthāpatti-kalpanā cānupapannā, evaṃ vidhānānyathānupapatter anuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkha-vyatirikta-phalatvānumānāc ca nityānām | virodhāc ca | viruddhaṃ cedam ucyate—nitya-karmaṇānuṣṭhīyamānenānyasya karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ bhujyate ity abhyupagamyamāne sa eva upabhogo nityasya karmaṇaḥ phalam iti, nityasya karmaṇaḥ phalābhāveti ca viruddham ucyate | kiṃ ca, kāmyāgnihotrādau anuṣṭhīyamāne nityam apy agnihotrādi tantreṇaivānuṣṭhitaṃ bhavatīti tad āyāsa-duḥkhenaiva kāmyāgnihotrādi-phalam upakṣīṇaṃ syāt, tat-tantratvāt |

atha kāmyāgnihotrādi-phalam anyad eva svargādi, tad-anuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkham api bhinnaṃ prasajyeta | na ca tad asti, dṛṣṭa-virodhāt | na hi kāmyānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhāt kevala-nityānuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkhaṃ bhinnaṃ dṛśyate | kiṃ cānyat—avihitam apratiṣiddhaṃ ca karma tat-kāla-phalam, na tu śāstra-coditaṃ pratiṣiddhaṃ vā tat-kāla-phalaṃ bhaved yadi tadā svargādiṣv apy adṛṣṭa-phala-śāsane codyamo na syāt | agnihotrādīnām eva karma-svarūpāviśeṣe’nuṣṭhānāyāsa-duḥkha-mātreṇopakṣayo nityānām | svargādi-mahā-phalatvaṃ kāmyānām, aṅgeti kartavyatādy-ādhikye tv asati, phala-kāmitva-mātreṇeti na śakyaṃ kalpayitum |

tasmāc ca na nityānāṃ karmaṇām adṛṣṭa-phalābhāvaḥ kadācid apy upapadyate | ataś cāvidyā-pūrvakasya karmaṇo vidyaiva śubhasyāśubhasya vā kṣaya-kāraṇam aśeṣataḥ, na nitya-karmānuṣṭhānam | avidyā-kāma-bījaṃ hi sarvam eva karma | tathā copapāditam avidvad-viṣayaṃ karma, vidvad-viṣayā ca sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-pūrvikā jñāna-niṣṭhā | ubhau tau na vijānītaḥ [gītā 2.19], vedāvināśinaṃ nityaṃ [gītā 2.21], jñāna-yogena sāṃkhyānāṃ karma-yogena yogināṃ [gītā 3.3], ajñānāṃ karma-saṅgināṃ [gītā 3.36], tattva-vit tu mahābāho…. guṇā guṇeṣu vartante iti matvā na sajjate [gītā 3.28], sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasyāste [gītā 5.13], naiva kiṃcit karomīti yukto manyeta tattva-vit [gītā 5.8], arthād ajñaḥ karomīti | ārurukṣoḥ karma kāraṇam, ārūḍhasya yogasthasya śama eva kāraṇam | udārās trayo’py ajñāḥ, jñānī tv ātmaiva me mataṃ [gītā 7.18], ājñāḥ karmiṇaḥ | gatāgataṃ kāma-kāmā labhante [gītā 9.31], ananyāś cintayanto māṃ nitya-yuktā [gītā 9.22], yathoktam ātmānam ākāśa-kalpam upāsate | dadāmi buddhi-yogaṃ taṃ yena mām upayānti te [gītā 10.10], arthān na karmiṇo’jñā upayānti |

bhagavat-karma-kāriṇo ye yuktatamā api karmiṇo’jñās te uttarottara-hīna-phala-tyāgāvasāna-sādhanāḥ | anirdeśyākṣaropāsakās tv adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṃ [gītā 12.13] iti ādhyāya-parisamāpty-ukta-sādhanāḥ kṣetrādhyāyādy-adhyāya-trayokta-jñāna-sādhanāś ca | adhiṣṭhānādi-pañcaka-hetuka-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsinām ātmaikatvākartṛtva-jñānavatāṃ parasyāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāyāṃ vartamānānāṃ bhagavat-tattva-vidām aniṣṭādi-karma-phala-trayaṃ paramahaṃsa-parivrājakānām eva labdha-bhagavat-svarūpātmaikatva-śaraṇānāṃ na bhavati | bhavaty evānyeṣām ajñānāṃ karmiṇām asaṃnyāsinām ity eṣa gītā-śāstrokta-kartavyārthasya vibhāgaḥ |

avidyā-pūrvakatvaṃ sarvasya karmaṇo’siddham iti cet, na | brahma-hatyādivat | yady api śāstrāvagataṃ nityaṃ karma, tathāpy avidyāvata eva bhavati | yathā pratiṣedha-śāstrāvagatam api brahma-hatyādi-lakṣaṇaṃ karmānartha-kāraṇam avidyā-kāmādi-doṣavato bhavati, anyathā pravṛtty-anupapatteḥ, tathā nitya-naimittika-kāmyāny apīti | deha-vyatiriktātmany ajñāte pravṛttiḥ nityādi-karmasv anupapannā iti cet, na | calanātmakasya karmaṇo ’nātma-kartṛkasyāhaṃ karomīti pravṛtti-darśanāt | dehādi-saṃghāte’haṃ-pratyayo gauṇaḥ, na mithyā iti cet, na | tat-kāryeṣv api gauṇatvopapatteḥ | ātmīye dehādi-saṃghāte’haṃ-pratyayo gauṇaḥ | yathātmīye putre ātmā vai putra-nāmāsi [tai.saṃ. 2.11, kau.u. 2.11] iti, loke cāpi mama prāṇa evāyaṃ gauḥ iti, tadvat |

naivāyaṃ mithyā-pratyayaḥ | mithyā-pratyayas tu sthāṇu-puruṣayor agṛhyamāṇa-viśeṣayoḥ | na gauṇa-pratyayasya mukhya-kāryārthatā, adhikaraṇa-stuty-arthatvāt luptopamā-śabdena | yathā siṃho devadatto’gnir māṇavaka iti siṃha ivāgnir iva kraurya-paiṅgalyādi-sāmānyavattvāt devadatta-māṇavakādhikaraṇa-stuty-artham eva, na tu siṃha-kāryam agni-kāryaṃ vā gauṇa-śabda-pratyaya-nimittaṃ kiṃcit sādhyate | mithyā-pratyaya-kāryaṃ tv anartham anubhavatīti | gauṇa-pratyaya-viṣayaṃ jānāti naiṣa siṃho devadattaḥ | tathā nāyam agnir māṇavaka iti | tathā gauṇena dehādi-saṃghātena ātmanā kṛtaṃ karma na mukhyenāhaṃ-pratyaya-viṣayeṇa ātmanā kṛtaṃ karma na mukhyenāhaṃ-pratyaya-viṣayeṇa ātmanā kṛtaṃ syāt | na hi gauṇa-siṃhāgnibhyāṃ kṛtaṃ karma mukhya-siṃhāgnibhyāṃ kṛtaṃ syāt | na ca krauryeṇa paiṅgalyena vā mukhya-siṃhāgnyoḥ kāryaṃ kiṃcit kriyate, stuty-arthatvenopakṣīṇatvāt | stūyamānau ca jānīto nāhaṃ siṃhaḥ nāham agniḥ iti | na hi siṃhasya karma mamāgneś ceti | tathā na saṃghātasya karma mama mukhyasya ātmanaḥ iti pratyayo yuktataraḥ syāt | na punar ahaṃ kartā mama karmeti |

yac cāhur ātmīyaiḥ smṛtīcchāprayatnaiḥ karmahetubhirātmā karma karotīti, na | teṣāṃ mithyā-pratyaya-pūrvakatvāt | mithyā-pratyaya-nimitteṣṭāniṣṭānubhūta-kriyā-phala-janita-saṃskāra-pūrvakāḥ hi smṛtīcchā-prayatnādayaḥ | yathāsmin janmani dehādi-saṃghātābhimāna-rāga-dveṣādi-kṛtau dharmādharmās tat-phalānubhavaś ca, tathātīte’tītatare’pi janmanīty anādir avidyā-kṛtaḥ saṃsāro’tīto’nāgataś cānumeyaḥ | tataś ca sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-sahita-jñāna-niṣṭhayā ātyantikaḥ saṃsāroparameti siddham | avidyātmakatvāc ca dehābhimānasya, tan-nivṛttau dehānupapatteḥ saṃsārānupapattiḥ | dehādi-saṃghāte ātmābhimāno’vidyātmakaḥ | na hi loke gavādibhyo’nyo’ham, mattaś cānye gavādaya iti jānaṃs teṣv aham iti pratyayaṃ manyate kaścit | ajānaṃs tu sthāṇau puruṣa-vijñānavad avivekato dehādi-saṃghāte kuryād aham iti pratyayam, na vivekato jānan | yas tu ātmā vai putra nāmāsi [tai.saṃ. 2.11, kau.u. 2.11] iti putre’haṃ-pratyayaḥ, sa tu janya-janaka-sambandha-nimitto gauṇaḥ | gauṇena cātmanā bhojanādivat paramārtha-kāryaṃ na śakyate kartum | gauṇa-siṃhāgnibhyāṃ mukhya-siṃhāgni-kāryavat |

adṛṣṭa-viṣaya-codanā-prāmāṇyād ātma-kartavyaṃ gauṇair dehendriyātmabhiḥ kriyata eveti cet, na | avidyā-kṛtātmatvāt teṣām | na ca gauṇā ātmāno dehendriyādayaḥ | kiṃ tarhi ? mithyā pratyayenaivāsaṅgasyātmānaḥ saṅgatyātmatvam āpādyante, tad-bhāve bhāvāt, tad-abhāve cābhāvāt | avivekināṃ hy ajñāna-kāle bālānāṃ dṛśyate dīrgho’haṃ gauro’ham iti dehādi-saṃghāte’haṃ-pratyayaḥ | na tu vivekinām anyo’haṃ dehādi-saṃghātād iti jñānavatāṃ tat-kāle dehādi-saṃghāte’hampratyayo bhavati | tasmān mithyā-pratyayābhāve’bhāvāt tat-kṛta eva, na gauṇaḥ | pṛthag-gṛhyamāṇa-viśeṣa-sāmānyayor hi siṃha-devadattayor agni-māṇavakayor vā gauṇaḥ pratyayaḥ śabda-prayogo vā syāt, nāgṛhyamāṇa-viśeṣa-sāmānyayoḥ |

yat tūktaṃ śruti-prāmāṇyād iti, tan na | tat-prāmāṇyasyādṛṣṭa-viṣayatvāt | pratyakṣādi-pramāṇānulabdhe hi viṣaye’gnihotrādi-sādhya-sādhana-sambandhe śruteḥ prāmāṇyam, na pratyakṣādi-viṣaye, adṛṣṭa-darśanārtha-viṣayatvāt prāmāṇyasya | tasmān na dṛṣṭa-mithyā-jñāna-nimittasyāhaṃ-pratyayasya dehādi-saṃghāte gauṇatvaṃ kalpayituṃ śakyam | na hi śruti-śatam api śīto’gnir aprakāśo vā iti bruvat prāmāṇyam upaiti | yadi brūyāt śīto’gnir aprakāśo vā iti, tathāpy arthāntaraṃ śruter vivakṣitaṃ kalpyam | prāmāṇyānyathānupapatteḥ, na tu pramāṇāntara-viruddhaṃ sva-vacana-viruddhaṃ vā |

karmaṇo mithyā-pratyayavat-kartṛkatvāt kartur abhāve śruter aprāmāṇyam iti cet, na | brahma-vidyāyām arthavattvopapatteḥ | karma-vidhi-śrutivad brahma-vidyā-vidhi-śruter apy aprāmāṇya-prasaṅgeti cet, na | bādhaka-pratyayānupapatteḥ | yathā brahma-vidyā-vidhi-śrutyātmany avagate dehādi-saṃghāte’haṃ-pratyayo bādhyate | tathātmany evātmāvagatir na kadācit kenacit kathaṃcid api bādhituṃ śakyā, phalāvyatirekād avagateḥ, yathāgnir uṣṇaḥ prakāśaś ceti | na caivaṃ karma-vidhi-śruter aprāmāṇyam, pūrva-pūrva-pravṛtti-nirodhenottarottarāpūrva-pravṛtti-jananasya pratyag-ātmābhimukhyena pravṛtty-utpādanārthatvāt | mithyātve’pi upāyasyopeya-satyatayā satyatvam eva syāt, yathārtha-vādānāṃ vidhi-śeṣāṇām | loke’pi bālonmattādīnāṃ paya-ādau pāyayitavye cūḍā-vardhanādi-vacanam | prakārāntarasthānāṃ ca sākṣād eva vā prāmāṇya-siddhiḥ, prāg ātma-jñānāt dehābhimāna-nimitta-pratyakṣādi-prāmāṇyavat |

yat tu manyase—svayam avyāpriyamāṇo’py ātmā saṃnidhi-mātreṇa karoti, tad eva mukhyaṃ kartṛtvam ātmanaḥ | yathā rājā yudhyamāneṣu yodheṣu yudhyata iti prasiddhaṃ svayam ayudhyamāno’pi saṃnidhānād eva jitaḥ parājitaś ceti | tathā senāpatir vācaiva karoti | kriyā-phala-sambandhaś ca rājñaḥ senāpateś ca dṛṣṭaḥ | yathā ca ṛtvik-karma yajamānasya, tathā dehādīnāṃ karmātma-kṛtaṃ syāt | tat-phalasyātma-gāmitvāt | yathā ca bhrāmakasya loha-bhrāmayitṛtvād avyāpṛtasyaiva mukhyam eva kartṛtvam, tathā cātmana iti | tad asat | akurvataḥ kārakatva-prasaṅgāt |

kārakam aneka-prakāram iti cet, na | rāja-prabhṛtīnāṃ mukhyasyāpi kartṛtvasya darśanāt | rājā tāvat sva-vyāpāreṇāpi yudhyate | yodhānāṃ ca yodhayitṛtve dhana-dāne ca mukhyam eva kartṛtvam, tathā jaya-parājaya-phalopabhoge | yajamānasyāpi pradhāna-tyāge dakṣiṇā-dāne ca mukhyam eva kartṛtvam | tasmād avyāpṛtasya kartṛtvopacāro yaḥ, sa gauṇa ity avagamyate | yadi mukhyaṃ kartṛtvaṃ sva-vyāpāra-lakṣaṇaṃ nopalabhyate rāja-yajamāna-prabhṛtīnām, tadā saṃnidhi-mātreṇāpi kartṛtvaṃ mukhyaṃ parikalpyeta | yathā bhrāmakasya loha-bhrāmaṇena, na tathā rāja-yajamānādīnāṃ sva-vyāpāro nopalabhyate | tasmāt saṃnidhi-mātreṇa kartṛtvaṃ gauṇam eva | tathā ca sati tat-phala-sambandho’pi gauṇa eva syāt | na gauṇena mukhyaṃ kāryaṃ nirvartyate |

tasmād asad eva etad gīyate dehādīnāṃ vyāpāreṇāvyāpṛta ātmā kartā bhoktā ca syād iti | bhrānti-nimittaṃ tu sarvam upapadyate, yathā svapne | māyāyāṃ caivam | na ca dehādy-ātma-pratyaya-bhrānti-saṃtāna-vicchedeṣu suṣupti-samādhy-ādiṣu kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādy-anartha upalabhyate | tasmād bhrānti-pratyaya-nimitta evāyaṃ saṃsāra-bhramaḥ, na tu paramārthaḥ | iti samyag-darśanād atyanta evoparama iti siddham

 

Rāmānuja


karmayogajñānayogabhaktiyogarūpān sarvān dharmān paramaniśśreyasasādhanabhūtān, madārādhanatvena atimātraprītyā yathādhikāraṃ kurvāṇa eva, uktarītyā phalakarmakartṛtvādiparityāgena parityajya, mām ekam eva kartāram ārādhyaṃ prāpyam upāyaṃ cānusaṃdhatsva / eṣa eva sarvadharmāṇāṃ śastrīyaḥ parityāga iti, „niścayaṃ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama / tyāgo hi puruṣavyāghra trividhaḥ saṃprakīrtitaḥ // BhGR_18.” ityārabhya, „saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva sa tyāgas sāttiviko mataḥ // … na hi dehabhṛtā śakyaṃ tyaktuṃ karmāṇy aśeṣataḥ / yas tu karmaphalatyāgī sa tyāgīty abhidhīyate // BhGR_18.” iti adhyāyādau sudṛḍham upapāditam / ahaṃ tvā sarvapāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi evaṃ vartamānaṃ tvām matprāptivirodhibhyo ‚nādikālasaṃcitānantākṛtyakaraṇakṛtyākaraṇarūpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi / mā śucaḥ śokaṃ mā kṛthāḥ / atha vā, sarvapāpavinirmuktātyarthabhagavatpriyapuruṣanirvartyatvād bhaktiyogasya, tadārambhavirodhipāpānām ānantyāt tatprāyaścittarūpair dharmaiḥ parimitakālakṛtais teṣāṃ dustaratayā ātmano bhaktiyogārambhānarhatām ālocya śocato ‚rjunasya śokam apanudan śrībhagavān uvāca sarvadharmān parityajya mām ekaṃ śaraṇaṃ vrajeti / bhaktiyogārambhavirodhyanādikālasaṃcitanānāvidhānantapāpānuguṇān tattatprāyaścittarūpān kṛcchracāndrāyaṇakūśmāṇḍavaiśvānaravrātapatipavitreṣṭitrivṛdagniṣṭomādikān nānāvidhān anantāṃs tvayā parimitakālavartinā dūranuṣṭhānān sarvān dharmān parityajya bhaktiyogārambhasiddhaye mām ekaṃ paramakāruṇikam anālocitaviśeṣāśeṣalokaśaraṇyam āśritavātsalyajaladhiṃ śaraṇaṃ prapadyasva / ahaṃ tvā sarvapāpebhyaḥ yathoditasvarūpabhaktyārambhavirodhibhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpebhyaḥ mokṣayiṣyāmi; mā śucaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tato ‚pi guhyatamam āha sarveti | mad-bhaktyaiva sarvaṃ bhaviṣyatīti dṛḍha-viśvāsena vidhi-kaiṅkaryaṃ tyaktvā mad-eka-śaraṇaṃ bhava | evaṃ vartamānaḥ karma-tyāga-nimittaṃ pāpaṃ syād iti mā śucaḥ mokṣaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | yatas tvaṃ mad-eka-śaraṇaṃ sarva-pāpebhyo ‚haṃ mokṣayiṣyāmi
 

Viśvanātha


nanu tad-dhyānādikaṃ yat karomi tat kiṃ svāśrama-dharmānuṣṭhāna-pūrvakaṃ vā, kevalaṃ vā ? tatrāha sarva-dharmān varṇāśrama-dharmān sarvān eva parityajya ekaṃ mām eva śaraṇaṃ vraja | parityajya sannyasyeti na vyākhyeyam arjunasya kṣatriyatvena sannyāsādhikārāt na cārjunaṃ lakṣīkṛtyānya-jana-samudāyam evopadideśa bhagavān iti vācyam | lakṣyabhūtam arjunaṃ prati upadeśaṃ yojayitum aucitye saty evānyasyāpi upadeṣṭavyatvaṃ sambhaven na, tv anyathā na ca parityjyety asya phala-tyāga eva tātparyam iti vyākhyeyam asya vākyasya –

devarṣi-bhūtāpta-nṝṇāṃ pitṝṇāṃ
nāyaṃ kiṅkaro nāyam ṛṇī ca rājan |
sarvātmanā yaḥ śaraṇaṃ śaraṇyaṃ
gato mukundaṃ parihṛtya kartam || (BhP 11.5.41)

martyo yadā tyakta-samasta-karmā
niveditātmā vicikīrṣito me |
tadāmṛtatvaṃ pratipadyamāno
mayātma-bhūyāya ca kalpate vai || (BhP 11.29.32)

tāvat karmāṇi kurvīta
na nirvidyeta yāvatā |
mat-kathā-śravaṇādau vā
śraddhā yāvan na jāyate || (BhP 11.20.9)

ājñāyaiva guṇān doṣān
mayādiṣṭān api svakān |
dharmān santyajya yaḥ sarvān
māṃ bhajet sa ca sattamaḥ || (BhP 11.11.37)

ity ādibhir bhagavad-vākyaiḥsahaikārthasyāvaśya-vyākhyeyatvāt | atra ca pari-śabda-prayogāc ca | ata ekaṃ māṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja, na tu dharma-jñāna-yoga-devatāntarādikam ity arthaḥ | pūrvaṃ hi mad-anya-bhaktau sarva-śreṣṭhāyāṃ tavādhikāro nāstīty atas tvaṃ yat karoṣi yad aśnāsītyādi-bruvāṇena mayā karma-miśrāyāṃ bhaktau tavādhikāra uktaḥ | samprati tv atikṛpayā tubhyam ananya-bhaktau evādhikāras tasyā ananya-bhakter yādṛcchika-mad-aikāntika-bhakta-kṛpaika-labhyatva-lakṣaṇaṃ niyamaṃ sva-kṛtam api bhīṣma-yuddhe sva-pratijñām ivāpanīya datta iti bhāvaḥ | na ca mad-ājñayā nitya-naimittika-karma-tyāge tava prayavāya-śaṅkā sambhavet | veda-rūpeṇa mayaiva nitya-karmānuṣṭhānam ādiṣṭam adhunā tu svarūpeṇaiva tat-tyāga ādiśyate ity ataḥ kathaṃ te nitya-karmākaraṇe pāpāni sambhavanti ? pratyuta ataḥ paraṃ nitya-karmaṇi kṛta eva pāpāni bhaviṣyanti sākṣān mad-ājñā-laṅghanād ity avadheyam |

nanu yo hi yac-charaṇo bhavati, sa hi mūlya-krītaḥ paśur iva tad-adhīnaḥ | sa taṃ yat kārayati, tad eva karoti | yatra sthāpayati tatraiva tiṣṭhati | yad bhojayati, tad eva bhuṅkte iti śaraṇāpatti-lakṣaṇasya dharmasya tattvam | yad uktaṃ vāyu-purāṇe –

ānukūlyasya saṅkalpaḥ prātikūlyasya varjanaṃ |
rakṣiṣyatīti viśvāso goptṛtve varaṇaṃ tathā |
niḥkṣepanam akārpaṇyaṃ ṣaḍ-vidhā śaraṇāgatiḥ || iti |

bhakti-śāstra-vihitā svābhīṣṭa-devāya rocamānā pravṛttir ānukūlyaṃ tad-viparītaṃ prātikūlyam | goptṛtve iti sa eva mama rakṣako nānya iti yat | rakṣiṣyatīti sva-rakṣaṇa-prātikūlya-vastuṣūpasthiteṣv api sa māṃ rakṣiṣyaty eveti draupadī-gajendrādīnām iva viśvāsaḥ | niḥkṣepanaṃ svīya-sthūla-sūkṣma-deha-sahitasya eva svasya śrī-kṛṣṇārtha eva viniyogaḥ | akārpaṇyaṃ nānyatra kvāpi sva-dainya-jñāpanam iti ṣaṇṇāṃ vastūnāṃ vidhātr-anuṣṭhānaṃ yasyāṃ sā śaraṇāgatir iti |

tad adyārabhya yady ahaṃ tvāṃ śaraṇaṃ gata eva varte tarhi tva-uktaṃ bhadram abhadraṃ vā yad bhavet tad eva mama kartavyam | tatra yadi tvaṃ māṃ dharmam eva kārayasi tadā na kācic cintā | yadi tv īśvaratvāt svairācāras tvaṃ mām adharmam eva kārayasi, tadā kā gatis tatrāha aham iti | prācīnārvācīnāni yāvanti vartante yāvanti vā ahaṃ kārayiṣyāmi tebhyaḥ sarvebhya eva pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi | nāham anya-śaraṇya iva tatrāsamartha iti bhāvaḥ |

tvām alambyaiva śāstram idaṃ loka-mātram evopadiṣṭavān asmi | mā śucaḥ svārthaṃ parārthaṃ vā śokaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | yuṣmad-ādikaṃ sarva eva lokaḥ sva-para-dharmān sarvān eva parityajya mac-cintanādi-paro māṃ śaraṇam āpadya sukhenaiva vartatām | tasya pāpa-mocana-bhāraḥ saṃsāra-mocana-bhāro ‚pi mayāṅgīkṛta eva |

ananyāś cintayanto māṃ
ye janāḥ paryupāsate |
teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ
yoga-kṣemaṃ vahāmy aham || (Gītā 9.22) iti |

hanta etāvān bhāro mayā sva-prabhau nikṣipta ity api śokaṃ mākārṣīr bhakta-vatsalasya mama na tatrāyāsa-leśo ‚pīti nātaḥ param adhikam upadeṣṭavyam astīti śāstraṃ samāptīkṛtam

 

Baladeva


nanu yajana-praṇaty-ādis tava śuddhā bhaktiḥ prāktana-karma-rūpānanta-pāpa-malina-hṛdā puṃsā kathaḥ śakyā kartuṃ yāvat tvad-bhakti-virodhīni tāny anantāni pāpāni kṛcchrādi-prāyaścittaiḥ savihitaiś ca dharmair na vinaśyeyur iti cet tatrāha – sarveti | prāktana-pāpa-prāyaścitta-bhūtān kṛcchrādīn sa-vihitāṃś ca sarvān dharmān parityajya svarūpatas tyaktvā māṃ sarveśvaraṃ kṛṣṇaṃ nṛsiṃha-dāśarathy-ādi-rūpeṇa bahudhāvirbhūtaṃ viśuddha-bhakti-gocaraṃ santam avidyā-paryanta-sarva-kāma-vināśam ekaṃ, na tu matto ‚nyaṃ śiti-kaṇṭhādiṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja prapadyasva | śaraṇyaḥ sarveśvaro ‚haṃ sarva-pāpebhyo prāktana-karmabhyas tvāṃ śaraṇāgataṃ mokṣayiṣyāmīti mithaḥ-kartavyatā darśitā | tvaṃ mā śucaḥ | acirāyuṣā mayā hṛd-viśuddham icchatāticira-sādhyā duṣkarāś ca te kṛcchrādayaḥ katham anuṣṭheyā iti śokaṃ mā kārṣīr ity arthaḥ |

atra mat-prapattur na bhaved ity uktam | śrutiś caivam āha – na karmaṇā na prajayā dhanena tyāgenaivke ‚mṛtatvam ānaśuḥ iti | śraddhā-bhakti-dhyāna-yogād avaitīti caivam ādyā | saniṣṭhānāṃ hṛd-viśuddhaye pariniṣṭhitānāṃ ca loka-saṅgrahāya yathāyathaṃ kāryās te dharmaḥ | tam etam ity ādibhyaḥ satyena labhyas tapasā hy eṣa ātmā ity ādibhyaś ca śrutibhyaḥ |

na ca vihita-tyāge pratyavāya-lakṣaṇaṃ pāpaṃ syād iti śokaṃ mā kurv iti vyākhyeyam | veda-nideśenāgni-hotrādi-tyāge yater iva pareśānideśena tat-tyāge tat-prapattus tad-ayogāt | pratyuta tan-nideśātikrame doṣāpattiḥ syāt | na ca svarūpato vihita-tyāge pratyavāyāpatteḥ | sarvāṇi dharma-phalānīti vyākhyeyam | phala-tyāge tad-anāpatteḥ | tasmāt prapannasya svarūpato dharma-tyāgaḥ | na ca na hi kvacit ity ādi nyāyena svadharmānuṣṭhānāpattis tad-yajanādi-niratasya tena nyāyena tad-anāpatteḥ | tathā ca sanniṣṭhasyātmānubhavāntaḥpariniṣṭhitasya ca parātmānubhavānto yathā dharmācāras tathā prapattuḥ śuddhāntaḥ sa iti evam evoktam ekādaśe –

tāvat karmāṇi kurvīta
na nirvidyeta yāvatā |
mat-kathā-śravaṇādau vā
śraddhā yāvan na jāyate || (BhP 11.20.9) iti |

eṣā śaraṇāgatiḥ śabditā prapattiḥ ṣaḍ-aṅgikā —

ānukūlyasya saṅkalpaḥ prātikūlyasya varjanaṃ |
rakṣiṣyatīti viśvāso goptṛtve varaṇaṃ tathā |
ātma-nikṣepa-kārpaṇye ṣaḍ-vidhā śaraṇāgatiḥ || iti vāyu-purāṇāt |

bhakti-śāstra-vihitā haraye rocamānā pravṛttir ānukūlyam | tad-viparītaṃ tu prātikūlyam | ātma-nikṣepaḥ śaraṇye tasmin sva-bhara-nyāsaḥ | kārpaṇyam anugharṣaḥ | nikṣepaṇam akārpaṇyam iti kvacit pāṭhaḥ | tatra kārpaṇyaṃ tato ‚nyasmin svadainya-prakāśaḥ | sphuṭam anyat

 
 


BhG 18.67

idaṃ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadā-cana
na cāśuśrūṣave vācyaṃ na ca māṃ yobhyasūyati

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syntax


idam (this) te (your) atapaskāya (to one neglecting austerity) abhaktāya (to a non-devotee) aśuśrūṣave ca (and to one who is not desiring to listen) yaḥ ca (and which) mām (me) abhyasūyati (he envies) kadācana (never) na vācyam (not to be said).

 

grammar

idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
na av.not;
atapaskāya a-tapaska 4n.1to one neglecting austerity (from: tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
na av.not;
abhaktāya a-bhakta (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) [PP] 4n.1 m. to a non-worshipper, to a non-devotee;
kadā-cana av.whenever, at any time (from: kadā – when? at what time? -cana – indefinitive particle);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
aśuśrūṣave a-śuśrūṣu (śru – to hear, to listen) des. 4n.1 m.; yaḥ śrotum icchati tasmai to one not desiring to listen, to one not submissive;
vācyam vācya (vac – to speak) PF 1n.1 n.to be said;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
abhyasūyati abhi-asūya Praes. Ā 1v.1 he envies, shows ill-will;

 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvaṃ gītā-śāstrārtham upasaṃhṛtyāsminn adhyāye, viśeṣataś cānte, iha śāstrārtha-dāḍhryāya saṃkṣepata upasaṃhāraṃ kṛtvā, athedānīṃ śāstra-sampradāya-vidhim āha—
idaṃ śāstraṃ te tava hitāya mayoktaṃ saṃsāra-vicchittaye’tapaskāya tapo-rahitāya na vācyam iti vyavahitena sambadhyate | tapasvine’py abhaktāya gurau deve ca bhakti-rahitāya kadācana kasyāṃcid apy avasthāyāṃ na vācyam | bhaktas tapasvy api san aśuśrūṣur yo bhavati tasmā api na vācyam | na ca yo māṃ vāsudevaṃ prākṛtaṃ manuṣyaṃ matvā abhyasūyati ātma-praśaṃsādi-doṣādhyāropaṇena īśvaratvaṃ mamājānan na sahate, asāv apy ayogyaḥ, tasmā api na vācyam | bhagavaty anasūyā-yuktāya tapasvine bhaktāya śuśrūṣave vācyaṃ śāstram iti sāmarthyād gamyate | tatra medhāvine tapasvine vā ity anayor vikalpa-darśanāt śuśrūṣā-bhakti-yuktāya tapasvine tad-yuktāya medhāvine vā vācyam | śuśrūṣā-bhakti-viyuktāya na tapasvine nāpi medhāvine vācyam | bhagavaty asūyā-yuktāya samasta-guṇavate’pi na vācyam | guru-śuśrūṣā-bhaktimate ca vācyam ity eṣa śāstra-sampradāya-vidhiḥ
 

Rāmānuja


idaṃ te paramaṃ guhyaṃ śāstraṃ mayākhyātam atapaskāya ataptatapase tvayā na vācyam; tvayi vaktari, mayi cābhaktāya kadācana na vācyam / taptatapase cābhaktāya na vācyam ityarthaḥ / na cāśuśrūṣave / bhaktāyāpy aśuśrūṣave na vācyam / na ca māṃ yo ‚bhyasūyati / matsvarūpe madaiśvarye madguṇeṣu ca kathiteṣu yo doṣam āviṣkaroti, na tasmai vācyam / asamānavibhaktinirdeśaḥ tasyātyantapariharaṇīyatājñāpanāya
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ gītārtha-tattvam upadiśya tat-sampradāya-pravartane niyamam āha idam iti | idaṃ gītārtha-tattvaṃ te tvayā atapaskāya dharmānuṣṭhāna-hīnāya na vācyam | na ca abhaktāya gurāv īśvare ca bhakti-śūnyāya kadācid api na vācyaṃ na cāśuśrūṣave paricaryām akurvate vācyam | māṃ parameśvaraṃ yo ‚bhyasūyati manuṣya-dṛṣṭyā doṣāropeṇa nindati tasmai na ca vācyam
 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ gītā-śāstram upadiśya sampradāya-pravartane niyamam āha idam iti | atapaskāya asaṃyatendriyāya manaś cendriyāṇāṃ ca aikāgryaṃ paramaṃ tapaḥ iti smṛteḥ | saṃyatendriye saty api abhaktāya na vācyam | saṃyatendriyatvādi-dharma-traya-vattve ‚pi yo mām abhyasūyati mayi nirupādhi-pūrṇa-brahmaṇi māyā-sāvarṇya-doṣam āropayati tasmai sarvathaiva na vācyam
 

Baladeva


atha svopadiṣṭaṃ gītā-śāstraṃ pātrebhyaḥ eva na tv apātrebhyo deyam iti upadiśati idam iti | idaṃ śāstraṃ te tvayātapaskāya ajitendriyāya na vācyam | tapasvine ‚py abhaktāya śāstropadeṣṭari tvayi śāstra-pratipādye mayi ca sarveśa-bhakti-śūnyāya na vācyam | tapasvine ‚pi bhaktāyāśuśrūṣave śrotum anicchave na vācyam | yo māṃ sarveśvaraṃ nitya-guṇa-vigraham abhyasūyati mayi māyika-guṇa-vigrahatām āropayati, tasmai tu naiva vācyam ity ato bhinnayā vibhaktyā tasya nirdeśaḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ anāviṣkurvann anvayāt iti (Vs 3.4.50)
 
 


BhG 18.68

ya idaṃ paramaṃ guhyaṃ mad-bhakteṣv abhidhāsyati
bhaktiṃ mayi parāṃ kṛtvā mām evaiṣyaty asaṃśayaḥ

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) idam paramam guhyam (this supreme secret) mad-bhakteṣu (among my devotees) abhidhāsyati (he will explain),
[saḥ] (he) mayi (in me) parām bhaktim (the supreme love) kṛtvā (after doing)
mām eva (just to me) eṣyati (he will come),
asaṁśayaḥ (without doubt) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
paramam parama 2n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
guhyam guhya (xguh – to cover, to hide) PF 2n.1 n. to be hidden, secret;
mad-bhakteṣu mad-bhakta 7n.3 m.; [TP]: mama bhakteṣv itiamong my devotees (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
abhidhāsyati abhi-dhā (to explain, to speak) Fut. P 1v.1he will explain;
bhaktim bhakti 2n.1 f. devotion, love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
eṣyaty i (to go) Praes. Fut. P 1v.1he will go;
asaṁśayaḥ a-saṁśaya 1n.1 m.without doubt (from: sam-śī – to waver);

 

textual variants


ya idaṁ → ya imaṁ / idaṁ yaḥ (he who this / this he who);
abhidhāsyatiabhidhāsyate (he will explain);
bhaktiṁ mayi mayi bhaktiṁ (love to me);
mām evaiṣyaty mām eveṣyaty / sa māmeṣyaty (just to me he will come / he will come to me);
evaiṣyaty asaṁśayaḥbhaviṣyati na saṁśayaḥ (he will become without doubt);
asaṁśayaḥ → asaṁśayaṁ (without doubt);

The fourth pada of verse 18.68 is similar to the fourth pada of verse BhG 8.7;

 
 



Śāṃkara


sampradāyasya kartuḥ phalam idānīm āha—
ya imaṃ yathoktaṃ paramaṃ parama-niḥśreyasārthaṃ keśavārjunayoḥ saṃvāda-rūpaṃ granthaṃ guhyaṃ gopyatamaṃ mad-bhakteṣu mayi bhaktimatsv abhidhāsyati vakṣyati, granthato’rthataś ca sthāpayiṣyatīty arthaḥ, yathā tvayi mayā | bhakteḥ punar grahaṇāt bhakti-mātreṇa kevalena śāstra-sampradāne pātraṃ bhavatīti gamyate | katham abhidhāsyatīti, ucyate—bhaktiṃ mayi parāṃ kṛtvā bhagavataḥ parama-guror acyutasya śuśrūṣā mayā kriyate ity evaṃ kṛtvety arthaḥ | tasyedaṃ phalaṃ—mām evaiṣyati mucyata eva | asaṃśayo’tra saṃśayo na kartavyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


idaṃ paramaṃ guhyaṃ madbhakteṣu yaḥ abhidhāsyati vyākhyāsyati, saḥ mayi paramāṃ bhaktiṃ kṛtvā mām evaiṣyati; na tatra saṃśayaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


etair doṣair virahitebhyo gītā-śāstropadeṣṭuḥ phalam āha ya iti | mad-bhakteṣv abhidhāsyati mad-bhaktebhyo ya vakṣyati | sa mayi parāṃ bhaktiṃ karoti tato niḥsaṃśayaḥ san mām eva prāpnotīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


etad upadeṣṭuḥ phalam āha ya iti dvābhyām | parāṃ bhaktiṃ kṛtveti prathamaṃ parama-bhakti-prāptiḥ | tato mat-prāptiḥ | etad upadeṣṭur bhavati
 

Baladeva


śāstropadeṣṭuḥ phalam āha ya iti | etad upadeṣṭur ādau mat-para-bhakti-lābhas tato mat-pada-lābho bhavati
 
 


BhG 18.69

na ca tasmān manuṣyeṣu kaś-cin me priya-kṛttamaḥ
bhavitā na ca me tasmād anyaḥ priyataro bhuvi

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tasmāt ca (and therefore) manuṣyeṣu [madhye] (among men) kaścit (no one) me (my) priya-kṛt-tamaḥ (the dearest of those who give [me] joy) na [bhavati] (he is not).
tasmāt ca (and therefore) anyaḥ (other) bhuvi (on earth) priya-taraḥ (more dear) na bhavitā (he will not be).

 

grammar

na av.not;
ca av.and;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
manuṣyeṣu manuṣya 7n.3 m.among men (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person);
kaś-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
priya-kṛttamaḥ priya-kṛttama 1n.1 m.the best of those who give [me] pleasure (from: prī – to please, priya – liked, loved, dear, pleasant; pleasure, love, benefit; kṛ – to do, -kṛt – suffix indicates a doer; superlative of: kṛt – kṛt-tara, kṛt-tama);
bhavitā bhū (to be) Fut.p. P 1v.1he will be;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
me asmat 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
priyataraḥ priya-tara 1n.1 m. more liked, more dear (comparative of: prī – to please, priya – liked, loved, dear, pleasant);
bhuvi bhū 7n.1 f.on earth;

 

textual variants


ca me → samas (the same);
tasmādyasmād (for which reason);
priyataro → priyatamo (the dearest);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
na ca tasmāt śāstra-sampradāya-kṛtaḥ manuṣyeṣu manuṣyāṇāṃ madhye kaścin me mama priyakṛttamo’tiśayena priya-karaḥ | anyaḥ priyakṛttamo nāsty evety artho vartamāneṣu | na ca bhavitā bhaviṣyaty api kāle tasmād dvitīyo’nyaḥ priyataraḥ priya-kṛttaro bhuvi loke’smin na bhavitā
 

Rāmānuja


sarveṣu manuṣyeṣv itaḥ pūrvaṃ tasmād anyo manuṣyo me na kaścit priyakṛttamo ‚bhūt; ita uttaraṃ ca na bhavitā / ayogyānāṃ prathamam upādānaṃ yogyānām akathanād api tatkathanasyāniṣṭatamatvāt
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca na ceti | tasmān mad-bhaktebhyo gītā-śāstra-vyākhyātuḥ sakāśād anyo manuṣyeṣu madhye kaścid api mama priya-kṛttamo ‚tyantaṃ paritoṣa-kartā nāsti | na ca kālāntare bhavitā bhaviṣyati mamāpi tasmād anyaḥ priyataro ‚dhunā bhuvi tāvan nāsti | na ca kālāntare ‚pi bhaviṣyatīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tasmād upadeṣṭuḥ sakāśāt anyo ‚tipriyaṅkaro ‚tipriyaś ca nāsti
 

Baladeva


na ceti | tasmād gītopadeṣṭuḥ sakāśād anyo manuṣyeṣu madhye mama priya-kṛttamaḥ paritoṣa-kartā pūrvaṃ nābhūn na ca bhaviṣyati | mama tasmād anyaḥ priyataro bhuvi nābhūn na ca bhaviṣyati
 
 


BhG 18.70

adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃvādam āvayoḥ
jñāna-yajñena tenāham iṣṭaḥ syām iti me matiḥ

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yaḥ ca (and he who) āvayoḥ (of us two) imam dharmyam saṁvādam (this noble conversation) adhyeṣyate (he will study),
tena [puruṣena] (by that man) aham (I) jñāna-yajñena (by the sacrifice of knowledge) iṣṭaḥ syām iti (I will be worshipped)
me matiḥ [asti] (that is my opinion).

 

grammar

adhyeṣyate adhi-i (to turn the mind towards, to study) Fut.p. Ā 1v.1he will study;
ca av.and;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
imam idam sn. 2n.1 m.this;
dharmyam dharmya 2n.1 m.lawful, righteous (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law);
saṁvādam sam-vāda 2n.1 m.conversation (from: sam-vad – to speak togeher, to talk);
āvayoḥ asmat sn. 6n.2of us two;
jñāna-yajñena jñāna-yajña 3n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānena yajñeneti by the sacrifice of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
tenā tat sn. 3n.1 m.by him;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
iṣṭaḥ iṣṭa (from: iṣ – to desire or yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) [PP] 1n.1 m.desired, worshipped, beloved;
syām as (to be) Pot. P 1v.1I would be;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
matiḥ mati 1n.1 f.thought, opinion, view (from: man – to think);

 

textual variants


imaṁ → idaṁ (this);
dharmyaṁ saṁvādam → dharmaṁ saṁvādam / dharmya-saṁvādam / dharma-saṁvādam (conversation being the law / lawful conversation);
jñāna-yajñena → jñāna-yogena (by the yoga of knowledge);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yo’pi—
adhyeṣyate ca paṭhiṣyati ya imaṃ dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetaṃ saṃvāda-rūpaṃ grantham āvayoḥ, tenedaṃ kṛtaṃ syāt | jñāna-yajñena—vidhi-japopāṃśu-mānasānāṃ yajñānāṃ jñāna-yajño mānasatvād viśiṣṭatama ity atas tena jñāna-yajñena gītā-śāstrasyādhyayanaṃ stūyate | phala-vidhir eva vā, devatādi-viṣaya-jñāna-yajña-phala-tulyam asya phalaṃ bhavatīti tena adhyayanena aham iṣṭaḥ pūjitaḥ syāṃ bhaveyam iti me mama matir niścayaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


ya imam āvayor dharmyaṃ saṃvādam adhyeṣyate, tena jñānayajñenāham iṣṭas syām iti me matiḥ asmin yo jñānayajño ‚bhidhīyate, tenāham etad adhyayanamātreṇeṣṭaḥ syām ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


paṭhataḥ phalam āha adhyeṣyata iti | āvayoḥ śrī-kṛṣṇārjunayor imaṃ dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetaṃ saṃvādaṃ yo ‚dhyeṣyate japa-rūpeṇa paṭhiṣyati tena puṃsā sarva-yajñebhyaḥ śreṣṭhena jñāna-yajñena aham iṣṭaḥ syāṃ bhaveyam iti me matiḥ | yady apy asau gītārtham abudhyamāna eva kevalaṃ japati | tathāpi mama tac chṛṇvato mām evāsau prakāśayatīti buddhir bhavati | yathā loke yaṛcchayāpi yadā kaścit kadācit kasyacit nāma gṛhṇāti tadāsau mām evāyam āhavayatīti matvā tat-pārśvam āgacchati | tathāham apitasya sannihito bhaveyam | ataeva ajāmila-kṣatra-bandhu-pramukhānāṃ kathañcin nāmoccāraṇa-mātreṇa prasanno ‚smi | tathaiva asyāpi prasanno bhaveyam iti bhāvaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


etad adhayana-phalam āha adhyeṣyata iti
 

Baladeva


atha śāstrādhyetuḥ phalam āha adhyeṣyate ceti | atra yo jñāna-yajño varṇitas tenāham etat-pāṭha-mātreṇaiveṣṭo ‚bhyarcitaḥ syām iti me matirs tasyāhaṃ sulabha ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.71

śraddhāvān anasūyaś ca śṛṇuyād api yo naraḥ
so pi muktaḥ śubhāṃl lokān prāpnuyāt puṇya-karmaṇām

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syntax


yaḥ api (moreover he who) śraddhāvān (who has faith) anasūyaḥ (who is not envious) naraḥ (a person) śṛṇuyāt (he would listen),
saḥ api muktaḥ (he although liberated) puṇya-karmaṇām (of those whose activities are noble) śubhān lokān (auspicious worlds) prāpnuyāt (he obtains).

 

grammar

śraddhāvān śraddhā-vant 1n.1 m.who has faith (from: śrat- – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]; śraddhā – faith, confidence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
anasūyaḥ an-asūyu 1n.1 m.who is free from spite, envy, ill-will (asūya – to be displeased);
ca av.and;
śṛṇuyāt śru (to hear, to listen) Pot. P 1v.1he would listen;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
naraḥ nara 1n.1 m.a man, a person (from: nṛ man, mankind);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
muktaḥ mukta (muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.1 m.liberated;
śubhān śubha 2n.3 m.splendid, pleasant, auspicious, good (from: śubh – to shine);
lokān loka 2n.3 m.worlds;
prāpnuyāt pra-āp (to obtain) Pot. P 1v.1he would obtain;
puṇya-karmaṇām puṇya-karman 6n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ karmāṇi puṇyāni santi teṣāmof those whose activities are noble (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously, puṇya – good, meritorious, virtuous act, purity; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);

 

textual variants


anasūyaś ca anasūyuś ca (and non-envious);
prāpnuyāt → āpnuyāt (he would obtain);
 
 



Śāṃkara


atha śrotur idaṃ phalaṃ—
śraddhāvān śraddadhāno’nasūyaś ca asūyā-varjitaḥ san imaṃ granthaṃ sṛṇuyād api yo naraḥ, api-śabdāt kimutārtha-jñānavān, so’pi pāpān muktaḥ śubhān praśastān lokān prāpnuyāt puṇya-karmaṇām agnihotrādi-karmavatām
 

Rāmānuja


śraddhāvān anasūyuś ca yo naraḥ śṛṇuyād api, tena śravaṇamātreṇa so ‚pi bhaktivirodhipāpebhyo muktaḥ puṇyakarmaṇāṃ madbhaktānāṃ lokān samūhan prāpnuyāt
 

Śrīdhara


anyasya japato yo ‚nyaḥ kaścit śṛṇoti tasyāpi phalam āha śraddhāvān iti | yo naraḥ śraddhā-yuktaḥ kevalaṃ śṛṇuyād api śraddhāvān api yaḥ kaścit kim artham uccair japati abaddhaḥ vā japatīti vā doṣa-dṛṣṭiṃ karoti tad-vyāvṛtty-artham āha anasūyaś cāsūya-rahito yaḥ śṛṇuyāt so ‚pi sarvaiḥ pāpair muktaḥ sann aśvamedhādi-puṇya-kṛtāṃ lokān prāpnuyāt
 

Viśvanātha


etac-chravaṇa-phalam āha śraddhāvān iti
 

Baladeva


śrotuḥ phalam āha śraddheti | yaḥ kevalaṃ śraddhayā śṛṇoti anasūyaḥ kim artham uccair aśuddhaṃ vā paṭhatīti doṣa-dṛṣṭim akurvan so ‚pi nikhilaiḥ pāpair muktaḥ puṇya-karmaṇām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān prāpnuyāt | yad vā puṇya-karmaṇāṃ bhaktimatāṃ lokān dhruva-lokādīn vaikuṇṭha-bhedān ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.72

kac-cid etac chrutaṃ pārtha tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā
kac-cid ajñāna-saṃmohaḥ pranaṣṭas te dhanaṃjaya

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!), he dhanañjaya (O winner of wealth!),
kaccit (I hope that) tvayā (by you) ekāgreṇa cetasā (with one-pointed mind) etat śrutam (this being heard).
kaccit (I hope that) te (your) ajñāna-sammohaḥ (bewilderment from ignorance) pranaṣṭaḥ [asti] (it is destroyed).

 

grammar

kac-cit av.what? I hope that (from: kad – interrogative particle used like kim: what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
śrutam śruta (śru – to hear, to listen) [PP]. 1n.1 n.being heard;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
tvayā yuṣmat sn. 3n.1by you;
ekāgreṇa eka-agra 3n.1 n.with one goal, with one-pointed (from: eka – one; agra – foremost, first, summit, goal);
cetasā cetas 3n.1 n.with the mind (from: cit – to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
kac-cit av.what? I hope that (from: kad – interrogative particle used like kim: what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
ajñāna-saṁmohaḥ ajñāna-saṁ-moha 1n.1 m.; [TP]: ajñānāt saṁmoha itibewilderment caused by ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand, a-jñāna – ignorance; sam-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
pranaṣṭaḥ pra-naṣṭa (pra-naś – to disappear, to be lost, to perish) [PP] 1n.1 m.being destroyed;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.O winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥ – one who wins wealth; dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);

 

textual variants


tvayaikāgreṇatvayaikāgryeṇa (by you one-pointed);

Before the verse BhG 18.72 there is: śrī-bhagavān uvāca;

 
 



Śāṃkara


śiṣyasya śāstrārtha-grahaṇāgrahaṇa-viveka-bubhutsayā pṛcchati | tad-agrahaṇe jñāte punar grāhayiṣyāmi upāyāntareṇāpīti praṣṭur abhiprāyaḥ | yatnāntaraṃ cāsthāya śiṣyasya kṛtārthatā kartavyā iti ācārya-dharmaḥ pradarśito bhavati—
kaccit kim etat mayoktaṃ śrutaṃ śravaṇenāvadhāritaṃ pārtha, tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā cittena ? kiṃ vāpramādataḥ ? kaccid ajñāna-saṃmoho’jñāna-nimittaḥ saṃmoho’vivikta-bhāvo’vivekaḥ svābhāvikaḥ kiṃ praṇaṣṭaḥ ? yad-artho’yaṃ śāstra-śravaṇāyāsas tava, mama copadeṣṭṛtvāyāsaḥ pravṛttaḥ | te tubhyam | he dhanañjaya
 

Rāmānuja


mayā kathitam etat pārtha tvayā avahitena cetasā kaccic śrutam, tavājñānasaṃmohaḥ kaccit pranaṣṭaḥ, yenājñānena mūḍho na yotsyāmītyuktavān
 

Śrīdhara


samyag bodhānupapattau punar upadekṣyāmīty āśayenāha kaccid iti | kaccid it praśnārthaḥ | kaccid ajñāna-saṃmohas tattvājñāna-kṛto viparyayaḥ | spaṣṭam anyat
 

Viśvanātha


samyag bodhānupapattau punar upadekṣyāmīty āśayenāha kaccid iti
 

Baladeva


evaṃ śāstraṃ tad-vācanādi-māhātmyaṃ coktam | atha śāstrārthāvadhāna-tad-anubhavo pṛcchati kaccid iti | praśnārthe ‚vyayam | samyag-anubhavānudaye punar apy etad upadekṣyāmīti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 18.73

arjuna uvāca
naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā tvat-prasādān mayācyuta
sthito smi gata-saṃdehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṃ tava

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he acyuta (O unfailling one!),
[mama] (my) mohaḥ (bewilderment) naṣṭaḥ [asti] (it is destroyed).
tvat prasādāt (from your mercy) mayā (by me) smṛtiḥ (remembrance) labdhā [asti] (it is obtained).
[aham] (I) gata-sandehaḥ (free from doubts) sthitaḥ [asmi] (I am standing).
tava (your) vacanam (words) kariṣye (I will do).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
naṣṭaḥ naṣṭa (naś – to disappear, to be lost, to perish) [PP] 1n.1 m.perished, lost;
mohaḥ moha 1n.1 m.bewilderment, delusion (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
smṛtiḥ smṛti 1n.1 f.remembrance, tradition, sacred texts of tradition (from: smṛ – to think, to remember);
labdhā labdhā (labh – to obtain) [PP] 1n.1 f.obtained, gained;
tvat-prasādāt tvat-prasāda 5n.1 m.; [TP]: tava prasādād itifrom your satisfaction (from: tvat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „you” singular used in compounds; pra-sad – to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful, prasāda satisfaction, favour, calmness, clearness, success, kindness);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
acyuta a-cyuta (cyu – to shake, to fall, to deviate) [P