atha prathamo ‘dhyāyaḥ – arjuna-viṣāda-yogaḥ

Now the first chapter: “The Yoga of Arjuna’s Despondency”


Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

INTRODUCTION

upodghāṭaḥ

Nārāyaṇa is beyond the Avyakta;
From the Avyakta the Mundane Egg is born;
Within the Mundane Egg, verily, are these worlds
And the Earth made up of the seven Dvipas.

oṃ
nārāyaṇaḥ paro ’vyaktād aṇḍam avyakta-sambhavam
|
aṇḍasyāntas tv ime lokāḥ sapta-dvīpā ca medinī ||

The- twofold Vedic Religion.
The Lord created the universe, and wishing to secure order therein. He first created the Prajapatis (Lords of creatures) such as Marichi and caused them to adopt the Pravṛtti-Dharma, the Religion of Works. He then created others such as Śanaka and Sanandana and caused them to adopt the Nivṛtti-Dharma, the Religion of Renunciation, characterized by knowledge and indifference to worldly objects.

sa bhagavān sṛṣṭvedaṃ jagat tasya ca sthitiṃ cikīrṣuḥ marīcyādīn agre sṛṣṭvā prajāpatīn pravṛtti-lakṣaṇaṃ dharmaṃ grāhayāmāsa vedoktam | tato ’nyān ca sanaka-sanandanādīn utpādya nivṛtti-lakṣaṇaṃ dharmaṃ jñāna-vairāgya-lakṣaṇaṃ grāhayāmāsa |

It is the twofold Vedic Religion of Works and Renunciation that maintains order in the universe. This Religion which directly leads to liberation and worldly prosperity has long been practiced by all castes and religious orders (varṇa-aśrama) – from the brāhmaṇas downwards, – who sought welfare.

dvividho hi vedokto dharmaḥ pravṛtti-lakṣaṇo nivṛtti-lakṣaṇaś ca | jagataḥ sthiti-kāraṇam | prāṇināṃ sākṣād abhy-udaya-niḥśreyasa-hetur yaḥ sa dharmo brāhmaṇādyair varṇibhir āśramibhiś ca śreyo ’rthibhir anuṣṭhīyamānaḥ |

The purpose of the Divine Incarnation.
When, owing to the ascendancy of lust in its votaries, religion was overpowered by irreligion caused by the vanishing faculty of discrimination, and irreligion was advancing, it was then that the original Creator (Adi-kartṛ), Viṣṇu, known as Nārāyaṇa, wishing to maintain order in the universe, incarnated Himself as Kṛṣṇa, begotten in Devaki by Vasudeva, for the preservation of the ‚earthly Brahman,’ of spiritual life (Brāhmaṇatva) on the earth. For it was by the preservation of spiritual life that the Vedic Religion could be preserved, since thereon depend all distinctions of caste and religious order.

dīrgheṇa kālena anuṣṭhātṝṇāṃ kāmodbhavād dhīyamāna-viveka-jñāna-hetukena adharmeṇa abhibhūyamāne dharme, pravardhamāne ca adharme, jagataḥ sthitiṃ paripipālayiṣuḥ, sa ādi-kartā nārāyaṇākhyo viṣṇur bhaumasya brahmaṇo brāhmaṇatvasya cābhirakṣaṇārthaṃ devakyāṃ vasudevād aṃśena kṛṣṇaḥ kila sambabhūva | brāhmaṇatvasya hi rakṣaṇena rakṣitaḥ syād vaidiko dharmaḥ tad-adhīnatvād varṇāśrama-bhedānām |

The Lord, always possessed as He is of (infinite) knowledge, supremacy, power, strength, might and vigour, controls the Maya, – belonging to Him as Viṣṇu, – the Mūlaprakṛti, the First Cause, composed of three Guṇas or energies, and He appears to the world as though He is born and embodied and helping the world at large; whereas really He is unborn and indestructible, is the Lord of creatures, and is by nature Eternal, Pure, Intelligent and Free.

sa ca bhagavān jñānaiśvarya-śakti-bala-vīrya-tejobhiḥ sadā sampannas triguṇātmikāṃ vaiṣṇavīṃ svāṃ māyāṃ mūla-prakṛtiṃ vaśīkṛtya, ajo ’vyayo bhūtānām īśvaro nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-svabhāvo ’pi san, sva-māyayā dehavān iva jāta iva ca lokānugrahaṃ kurvan lakṣyate |

Without any interest of His own, but with the sole intention of helping His creatures. He taught to Arjuna, who was deeply plunged in the ocean of grief and delusion, the twofold Vedic Religion, evidently thinking that the Religion would widely spread when accepted and practiced by men of high character.

sva-prayojanābhāve ’pi bhūtānujighṛkṣayā vaidikaṃ hi dharma-dvayam arjunāya śoka-moha-mahodadhau nimagnāya upadideśa guṇādhikair hi gṛhīto ’nuṣṭhīyamānaś ca dharmaḥ pracayaṃ gamiṣyatīti |

The Gita and the Commentary.
It is this Religion which was taught by the Lord that the omniscient and adorable Veda-Vyasa (the arranger of the Vedas) embodied in the seven hundred verses called Gitas.

taṃ dharmaṃ bhagavatā yathopadiṣṭaṃ veda-vyāsaḥ sarvajño bhagavān gītākhyaiḥ saptabhiḥ śloka-śatair upanibabandha |

This famous Gita-śastra is an epitome of the essentials of the whole Vedic teaching; and its meaning is very difficult to understand. Though, to afford a clear view of its teaching, it has been explained word by word and sentence by sentence, and its import critically examined by several commentators, still I have found that to the laity it appears to teach diverse and quite contradictory doctrines. I propose, therefore, to write a brief commentary with a view to determine its precise meaning.

tad idaṃ gītā-śāstraṃ samasta-vedārtha-sāra-saṅgraha-bhūtaṃ durvijñayārthaṃ tad-arthāviṣkaraṇāya anekair vivṛta-pada-padārtha-vākya-vākyārtha-nyāyam api atyanta-viruddhānekārthatvena laukikair gṛhyamāṇam upalabhyāhaṃ vivekato ’rtha-nirdhāraṇārthaṃ saṃkṣepato vivaraṇaṃ kariṣyāmi |

Jnana-Yoga is the means to the Supreme Bliss.
The aim of this famous Gita-Śāstra is, briefly, the Supreme Bliss, a complete cessation of samsāra or transmigratory life and of its cause. This accrues from that Religion (Dharma) which consists in a steady devotion to the knowledge of the Self, preceded by the renunciation of all -works.

tasya asya gītā-śāstrasya saṃkṣepataḥ prayojanaṃ paraṃ niḥśreyasaṃ sa-hetukasya saṃsārasya atyantoparama-lakṣaṇam | tac ca sarva-karma-sannyāsa-pūrvakād ātma-jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpād dharmād bhavati |

So, with reference to this Religion, the doctrine of the Gita, the Lord says in the Anu-Gita as follows: „That religion, indeed, is quite sufficient for the realization of the state of Brahman, the Absolute” (MBh 14.16.12).
In the same place it is also said:
He is without merit and without sin, without weal and woe, – he who is absorbed in the one seat, silent and thinking nothing” (MBh 14.19.7; 14.19.1).
And He also says:
Knowledge is characterized by renunciation.” (MBh 14.43.26).
Here also at the end Arjuna is thus exhorted:
Abandoning all dharmas, come to Me alone for shelter” (BhG 18.66).

tathā imam eva gītārtha-dharmam uddiśya bhagavataivoktam –
sa hi dharmaḥ suparyāpto brahmaṇaḥ pada-vedane
(MBh 14.16.12) ity anugītāsu | tatraiva coktaṃ –
naiva dharmī na cādharmī na caiva hi śubhāśubhī
(MBh 14.19.7),
yaḥ syād ekāsane līnas tūṣṇīṃ kiṃcid acintayan(MBh 14.19.1),
jñānaṃ saṃnyāsa-lakṣaṇaṃ (MBh 14.43.26) iti ca |
ihāpi cānte uktam arjunāya –
sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja (BhG 18.66) iti |

How Karma-Yoga is a means to the Supreme Bliss.
Though the Religion of Works, – which, as a means of attaining worldly prosperity, is enjoined on the several castes and religious orders, – leads the devotee to the region of the Devas and the like, still, when practised in a spirit of complete devotion to the Lord and without regard to the (immediate) results, it conduces to the purity of the mind (sattva-śuddhi).

abhyudayārtho ’pi yaḥ pravṛtti-lakṣaṇo dharmo varṇān āśramāṃś coddiśya vihitaḥ sa devādi-sthāna-prāpti-hetur api san, īśvarārpaṇa-buddhyānuṣṭhīyamānaḥ sattva-śuddhaye bhavati phalābhisandhi-varjitaḥ

The man whose mind is pure is competent to tread the path of knowledge, and to him comes knowledge; and thus (indirectly) the Religion of Works forms also a means to the Supreme Bliss. Accordingly, with this very idea in mind, the Lord says:
He who does actions, placing them in Brahman” (BhG 5.10),
Yogins perform actions, without attachment, for the purification of the self” (BhG 5.11).

śuddha-sattvasya ca jñāna-niṣṭhā-yogyatā-prāpti-dvāreṇa jñānotpatti-hetutvena ca niḥśreyasa-hetutvam api pratipadyate | tathā cemam evārtham abhisandhāya vakṣyati brahmaṇy ādhāya karmāṇi (BhG 5.10),
yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṃ tyaktvātma-śuddhaye (BhG 5.11) iti |

Tlie specific subject and object of the Gīta-śastra.
The Gītā-śāstra expounds this twofold Religion, whose aim is the Supreme Bliss. It expounds specially the nature of the Supreme Being and Reality known as Vāsudeva, the Parabrahman, who forms the subject of the discourse. Thus the Gītā-śāstra treats of a specific subject with a specific object and bears a specific relation (to the subject and object). A knowledge of its teaching leads to the realisation of all human aspirations. Hence my attempt to explain it.

imaṃ dvi-prakāraṃ dharmaṃ niḥśreyasa-prayojanam | paramārtha-tattvaṃ ca vāsudevākhyaṃ para-brahmābhidheya-bhūtaṃ viśeṣataḥ abhivyañjayad viśiṣṭa-prayojana-sambandhābhidheya-vad gītā-śāstram | yatas tad-artha-vijñānena samasta-puruṣārtha-siddhiḥ | ataḥ tad-vivaraṇe yatnaḥ kriyate mayā ||

 

Rāmānuja

yat-padāmbho-ruha-dhyāna-vidhvastāśeṣa-kalmaṣaḥ |
vastutām upayāto ’haṃ yāmuneyaṃ namāmi tam ||
oṃ | śriyaḥ patir nikhila-heya-pratyanīka-kalyāṇaika-tānaḥ
svetara-samasta-vastu-vilakṣaṇānanta-jñānānandaika-svarūpaḥ,
svābhāvikānavadhikātiśaya-jñāna-balaiśvarya-vīrya-śakti-tejaḥ-prabhṛty-asaṃkhyeya-kalyāṇa-guṇa-gaṇa-mahodadhiḥ,
svābhimatānu-rūpaika-rūpācintya-divyādbhuta-nitya-niravadya-niratiśayaujjvalya-saugandhya-saundarya-saukumārya-lāvaṇya-yauvanādy-ananta-guṇa-nidhir divya-rūpaḥ,
svocita-vividha-vicitrānantāścarya-nitya-niravadyāparimita-divya-bhūṣaṇaḥ,
svānurūpāsaṃkhyeyācintya-śakti-nitya-niravadya-niratiśaya-kalyāṇa-divyāyudhaḥ,
svābhimatānurūpa-nitya-niravadya-svarūpa-rūpa-guṇa-vibhavaiśvarya-śīlādy-anavadhikātiśayāsaṅkhyeya-kalyāṇa-guṇa-gaṇa-śrī-vallabhaḥ,
sva-saṅkalpānuvidhāyi-svarūpa-sthiti-pravṛtti-bhedāśeṣa-śeṣataika-rati-rūpa-nitya-niravadya-niratiśaya-jñāna-kriyaiśvaryādy-ananta-guṇa-gaṇāparimita-sūribhir anavaratābhiṣṭuta-caraṇa-yugalaḥ,
vāṅ-manasāparicchedya-svarūpa-svabhāvaḥ,
svocita-vividha-vicitrānanta-bhogya-bhogopakaraṇa-bhoga-sthāna-samṛddhānantāścaryānanta-mahā-vibhavānanta-parimāṇa-nitya-niravadyākṣara-parama-vyoma-nilayaḥ,
vividha-vicitrānanta-bhogya-bhoktṛ-varga-paripūrṇa-nikhila-jagad-udaya-vibhava-laya-līlaḥ,
paraṃ brahma puruṣottamo nārāyaṇo brahmādi-sthāvarāntaṃ nikhilaṃ jagat sṛṣṭvā svena rūpeṇāvasthitaḥ,
brahmādi-deva-manuṣyāṇāṃ dhyānārādhanādy-agocaro ’pāra-kāruṇya-sauśīlya-vātsalyaudārya-mahodadhiḥ,
svayam eva rūpaṃ tat-tat-sajātīya-saṃsthānaṃ sva-svabhāvam ajahad eva kurvaṃs teṣu teṣu lokeṣv avatīryāvatīrya tais tair ārādhitaḥ,
tat-tad-iṣṭānurūpaṃ dharmārtha-kāma-mokṣākhyaṃ phalaṃ prayacchan,
bhū-bhārāvatāraṇāpadeśenāsmad-ādīnām api saṃsāra-duḥkha-śamanāya samāśrayaṇīyatvāyāvatīryorvyāṃ sakala-manuja-nayana-viṣayatāṃ gataḥ, parāvara-nikhila-jana-mano-nayana-hāri-divya-ceṣṭitāni kurvan,
pūtanā-śakaṭa-yamalārjunāriṣṭa-pralamba-dhenuka-kāliya-keśi-kuvalayāpīḍa-cāṇūra-muṣṭika-tosala-kaṃsādīn nihatya anavadhika-dayā-sauhārdānurāga-garbhāvalokanālāpāmṛtair viśvam āpyāyayan,
niratiśaya-saundarya-sauśīlyādi-guṇāviṣkāreṇākrūra-mālā-kārādīn parama-bhāgavatān kṛtvā,
pāṇḍu-tanaya-yuddha-protsāhana-vyājena parama-puruṣārtha-lakṣaṇa-mokṣa-sādhanatayā vedāntoditaṃ sva-viṣayaṃ jñāna-karmānugṛhītaṃ bhakti-yogam avatārayāmāsa |
tatra pāṇḍavānāṃ karuṇāṃ ca yuddhe prārabdhe sa bhagavān puruṣottamaḥ sarveśvareśvaro jagad-upakṛti-martya āśrita-vātsalya-vivaśaḥ pārthaṃ rathinam ātmānaṃ ca sārathiṃ sarva-loka-sākṣikaṃ cakāra |
evam arjunasyotkarṣaṃ jñātvāpi sarvātmanāndho dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ suyodhana-vijaya-bubhutsayā saṃjayaṃ papraccha |

 

Madhva

devaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ natvā sarva-doṣa-vivarjitam |
paripūrṇaṃ gurūṃś ca tān gītārthaṃ vakṣyāmi leśataḥ ||
naṣṭa-dharma-jñāna-loka-kṛpālubhiḥ brahma-rudrendrādibhir arthito jñāna-pradarśanāya bhagavān vyāso ‘vatatāra |
tataś ceṣṭāniṣṭa-prāpti-parihāra-sādhanā-darśanāt vedārthā-jñānāc ca saṃsāre kliśyamānānāṃ strī-śūdrādīnāṃ ca dharma-jñāna-dvārā mokṣo bhaved iti kṛpāluḥ sarva-vedārthopabṛṃhitāṃ tad-anukta-kevaleśvara-jñāna-dṛṣṭārtha-yuktāṃ ca sarva-prāṇinām avagāhyānavagāhya-rūpāṃ kevala-bhagavat-svarūpa-parāṃ parokṣārthāṃ mahābhārata-saṃhitām acīkỊpat |
tac coktam—
lokeśā brahma-rudrādyāḥ saṃsāre kleśinaṃ janam |
vedārthājñam adhīkāra-varjitaṃ ca striyādikam ||
avekṣya prārthayāmāsuḥ deveśaṃ puruṣottamam |
tataḥ prasanno bhagavān vyāso bhūtvā ca tena ca ||
anyāvatāra-rūpaiś ca vedānuktārtha-bhūṣitam |
devalenātma-bodhena dṛṣṭaṃ vedārtha-saṃyutam ||
bhārataṃ pañca-rātraṃ ca mūla-rāmāyaṇaṃ tathā |
purāṇaṃ bhāgavataṃ ceti sambhinnaś śāstra-puṅgavaḥ ||
iti nārāyaṇāṣṭākṣara-kalpe|
brahṃāpi tan na jānāti iṣat sarvo ‘pi jānati |
bahv-artham ṛṣayas tat tu bhārataṃ pravadanti hi ||
ity upa-nāradīye |
brahmādyaiḥ prārthito viṣṇur bhārataṃ saṃcakāra ha |
yasmin daśārthāḥ sarvatra na jñeyās sarva-jantubhiḥ ||
iti nāradīye |
bhārataṃ cāpi kṛtavān pañcamaṃ vedam uttamam |
daśā-varārthaṃ sarvatra kevalaṃ viṣṇu-bodhakam |
parokṣārthaṃ tu sarvatra vedād apyuttamaṃ tu yat ||
iti skānde |
yadi vidyāt catur-vedān saṅgopaniṣadān dvijaḥ |
na cet purāṇam saṃvidyān naiva sa syād vicakṣaṇaḥ ||
itihāsa-purāṇābhyāṃ vedaṃ samupabṛṃhayet |
bibhety alpa-śrutād vedo mām ayaṃ pracaliṣyati ||
manv-ādi kecid bruvate hy āstīkādi yathāpare |
tathopari-carādy anye bhārataṃ paricakṣate ||
bhārataṃ sarva-vedāś ca tulām āropitāḥ purā |
devair brahmādibhis sarvaiḥ ṛṣibhiś ca samanvitaiḥ |
vyāsasyaivājñayā tatra tv atyaricyata bhāratam ||
mahattvād bhāravattvāc ca mahābhāratam ucyate |
niruktam asya yo veda sarva-pāpaiḥ pramucyate ||
yad ihāsti tad anyatra yan nehāsti na kutra-cit |
virāṭodyoga-pāravān |
ity ādi-tad-vākya-paryālocanayā ṛṣi-saṃpradāyāt
ko hy anyaḥ puṇḍarīkākṣāt mahābhārata-kṛt bhavet |
ity-ādi purāṇa-granthāntara-gata-vākyāny athānupapattyā nāradādhyayanādi-liṅgaiś cāvasīyate | katham anyathā bhārata-nirukti-jñāna-mātrena sarva-pāpa-kṣayaḥ prasiddhaś ca so ‘rthaḥ | kathaṃ cānyasya na kartuṃ śakyate | granthāntara-gatatvāc ca nāvidyamāna-stutiḥ | na ca kartur eva | itaratrāpi sāmyāt |
tatra ca sarva-bhāratārtha-saṃgrahāṃ vasudevārjuna-saṃvāda-rūpāṃ bhārata-pārijāta-madhu-bhūtāṃ gītām upanibabandha |
tac coktam—
bhārataṃ sarva-śāstreṣu bhārate gītikā varā |
viṣṇoḥ sahasra-nāmāpi jñeyaṃ pāṭhyaṃ ca tad dvayam ||
iti mahā-kaurme |
sa hi dharmas suparyāpto brahmaṇaḥ pada-vedane ||
ity ādi ca |

 

Śrīdhara

śeṣāśeṣa-mukha-vyākhyā-cāturyaṃ tv eka-vaktrataḥ |
dadhānam adbhutaṃ vande paramānanda-mādhavam ||
śrī-mādhavaṃ praṇamyomādhavaṃ viśveśam ādarāt |
tad-bhakti-yantritaḥ kurve gītā-vyākhyāṃ subodhinīm ||
bhāṣya-kāra-mataṃ samyak tad-vyākhyātur giras tathā |
yathāmati samālocya gītā-vyākhyāṃ samārabhe ||
gītā vyākhyāyate yasyāḥ pāṭha-mātra-prayatnataḥ |
seyaṃ subodhinī ṭīkā sadā dhyeyā manīṣibhiḥ ||
iha khalu sakala-loka-hitāvatāraḥ sakala-vandita-caraṇaḥ parama-kāruṇiko bhagavān devakī-nandanas tattvājñāna-vijṛmbhita-śoka-moha-bhraṃśita-vivekatayā nija-dharma-parityāga-pūrvaka-para-dharmābhisandhinam arjunaṃ dharma-jñāna-rahasyopadeśa-plavena tasmāc choka-moha-sāgarād uddadhāra |Tutaj zaiste ten, który zstąpił dla tam eva bhagavad-upadiṣṭam arthaṃ kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyanaḥ saptabhiḥ śloka-śatair upanibabandha | tatra ca prāyaśaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-mukhād viniḥsṛtān eva ślokān alikhat | kāṃścit tat-saṅgataye svayaṃ ca vyaracayat |
yathoktaṃ gītā-māhātmye –
gītā sugītā kartavyā kim anyaiḥ śāstra-vistaraiḥ |
yā svayaṃ padmanābhasya mukha-padmād viniḥsṛtā || iti |
tatra tāvad dharmakṣetre ity ādinā viṣīdann idam abravīd ity antena granthena śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāda-prastāvāya kathā nirūpyate | tataḥ param āsamāptes tayor dharma-jñānārthe saṃvādaḥ |

 

Viśvanātha

gaurāṃśukaḥ sat-kumuda-pramodī svābhikhyayā gos tamaso nihantā |
śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-sudha-nidhir me mano ‚dhitiṣṭhan svaratiṃ karotu ||
prācīna-vācaḥ suvicārya so ‚ham ajño ‚pi gītāmṛta-leśa-lipsuḥ |
yateḥ prabhor eva mate tad atra santaḥ kṣamadhvaṃ śaraṇāgatasya ||
iha khalu sakala-śāstrābhimata-śrīmac-caraṇa-saroja-bhajanaḥ svayaṃ bhagavān narākṛti-para-brahma-śrī-vasudeva-sūnuḥ sākṣāc chrī-gopāla-puryām avatīryāpāra-paramātarkya-prāpañcika-sakala-locana-gocarīkṛto bhavābdhi-nimajjamānān jagaj-janān udhṛtya sva-saundarya-mādhuryāsvādanayā svīya-prema-mahāmbudhau nimajjayāmāsa |
śiṣṭa-rakṣā duṣṭa-nigraha-vrata-niṣṭhā-mahiṣṭha-pratiṣṭho ‚pi bhuvo-bhāra-duḥkhāpahāra-miṣeṇa duṣṭānām api sva-dveṣṭṝṇām api mahā-saṃsāra-grāsī-bhūtānām api mukti-dāna-lakṣaṇaṃ parama-rakṣaṇam eva kṛtvā
svāntar-dhānottara-kāla-janiṣyamāṇān anādy-avidyā-bandha-nibadnhana-śoka-mohādyākulān api jīvān uddhartuṃ śāstra-kṛn-muni-gaṇa-gīyamāna-yaśaś ca dhartuṃ sva-priya-sakhaṃ tādṛśa-svecchā-vaśād eva raṇa-mūrdhany udbhūta-śoka-mohaṃ śrīmad-arjunaṃ lakṣyī-kṛtya
kāṇḍa-tritayātmaka-sarva-veda-tātparya-paryavasitārtha-ratnālaṅkṛtaṃ śrī-gītā-śāstram aṣṭā-daśādhyāyam antar-bhūtāṣṭā-daśa-vidyaṃ sākṣād vidyamānīkṛtam iva parama-puruṣārtham āvirbhāvayām babhūva |
tatrādhyāyānāṃ ṣaṭkena prathamena niṣkāma-karma-yogaḥ | dvitīyena bhakti-yogaḥ | tṛtīyena jñāna-yogo darśitaḥ | tatrāpi bhakti-yogasyāti-rahasyatvād ubhaya-saṅjīvakatvenābhyarhitatvāt sarva-durlabhatvāc ca madhyavartīkṛtaḥ | karma-jñānayor bhakti-rāhityena vaiyarthyāt te dve bhakti-miśre eva sammatīkṛte |
bhaktis tu dvividhā kevalā pradhānī bhūtā ca | tatrādyā svata eva parama-prabalā | te dve karma-jñāne vinaiva viśuddha-prabhāvatī akiñcanā ananyādi-śabda-vācyā | dvitīyā tu karma-jñāna-miśrety akhilam agre vivṛtībhaviṣyati |

 

Baladeva

satyānantācintya-śakty-eka-pakṣe sarvtrādhyakṣe bhakta-rakṣāti-dakṣe |
śrī-govinde viśva-sargādi-kande pūrṇānande nityam āstāṃ matir me ||
ajñāna-nīradhir upaiti yayā viśoṣaṃ
bhaktiḥ parāpi bhajate paripoṣam uccaiḥ |
tattvaṃ paraṃ sphurati durgamam apy ajasraṃ
sād-guṇya-bhṛt-svaracitāṃ praṇamāmi gītām ||
atha sukha-cid-ghanaḥ svayaṃ bhagavān acintya-śaktiḥ puruṣottamaḥ sva-saṅkalpāyatta-vicitra-jagad-udayādi-viriñcy-ādi-sañcintya-caraṇaḥ sva-janmādi-līlayā sva-tulyān sahāvirbhūtān pārṣadān praharṣayaṃs tayaiva jīvān bahūn avidyā-śārdūlī-vadanād vimocya svāntar-dhānottara-bhāvino ‚nyān uddidhīrṣur āhava-mūrdhni svātma-bhūtam apy arjunam avitarkya-sva-śaktyā samoham iva kurvan tan-moha-vimārjanāpadeśena saparikara-svātma-yāthātmyaika-nirūpikāṃ sva-gītopaniṣadam upādiśat |
tasyāṃ khalv īśvara-jīva-prakṛti-kāla-karmāṇi pañcārthā varṇyante | teṣu vibhu-saṃvid īśvaraḥ | aṇu-saṃvij jīvaḥ | sattvādi-guṇa-trayāśrayo dravyaṃ prakṛtiḥ | traiguṇya-śūnyaṃ jaḍa-dravyaṃ kālaḥ | puṃ-prayatna-niṣpādyam adṛṣṭādi-śabda-vācyaṃ karmeti |
teṣāṃ lakṣaṇāni | eṣv īśvarādīni catvāri nityāni | jīvādīni tv īśvara-vaśyāni | karma tu prāg-abhāvavad anādi vināśi ca | tatra saṃvit-svarūpo ‚pīśvaro jīvaś ca saṃvettāsmad-arthaś ca – vijñānam ānandaṃ brahma – yaḥ sarvajñaḥ sarvavit – mantā boddhā kartā vijānātmā puruṣaḥ, ity ādi śruteḥ | so ‚kāmayata bahu syām – sukham aham asvāpsaṃ na kiñcid avediṣam ity ādi śruteś ca | na cobhayatra mahat-tattva-jāto ‚yam ahaṅkāraḥ tadā tasyānutpatter vilīnatvāc ca |
sa ca sa ca kartā bhoktā siddhaḥ – sarva-jñaḥ sarva-vit kartā boddhā iti padebhyaḥ | anubhavitṛtvaṃ khalu bhoktṛtvaṃ sarvābhyupagatam | so ‚śnute sarvān kāmān saha brahmaṇā vipaścitā iti śrutes tūbhayos tat pravyaktam |
yadyapi saṃvit-svarūpāt saṃvettṛtvādi nānyat prakāśa-svarūpād raver iva prakāśakatvādi, tathāpi viśeṣa-sāmarthyāt tad-anyatva-vyavahāraḥ | viśeṣaś ca bheda-pratinidhir na bhedaḥ | sa ca bhedābhāve ‚pi bheda-kāryasya dharma-dharmi-bhāvādi-vyavahārasya hetuḥ |sattā satī bhedo bhinnaḥ kālaḥ sarvadāstīty ādiṣu vidvadbhiḥ pratītaḥ | tat-pratīty-anyathānupapattyā – evaṃ dharmān pṛthak paśyaṃs tān evānuvidhāvati iti śrutyā ca siddhaḥ | iha hi brahma-dharmān abhidhāya tad-bhedaḥ pratiṣidhyate |
na khalu bheda-pratinidhes tasyāpy abhāve dharma-dharmi-bhāva-dharma-bahutve śakye vaktum ity anicchubhir api svīkāryāḥ syuḥ, ta ime ‚rthāḥ śāstre ‚smin yathā-sthānam anusandheyāḥ |
iha hi jīvātma-paramātma-tad-dhāma tat-prāpty-upāyānāṃ svarūpāṇi yathāvan nirūpyante | tatra jīvātma-yāthātmya-paramātma-yāthātmyopayogitayā paramātma-yāthātmyaṃ tu tad-upāsanopayogitayā prakṛtyādikaṃ tu paramātmanaḥ sraṣṭur upakaraṇatayopadiśyate |
tad-upāyāś ca karma-jñāna-bhakti-bhedāt tredha | tatra śruta-tat-tat-phalanair apekṣeṇa kartṛtvābhiniveśa-parityāgena cānuṣṭhitasya sva-vihitasya karmaṇaḥ, hṛd-viśuddhi-dvārā jñāna-bhaktyor upakāritvāt paramparayā tat-prāptāv upāyatvam |
tac ca śruti-vihita-karma hiṃsā-śūnyam atra mukhyam | mokṣa-dharme pitā-putrādi-saṃvādāt hiṃsāvat tu gauṇaṃ viprakṛṣṭatvāt tayos tu sākṣād eva tathātvam |
nanu, tathānuṣṭhitena karmaṇā hṛd-viśuddhyā jñānodayena muktau satyāṃ, bhaktyā ko viśeṣaḥ | ucyate, jñānam eva kiñcid viśeṣād bhaktir iti | nirṇimeṣa-vīkṣaṇa-kaṭākṣa-vīkṣaṇa-vadanayor antaraṃ cid-vigrahatayānusandhir jñānaṃ tena tat sālokyādiḥ | vicitra-līlā-rasāśrayatayānusandhis tu bhaktis tayā kroḍī-kṛta-sālokyādi-tad-varīvasyānanda-lābhaḥ pumarthaḥ | bhakter jñānatvaṃ tu – sac-cid-ānandaika-rase bhakti-yoge tiṣṭhati – iti śruteḥ siddham |
tad idaṃ śravaṇādi-bhāvādi-śabda-vyapadiṣṭaṃ dṛṣṭam | jñānasya śravaṇādyākāratvaṃ cit-sukhasya viṣṇoḥ kuntalādi-pratīkatvavat pratyetavyam iti vakṣyāmaḥ |
ṣaṭ-trike ‚smin śāstre prathamena ṣaṭkeneśvarāṃśasya jīvasyāṃśīśvara-bhakty-upayogi-svarūpa-darśanam | tac cāntar-gata-jñāna-niṣkāma-karma-sādhyaṃ nirūpyate |
madhyena parama-prāpyasyāṃśīśvarasya prāpaṇī bhaktis tan-mahima-dhī-pūrvikābhidhīyate |
antyena tu pūrvoditānām eveśvarādīnāṃ svarūpāṇi pariśodhyante | trayāṇāṃ ṣaṭkānāṃ karma-bhakti-jñāna-pūrvatā-vyapadeśas tu tat-tat-prādhānyenaiva | carame bhakteḥ pratipatteś coktis tu ratna-sampuṭordhva-likhita-tat-sūcaka-lipi-nyāyena |
asya śāstrasya śraddhāluḥ sad-dharma-niṣṭho vijitendriyo ‚dhikārī | sa ca sa-niṣṭha-pariniṣṭhita-nirapekṣa-bhedāt trividhaḥ | teṣu svargādi-lokān api didṛkṣur niṣṭhayā sva-dharmān hary-arcana-rūpān ācaran prathamaḥ | loka-saṃjighṛkṣayā tān ācaran hari-bhakti-nirato dvitīyaḥ | sa ca sa ca sāśramaḥ | satya-tapo-japādibhir viśuddha-citto hary-eka-niratas tṛtīyo nirāśramaḥ |
vācya-vācaka-bhāvaḥ sambandhaḥ | vācya ukta-lakṣaṇaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ | vācakas tad-gītā-śāstraṃ tādṛśaḥ so ‚tra viṣayaḥ | aśeṣa-kleśa-nivṛtti-pūrvakas tat-sākṣāt-kāras tu prayojanam ity anubandha-catuṣṭayam |
atreśvarādiṣu triṣu brahma-śabdo ‚kṣara-śabdaś ca baddha-jīveṣu tad-deheṣu ca kṣara-śabdaḥ |
īśvara-jīva-dehe manasi buddhau dhṛtau yatne cātma-śabdaḥ |
triguṇāyāṃ vāsanāyāṃ śīle svarūpe ca prakṛti-śabdaḥ |
sattābhiprāya-svabhāva-padārtha-janmasu kriyāsv ātmasu ca bhāva-śabdaḥ |
karmādiṣu triṣu citta-vṛtti-nirodhe ca yoga-śabdaḥ paṭhyate | etac chāstraṃ khalu svayaṃ bhagavataḥ sākṣād vacanaṃ sarvataḥ śreṣṭhaṃ.
gītā sugītā kartavyā kim anyaiḥ śāstra-vistaraiḥ |
yā svayaṃ padmanābhasya mukha-padmād viniḥsṛtā ||
iti pādmāt |
dhṛtarāṣṭrādi-vākyaṃ tu tat-saṅgati-lābhāya dvaipāyanena viracitam | tac ca lavaṇākara-nipāta-nyāyena tan-mayam ity upodghātaḥ |

 
 

BhG 1.1

dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva kim akurvata saṃjaya

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syntax

dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ (Dhṛtarāṣṭra) uvāca (he spoke):
he saṁjaya (O Saṁjaya!),
dharma-kṣetre (in the field of dharma) kuru-kṣetre eva (just in the field of the Kurus) samavetāḥ (assembled) yuyutsavaḥ (desiring to fight) māmakāḥ (mine) pāṇḍavāḥ ca (and the sons of Pāṇḍu) kim akurvata (what they did?).

 

grammar

dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ dhṛta-rāṣṭra 1n.1 m.by whom the kingdom is held, Dhṛtarāṣṭra (from: dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held; rāṣṭra – kingdom);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
dharma-kṣetre dharma-kṣetra 7n.1 n.; [TP]: dharmasya kṣetra itiin the field of dharma (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law; kṣi – to posses, kṣetra – field);
kuru-kṣetre kuru-kṣetra 7n.1 n.; [TP]: kuroḥ kṣetra itiin the field of the Kurus (from: kuru – Kuru, the Kurus – the descendants of Kuru; kṣi – to posses, kṣetra – field);
samavetāḥ sam-aveta (sam-ava-i – come together) [PP] 1n.3 m.assembled;
yuyutsavaḥ yuyutsu (yudh – to fight) des. 1n.3 m.; yoddhum icchantaḥdesiring to fight;
māmakāḥ māmaka 1n.3 m.my, mine;
pāṇḍavāḥ pāṇḍava 1n.3 m.; pāṇḍoḥ putrā itithe sons of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kim kim sn. 2n.1 n.what?
akurvata kṛ (to do) [Imperf.] Ā 1v.3they did;
saṁjaya sam-jaya 8n.1 m.conquest, complete victory, Sajaya (from: sam-ji – to conquer completely, jaya – victory);

 

textual variants


samavetā yuyutsavaḥsarva-kṣatra-samāgame (in the meeting place of all the warriors);

 
 


Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.11

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tatra dharma-kṣetra ity ādinā ślokena dhṛtarāṣṭrena hastināpura-sthitaṃ sva-sārathiṃ samīpasthaṃ sañjayaṃ prati kurukṣetra-vṛttānte pṛṣṭhe | sañjayo hastināpurasthito ‚pi vyāsa-prasāda-labdha-divya-cakṣuḥ kurukṣetra-vṛttāntaṃ sākṣāt paśyann iva dhṛtarāṣṭrāya nivedayāmāsa | dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkam ity ādinā |

 

Viśvanātha

athārjunasya śoka-mohau katham bhūtāv ity apekṣāyāṃ mahābhārata-vaktā śrī-vaiśampāyano janamejayaṃ prati tatra bhīṣma-parvaṇi kathām avatārayati dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca iti |
kurukṣetre yuyutsavo yuddhārthaṃ saṅgatā māmakā duryodhanādyāḥ pāṇḍavāś ca yudhiṣṭhirādayaḥ kiṃ kṛtavantas tad brūhi |
nanu yuyutsava iti tvaṃ bravīṣy evāto yuddham eva kartum udyatās te tad api kim akurvateti kenābhiprāyeṇa pṛcchasīty ata āha dharmakṣetra iti | kurukṣetraṃ deva-yajanam iti śrutes tat-kṣetrasya dharma-pravartakatvaṃ prasiddham |
atas tat-saṃsarga-mahimnā yady adharmikāṇām api duryodhanādīnāṃ krodha-nivṛttyā dharme matiḥ syāt | pāṇḍavās tu svabhāvata eva dhārmikās tato bandhu-hiṃsanam anucitam ity ubhayeṣām api viveke udbhūte sandhir api sambhāvyate |
tataś ca mamānanda eveti sañjayaṃ prati jñāpayitum iṣṭo bhāvo bāhyaḥ | ābhyantaras tu sandhau sati pūrvavat sakaṇṭakam eva rājyaṃ mad-ātmajānām iti me durvāra eva viṣādaḥ | tasmād asmākīno bhīṣmas tv arjunena durjaya evety ato yuddham eva śreyas tad eva bhūyād iti tu tan-mano-rathopayogī durlakṣyaḥ |
atra dharma-kṣetre iti kṣetra-padena dharmasya dharmāvatārasya saparikara-yudhiṣṭhirasya dhānyasthānīyatvam | tat-pālakasya śrī-kṛṣṇasya kṛṣi-bala-sthānīyatvam | kṛṣṇa-kṛta-nānā-vidha-sāhāyyasya jala-secana-setu-bandhanādi-sthānīyatvam | śrī-kṛṣṇa-saṃhārya-duryodhanāder dhānya-dveṣi-dhānyākāra-tṛṇa-viśeṣa-sthānīyatvaṃ ca bodhitaṃ sarasvatyā

 

Baladeva

saṅgrāma-mūrdhni saṃvādo yo ‚bhūd govinda-pārthayoḥ |
tat-saṅgatyai kathāṃ prākhyād gītāsu prathame muniḥ ||
iti tāvad bhagavad-arjuna-saṃvādaṃ prastautuṃ kathā nirūpyate| dharmakṣetre ity ādibhiḥ sapta-viṃśatyā | tad-bhagavataḥ pārtha-sārathyaṃ vidvān dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ sva-putra-vijaye sandihānaḥ sañjayaṃ pṛcchatīty āha | janmejayaṃ prati vaiśampāyanaḥ dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāceti | yuyutsavo yoddhum icchavo māmakā mat-putrāḥ pāṇḍavāś ca kurukṣetre samavetāḥ kim akurvateti |
nanu yuyutsavaḥ samavetā iti tvam evātthya tato yudherann eva punaḥ kim akurvateti kas te bhāva iti cet, tatrāha – dharmakṣetra iti | yad anu kurukṣetraṃ devānāṃ deva-yajanaṃ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ brahma-sadanam ity ādi-śravaṇād dharma-prarohi-bhūmi-bhūtaṃ kurukṣetraṃ prasiddham | tat-prabhāvād vinaṣṭa-vidveṣā mat-putrāḥ kiṃ pāṇḍavebhyas tad-rājyaṃ dātuṃ niścikyuḥ | kiṃ vā, pāṇḍavāḥ sadaiva dharma-śīlā dharma-kṣetre tasmin kula-kṣaya-hetukād adharmād bhītā vana-praveśam eva śreyo vimamṛśur iti | he sañjayeti vyāsa-prasādād vinaṣṭa-rāga-dveṣas tvaṃ tathyaṃ vadety arthaḥ |
pāṇḍavānāṃ māmakatvānuktir dhṛtarāṣṭrasya teṣu droham abhivyanakti | dhānya-kṣetrāt tad-virodhināṃ dhānyābhāsānām iva dharma-kṣetrāt tad-virodhināṃ dharmābhāsānāṃ tvat-putrāṇām apagamo bhāvīti dharma-kṣetra-śabdena gīr-devyā vyajyate

 
 

BhG 1.2

saṃjaya uvāca
dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṃ vyūḍhaṃ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasaṅgamya rājā vacanam abravīt

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syntax


saṁjayaḥ (Saṁjaya) uvāca (he spoke):
rājā (king) duryodhanaḥ (Duryodhana) vyūḍham (arrayed) pāṇḍavānīkam (the army of the sons of Pāṇḍu) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing),
tadā tu (and then) ācāryam (to the teacher) upasaṅgamya (having approached),
vacanam (the speech) abravīt (he spoke).

 

grammar

saṁjayaḥ sam-jaya 1n.1 m.conquest, complete victory, Saṁjaya  (from: sam-ji – to conquer completely, jaya – victory);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
pāṇḍavānīkam pāṇḍava-anīka 2n.1 n.; [TP]: pāṇḍavānām anīkam itithe army of the sons of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale; anīka – splendour, row, army);
vyūḍham vyūḍha (vi-vah – to carry away) [PP] 2n.1 n.divided, arrayed;
duryodhanaḥ dur-yodhana 1n.1 m.difficult to fight with, Duryodhana (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; yudh – to fight, caus. yodha – warrior, battle);
tadā av.at that time, then;
ācāryam ācārya 2n.1 m.to teacher (from: ā-car – to come near to; ācāra – good conduct);
upasaṅgamya upa-sam-gam (to approach) absol.having approached;
rājā rājan 1n.1 m.king (from: raj – to reign);
vacanam vacana 2n.1 n.speech (from: vac – to speak);
abravīt brū [Imperf.] P 1v.1he spoke;

 

textual variants


vyūḍhaṃ vyūhaṃ (orderly arranged, the army);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 1.11

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

sañjaya uvāca dṛṣṭvety-ādi | pāṇḍavānām anīkaṃ sainyaṃ vyūḍhaṃ vyūha-racanayā adhiṣṭhitaṃ dṛṣṭvā droṇācārya-samīpaṃ gatvā rājā duryodhano vakṣyamāṇaṃ vacanam uvāca

 

Viśvanātha

vidita-tad-abhiprāyas tad-āśāṃsitaṃ yuddham eva bhavet kintu tan-manoratha-pratikulam iti manasi kṛtvā uvāca dṛṣṭveti | vyūḍhaṃ vyūha-racanayāvasthitam | rājā duryodhanaḥ sāntar-bhayam uvāca paśyaitām iti navabhiḥ ślokaiḥ

 

Baladeva

evaṃ janmāndhasya prajñā-cakṣuṣo dhṛtarāṣṭrasya dharma-prajñā-vilopān mohāndhasya mat-putraḥ kadācit pāṇḍavebhyas tad-rājyaṃ dadyād iti vimlāna-cittasya bhāvaṃ vijñāya dharmiṣṭhaḥ sañjayas tvat-putraḥ kadācid api tebhyo rājyaṃ nārpayuṣyatīti tat-santoṣam utpādayann āha dṛṣṭveti |
pāṇḍavānām anīkaṃ sainyaṃ vyūḍhaṃ vyūha-racanayāvasthitam | ācāryaṃ dhanur-vidyā-pradaṃ droṇam upasaṅgamya svayam eva tad-antikaṃ gatvā rājā rāja-nīti-nipuṇaḥ vacanam alpākṣaratvaṃ gambhīrārthatvaṃ saṅkrānta-vacana-viśeṣam |
atra svayam ācārya-sannidhi-gamanena pāṇḍava-sainya-prabhāva-darśana-hetukaṃ tasyāntar-bhayaṃ guru-gauraveṇa tad-antikaṃ svayam āgatavān asmīti bhaya-saṅgopanaṃ ca vyajyate | tad idaṃ rāja-nīti-naipuṇyād iti ca rāja-padena

 
 

BhG 1.3

paśyaitāṃ pāṇḍu-putrāṇām ācārya mahatīṃ camūm
vyūḍhāṃ drupada-putreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā

 

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syntax



he ācārya (O teacher!),
tava (your) dhī-matā (by the intelligent) śiṣyeṇa (by the disciple) drupada-putreṇa (by the son of Drupada) vyūḍhām (arrayed) pāṇḍu-putrāṇām (of the sons of Pāṇḍu) etām (this) mahatīm (great) camūm (army) paśya (you must see).

 

grammar

paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
etām etat sn. 2n.1 f.this;
pāṇḍu-putrāṇām pāṇḍu-putra 6n.3 m.; [TP]: pāṇḍoḥ putrāṇām itiof the sons of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale; puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell);
ācārya ācārya 8n.1 m.O teacher! (from: ācar – to come near to; ācāra – good conduct);
mahatīm mahatī 2n.1 f.great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great);
camūm camū 2n.1 f.army, troops (traditionally: 129 elephants, 129 chariots, 2187 horses, 3645 foot);
vyūḍhām vyūḍhā (vi-vah – to carry away) [PP] 2n.1 f.divided, arrayed;
drupada-putreṇa drupada-putra 3n.1 m.; [TP]: drupadasya putreṇeti by the son of Drupada (from: dru – to run, to hasten; pada – foot, dru-pada – pillar, column or a sudden step; puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell);
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
śiṣyeṇa śiṣya (śās – to teach) PF 3n.1 m.by the one to be taught, by a disciple;
dhīmatā dhīmant 3n.1 m.by the one having intellect (from: dhī – to think, to reflect; dhī – thought, intelligence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);

 
 


Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 1.11

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tad eva vacanam āha paśyaitām ity ādibhiḥ navabhiḥ ślokaiḥ | paśyety ādi he ācārya | pāṇḍavānāṃ mahatīṃ vitatāṃ camūṃ senāṃ paśya | tava śiṣyeṇa drupada-putreṇa dhṛṣṭadyumnena vyūḍhāṃ vyūha-racanayādhiṣṭhitām

 

Viśvanātha

drupada-putreṇa dhṛṣṭadyumnena tava śiṣyeṇa sva-vadhārtham utpanna iti jānatāpi tvayāyam adhyāpita iti tava manda-buddhitvam | dhīmateti śatror api tvattaḥ sakāśāt tvad-vadhopāya-vidyā gṛhītety asya mahābuddhitvaṃ phal-kāle ‚pi paśyeti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

tat tādṛśaṃ vacanam āha paśyaitām ity ādinā | priya-śiṣyeṣu yudhiṣṭhirādiṣu snehātiśayād ācāryo na yudhyed iti vibhāvya tat-kopotpādanāya tasmiṃs tad-avajñāṃ vyañjayann āha etām iti | etām atisannihitāṃ prāgalbhyenācāryam atiśūraṃ ca tvām avigaṇayya sthitāṃ dṛṣṭvā tad-avajñāṃ pratīhīti, vyūḍhāṃ vyūha-racanayā sthāpitāṃ | drupada-putreṇeti tvad-vairiṇā drupadena tvad-vadhāya dhṛṣṭadyumnaḥ putro yajñāgni-kuṇḍād utpādito ‚stīti | tava śiṣyeṇeti tvaṃ sva-śatruṃ jānann api dhanur-vidyām adhyāpitavān asīti tava manda-dhītvam | dhīmateti śatros tvattas tvad-vadhopāyo gṛhīta iti tasya sudhītvam | tvad-apekṣyakāritaivāsmākam anartha-hetur iti

 
 

BhG 1.4-6

atra śūrā maheṣv-āsā bhīmārjuna-samā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca drupadaś ca mahā-rathaḥ

dhṛṣṭa-ketuś cekitānaḥ kāśi-rājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kunti-bhojaś
ca śaibyaś ca nara-puṃgavaḥ

yudhā-manyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahā-rathāḥ

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syntax


atra (here) yudhi (in battle) maheṣv-āsāḥ (great archers) śūrāḥ (the heroes) bhīmārjuna-samāḥ (equal to Bhīma and Arjuna) [santi] (are):
yuyudhānaḥ (Yuyudhāna), virāṭaḥ ca (and Virāṭa), mahā-rathaḥ drupadaḥ ca (and great warrior Drupada), dhṛṣṭa-ketuḥ (Dhṛṣṭaketu), cekitānaḥ (Cekitāna), vīrya-vān kaśī-rājah ca (and valorous king of Kaśi), purujit (Purujit), kunti-bhojaḥ ca (and Kuntibhoja), nara-puṁgavaḥ śaibyaḥ ca (and the best of men Śaibya), vikrāntaḥ yudhā-manyuh ca (and courageous Yudhāmanyu), vīrya-vān uttamaujāḥ ca (and valorous Uttamaujās), saubhadraḥ (the son of Subhadra), draupadeyāḥ ca (and the sons of Draupadī), sarve eva (certainly all) mahā-rathāḥ [santi] (are great warriors).

 

grammar

atra av.here;
śūrāḥ śūra 1n.3 m.the heroes;
maheṣv-āsāḥ mahā-iṣu-āsa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣaṁ mahāntaḥ iṣvāsāḥ santi tethose who have great bows (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; iṣu-āsa – arrow-throwing, bow; from: iṣu – arrow; as – to throw, to hurl; āsa – thrower, bow);
bhīmārjuna-samāḥ bhīma-arjuna-sama 1n.3 m.; [TP]: bhīmena ca arjunena ca samāḥ itiwho are equal to Bhīma and Arjuna (from: bhī – to scare, bhīma – terrible, frightful; arjuna – white, clear, Arjuna; sama – the same, equal, equivalent);
yudhi yudh 7n.1 f. – in battle (from: yudh – to fight);
yuyudhānaḥ yuyudhāna 1n.1 m.eager to fight, Yuyudhāna = Sātyaki (from: yudh – to fight, des. yuyutsu – desiring to fight);
virāṭaḥ virāṭa 1n.1 m.brilliant, reighning, Virāṭa (from: vi-rāj – to shine, to reign);
ca av.and;
drupadaḥ dru-pada 1n.1 m.pillar, column or a rapid step, Drupada (from: dru – to run, to hasten; pada – foot);
ca av.and;
mahā-rathaḥ mahā-ratha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya ratho mahān asti saḥwho has a great chariot (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ratha – chariot);

******

dhṛṣṭa-ketuḥ dhṛṣṭa-ketu 1n.1 m.bold leader, Dhṛṣṭaketu (from: dhṛṣ – to be courageous, [PP] dhṛṣṭa – bold; ketu – flag, leader, brightness);
cekitānaḥ cekitāna 1n.1 m.highly intelligent, Cekitāna (from: cit – to think, Intens.x cekitāna – intelligent);
kāśi-rājaḥ kāśi-rāja 1n.1 m.; [TP]: kāśyāḥ rājetiking of Kaśi (from: kāśī – modern Benares; raj – to reign, rājan – king);
ca av. and;
vīryavān vīrya-vant 1n.1 m.having strenght, valorous (from: vīrya – manliness, valour, strenght, semen; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
purujit puru-jit 1n.1 m.conquering widely, Purujit (from: puru – great, abundant; jit – suffix: conqueror);
kunti-bhojaḥ kunti-bhoja 1n.1 m.ruler of the Kunti land (from: kunti – name of the Kunti people; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoja – enjoying, king, bountiful);
ca av.and;
śaibyaḥ śaibya 1n.1 m.ruler of the Śibi land;
ca av.and;
nara-puṁgavaḥ nara-puṅgava 1n.1 m.; [TP]: nareṣu puṅgava itibull among men, best of men (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person; puṅ-gava – a bull, a hero);

******

yudhā-manyuḥ yudhā-manyu 1n.1 m.fighting with spirit, Yudhāmanyu (from: yudh – to fight, yudh – fight, instrumental: yudhā – by the fight, yuddha – fight, battle; manyu – spirit, ardour, anger);
ca av.and;
vikrāntaḥ vikrānta (vi-kram – to step beyond, to attack) [PP] 1n.1 m.courageous;
uttamaujāḥ uttama-ojas 1n.1 m.supreme strenght, Uttamaujās (from: ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above; ojas – strenght, power);
ca av.and;
vīryavān vīrya-vant 1n.1 m.having strenght, valorous (from: vīrya – manliness, valour, strenght, semen; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
saubhadraḥ saubhadra 1n.1 m. the son of Subhadra Abhimanyu (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; bhadra –auspiciousness);
draupadeyāḥ draupadeya 1n.3 m.the sons of Draupadī;
ca av.and;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
mahā-rathāḥ mahā-ratha 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ rathā mahāntaḥ santi tethose who have great chariots (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ratha – chariot);

 

textual variants


yudhā-manyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān → nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca yudhāma[nyūtta]maujasau (Nakula and Sahadeva, Yudhāmanyu and Uttamaujas);
draupadeyāḥ → draupadīyāḥ (sons of Draupadī);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 1.11

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

atrety ādi | atra asyāṃ camvām | iṣavo bāṇā asyas te kṣipyante ebhir iti iṣāsāḥ dhanūṃṣi | mahānta iṣvāso yeṣāṃ te maheṣvāsāḥ | bhīmārjunau tāvad atrātiprasiddhau yoddhārau | tābhyāṃ samāḥ śūrāḥ śauryeṇa kṣātra-dharmeṇopetāḥ santi | tān eva nāmabhir nirdiśati yuyudhānaḥ sātyakiḥ | kiṃ ca dhṛṣṭaketur iti | vikrānto yudhāmanyur nāmaikaḥ | saubhadro ‚bhimanyur draupadeyāḥ draupadyāṃ pañcabhyo yudhiṣṭhirādibhyo jātāḥ putrāḥ prativindhyādayaḥ pañca | mahārathādīnāṃ lakṣaṇam –

eko daśa sahasrāṇi yodhayed yas tu dhanvinām |
śastra-śāstra-pravīṇaś ca mahāratha iti smṛtaḥ ||
amitān yodhayed yas tu samprokto ‚tirathas tu saḥ |
caikena yo yudhyet tan-nyūno ‚rdha-rathaḥ smṛtaḥ || iti

 

Viśvanātha

atra camvām | mahāntaḥ śatrubhiś chettum aśakyā iṣvāsā dhanūṃṣi yeṣāṃ te | yuyudhānaḥ sātyakiḥ | saubhadro ‚bhimanyuḥ | draupadeyā yudhiṣṭhirādibhyaḥ pañcabhyo jātāḥ prativindhyādayaḥ | mahārathādīnāṃ lakṣaṇam –

eko daśa sahasrāṇi yodhayed yas tu dhanvinām |
śastra-śāstra-pravīṇaś ca mahāratha iti smṛtaḥ ||
amitān yodhayed yas tu samprokto ‚tirathas tu saḥ |
caikena yo yudhyet tan-nyūno ‚rdha-rathaḥ smṛtaḥ || iti

 

Baladeva

nanv ekena dhṛṣṭadyumnenādhiṣṭhitālpikā senāsmadīyenaikenaiva sujeyā syād atas tvaṃ mā trāsīr iti cet tatrāha atreti | atra camvāṃ mahāntaḥ śatrubhiś chettum aśakyā iṣvāsāś cāpā yeṣāṃ te | yuddha-kauśalam āśaṅkyāha bhīmeti | yuyudhānaḥ sātyakiḥ | mahāratha iti yuyudhānīdānāṃ trayāṇām | nara-puṅgava iti purujid-ādīnāṃ trayāṇām | yudyeti vikrānta iti yudhāmanyoḥ | vīryavān ity uttamaujasaś ceti viśeṣaṇam | saubhadro ‚bhimanyuḥ | draupadeyā yudhiṣṭhirādibhyaḥ pañcabhyaḥ kramād draupadyāṃ jātāḥ prativindhya-śrutasena-śrutakīrti-śatānīka-śrutakarmākhyāḥ pañca-putrāḥ | ca-śabdād anye ca ghaṭotkacādayaḥ | pāṇḍavās tv atikhyātatvāt na gaṇitāḥ | ye ete saptadaśa gaṇitāḥ, ye cānye tat-pakṣīyās te sarve mahārathā eva | atirathasyāpy upalakṣaṇam etat | tal-lakṣaṇaṃ coktam –

eko daśa sahasrāṇi yodhayed yas tu dhanvinām |
śastra-śāstra-pravīṇaś ca mahāratha iti smṛtaḥ ||
amitān yodhayed yas tu samprokto ‚tirathas tu saḥ |
caikena yo yudhyet tan-nyūno ‚rdha-rathaḥ smṛtaḥ || iti

 
 

BhG 1.7-9

asmākaṃ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṃjñārthaṃ tān bravīmi te

bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiṃ-jayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattis tathaiva ca

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā mad-arthe tyakta-jīvitāḥ
nānā-śastra-praharaṇāḥ sarve yuddha-viśāradāḥ

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syntax


he dvijottama (O best among the twiceborn!),
asmākam tu (on the contrary, among us) ye (those who) viśiṣṭāḥ (distinguished) mama sainyasya (of my army) nāyakāḥ (the leaders) [santi] (are),
tān (them) nibodha (you must know).
te (of your) saṁjñārtham (for the sake of good understanding) tān (about them) bravīmi (I speak):
bhavān (your honour), bhīṣmaḥ ca (and Bhīṣma), karṇaḥ ca (and Karṇa), samitiṁ-jayaḥ kṛpaḥ ca (and victorious Kṛpa), aśvatthāmā (Aśvathāman), vikarṇaḥ ca (and Vikarṇa), saumadattiḥ tathā eva ca (and also the son of Somadatta),
anye ca (and others) bahavaḥ śūrāḥ (many heroes), sarve yuddha-viśāradāḥ (all proficient in battle), mad-arthe tyakta-jīvitāḥ (those who have given up their lives for my sake) nānā-śastra-praharaṇāḥ (wielding various weapons) [santi] (are).

 

grammar

asmākam asmat sn. 6n.3our;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
viśiṣṭāḥ viśiṣṭa (vi-śiṣ – to distinguish) [PP] 1n.3 m.excellent, distinguished;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
nibodha ni-budh (to know) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
dvijottama dvi-ja-uttama 8n.1 m.; [TP]: dvijeṣūttamaḥ iti saḥO best among twiceborn (yo dvir jataḥ sa dvijaḥ – one who was born twice, he is twiceborn – man after receiving upanayana initiation or a bird; uttama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
nāyakāḥ nāyaka 1n.3 m.leaders (from: – to lead, nāya – leader, means, policy);
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
sainyasya sainya 6n.1 m.of the army, of that which is related to army (from: senā – the army);
saṁjñā-artham av. samyak jñānāyāḥ artham itifor the sake of good understanding (from: sam-jñā – to be of one opinion, to understand, saṁjñā – agreement, mutual understanding, made known, named; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use, suffix: for the sake of, on account of);
tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
bravīmi brū (to speak) Praes. P 3v.1I speak;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1 of your (shortened form of: tava);

******

bhavān bhavant 1n.1 m.your honour (from: bhū – to be, bha-vant – honorific form of address, looks like PPr of: bhū, but differs in declension in: nominative singular; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
bhīṣmaḥ bhīṣma 1n.1 m.frightful, Bhīṣma (from: bhī – to scare);
ca av.and;
karṇaḥ karṇa 1n.1 m.ear, Karṇa (from: karṇ – to pierce, to bore);
ca av.and;
kṛpaḥ kṛpa 1n.1 m.pity, compassion, Kṛpa (from: kṛp – to lament, to pity, to long for; kṛpā – grief, pity, compassion, tenderness);
ca av.and;
samitiṁ-jayaḥ samitiṁ-jaya 1n.1 m.; yaḥ samitiṁ jayati saḥwho conquers the assembly (from: sam-i – to come together, to assemble, samiti – assembly; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
aśvatthāmā aśva-sthā-man 1n.1 m.having the strenght of a horse, Aśvatthāman (from: aśva – horse; sthā – to stand, sthā – standing, stationary, being; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
vikarṇaḥ vi-karṇa 1n.1 m.earless, Vikarṇa (from: karṇ – to pierce, to bore, karṇa – ear);
ca av.and;
saumadattiḥ sauma-datti 1n.1 m.; somadattasya putra itison of Somadatta – Bhūriśravas (from: soma – nectar; – to give, [PP] datta – given, datti – gift);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;

******

anye anya sn. 1n.3 m.others;
ca av.and;
bahavaḥ bahu 1n.3 m.many;
śūrāḥ śūra 1n.3 m.the heroes;
mad-arthe mad-artha 7n.1 m.; [TP]: mamārtha iti for my sake, for my purpose (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request; artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use);
tyakta-jīvitāḥ tyakta-jīvita 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām jīvitam tyaktam asti tethose who have given up their lives; ye jīvitaṁ tyaktum adyavasitās te – those who have decided to give up their lives (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up, [PP] tyakta – abandoned; jīv – to live, [PP] jīvita – living, life);
nānā-śastra-praharaṇāḥ nānā-śastra-praharaṇa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām nānā śastrāṇi praharaṇa-sādhanāni santi te those who wield various weapons (from: nānā – differently, variously / different; śas – to cut; śastra – a weapon which is handled as opposed to weapon which is thrown – astra; pra-hṛ – to throw, to hit, praharaṇa – striking, throwing, weapon);
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.they all;
yuddha-viśāradāḥ yuddha-viśārada 1n.3 m.; [TP]: yuddhe viśārada itiproficient in battle (from: yudh – to fight, yuddha – battle; vi-śārada – proficient, experienced, learned);

 

textual variants


nāyakāḥ → nāyakān (the leaders);
… → two padas, not found in critical edition, after verse 1.7:
sainye mahati ye sarve netāraḥ śūra-saṁmatāḥ / sainye mahati ye sarve te narāḥ sarva-saṁmatāḥ (those in the great army who are all the leaders and respected heroes / those in the great army who are respected by all);
kṛpaś ca samitiṃ-jayaḥ → kṛpaḥ śalyo jayadrathaḥ (Kṛpa, Śalya, Jayadratha);
saumadattiḥ → somadattiḥ / saumadattaḥ (Somadatti, Saumadatta);
tathaiva ca → jayadrathaḥ (Jayadratha);
mad-arthe → mad-arthaṃ (for my sake);
nānā-śastra-praharaṇāḥ → nānā-śāstra-praharaṇāḥ (those who throw various commands);
 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 1.11

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

asmākam iti | nibodha budhyasva | nāyakā netāraḥ | saṃjñārthaṃ samyag jñānārtham
tān eṣāha bhavān iti dvābhyām | bhavān droṇaḥ | samitiṃ saṃgrāmaṃ jayatīti tathā | saumadattiḥ somadattasya putro bhūriśravāḥ | anye ceti mad-arthe mat-prayojanārthaṃ jīvitaṃ tyaktum adhyavasitā ity arthaḥ | nānā anekāni śastrāni praharaṇa-sādhanāni yeṣāṃ te | yuddhe viśāradā nipuṇā ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

nibodha budhyasva | saṃjñārthaṃ samyag jñānārtham
saumadattir bhūriśravāḥ | tyakta-jīvitā iti jīvita-tyāgenāpi yadi mad-upakāraḥ syāt tadā tad api kartuṃ pravṛttā ity arthaḥ | vastutas tu mayaivaite nihatāḥ pūrvam eva nimitta-mātraṃ bhava savyasācin iti bhagavad-ukter duryodhana-sarasvatī satyam evāha sma

 

Baladeva

tarhi kiṃ pāṇḍava-sainyād bhīto ‚sīty ācārya-bhāvaṃ sambhāvyāntarjātām api bhītim ācchādayan dhārṣṭyenāha – asmākam iti | asmākaṃ sarveṣāṃ madhye ye viśiṣṭāḥ paramotkṛṣṭā budhyādi-bala-śālino nāyakā netāraḥ | tān saṃjñārthaṃ samyak jñānārthaṃ bravīmīti | pāṇḍava-premṇā tvaṃ cen no yotsyase, tadāpi bhīṣmādibhir mad-vijayaḥ setsyaty eveti tat kopotpādanārthaṃ dyotyam
bhavān iti | bhavān droṇaḥ | vikarṇo mad-bhrātā kaniṣṭhaḥ | saumadattir bhūriśravāḥ | samitiñjayaḥ saṃgrāma-vijayīti droṇādīnāṃ saptānāṃ viśeṣaṇam | nanv etāvanta eva mat-sainye viśiṣṭāḥ kintv asaṅkhyeyāḥ santīty āha anye ceti | bahavo jayadratha-kṛtavarma-śalya-prabhṛtayaḥ | tyaktety-ādi karmaṇi niṣṭhā jīvitāni tyaktuṃ kṛta-niścayā ity arthaḥ | itthaṃ ca teṣāṃ sarveṣāṃ mayi snehātirekāt śauryātirekād yuddha-pāṇḍityāc ca mad-vijayaḥ siddhyed eveti dyotyate

 
 

BhG 1.10

aparyāptaṃ tad asmākaṃ balaṃ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṃ tv idam eteṣāṃ balaṃ bhīmābhirakṣitam

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tat (that) bhīṣmābhirakṣitam (protected by Bhīṣma) asmākam (our) balam (force) aparyāptam (unlimited, insufficient) [asti] (is).
tu (but) idam (this) bhīmābhirakṣitam (protected by Bhīma) eteṣām (their) balam (force) paryāptam (limited, sufficient) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

aparyāptam a-pari-āpta (pari-āp – to obtain) [PP] 1n.1 n.unobtained: unlimited or insufficient (aparimitam / asaṁkhyam – unlimited; asamartham – insufficient);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
asmākam asmat 6n.3our;
balam bala 1n.1 n.force, army;
bhīṣmābhirakṣitam bhīṣma-abhi-rakṣita 1n.1 n.; [TP]: bhīṣmeṇa sarvato rakṣitam ition all sides protected by Bhīṣma (from: bhī – to scare, bhīṣma – frightful; abhi-rakṣ – to protect on all sides, [PP] abhirakṣita – protected on all sides);
paryāptam pari-āpta (pari-āp – to obtain) [PP] 1n.1 n.obtained: limited or sufficient (parimitam – limited; samartham – sufficient);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
idam idam sn. 1n.1 n.this;
eteṣām etat sn. 6n.3 m.their;
balam bala 1n.1 n.force, army;
bhīmābhirakṣitam bhīma-abhi-rakṣita 1n.1 n.; [TP]: bhīmeṇa sarvato rakṣitam ition all sides protected by Bhīma (from: bhī – to scare, bhīma – terrible, frightful; abhi-rakṣ – to protect on all sides, [PP] abhirakṣita – protected on all sides);

 

textual variants

In some editions the names of Bhīṣma and Bhīma in the second and the fourth padas are interchanged;

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 1.11

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tataḥ kiṃ? ata āha – aparyāptam ity ādi | tat tathābhūtaiḥ vīrair yuktam api bhīṣmeṇābhirakṣitam api asmākaṃ balaṃ sainyaṃ aparyāptaṃ taiḥ saha yoddhuṃ asamarthaṃ bhāti | idam eteṣāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ balaṃ bhīmābhirakṣitam sat paryāptaṃ samarthaṃ bhāti | bhīṣmasyobhaya-pakṣapātitvāt asmad-balaṃ pāṇḍava-sainyṃ pratyasamartham | bhīmasyika-pakṣapātitvāt pāṇḍavānāṃ balaṃ samartham

 

Viśvanātha

aparyāptam aparipūrṇam | pāṇḍavaiḥ saha yoddhuṃ akṣamam ity arthaḥ | bhīṣmeṇātisūkṣma-buddhinā śastra-śāstra-pravīṇenābhito rakṣitam api bhīṣmasyobhaya-pakṣapātitvāt | eteṣāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ tu bhīmena sthūla-buddhinā śastra-śāstrānabhijño ‚pi rakṣitam paryāptaṃ paripūrṇam | asmābhiḥ saha yuddhe pravīṇam ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanv ubhayoḥ sainyayos taulyāt tavaiva vijayaḥ katham ity āśaṅkya sva-sainyādhikyam āha aparyāptam iti | aparyāptam aparimitam asmākaṃ balam | tatrāpi bhīṣmeṇa mahā-buddhimatātirathenābhirakṣitam | eteṣāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ balaṃ tu paryāptaṃ parimitam | tatrāpi bhīmena tuccha-buddhinārdharathenābhirakṣitam | ataḥ siddha-vijayo ‚ham

 
 

BhG 1.11

ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathā bhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi

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sarveṣu ca (and on all) ayaneṣu (on the paths) yathā bhāgam (according to division) avasthitāḥ (who are arrayed) sarve eva hi (certainly all indeed) bhavantaḥ (your honours) bhīṣmam eva (just Bhīṣma) abhirakṣantu (they must protect).

 

grammar

ayaneṣu ayana 7n.3 n.on the paths (vyūha-praveśa-mārgeṣu – on the paths of entrance ino the army);
ca av.and;
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 n.on all;
yathā bhāgam av.according to the division (from: yathā – according as; bhāga – part, division);
avasthitāḥ avasthita (ava-sthā – to be present) [PP] 1n.3 m.arrayed, placed;
bhīṣmam bhīṣma 2n.1 m.frightful, Bhīṣma (from: bhī – to scare);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
abhirakṣantu abhi-rakṣ (to protect on all sides) Imperat. P 1v.3they must protect;
bhavantaḥ bhavant 1n.3 m.your honours (from: bhū – to be, bha-vant – honorific form of address, looks like PPr of: bhū, but differs in declension in: nominative singular; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;

 

textual variants

ca (in the first pada) → tu (but);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

duryodhanaḥ svayam eva bhīmābhirakṣitaṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ balam, ātmīyaṃ ca bhīṣmābhirakṣitaṃ balam avalokya ātma-vijaye tasya balasya paryāptatām ātmīyasya balasya tad-vijaye cāparyāptatām ācāryāya nivedya, antar viṣaṇṇo’bhavat

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tasmād yuṣmābhiḥ sāvadhānair bhavituvyam ity āha ayaneṣu vyūha-praveśa-mārgeṣu yathā-bhāgaṃ vibhaktāḥ svāṃ svāṃ raṇa-bhūmim aparityajyaivāvasthitā bhavanto bhīṣmam evābhitas tathā rakṣantu yathānyair yudhyamāno ‚yaṃ pṛṣṭhataḥ kaiścin na hanyate | bhīṣma-balenaivāsmākaṃ jīvitam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

the same as of Śrīdhara

 

Baladeva

athaivaṃ mad-ukti-bhāvaṃ vijñāyācāryaś ced udāsīta tadā mat-kārya-kṣatir iti vibhāvya tasmin sva-kārya-bhāram arpayann āha ayaneṣv iti | ayaneṣu sainya-praveśa-vartmasu yathābhāgaṃ vibhaktāṃ svāṃ svāṃ yuddha-bhūmim aparityajyāvasthitā bhavanto bhavad-ādayo bhīṣmame evābhito rakṣantu yuddhābhiniveśāt pārśvataḥ pṛṣṭhataś cāpaśyantaṃ taṃ yathānyo na vihanyāt tathā kurvantv ity arthaḥ | senāpatau bhīṣme nirbodhe mad-vijaya-siddhir iti bhāvaḥ |
ayam āśayaḥ – bhīṣmo ‚smākaṃ pityāmahaḥ | bhavāṃs tu guruḥ | tau yuvām asmad ekānta-hitaiṣiṇau viditau | yāvakṣa-sadasi mad-anyāyaṃ vidantāv api draupadyā nyāyaṃ pṛṣṭau nāvocatāṃ mayā tu pāṇḍaveṣu pratītaṃ snehābhāsaṃ tyājayituṃ tathā niveditam iti

 
 

BhG 1.12

tasya saṃjanayan harṣaṃ kuru-vṛddhaḥ pitā-mahaḥ
siṃha-nādaṃ vinadyoccaiḥ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān

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tasya (his) harṣaṁ (joy) saṁjanayan (producing) kuru-vṛddhaḥ (the eldest of the Kurus) pratāpavān (who has the majesty) pitāmahaḥ (grandfather) uccaiḥ (loudly) siṁha-nādaṁ (a sound like a lion’s) vinadya (roaring), śaṅkhaṁ (conchshell) dadhmau (he blew).

 

grammar

tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.his;
saṁjanayan sam-janayant (sam-jan – to be born, to produce) PPr caus.1n.1 m.causing to be born, generating;
harṣaṁ harṣa 2n.1 m.joy (from: hṛṣ – to be excited);
kuru-vṛddhaḥ kuru-vṛddha 1n.1 m.; [TP]: kurūṇāṁ kule vṛddha itithe eldest of the Kurus (from: kuru – Kuru, Kurowie – descendants of Kuru; vṛdh – to grow, [PP] vṛddha – elder, experienced);
pitā-mahaḥ pitā-maha 1n.1 m.grandfather (from: pitṛ – father; mah – to magnify, mahant – great);
siṁha-nādam siṁha-nāda 2n.1 m.; [TP]: siṁhasyeva nādam itia roar like a lion’s (from: siṁha – lion; nad – to sound, to thunder, to roar, nāda – a loud sound, roar, bellow);
vinadya vi-nad (to sound, to thunder, to roar) absol.roaring (here the absol. expresses the activity done, made simultaneously with the one expressed in the main verb – he roared blowing the conchshell);
uccaiḥ av. (3n.3) – loudly (from: ucca – lofty, intense);
śaṅkham śaṅkha 2n.1 m.conchshell;
dadhmau dhmā (to blow) [Perf.] P 1v.1he blew;
pratāpavān pratāpa-vant 1n.1 m.who has power, majesty (from: pra-tap – to burn, to shine, pratāpa – fire, heat, majesty, power; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 1.13

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tad evaṃ bahu-māna-yuktaṃ rāja-vākyaṃ śrutvā bhīṣmaḥ kiṃ kṛtavān | tad āha tasyety ādi | tasya rājño harṣaṃ kurvan pitāmaho bhīṣma uccair mahāntaṃ siṃha-nādaṃ vinadya kṛtvā śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau vāditavān

 

Viśvanātha

tataś ca sva-saṃmāna-śravaṇa-janita-harṣas tasya duryodhanasya bhava-vidhvaṃsanena harṣaṃ sañanayituṃ kuru-vṛddho bhīṣmaḥ siṃha-nādam iti upamāne karmaṇi ceti ṇamul siṃha iva vinadyety arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

evaṃ duryodhana-kṛtāṃ sva-stutim avadhārya sa-harṣo bhīṣmas tad-antar-jātāṃ bhītim utsādayituṃ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmāv ity āha | siṃha-nādam ity upamāne karmaṇi ceti pāṇini-sūtrāt ṇamul | cāt kartary upamāne ity arthaḥ | siṃha iva vinadyety arthaḥ | mukhataḥ kiñcid anuktvā śaṅkha-nāda-mātra-karaṇena jaya-parājayau khalv īśvarādhīnau tvad-arthe kṣatra-dharmeṇa dehaṃ tyakṣyāmīti vyajyate

 
 

BhG 1.13

tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānaka-gomukhāḥ
sahasaivābhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulo ‘bhavat

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tataḥ (then) sahasā eva (forcibly indeed) śaṅkhāḥ ca (and conchshells) bheryaḥ ca (and kettle-drums) paṇavānaka-gomukhāḥ (small drums, large drums and bull horns) abhyahanyanta (they were sounded).
saḥ (that) śabdaḥ (sound) tumulaḥ (tumultuous) abhavat (was).

 

grammar

tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
śaṅkhāḥ śaṅkha 1n.3 m.conchshells;
ca av.and;
bheryaḥ bherī 1n.3 f.kettle-drums;
ca av.and;
paṇavānaka-gomukhāḥ paṇava-ānaka-gomukha 1n.3 m.; DV: paṇavāś cānakāś ca gomukhāś ceti accompanying small drums, large drums, horns (from: paṇava – small drum, cymbals; ānaka – large military drum; go-mukha – bull face, horn, trumpet);
sahasā av. (1n.3) – suddenly, forcibly (from: sah – to be victorious, to be able to , sahas – strength, power, victory);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
abhyahanyanta abhi-han (to strike, to beat) [Imperf.] pass. 1v.3they were struck, they were sounded;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.that;
śabdaḥ śabda 1n.1 m.sound;
tumulaḥ tumula 1n.1 m.tumultuous, piercing;
abhavat bhū (to be) [Imperf.] P 1v.1it was;

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

tasya viṣādam ālokya bhīṣmas tasya harṣaṃ janayituṃ siṃha-nādaṃ śaṅkhādhmānaṃ ca kṛtvā śaṅkha-bherī-ninādaiś ca vijayābhiśaṃsinaṃ ghoṣaṃ cākarayat

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tad evaṃ senāpateḥ bhīṣmasya yuddhotsavam ālokya sarvato yuddhotsavaḥ pravṛtta iy āha tata ity ādinā | paṇavā mārdalāḥ | ānakāḥ gomukhāś ca vādya-viśeṣāḥ | sahasā tat-kṣaṇam evābhyahanyanta vāditāḥ | sa ca śaṅkhādi-śabdas tumulo mahān abhūt

 

Viśvanātha

tataś cobhayatraiva yuddhotsāhaḥ pravṛtta ity āha tata iti | paṇavā mārdalāḥ | ānakāḥ paṭahāḥ | gomukhā vādya-viśeṣāḥ

 

Baladeva

tata iti | senāpatau bhīṣme pravṛtte tat-sainye sahasā tat-kṣaṇam eva śaṅkhādayo ‚bhyahanyanta vāditāḥ | karma-kartari prayogaḥ | paṇavādayas trayo vāditra-bhedāḥ | sa śabdas tumula ekākāratayā mahān āsīt

 
 

BhG 1.14

tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś caiva divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ

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tataḥ (then) śvetaiḥ (with white) hayaiḥ (with horses) yukte (yoked) mahati (on great) syandane (on a chariot) sthitau (they two standing) mādhavaḥ (Mādhava) pāṇḍavaḥ ca (and the son of Pāṇḍu) divyau eva (divine indeed) śaṅkhau (two conchshells) pradadhmatuḥ (they two blew).

 

grammar

tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
śvetaiḥ śveta 3n.3 m.with white;
hayaiḥ haya 3n.3 m.with horses;
yukte yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 7n.1 m.yoked;
mahati mahant 7n.1 m.on great (from: mah – to magnify);
syandane syandana 7n.1 m.on a war-chariot, on a swiftly moving chariot (from: syand – to move rapidly);
sthitau sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.2 m.those two standing;
mādhavaḥ mādhava 1n.1 m. descendant of king Madhu (from: madhu – sweetness, honey);or [TP]: mātur dhava iti husband of the Mother – Lakṣmī (from: – mother, Lakṣmī; dhava – husband);
pāṇḍavaḥ pāṇḍava 1n.1 m.son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
divyau divya 2n.2 m.two divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
śaṅkhau śaṅkha 2n.2 m.two conchshells;
pradadhmatuḥ pra-dhmā (to blow) [Perf.] P 1v.2 they two blew;

 

textual variants

yukte → yuktair (with yoked);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

tatas taṃ ghoṣam ākarṇya sarveśvareśvaraḥ pārtha-sārathī rathī ca pāṇḍu-tanayas trailokya-vijayopakaraṇa-bhūte mahati syandane sthitau trailokyaṃ kampayantau śrīmat-pāñcajanya-devadattau divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ ||1.14||

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tataḥ pāṇḍava-sainye pravṛttaṃ yuddhotsāham āha tata ity ādibhiḥ pañcabhiḥ | tataḥ kaurava-sainya-vādya-kolāhalānantaraṃ mahati syandane rathe sthitau santau śrī-kṛṣṇārjunau divyau śaṅkhau prakarṣeṇa dadhmatur vādayāmāsatuḥ |

 

Viśvanātha

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.18

 

Baladeva

atha pāṇḍava-sainye pravṛttaṃ yuddhosavam āha tata iti | anyeṣām api ratha-sthitatve saty api kṛṣṇārjunayoḥ ratha-sthitatvoktis tad-rathasyāgni-dattatvaṃ trailokya-vijetṛtvaṃ mahā-prabhavatvaṃ ca vyajyate

 
 

BhG 1.15-16

pāñcajanyaṃ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṃ dhanaṃjayaḥ
pauṇḍraṃ dadhmau mahā-śaṅkhaṃ bhīma-karmā vṛkodaraḥ
anantavijayaṃ rājā kuntī-putro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau

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syntax

hṛṣīkeśaḥ (Hṛṣīkeśa) pāñca-janyam (Pāñcajanya) [dadhmau] (he blew),
dhanaṁ-jayaḥ (Dhanaṁjaya) deva-dattaṁ (Devadatta) [dadhmau] (he blew),
bhīma-karmā (one whose acts are frightful) vṛkodaraḥ (Vṛkodara) mahā-śaṅkhaṁ (great conchshell) pauṇḍram (Pauṇḍra) dadhmau (he blew).
kuntī-putraḥ (son of Kuntī) rājā (king) yudhiṣṭhiraḥ (Yudhiṣṭhira) ananta-vijayaṁ (Anantavijaya) [dadhmau] (he blew),
nakulaḥ (Nakula) sahadevaś ca (and Sahadeva) sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau (Sughoṣa and Maṇipuṣpaka) [śaṅkhau dadhmatuḥ] (they two blew conchshells).

 

grammar

pāñca-janyam pāñca-janya 2n.1 m.of Pañcajana, obtained form the demon Pañcajana (from: pañca-jana – five types of beings: deva, mānuṣa, gandharva, naga, pitṛ);
hṛṣīkeśaḥ hṛṣīkeśa 1n.1 m.erect hair, Hṛṣīkeśa (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair)or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśa itilord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an organ of sense; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
deva-dattam deva-datta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: devair dattaṁ itigiven by the gods, Devadatta (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; – to give, [PP] datta – given);
dhanaṁjayaḥ dhanaṁ-jaya 1n.1 m.; yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥwinner of wealth, Dhanajaya (from: dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
pauṇḍram pauṇḍra 2n.1 m.of Puṇḍra (from: puṇḍra – Bengal, a mark on the forehead);
dadhmau dhmā (to blow) [Perf.] P 1v.1he blew;
mahā-śaṅkham mahā-śaṅkha 2n.1 m.great conchshell (KD: śaṅkhaś cāsau mahān ca – it is a conchshell and it is great; from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; śaṅkha – conchshell);
bhīma-karmā bhīma-karman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya karmāṇi bhīmāni santi saḥone whose acts are frightful (from: bhī – to scare, bhīma – terrible, frightful; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
vṛkodaraḥ vṛka-udara 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya vṛkasyevodaram asti saḥone who has a belly like a wolf’s (from: vṛka – wolf; udara – belly);

******

ananta-vijayam ananta-vijaya 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya vijayam anantam asti tamone whose victory is without end (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death, an-anta – without end, endless; vi-ji – to conquer, vijaya – victory);
rājā rājan 1n.1 m.king (from: raj – to reign);
kuntī-putraḥ kuntī-putra 1n.1 m.; [TP]: kuntyāḥ putra itison of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu; puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell);
yudhiṣṭhiraḥ yudhi-sthira 1n.1 m.firm in battle (from: yudh – to fight, yudh – bitwa, locative: yudhi – in battle; sthā – to stand, sthira – firm, hard, steady);
nakulaḥ nakula 1n.1 m.mongoose, Nakula;
sahadevaḥ saha-deva 1n.1 m.companion of gods, Sahadeva (from: saha – together with, in the company of; div – to shine, to play, diva – heaven, day, deva – god, divinity);
ca av.and;
sughoṣa-maṇi-puṣpakau su-ghoṣa-maṇi-puṣpaka 2n.2 m.; DV: su-ghoṣam maṇi-puṣpakaṁ cetiExcellent Sound and Jewel-flower (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; ghuṣ – to sound, ghoṣa – noise, sound, music; maṇi – jewel; puṣ to flourish, puṣpa – flower);

 

textual variants

sughoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau → saghoṣa-maṇipuṣpakau (Noisy One and Jewel-flower);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.19

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

commentary under the verse BhG 1.18

 

Viśvanātha

commentary under the verse BhG 1.18

 

Baladeva

commentary under the verse BhG 1.18

 
 

BhG 1.17-18

kāśyaś ca parameṣv-āsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahā-rathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cāparājitaḥ

drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate
saubhadraś ca mahā-bāhuḥ śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak pṛthak

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syntax


he pṛthivīpate (O lord of the earth!),
parameṣv-āsaḥ kāśyaḥ ca (and great bowman the king of Kaśi), mahā-rathaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca (and great warrior Śikhandin), dhṛṣṭa-dyumnaḥ (Dhṛṣṭadyumna), virāṭaḥ ca (and Virāṭa), aparājitaḥ sātyakiḥ (invincible Sātyaki), drupadaḥ (Drupada), draupadeyāḥ ca (and sons of Drupada’s daughter), mahā-bāhuḥ saubhadraḥ ca (and powerful son of Subhadrā) sarvaśaḥ (altogether) pṛthak pṛthak (respective) śaṅkhān (conchshells) dadhmuḥ (they blew).

 

grammar

kāśyaḥ kāśya 1n.1 m.ruler of Kaśi (from: kāśī – Benares);
ca av.and;
parameṣvāsaḥ parama-iṣu-āsa 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya parama iṣvāso ‘sti saḥone who has the best bow (from: parama –  supreme, the highest, superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; iṣu-āsa – arrow-throwing, bow; from: iṣu – arrow; as – to throw, to hurl; āsa – thrower, bow);
śikhaṇḍī śikhaṇḍin 1n.1 m.crested one (from: śi – to sharpen, śikhā / śikhaṇḍa – tuft of hair on the crown of head, peacock’s tail);
ca av.and;
mahā-rathaḥ mahā-ratha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya ratho mahān asti saḥwho has a great chariot (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ratha – chariot);
dhṛṣṭa-dyumnaḥ dhṛṣṭa-dyumna 1n.1 m.; bold power (from: dhṛṣ – to be courageous, proud, [PP] dhṛṣṭa – bold; div – to shine, dyu – day, heaven, brightness, dyumna – power, majesty, enthusiasm);
virāṭaḥ virāṭa 1n.1 m.reigning (from: vi-rāj – to shine, to reign);
ca av.and;
sātyakiḥ sātyaki 1n.1 m.whose nature is truth (from: satya – truth);
ca av.and;
aparā-jitaḥ a-parā-jita (parā-ji – to be conquered) [PP] 1n.1 m.invincible;

******

drupadaḥ dru-pada 1n.1 m.pillar, column or a sudden step (from: dru – to run, to hasten; pada – foot);
draupadeyāḥ draupadeya 1n.3 m.sons of Drupada’s daughter (from: dru – to run, to hasten; pada – foot, dru-pada – pillar, column or a sudden step, draupadī – daughter of Drupada);
ca av.and;
sarvaśaḥ av.completely, entirely, altogether, on all sides (from: sarva sn. – all, whole);
pṛthivīpate pṛthivī-pati 8n.1 m.; [TP]: pṛthivyāḥ pata itiO lord of the earth (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthu – broad, extensive, great, pṛthivī – earth; pati – husband, lord);
saubhadraḥ saubhadra 1n.1 m.son of Subhadrā (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; bhadra – auspiciousness);
ca av.and;
mahā-bāhuḥ mahā-bāhu 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥwho has mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
śaṅkhān śaṅkha 2n.3 m.conchshells;
dadhmuḥ dhmā (to blow) [Perf.] P 1v.3they blew;
pṛthak pṛthak av.separately, singly, one by one(from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one);

 

textual variants


parameṣvāsaḥ → parameṣvāsāḥ (the best bowmen);
mahā-rathaḥ → mahā-rathāḥ (great warriors);
drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate → pāṃcālaś ca maheṣvāso draupadeyāś ca paṃca ye (and great bowman, son of Pañcāla and the five of Draupadeyas);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 1.19

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tad eva vibhāgena darśayann āha pāñcajanyam iti | pāñcajanyādīni nāmāni śrī-kṛṣṇādi-śaṅkhānām | bhīmaḥ ghoraṃ karma yasya saḥ | vṛkavat udaraṃ yasya sa vṛkodaro mahā-śaṅkhaṃ pauṇḍraṃ dadhmāv iti | ananteti | nakulaḥ sughoṣaṃ nāma śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau | sahadevo maṇipuṣpakaṃ nāma | kāśyaś ceti | kāśyaḥ kāśirājaḥ | kathambhūtaḥ | paramaḥ śreṣṭhaḥ iṣvāso dhanur yasya saḥ | drupada iti | he pṛthivīpate dhṛtarāṣṭra

 

Viśvanātha

pāñcajanyādayaḥ śaṅkhādīnāṃ nāmāni | aparājitaḥ kenāpi parājetum aśakyatvāt | athavā cāpena dhanuṣā rājitaḥ pradīptaḥ

 

Baladeva

pāñcajanyam ity ādi pāñcajanyādayaḥ kṛṣṇādi-śaṅkhānām āhvayāḥ | atra hṛṣīkeśa-śabdena parameśvara-sahāyitvam | pāñcajanyādi-śabdaiḥ prasiddhāhvayāneka-divya-śaṅkhavattvam | rājā bhīmakarmā dhanañjaya ity ebhir yudhiṣṭhirādīnāṃ rāja-sūya-yājitva-hiḍimbādi-nihantṛtva-digvijayāhṛtānanta-dhanatvāni ca vyajya pāṇḍava-senā-sūtkarṣaḥ sūcyate | para-senāsu tad-abhāvād apakarṣaś ca | kāśya iti | kāśyaḥ kāśirājaḥ | parameṣvāsaḥ mahā-dhurdharaḥ | cāparājito dhanuṣā dīptaḥ | drupada iti | pṛthivīpate he dhṛtarāṣṭreti tava durmantraṇodayaḥ kula-kṣaya-lakṣaṇo ‚ narthaḥ samāsata iti sūcyate

 
 

BhG 1.19

sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulo vyanunādayan

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syntax


saḥ (that) tumulaḥ (tumultuous) ghoṣaḥ (noise) nabhaḥ (the sky) pṛthivīṁ ca eva (and eve the earth) vyanunādayan (it caused to vibrate),
dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām ca (and of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) hṛdayāni (the hearts) vyadārayat (it caused to break).

 

grammar

saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.that;
ghoṣaḥ ghoṣa 1n.1 m.noise (from: ghuṣ – to sound);
dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām dhārtarāṣṭra 6n.3 m.of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (from: dhṛta-rāṣṭra – by whom the kingdom is held, from: dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held; rāṣṭra – kingdom);
hṛdayāni hṛdaya 2n.3 n.the hearts;
vyadārayat vi-dṝ (to split) [Imperf.] caus. P 1v.1it caused to break;
nabhaḥ nabhas 2n.1 n.the sky;
ca av.and;
pṛthivīm pṛthivī 2n.1 f.the earth (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthu – broad, extensive, great);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tumulaḥ tumula 1n.1 m.tumultuous;
vyanunādayan vi-anu-nādayant (anu-nad – to sound) PPr caus.1n.1 m.causing to vibrate;

 

textual variants


sa ghoṣo → sughoṣo (pleasant noise);
vyadārayat → vyakaṁpayat (it caused to tremble);
vyanunādayan → ‘bhyanunādayan / ‘py anunādayan (causing to vibrate);
 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

tato yudhiṣṭhiro vṛkodarādayaś ca svakīyān śaṅkhān pṛthak pṛthak pradadhmauḥ | sa ghoṣo duryodhana-pramaukhānāṃ sarveṣām eva bhavat-putrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni bibheda | adayaiva naṣṭaṃ kurūṇāṃ balam iti dhārtarāṣṭrā menire | evaṃ tad-vijayābhikaṅkṣiṇe dhṛtarāṣṭrāya saṃjayo’kathayat

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

Śrīdhara – sa ca śaṅkhānāṃ nādas tvadīyānāṃ mahābhayaṃ janayāmāsety āha sa ghoṣa ity ādi | dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ tvadīyānāṃ hṛṇḍayāṇi vyadārayat vidāritavān | kiṃ kurvan | nabhaś ca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulo ‚bhyanunādayan pratidhvanibhir apūryan ||19||

 

Viśvanātha

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.25

 

Baladeva

sa iti | pāṇḍavaiḥ kṛtaḥ śaṅkha-nādo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ bhīṣmādīnāṃ sarveṣāṃ hṛṇḍayāṇi vyadārayat | tad-vidāraṇa-tulyāṃ pīḍām ajanayad ity arthaḥ | tumulo ‚titīvraḥ abhyanunādayan pratidhvanibhiḥ p”ryann ity arthaḥ | dhārtarāṣṭraiḥ kṛtas tu śaṅkhādinādas tumulo ‚pi teṣāṃ kiñcid api kṣobhaṃ nājanayat tathānukter iti bodhyam

 
 

BhG 1.20-21

atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān kapi-dhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastra-saṃpāte dhanur udyamya pāṇḍavaḥ
hṛṣīkeśaṃ tadā vākyam idam āha mahī-pate

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syntax

he mahī-pate (O lord of the earth!),
atha (now) pravṛtte śastra-sampāte [sati] (when the battle was to begin) kapi-dhvajaḥ (one whose banner is a monkey) pāṇḍavaḥ (son of Pāṇḍu) vyavasthitān (arrayed) dhārtarāṣṭrān (of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing), dhanuḥ (a bow) udyamya (after raising), tadā (then) hṛṣīkeśam (to Hṛṣīkeśa) idaṁ (this) vākyam (word) āha (he spoke).

 

grammar

atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
vyavasthitān vi-ava-sthita (vi-ava-sthā – to arrange, to settle) [PP] 2n.3 m.arrayed;
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
dhārtarāṣṭrān dhārtarāṣṭra 2n.3 m.of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (from: dhṛta-rāṣṭra – by whom the kingdom is held, from: dhṛ – to hold [PP] dhṛta – held; rāṣṭra – kingdom);
kapi-dhvajaḥ kapi-dhvaja 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya dhvaje kapir asti saḥone whose banner is a monkey (from: kapi – monkey; dhvaja – a banner, flag, mark);
pravṛtte pra-vṛtta (pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass) [PP] 7n.1 m. loc.abs.when it began;
śastra-saṁpāte śastra-saṁpāta m. 7n.1 loc.abs.; [TP]: śastrāṇāṁ saṁpāta itifalling of weapons (from: śas – to cut; śastra – a weapon which is handled as opposed to weapon which is thrown – astra; sam-pat – to fall together, to meet with, [PP] saṁpāta – falling together);
dhanuḥ dhanuḥ 2n.1 n.a bow;
udyamya ud-yam (to raise) absol.after raising;
pāṇḍavaḥ pāṇḍava 1n.1 m.son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);

******

hṛṣīkeśam hṛṣīkeśa 2n.1 m.to Hṛṣīkeśa, to one with erect hair (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair)or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśam itito the lord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an ogan of sense; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
tadā av.then;
vākyam vākya (vac – to speak) PF 2n.1 n.word, the speech;
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
āha ah (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
mahī-pate mahī-pati 8n.1 m.; [TP]: mahyāḥ pata iti – O lord of the earth (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great, mahī – earth; pati – husband, lord);

 

textual variants

vyavasthitāh → avasthitāh (arrayed);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.25

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

etasmin samaye śrī-kṛṣṇam arjuno vijñāpayāmāsety āha atha ity ādibhiḥ caturbhiḥ ślokaiḥ | atheti athānantaraṃ vyavasthitān yuddhodyogena sthitān | kapidhvajo ‚rjunaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.25

 

Baladeva

evaṃ dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ yuddhe bhītiṃ pradarśya pāṇḍavānāṃ tu tatrotsāham āha atheti sārdhakena | atha ripu-śaṅkha-nāda-kṛtotsāha-bhaṅgānantaraṃ vyavasthitān tad-bhaṅga-virodhi-yuyutsayāvasthitān dhārtarāṣṭrān bhīṣmādīn kapidhvajo ‚rjuno yena śrī-dāśarather api mahānti kāryāni purā sādhitāni tena mahāvīreṇa dhvajam adhitiṣñhitā hanumatānugṛhīto bhaya-gandha-śūnya ity arthaḥ | he mahīpate pravṛtte pravartamāne | hṛṣīkeśam iti hṛṣīkeśaṃ sarvendriya-pravartakaṃ kṛṣṇaṃ tad idaṃ vākyam uvāceti | sarveśvaro harir yeṣāṃ niyojyas teṣāṃ tad ekānta-bhaktānāṃ pāṇḍavānāṃ vijaye sandeha-gandho ‚pi neti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 1.21-23

senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṃ sthāpaya me ‘cyuta
yāvad etān nirīkṣe ‘haṃ yoddhu-kāmān avasthitān
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇa-samudyame

yotsyamānān avekṣe ‘haṃ ya ete ‘tra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya dur-buddher yuddhe priya-cikīrṣavaḥ

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syntax


he acyuta (O Acyta!),
yāvat (as long as) ahaṁ (I) etān (these) yoddhu-kāmān (who are eager to fight) avasthitān (arrayed), mayā (by me) kaiḥ saha (with whom) asmin (in this) raṇa-samudyame (engagement in battle) yoddhavyam (to be fought with) nirīkṣe (I look at).
ye ete (those who) atra (here) samāgatāḥ (who are assembled), yuddhe (in battle) dur-buddheḥ (of the evil-minded) dhārtarāṣṭrasya (of the son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) priya-cikīrṣavaḥ (those who desire to please).
[yāvat] (as long as) ahaṁ (I) [tān] (those) yotsyamānān (who will be fighting) avekṣe (I look at),
[tāvat] (so long) ubhayoḥ (of both) senayoḥ (of the two armies) madhye (in the middle) me (my) ratham (chariot) sthāpaya (you must place).

 

grammar

senayoḥ senā 6n.2 f.of the two armies;
ubhayoḥ ubhā sn. 6n.2 f.of both;
madhye madhya 7n.1 n.in the middle, inside;
ratham ratha 2n.1 m.chariot;
sthāpaya sthā (to stand) Imperat. caus. P 2v.1cause to stand;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
acyuta a-cyuta (cyu – to shake, to fall, to deviate) [PP] 8n.1 m.O unfailling one;

******

yāvat av.as long as, as great;
etān etat sn. 2n.3 m.these;
nirīkṣe nir-īkṣ (to look at, to behold) Praes. Ā 3v.1I look at;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
yoddhu-kāmān yoddhu-kāma 2n.3 m.; ye yoddhuṁ kāmayante tānthose who are eager to fight (from: yudh – to fight; kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire; suffix goes with [inf.] without a nasal: yoddhu = yoddhum);
avasthitān ava-sthita (ava-sthā – to stand) [PP] 2n.3 m.arrayed;
kaiḥ kim sn. 3n.3 m.with whom;
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
saha av. along with (postposition, requires instrumental);
yoddhavyam yoddhavya (yudh – to fight) PF 1n.1 n.to be fought with;
asmin idam sn. 7n.1 m.in this;
raṇa-samudyame raṇa-sam-ud-yama 7n.1 m.; [TP]: raṇasya samudyama itiin the engagement in battle (from: raṇ – to rejoice, raṇa – delight, fight, battle; sam-ud-yam – to raise, to set up, samudyama – raising up, readiness to, exertion, setting about);

******

yotsyamānān yotsyamāna (yudh – to fight) PPr Fut. 2n.3 m.those who will be fighting;
avekṣe ava-īkṣ (to look at, to behold) Praes. Ā 3v.1I look at;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
ete etat sn. 1n.3 m.these;
atra av.here;
samāgatāḥ sam-āgata (ā-gam – to come) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are assembled;
dhārtarāṣṭrasya dhārtarāṣṭra 6n.1 m.of the son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (from: dhṛta-rāṣṭra – by whom the kingdom is held, from: dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held; rāṣṭra – kingdom);
durbuddheḥ dur-buddhi 6n.1 m.of one with bad intelligence, of avi-minded (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
yuddhe yuddha 7n.1 n.in battle (from: yudh – to fight);
priya-cikīrṣavaḥ priya-cikīrṣu 3n.1 m.; [TP]: ye priyaṁ kartum icchavas tethose who desire to please (from: prī – to please, priya – beloved, dear to, love, kindness; kṛ – to do, des. cikīrṣu – who desires to do);

 

textual variants


In some manuscripts before the third pada of the verse there is: arjuna uvāca (Arjuna spoke);
senayor ubhayor madhye → ubhayor senayor madhye (between the two armies);
nirīkṣe → nirīkṣye (is looked at);
kair → yair / tair (with whom / with them);
raṇa-samudyame → raṇa-samudyate (in a begun battle);
yotsyamānān → yodhyamānān (being fought PPr caus. pass.);
avekṣe → avekṣye (will be looked at);
dhārtarāṣṭrasya → dhṛtarāṣṭrasya / duryodhanasya (of Dhṛtarāṣṭra / of Duryodhana);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.25

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tad eva vākyam āha senayor ubhayor ity ādi | yāvad etān iti | nanu tvaṃ yoddhā na tu yuddha-prekṣakas tatrāha kair mayety ādi | kaiḥ saha mayā yoddhavyam | yotsyamānān iti dhārtarāṣṭrasya duryodhanasya priyaṃ kartum icchanto ye iha samāgatāḥ tān ahaṃ drakṣyāmi yāvat | tāvad ubhayoḥ senayor madhye me rathaṃ sthāpayety anvayaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.25

 

Baladeva

arjuna-vākyam āha senayor iti | he acyutedi svabhāva-siddhād bhakta-vātsalyāt pāramaiśvaryāc ca na cyavase smeti tena tena ca niyantirto bhaktasya me vākyāt tatra rathaṃ sthitaṃ kuru nirbhaya tatra ratha-sthāpane phalam āha yāvad iti | yoddhu-kāmān na tu sahāsmābhiḥ sandhiṃ cikīrṣūn | avasthitān na tu bhītyā pracalitān |
nanu tvaṃ yoddhā, na tu yuddha-prekṣakas tatas tad-darśanena kim iti cet tatrāha kair iti | asmin bandhūnām eva mitho raṇodyoge kair bandhubhiḥ saha mama yuddhaṃ bhāvīty etaj-jñānāyaivaa madhye ratha-sthāpanam iti |
nanu bandhutvād eet sandhim eva vidhātsyantīti cet tatrāha yotsyamānān iti na tu sandhiṃ vidhāsyataḥ | avekṣe pratyemi | durbuddheḥ kudhiyaḥ svajīvanopāyānabhijñasya yuddhe na tu durbuddhy-apanayane | ato mad-yuddha-pratiyogi-nirīkṣaṇaṃ yuktam iti

 
 

BhG 1.24-25

evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam

bhīsma-droṇa-pramukhataḥ sarveṣāṃ ca mahīkṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyaitān samavetān kurūn iti

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syntax

he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
guḍākeśena (by Guḍākeśa) hṛṣīkeśaḥ (Hṛṣīkeśa) evam uktaḥ (who is thus spoken to),
ubhayoḥ (of both) senayoḥ (of the two armies) madhye (in the middle),
bhīṣma-droṇa-pramukhataḥ (in front of Bhīṣma and Droṇa),
sarveṣām ca (and of all those) mahī-kṣitām (of the rulers of earth) [sammukhe] (in front of),
rathottamam (the excellent charriot) sthāpayitvā (after having placed), uvāca (he spoke):
he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!) etān (these) samavetān (who are assembled) kurūn (the members of the Kuru dynasty) paśya (you must see) iti (end of quotation).

 

grammar

evam av.thus;
uktaḥ ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 m.who is spoken to;
hṛṣīkeśaḥ hṛṣīkeśa 1n.1 m.erect hair, Hṛṣīkeśa (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair) or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśa itilord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an organ of senses; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
guḍākeśena guḍākeśa 3n.1 m.by one with thick hair (from: guḍa – ball, molasses; keśa – hair) or [TP]: guḍākāyā īśenetiby lord of laziness (from: guḍākā – laziness, idleness, sleep; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
senayoḥ senā 6n.2 f.of the two armies;
ubhayoḥ ubhā sn. 6n.2 f.of both;
madhye madhya 7n.1 n.in the middle, inside;
sthāpayitvā sthā (to stand) absol. caus.after causing to stand;
rathottamam ratha-uttama 2n.1 m.; uttamaṁ ratham itithe excellent chariot (from: ratha – chariot; uttama – the best, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);

******

bhīṣma-droṇa-pramukhataḥ av. bhīṣmasya droṇasya ca pramukhataḥ /sammukhein front of Bhīṣma and Droṇa (from: bhī – to scare, bhīṣma – frightful; droṇa – cloud full of rain, tree; pra-mukha – turning the face towards, foremost, pramukhataḥ – in front of, indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
sarveṣām sarva sn. 6n.3 m.of all these;
ca av.and;
mahī-kṣitām mahī-kṣit 6n.3 m.; [TP]: ye mahīm kṣayanti tām of those who rule the earth (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great, mahī – earth; kṣi – to possess, kṣit – ruling, dwelling; occurs mostly in compounds);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
etān etat sn. 2n.3 m.these;
samavetān samaveta (sam-ava-i – come together) [PP] 2n.3 m.those who are assembled;
kurūn kuru 2n.3 m.members of the Kuru dynasty;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);

 

textual variants

In some editions before this verse there is: saṁjaya uvāca (Saṁjaya spoke);
senayor ubhayor madhye → ubhayor senayor madhye (between two armies);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

sa ca tena coditas tat-kṣaṇād eva bhīṣma-droṇādīnāṃ sarveṣām eva mahīkṣitāṃ paśyatāṃ yathā coditam akarot | īdṛśī bhavadīyānāṃ vijaya-sthitir iti cāvocat

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam | ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam ukta ity ādi | uḍākā nidrā tasya īśena jita-nidreṇa arjunena evam uktaḥ san | he bhārata, he dhṛtarāṣṭra senayor madhye rathānām uttamaṃ rathaṃ hṛṣīkeśaḥ sthāpitavān | bhīṣma-droṇa iti mahīkṣitāṃ rājñāṃ ca pramukhataḥ sammukhe rathaṃ sthāpayitvā | he pārtha etān kurūn paśyeti śrī-bhagavān uvāca

 

Viśvanātha

hṛṣīkeśaḥ sarvendriya-niyantāpy evam ukto ‚rjunenādiṣṭaḥ | arjuna-vāg-indriya-mātreṇāpi niyamyo ‚bhūd ity aho prea-vaśyatvaṃ bhagavata iti bhāvaḥ | guḍākeśena guḍā yathā mādhurya-mātra-prakāśakās tat tathā svīya-sneha-rasāsvāda-prakāśakā akeśā viṣṇu-brahma-śivā yasya tena akāro viṣṇuḥ ko brahmā īśo mahā-devaḥ | yatra sarvāvatāri-cūḍāmaṇīndraḥ svayaṃ bhagavān śrī-kṛṣṇa eva premādhīnaḥ sann ājñānuvartī babhūva | tatra guṇāvatāratvāt tad-aṃśāḥ viṣṇu-brahma-rudrāḥ katham aiśvaryaṃ prakāśayantu | kintu svakartṛkaṃ sneha-rasaṃ prakāśyaiva svaṃ svaṃ kṛtārthaṃ manyanta ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ śrī-bhagavatā para-vyoma-nāthenāpi dvijātmamajā me yuvayor didṛkṣuṇā iti |
yad vā, guḍāko nidrā tasyā īśena jita-nidrenety arthaḥ | atrāpi vyākhyāyāṃ sākṣān māyāyā api niyantā yaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaḥ sa cāpi yena premṇā vijitya vaśīkṛtas tenārjunena māyā-vṛttir nidrā varākī jiteti kiṃ citram iti bhāvaḥ | bhīṣma-droṇayoḥ pramukhataḥ pramukhe sammukhe sarveṣāṃ mahīkṣitāṃ rājñāṃ ca | pramukhataḥ iti samāsa-praviṣṭe ‚pi pramukhataḥ-śabda ākṛṣyate

 

Baladeva

tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjayaḥ prāha evam iti | guḍākā nidrā tasyā īśaḥ sva-sakha-śrī-bhagavad-guṇa-lāvaṇya-smṛti-niveśena vijita-nidras tat-parama-bhaktas tenārjunenaivam uktaḥ pravartito hṛṣīkeśas tac-citta-vṛtty-abhijño bhagavān senayor madhye bhīṣma-droṇayoḥ sarveṣāṃ ca mahīkṣitāṃ bhū-bhujāṃ ca pramukhataḥ sammukhe rathottamaṃ agnidattaṃ rathaṃ sthāpayitvovāca he pārtha samavetān etān kurūn paśyeti | pārtha-hṛṣīkeśa-śabdābhyām idaṃ sūcyate matipitṛ-svasṛ-putratvāt tvat-sārathyam ahaṃ kariṣyāmy eva tvaṃ tv adhunaiva yuyutsāṃ tyakṣyasīti kiṃ śatru-sainya-vīkṣaṇeneti sopahāso bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 1.26-27

tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṝn atha pitā-mahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṝn putrān pautrān sakhīṃs tathā
śvaśurān suhṛdaś caiva senayor ubhayor api

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syntax

atha (now) tatra (there) pārthaḥ api (even son of Pṛthā) pitṝn (fathers), pitāmahān (grandfathers), ācāryān (teachers), mātulān (maternal uncles), bhrātṝn (brothers), putrān (sons), pautrān tathā (and grandsons), sakhīn (friends), śvaśurān (fathers-in-law), suhṛdaḥ eva ca (and also well-wishers) senayoḥ (of the two armies) ubhayoḥ (of both) sthitān (situated) apaśyat (he saw).

 

grammar

tatra av.there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
apaśyat dṛś (to see) [Imperf.] P 1v.1he saw;
sthitān sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 2n.3 m.situated;
pārthaḥ pārtha 1n.1 m.son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
pitṝn pitṛ 2n.3 m.fathers (pitṛvyān bhūriśravaḥ-prabhṛtīn – older members of the family, beginning with Bhūriśravas);
atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
pitā-mahān pitā-maha 2n.3 m.grandfathers (from: pitṛ – father; mah – to magnify, mahant – great; bhīṣmādīn – beginning with Bhīṣma);
ācāryān ācārya 2n.3 m.teachers (from: ā-car – to come near to; ācāra – good conduct; droṇādīn – beginning with Droṇa);
mātulān mātula 2n.3 m.maternal uncles (śalya-śakuni-prabhṛtīn – with Śalya and Śakuni at the head);
bhrātṝn bhrātṛ 2n.3 m.brothers (duryodhanādīn – beginning with Duryodhana);
putrān putra 2n.3 m.sons (from: puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell; lakṣmaṇādīn – beginning with Lakṣmaṇa);
pautrān pautra 2n.3 m.grandsons (from: puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell; lakṣmaṇa-tanayādīn – beginning with descendants of Lakṣmaṇa);
sakhīn sakhi 2n.3 m.friends (from: sac – to be associated or united with; jayadratha-prabhṛtīn – with Jayadratha at the head);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;

******

śvaśurān śvaśura 2n.3 m.fathers-in-law (kṛtāvarmādīn – beginning with Kṛtavarman);
suhṛdaḥ su-hṛd 2n.3 m.well-wishers (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; hṛd – heart);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
senayoḥ senā 7n.2 f.in the two armies;
ubhayoḥ ubhā sn. 7n.2 f.in both;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;

 

textual variants

sthitān → kurūn (the Kurus);
caiva → śyālān (brothers-in-law);

 
 

Śāṃkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

sa tu pārtho mahā-manāḥ parama-kāruṇiko dīrgha-bandhuḥ parama-dhārmikaḥ sa-bhrātṛko bhavadbhiḥ atighorair māraṇair jatu-gṛha-dāhādibhir asakṛd-vañcito’pi parama-puruṣa-sahāyo’pi haniṣyamāṇān bhavadīyān vilokya bandhu-snehena parayā kṛpayā dharmādharma-bhayena cātimātra-svinna-sarva-gātraḥ ||1.26||

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tataḥ kiṃ pravṛttam ity āha tatrety ādi | pitṝn pitṛvyān ity arthaḥ | putrān pautrān iti duryodhanādīnāṃ ye putrāḥ pautrāś ca tān ity arthaḥ | sakhīn mitrāṇi | suhṛdaḥ kṛtopakārāṃś ca apaśyat
tataḥ kiṃ kṛtavān ity āha tān iti | senayor ubhayor evaṃ samīkṣya kṛpayā mahatyā āviṣṭaḥ viṣaṇṇaḥ san idam arjuno ‚bravīt | ity uttarasya ardha-ślokasya vākyārthaḥ | āviṣṭo vyāptaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

duryodhanādīnāṃ ye putrāḥ pautrāś ca tān

 

Baladeva

evaṃ bhagavatokto ‚rjunaḥ para-senām apaśyad ity āha tatreti sārdhakena | tatra para-senāyāṃ pitṝn pitṛvyān bhūriśravaḥ-prabhṛtīn, pitāmahān bhīṣma-somadattādīn, ācāryān droṇa-kṛpādīn, mātulān śalya-śakuny-ādīn, bhrātṝn duryodhanādīn, putrān lakṣmaṇādīn, pautrān naptṝn, lakṣmaṇādi-putrān, sakhīn vayasyān drauṇi-saindhavādīn, suhṛdaḥ kṛtavarma-bhagadattādīn | evaṃ sva-sainye ‚py upalakṣaṇīyam | ubhayor api senayor avasthitān tān sarvān samīkṣyety anvayāt
atha sarveśvaro dayāluḥ kṛṣṇaḥ saparikarātmopadeśena viśvam uddidhīrṣur arjunaṃ śiṣyaṃ kartuṃ tat-sva-dharme ‚pi yuddhe mā hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtāni iti śruty-arthābhāsenādharmatām ābhāsya taṃ saṃmohaṃ kṛtavān ity āha tān samīkṣyate kaunteya iti svīya-pitṛ-svasṛ-putratvoktyā tad-dharmo moha-śokau tadā tasya vyajyete | kṛpayā kartryā ity ukteḥ | svabhāva-siddhasya kṛpeti dyotsyate | ataḥ parayeti tad-viśeṣaṇam | aparayeti vā cchedaḥ sva-sainye pūrvam api kṛpāsti para-sainye tv aparāpi sābhūd ity arthaḥ | viṣīdann anutāpaḥ vindan | atrokti-viṣādayor aika-kālyādy-ukti-kāle viṣāda-kāryāṇy-aśru-kampa-sanna-kaṇṭhādīni vyajyate

 
 

BhG 1.27-28

tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān
kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdann idam abravīt

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syntax

saḥ (he) parayā (with great) kṛpayā (with compassion) āviṣṭaḥ (filled),
viṣīdan (grieving) kaunteyaḥ (the son of Kuntī) tān (them) sarvān (all) bandhūn (relatives) avasthitān (arrayed) samīkṣya (after seeing),
idam (this) abravīt (he spoke).

 

grammar

tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
samīkṣya sam-īkṣ (to look at) absol.after seeing;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
kaunteyaḥ kaunteya 1n.1 m.son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
sarvān sarva sn. 2n.3 m.all;
bandhūn bandhu 2n.3 m.relatives (from: bandh – to bind, to fetter);
avasthitān avasthita (ava-sthā – to arrange) [PP] 2n.3 m.who are arrayed;

******

kṛpayā kṛpā 3n.1 f.with pity, compassion (from: kṛp – to lament, to pity, to long for; kṛpā – grief, pity, compassion, tenderness);
parayā parā 3n.1 f.with great;
āviṣṭaḥ āviṣṭa (ā-viś – to approach, to enter) [PP] 1n.1 m.filled, subject to;
viṣīdan viṣīdant (vi-sad – to grieve, to be dejected) PPr act. 1n.1 m.grieving;
idam idam sn. 2n.1 n.this;
abravīt brū (to speak) [Imperf.] 1v.1 Phe spoke;

 

textual variants

samīkṣya sa → samīkṣya ca / samīkṣyātha (and after seeing / now after seeing);
viṣīdann idam abravīt  → sīdamāno ‘bravīd idaṃ (despondent he spoke this);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.47

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

commentary under the verse BhG 1.29

 

Viśvanātha

commentary under the verse BhG 1.29

 

Baladeva

commentary under the verse BhG 1.29

 
 

BhG 1.28-29

dṛṣṭvemān svajanān kṛṣṇa yuyutsūn samupasthitān
sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṃ ca pariśuṣyati
vepathuś ca śarīre me roma-harṣaś ca jāyate

 

syntax

he kṛṣṇa (O Kṛṣṇa!),
imān (these) samupasthitān (assembled) yuyutsūn (those desiring to fight) sva-janān (own people) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing),
mama (my) gātrāṇi (limbs of the body) sīdanti (they sink down),
mukhaṁ ca (and the mouth) pariśuṣyati (it is drying up),
me (my) śarīre (in the body) vepathuḥ (trembling) [asti] (is),
roma-harṣaḥ ca (and bristling of the hair) jāyate (it accurs),

 

grammar

dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
imān idam sn. 2n.3 m.these;
sva-janān sva-jana 2n.3 m.; [TP]: svasya janān itiown people (from: sva – own; jan – to be born, to produce, jana – man, people, creature);
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa 8n.1 m.O dark one, O Kṛṣṇa;
yuyutsūn yuyutsu (yudh – to fight) des. 2n.3 m.; yoddhum icchataḥthose desiring to fight;
samupasthitān sam-upa-sthita (upa-sthā – to stand near) [PP] 2n.3 m.those assembled;

******

sīdanti sad (to sit down, to sink down) Praes. P 1v.3they sink down;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
gātrāṇi gātra 1n.3 n.limbs, the body;
mukham mukha 1n.1 n.face, mouth;
ca av. and;
pariśuṣyati pari-śuṣ (to dry up) Praes. P 1v.1it s drying up;
vepathuḥ vepathu 1n.1 m.trembling (from: xvip – to tremble, to shiver);
ca av.and;
śarīre śarīra 7n.1 n.in the body (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
roma-harṣaḥ roma-harṣa 1n.1 m.; [TP]: romāṇām harṣa iti – bristling of the hair (from: ruh – to ascend, to rise, roma / roman – the hair on the body; hṛṣ – to be excited, to become erect, harṣa – bristling, erection, excitement);
ca           av.and;
jāyate jan (to be born, to produce) Praes. Ā 1v.1it occurs;

 

textual variants

In some editions before the third pada of the verse there is: arjuna uvāca (Arjuna spoke);
dṛṣṭvemān svajanān kṛṣṇa yuyutsūn samupasthitān → dṛṣṭvemaṁ svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam (O Kṛṣṇa, after seeing his own people, desiring to fight, assembled);
dṛṣṭvemān→ dṛṣṭvemaṁ / dṛṣtvaivaṁ
/ dṛṣṭvaitān / dṣṭvā saṁ- (after seeing this / thus after seeing / after seeing them);
svajanān→ sujanān / svajanaṁ (good people / own people);
mama → sarva (all);
pariśuṣyati → pariśuṣyate (it is drying up);
mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati → mukhaṁ cāpi viśuṣyati (and even the mouth is drying up);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.47

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse

BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

kim abravīd ity apekṣāyām āha dṛṣṭvemān ity ādi yāvad adhyāya-samāpti | he kṛṣṇa yoddhum icchataḥ purataḥ samavasthitān svajanān bandhu-janān dṛṣṭvā madīyāni gātrāṇi karacaraṇādīni sīdanti viśīryante | kiṃ ca vepahtuś cetyādi | vepathuḥ kampaḥ | romaharṣaḥ romāñcaḥ | sraṃsate nipatati | paridahyate sarvataḥ santapyate

 

Viśvanātha

dṛṣṭvety atra sthitasyety adhyāhāryam

 

Baladeva

kaunteyaḥ śoka-vyākulaṃ yad āha tad anuvadati dṛṣṭvemam iti | svajanaṃ sva-bandhu-vargaṃ jātāv eka-vacanaṃ sa-gotra-bāndhava-jñāti-bandhu-sva-svajanāḥ samāḥ ity amaraḥ | dṛṣṭvāsavthitasya mama gātrāṇi kara-caraṇādīni sīdanti śīryante pariśuṣyatīti śramādi-hetukāc choṣād atiśayitvam asya śoṣasya vyajyate | vepathuḥ kampaḥ | romaharṣaḥ pulakaḥ | gāṇḍīva-bhraṃśenādhairyaṃ tvag-dāhnea hṛd-vidāho darśitaḥ

 
 

BhG 1.30

gāṇḍīvaṃ sraṃsate hastāt tvak caiva paridahyate
na ca śaknomy avasthātuṃ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ

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syntax


hastāt (from the hand) gāṇḍīvaṁ (the Gāṇḍīva bow) sraṁsate (it falls down),
tvak ca (and the skin) paridahyate eva (is certainly burned),
[aham] ca (and I) avasthātuṁ (to stand) na śaknomi (I am not able),
me (my) manaḥ (mind) bhramati iva (as if it roams),

 

grammar

gāṇḍīvam gāṇḍīva 2n.1 n.a bow, a bow  of Arjuna (from: gaṇḍi – trunk of a tree);
sraṁsate sraṁs (to fall, to slip off) Praes. Ā 1v.1it falls down;
hastāt hasta 5n.1 m.from the hand;
tvak tvac 1n.1 f.the skin;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
paridahyate pari-dah (to burn) Praes. pass. 1v.1is burned;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
śaknomi śak (to be able to) Praes. P 3v.1I am able;
avasthātum ava-sthā (to stand) [inf.] – to stand;
bhramati bhram (to roam) Praes. P 1v.1it roams;
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
ca av.and;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);

 

textual variants


gāṇḍīvaṃ  → gāṃḍivaṃ (a bow);
sraṁsate → śraṁsate (it falls down);
paridahyate → paridahyati (it burns);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.47

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

api ca na śaknomīty ādi | viparītāni nimittāni aniṣṭa-sūcakāni śakunāni paśyāmi

 

Viśvanātha

viparītāni nimittāni dhana-nimittako ‚yam atra me vāsa itivan nimitta-śabdo ‚yaṃ prayojana-vācī | tataś ca yuddhe vijayino mama rājya-lābhāt sukhaṃ na bhaviṣyati, kintu tad-viparītam anutāpa-duḥkham eva bhāvīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

api ceti avasthātuṃ sthiro bhavituṃ mano bhramtīva ceti daurbalya-mūrcchayor udayaḥ | nimittāni phalāny atra yuddhe viparītāni paśyāmi | vijayino me rājya-prāptir ānando na bhaviṣyati kintu tad-viparīto ‚nutāpa eva bhāvīti | nimitta-śabdaḥ phala-vācī kasmai nimittāyātra vasasi ity ādau tathā pratīteḥ

 
 

BhG 1.31

nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava
na ca śreyo ‘nupaśyāmi hatvā sva-janam āhave

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he keśava (O Keśava!),
[aham] ca (and I) viparītāni nimittāni (wrong omens) paśyāmi (I see),
āhave ca (and in battle) sva-janaṁ (own people) hatvā (after killing),
[aham] (I) śreyaḥ (the welfare) na anupaśyāmi (I do not foresee).

 

grammar

nimittāni nimitta 2n.3 n.omens, signs, causes;
ca av.and;
paśyāmi dṛś (to see) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
viparītāni viparīta 2n.3 n.reversed, wrong (viparīta-nimittāni = aniṣṭa-sūcakāni śakunāni vāmāṅga-sphuraṇādīni – unwanted marks, omens starting with trembling of the body’s left side);
keśava keśa-va 8n.1 m.who has [beautiful] hair (from: keśa – hair; -va = -vant – owner); or ka-īśa-vathe lord of Brahmā and Śiva (from: ka – Brahmā; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord, Śiva; -va = -vant – owner);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
śreyaḥ śreyas 2n.1 n. better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
anupaśyāmi anu-dṛś (to see, to consider) Praes. P 3v.1I foresee;
hatvā han (to kill) absol.after killing;
sva-janam sva-janam 2n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya janam itiown people (from: sva – own; jan – to be born, to produce, jana – man, people, creature);
āhave āhava 7n.1 m.in battle;

 

textual variants

śreyo ‘nupaśyāmi → śreyo na paśyāmi (I do not see the welfare);

hatvā sva-janam āhave → hatvāhave sva-bāṁdhavāh (after killing [my] own people in battle);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

no commentary up to the verse BhG 1.47

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca na cety ādi | āhave yuddhe svajanaṃ hatvā śreyaḥ phalaṃ na paśyāmi | vijayādikaṃ phalaṃ kiṃ na paśyasīti cet tatrāha na kāṅkṣa iti

 

Viśvanātha

śreyo na paśyāmīti dvāv imau puruṣau loke sūrya-maṇḍala-bhedinau | parivrāḍ yoga-yuktaś ca raṇe cābhimukhe hataḥ || ity ādinā hatasyaiva śreyo-vidhānāt | hantus tu na kim ap sukṛtam | nana dṛṣṭaṃ phalaṃ yaśo rājyaṃ vartate yuddhasyety ata āha na kāṅkṣa iti

 

Baladeva

evaṃ tattva-jñāna-pratikūlaṃ śokam uktvā tat-pratikūlāṃ viparīta-buddhim āha na ceti | āhave svajanaṃ hatvā śreyo naiva paśyāmīti | dvāv imau puruṣau loke sūrya-maṇḍala-bhedinau | parivrāḍ yoga-yuktaś ca raṇe cābhimukhe hataḥ || ity ādinā hatasya śreyaḥ-smaraṇāt hantur me na kiñcic chreyaḥ | asvajanam iti vā cchedaḥ asvajana-vadhe ‚pi śreyaso ‚bhāvāt svajana-vadhe punaḥ kutastarāṃ tad ity arthaḥ |
nanu yaśo-rājya-lābho dṛṣṭaṃ phalam astīti cet tatrāha na kāṅkṣa iti | rājyādi-spṛhā-virahād upāye vijaye mama pravṛttir na yuktā, randhane yathā bhojanechā-virahiṇaḥ | tasmād araṇya-nivasanam evāsmākaṃ ślāghya-jīvanatvaṃ bhāvīti

 
 

BhG 1.32

na kāṅkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṃ sukhāni ca
kiṃ no rājyena govinda kiṃ bhogair jīvitena vā

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he kṛṣṇa (O Kṛṣṇa!), he govinda (O Govinda!),
[aham] (I) vijayaṁ (victory) na kāṅkṣe (I do not desire),
rājyaṁ ca (and a kingdom) sukhāni ca (and pleasures) na [kāṅkṣe] (I do not desire).
[ataḥ eva] (therefore) naḥ (to us) rājyena (the kingdom) kiṁ (what for?),
bhogaiḥ (the luxuries) jīvitena vā (or life) kiṁ (what for?).

 

grammar

na av.not;
kāṅkṣe kāṅkṣ (to desire, to expect) Praes. Ā 3v.1I desire;
vijayam vijaya 2n.1 m.victory (from: vi-ji – to conquer);
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa 8n.1 m.O dark one, O Kṛṣṇa