Abbreviations

To make the text more clear we use numbers for the grammatical case, number and person. In this way we omit the Latin terminology and it is more similar to the Indian system in which the grammarians called the cases by the ordinals. Grammatical persons are in agreement to the Indian system, so the third person is marked with number 1.

Numbers in tables:

Nominals:

singular dual plural
1 nominativus 1n.1
nominativus singularis
prathamā eka-vacana
1n.2
nominativus dualis
prathamā dvi-vacana
1n.3
nominativus pluralis
prathamā bahu-vacana
2 accusativus 2n.1
accusativus singularis
dvitīyā eka-vacana
2n.2
accusativus dualis
dvitīyā dvi-vacana
2n.3
accusativus pluralis
dvitīyā bahu-vacana
3 instrumentalis 3n.1
instrumentalis singularis
tṛtīyā eka-vacana
3n.2
instrumentalis dualis
tṛtīyā dvi-vacana
3n.3
instrumentalis pluralis
tṛtīyā bahu-vacana
4 dativus 4n.1
dativus singularis
caturthī eka-vacana
4n.2
dativus dualis
caturthī dvi-vacana
4n.3
dativus pluralis
caturthī bahu-vacana
5 ablativus 5n.1
ablativus singularis
pañcamī eka-vacana
5n.2
ablativus dualis
pañcamī dvi-vacana
5n.3
ablativus pluralis
pañcamī bahu-vacana
6 genetivus 6n.1
genetivus singularis
ṣaṣṭhī eka-vacana
6n.2
genetivus dualis
ṣaṣṭhī dvi-vacana
6n.3
genetivus pluralis
ṣaṣṭhī bahu-vacana
7 locativus 7n.1
locativus singularis
saptamī eka-vacana
7n.2
locativus dualis
saptamī dvi-vacana
7n.3
locativus pluralis
saptamī bahu-vacana
8 vocativus 8n.1
vocativus singularis
sambodhana eka-vacana
8n.2
vocativus dualis
sambodhana dvi-vacana
8n.3
vocativus pluralis
sambodhana bahu-vacana

Verbs:

singular dual plural
3rd person 1v.1
3rd person singular
prathama-puruṣa eka-vacana
1v.2
3rd person dual
prathama-puruṣa dvi-vacana
1v.3
3rd person plural
prathama-puruṣa bahu-vacana
2nd person 2v.1
2nd person singular
madhyama-puruṣa eka-vacana
2v.2
2nd person dual
madhyama-puruṣa dvi-vacana
2v.3
2nd person plural
madhyama-puruṣa bahu-vacana
1st person 3v.1
1st person singular
uttama-puruṣa eka-vacana
3v.2
1st person dual
uttama-puruṣa dvi-vacana
3v.3
1st person plural
uttama-puruṣa bahu-vacana

Other abbreviations are mostly in accordance to the Indian tradition. If the Latin term suits the Indian grammar concept, then it is used, if not, we took the Sanskrit term, e.g. there is no differentiation of conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions, postpositions and interjections, so we use the collective term avyaya (av.) – indeclinables. Similarly there is one term sarva-nāma (sn.) for personal, demonstrative, relative, interrogative and indefinite pronouns.

Tenses and moods:

Praes. – praesentis – present tense – vartamāna
Pot. – potentialis – optative mood – vidhi
Imperat. – imperativus – imperative mood – ājñā
[Imperf.] – imperfectum – imperfect tense – anadyatana-bhūta
Aor. – aorist – past tense – bhūta
[Perf.] – perfectum – perfect tense – parokṣa-bhūta
[Ben.] – benedictivus – benedictive mood – āśīs
Fut.p. – futurum periphrasticum – periphrastic future tense – anadyatana-bhaviṣyat
Fut. – futurum – future tense – bhaviṣyat
Cond. – conditionalis – conditional mood – saṃketa

Derivative verbs (dhātu-vṛtti):

caus. – causativum – causative – ṇy-anta
des. – desiderativum – desiderative – san-anta
intens. – intensivum – intensive / frequentative – yaṅ-anta
[denom.] – denominativum – denominal verb – nāma-dhātu
pass. – passivum – passive voice – karmaṇi-/ bhave-prayoga

Verbal derivatives (kṛd-anta):

[inf.] – infinitivus – infinitive
absol. – absolutivum – absolutive
PF – participium futurum, necessitativum – future participle – bhaviṣyate kṛd-anta
[PP] – participium perfectum – past participle, passive, can be active (PP act.) – bhūte kṛd-anta
PPr – participium praesentis – present participle (fut./pass.) – vartamāne kṛd-anta

Gender:

m. – masculinum – masculine – puṃ-liṅga
f. – femininum – feminine – strī-liṅga
n. – neutrum – neuter – napumsaka-liṅga

Compounds:

BV bahu-vrīhi compound
DV dvandva compound
KD karma-dhāra compound
[TP] tat-puruṣa compound

Other:

Ā ātmanepada – voice ‘for oneself’
P parasmaipada – voice ‘for the other’
– verb root – dhātu
av. avyaya – indeclinable
loc.abs. – locativus absolutus – satī saptamī
sn. sarva-nāman – pronoun
abst. – abstractum – abstract