BhG 18.9

kāryam ity eva yat karma niyataṃ kriyate rjuna
saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna),
kāryam iti (to be done) eva [matvā] (just after thinking)
saṅgam (attachment) phalam ca eva (and indeed the fruit) tyaktvā (after abandoning)
yat niyatam karma (which regulated activity) kriyate (it is done),
sa tyāgaḥ (that abandonment) sāttvikaḥ (sattvic) mataḥ [asti] (it is considered).

 

grammar

kāryam kārya (kṛ to do) PF 1n.1 n.to be done, work, duty, especially religious one;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
niyatam niyata (ni-yam – to restrain, to control) [PP] 1n.1 n.regulated, restrained;
kriyate kṛ (to do) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is done;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
saṅgam saṅga 2n.1 m.clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
phalam phala 2n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
tyāgaḥ tyāga 1n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
sāttvikaḥ sāttvika 1n.1 m. related to sattva, sattvic (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);
mataḥ mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 m. regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;

 

textual variants


kriyate → kurute (he does);
tyāgaḥtyāgī (one who abandons);
mataḥ → smṛtaḥ (remembered);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kaḥ punaḥ sāttvikas tyāgaḥ ? ity āha—
kāryaṃ kartavyam ity eva yat karma niyataṃ nityaṃ kriyate nirvartyate, he arjuna ! saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva | etan nityānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalavattve bhagavad-vacanaṃ pramāṇam avocāma | athavā, yady api phalaṃ na śrūyate nityasya karmaṇaḥ, tathāpi nityaṃ karma kṛtam ātma-saṃskāraṃ pratyavāya-parihāraṃ vā phalaṃ karoti ātmana iti kalpayaty evājñaḥ | tatra tām api kalpanāṃ nivārayati phalaṃ tyaktvā ity anena | ataḥ sādhūktaṃ saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ ceti | sa tyāgo nitya-karmasu saṅga-phala-parityāgaḥ sāttvikaḥ sattva-nirvṛtto mato ’bhipretaḥ ||

nanu karma-parityāgas tri-vidhaḥ saṃnyāsa iti ca prakṛtaḥ | tatra tāmaso rājasaś coktas tyāgaḥ | katham iha saṅga-phala-tyāgas tṛtīyatvenocyate ? yathā trayo brāhmaṇā āgatāḥ, tatra ṣaḍ-aṅga-vidau dvau, kṣatriyas tṛtīya iti tadvat | naiṣa doṣas tyāga-sāmānyena stuty-arthatvāt | asti hi karma-saṃnyāsasya phalābhisaṃdhi-tyāgasya ca tyāgatva-sāmānyam | tatra rājasa-tāmasatvena karma-tyāga-nindayā karma-phalābhisaṃdhi-tyāgaḥ sāttvikatvena stūyate sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ iti

 

Rāmānuja


nityanaimittikamahāyajñādivarṇāśramavihitaṃ karma madārādhanarūpatayā kāryaṃ svayaṃprayojanam iti matvā saṅgam karmaṇi mamatāṃ phalaṃ ca tyaktvā yat kriyate, sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ, sa sattvamūlaḥ, yathāvasthitaśāstrārthajñānamūla ityarthaḥ / sattvaṃ hi yathāvasthitavastujñānam utpādayatīty uktam, „sattvāt saṃjāyate jñānam” iti / vakṣyate ca, „pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca kāryākāryaṃ bhayābhaye / bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī// ” iti
 

Śrīdhara


sāttvikaṃ tyāgam āha kāryam iti | kāryam ity evaṃ niyatam avaśya-kartavyatayā vihitaṃ karma saṅgaṃ phalaṃ ca tyaktvā kriyate iti yat tādṛśas tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kāryam avaśya-kartavyam iti buddhyā niyataṃ nityaṃ karma, sāttvika iti tyāgāt tyāga-phalaṃ jñānaṃ sa labhetaiveti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


kāryam avaśya-kartavyatayā vihitaṃ karma niyataṃ yathā bhavati, tathā saṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ phalaṃ ca nikhilaṃ tyaktvā kriyata iti yat sa tyāgaḥ sāttvikas tādṛśa-jñānasya sattva-dharmatvāt
 
 


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