BhG 18.8

duḥkham ity eva yat karma kāya-kleśa-bhayāt tyajet
sa kṛtvā rājasaṃ tyāgaṃ naiva tyāga-phalaṃ labhet

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syntax


duḥkham iti eva ([it is] a distress indeed)
[matvā yaḥ] (he who after thinking) kāya-kleśa-bhayāt (out of fear of bodily suffering) yat karma (which activity) tyajet (he would abandon),
saḥ (he) rājasam tyāgam (rajasic abandonment) kṛtvā (after doing)
tyāga-phalam (the fruit of abandonment) na labhet (he would not obtain).

 

grammar

duḥkham duḥkha 1n.1 n.distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kāya-kleśa-bhayāt kāya-kleśa-bhaya 5n.1 n.; [TP]: kāyasya kleśād bhayād itiout of fear of bodily suffering (from: kāya – body; kliś – to trouble, to afflict; kleśa – pain, affliction, anguish, trouble; five troubles in the yoga system: avidyā, asmitā, rāga, dveṣa, abhiniveśa);
tyajet tyaj (to abandon, to give up) Pot. Ā 1v.1 he would abandon;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
rājasam rājasa 2n.1 m. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);
tyāgam tyāga 2n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
na av.not;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tyāga-phalam tyāga-phala 2n.1 m.; [TP]: tyāgasya phalam iti fruit of abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up; tyāga leaving, abandonment; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result);
labhet labh (to obtain) Pot. Ā 1v.1he would obtain;

 

textual variants


yat karma → yaḥ karma / yat kāryaṁ (which activity / which duty);
kāya-kleśa-bhayāt → kārya-kleśa-bhayāt / kāla-kleśa-bhayāt (out of fear of duty-troubles / out of fear of troubles caused by the flow of time);
rājasaṁ → rājasāt (out of rajas);
tyāga-phalaṁ tatra phalaṁ / tyāgaṁ phalaṁ (there fruit / abandonment and the fruit);
labhet → bhavet (it would be);
 
 



Śāṃkara


duḥkham ity eva yat karma kāya-kleśa-bhayāt śarīra-duḥkha-bhayāt tyajet, sa kṛtvā rājasaṃ rajo-nirvartyaṃ tyāgaṃ naiva tyāga-phalaṃ jñāna-pūrvakasya sarva-karma-tyāgasya phalaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ na labhen naiva labheta
 

Rāmānuja


yady api paraṃparayā mokṣasādhanabhūtaṃ karma, tathāpi duḥkhātmakadravyārjanasādhyatvād bahvāyāsarūpatayā kāyakleśakaratvāc ca manaso ‚vasādakaram iti tadbhītyā yoganiṣpattaye jñānābhyāsa eva yatanīya iti / yo mahāyajñādyāśramakarma parityajet, sa rājasaṃ rajomūlaṃ tyāgaṃ kṛtvā tad ayathāvasthitaśāstrārtharūpam iti jñānotpattirūpaṃ tyāgaphalaṃ na labhate; „ayathāvat prajānāti buddhis sā pārtha rājasī” iti hi vakṣyate / na hi karma dṛṣṭadvāreṇa manaḥprasādahetuḥ, api tu bhavagatprasādadvāreṇa
 

Śrīdhara


rājasaṃ tyāgam āha duḥkham iti | yaḥ kartā ātma-bodhaṃ vinā kevalaṃ duḥkham ity evaṃ matvā śarīrāyāsa-bhayāt nityaṃ karma tyajet iti yat tādṛśas tyāgo rājaso duḥkhasya rājasatvāt | atas taṃ rājasaṃ tyāgaṃ kṛtvā sa rājasaḥ puruṣas tyāgasya phalaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaṃ naiva labhata ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


duḥkham ity eveti | yadyapi nitya-karmaṇām āvaśyakam eva tat-karaṇe guṇa eva na tu doṣa iti jānāmy eva | tad apii taiḥ śarīraṃ mayā kathaṃ vṛthā kleśayitavyam iti bhāvaḥ | tyāga-phalaṃ jñānaṃ na labheta
 

Baladeva


niṣkāmatayānuṣṭhitaṃ vihitaṃ karma muktihetur iti jānann api dravopyārjana-prātaḥ-snānādinā duḥkha-rūpam iti kāya-kleśa-bhayāc caitan mumukṣur api tyajet | sa tyāgo rājasaḥ duḥkhasya rajo-dharmatvāt | taṃ tyāgaṃ kṛtvāpi janas tasya phalaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ na labheta
 
 


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