BhG 18.7

niyatasya tu saṃnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate
mohāt tasya parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ

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syntax


niyatasya tu (of the regulated) karmaṇaḥ (activity) sannyāsaḥ (renunciation) na upapadyate (it is not suitable),
mohāt (out of bewilderment) tasya (its) parityāgaḥ (abandonment) tāmasaḥ (as tamasic) parikīrtitaḥ [asti] (it is proclaimed).

 

grammar

niyatasya niyata (ni-yam – to hold back, to regulate) [PP] 6n.1 m.of the regulated, of restrained;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
saṁnyāsaḥ saṁnyāsa 1n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
karmaṇaḥ karman 6n.1 n.in activity (from: kṛ – to do);
na av.not;
upapadyate upa-pad (to approach, to exist, to be suitable, to attain) Praes. Ā 1v.1 it is suitable, it exists;
mohāt moha 5n.1 m.out of bewilderment (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.its;
parityāgaḥ pari-tyāga 1n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: pari-tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
tāmasaḥ tāmasa 1n.1 m. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);
parikīrtitaḥ pari-kīrtita (pari-kīrt – to praise, to glorify) [PP] 1n.1 m.praised, celebrated, proclaimed, known (from: kīrti – fame, glory);

 

textual variants


tu → ca (and);
mohāt tasya mohārtasya (suffering out of bewilderment);
parikīrtitaḥ → parikīrtyate (it is proclaimed);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tasmād ajñasyādhikṛtasya mumukṣoḥ—
niyatasya tu nityasya saṃnyāsaḥ parityāgaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate, ajñasya pāvanatvasya iṣṭatvāt | mohād ajñānāt tasya niyatasya parityāgaḥ—niyataṃ cāvaśyaṃ kartavyaṃ tyajyate ceti vipratiṣiddham | ati moha-nimittaḥ parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ | mohaś ca tama iti
 

Rāmānuja


niyatasya nityanaimittikasya mahāyajñādeḥ karmaṇaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ tyāgo nopapadyate, „śarīrayātrāpi ca tena prasiddhyed akarmaṇaḥ” iti śarīrayātrāyā evāsiddheḥ, śarīrayātrā hi yajñaśiṣṭāśanena nirvartyamānā samyagjñānāya prabhavati; anyathā, „te tv aghaṃ bhuñjate pāpāḥ” ity ayajñaśiṣṭāgharūpāśanāpyāyanaṃ manaso viparītajñānāya bhavati / „annamayaṃ hi somya manaḥ” ity annena hi mana āpyāyate / „āhāraśuddhau sattvaśuddhis sattvaśuddhau dhruvā smṛtiḥ / smṛtilambhe sarvagranthīnāṃ vipramokṣaḥ // BhGR_18.” iti brahmasākṣātkārarūpaṃ jñānam āhāraśuddhyāyattaṃ śrūyate / tasmān mahāyajñādinityanaimittikaṃ karma ā prayāṇād brahmajñānāyaivopādeyam iti tasya tyāgo nopapadyate / evaṃ jñānotpādinaḥ karmaṇo bandhakatvamohāt parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ / tamomūlas tyāgas tāmasaḥ / tamaḥkāryājñānamūlatvena tyāgasya tamomūlatvam / tamo hy ajñānasya mūlaṃ, „pramādamohau tamaso bhavato ‚jñānam eva ca” ity atroktam / ajñānaṃ tu jñānavirodhi viparītajñānam; tathā ca vakṣyate, „adharmaṃ dharmam iti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā / sarvārthān viparītāṃś ca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī” iti / ato nityanaimittikādeḥ karmaṇas tyāgo viparītajñānamūla evetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


pratijñātaṃ tyāgasya traividhyam idānīṃ darśayati niyatasyeti tribhiḥ | kāmyasya karmaṇo bandhakatvāt sannyāso yuktam | niyatasya tu nityasya punaḥ karmaṇaḥ sannyāsas tyāgo nopapadyate | sattva-śuddhi-dvārā mokṣa-hetutvāt | atas tasya parityāga upādeyatve ‚pi tyājyam ity evaṃ lakṣaṇān mohād eva bhavet | sa ca mohasya tāmasatvāt tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


prakrāntasya trividha-tyāgasya tāmasaṃ bhedam āha niyatasya nityasya | mohāt śāstra-tātparyājñānāt | sannyāsī kāmya-karmaṇy āvaśyakatvābhāvāt parityajatu nāma, nityasya tu karmaṇas tyāgo nopapadyate iti tu śabdārthaḥ | mohād ajñānāt | tāmasa iti tāmasa-tyāgasya phalam ajñāna-prāptir eva | na tv abhīpsita-jñāna-prāptir iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


pratijñātaṃ tyāga-traividhyam āha niyatasyeti tribhiḥ | kāmyasya karmaṇo bandhakatvāt tyāgo yuktaḥ | niyatasya nitya-naimittikasya mahā-yajñādeḥ karmaṇaḥ sannyāsas tyāgo nopapadyate | ātmoddeśād viśīrṇādivad antargata-jñānasya tasya mocakatvād dehayātrā-sādhakatvāc ca tat-tyāgo na yuktaḥ | tena hi devatā-bhagavad-vibhūtir arcatāṃ tac-cheṣaiḥ pūtaiḥ siddhā deha-yātrā tattva-jñānāya sampadyate | vaiparītye pūrvam abhihitaṃ nityataṃ kuru karma tvam ity ādibhis tṛtīyae tasyāpi mohād bandhakam idam ity ajñānāt paritaḥ svarūpeṇa tyāgas tāmaso bhavati – mohasya tamo-dharmatvāt
 
 


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