BhG 18.4

niścayaṃ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharata-sattama
tyāgo hi puruṣa-vyāghra tri-vidhaḥ saṃprakīrtitaḥ

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syntax


he bharata-sattama (O best of the Bharatas) he puruṣa-vyāghra (O tiger among men),
tena (therefore) me (my) niścayam (conclusion) śṛṇu (you must listen).
tyāgaḥ hi (indeed abandonment) tri-vidhaḥ (threefold) saṁprakīrtitaḥ (it is proclaimed).

 

grammar

niścayam niścaya 2n.1 m.certainty, fixed opinion (from: niś-ci – to ascertain, to determine);
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
tatra av. there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
tyāge tyāga 7n.1 m.in leaving, in abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
bharata-sattama bharata-sattama 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇām sattama tiO the best of the Bharatas (from: from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, maintained, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, superlative of: sat – sat-tara, sat-tama);
tyāgaḥ tyāga 1n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
puruṣa-vyāghra puruṣa-vyāghra 8n.1 m.; KD: puruṣo vyāghra ivaO man being a tiger! (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; vyāghra – tiger);
or [TP]: puruṣāṇām vyāghretiO tiger among men!;
tri-vidhaḥ tri-vidha 1n.1 m.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
saṁprakīrtitaḥ saṁ-pra-kīrtita (pra-kīrt – to praise, to glorify) [PP] 1n.1 m.praised, celebrated, proclaimed, known (from: kīrti – fame, glory);

 

textual variants


niścayamniścayaḥ (who is certain);
bharata-sattamabhārata-sattama (the best of the sons of Bharata);
saṁprakīrtitaḥ → saṁpradarśitaḥ / parikīrtitaḥ (shown / glorified);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tatraiteṣu vikalpa-bhedeṣu—
niścayaṃ sṛṇv avadhāraya me mama vacanāt | tatra tyāge tyāga-saṃnyāsa-vikalpe yathā-darśite bharata-sattama bharatānāṃ sādhutama ! tyāgo hi | tyāga-saṃnyāsa-śabda-vācyo hi yo’rthaḥ sa eka evety abhipretyāha—tyāgo hīti | puruṣa-vyāghra ! tri-vidhas tri-prakāras tāmasādi-prakāraiḥ samprakīrtitaḥ śāstreṣu samyak kathitaḥ | yasmāt tāmasādi-bhedena tyāga-saṃnyāsa-śabda-vācyo’rtho’dhikṛtasya karmiṇo’nātma-jñasya tri-vidhaḥ sambhavati, na paramārtha-darśina ity ayam artho durjñānaḥ, tasmād atra tattvaṃ nānyo vaktuṃ samarthaḥ | tasmān niścayaṃ paramārtha-śāstrārtha-viṣayam adhyavasāyam aiśvaraṃ me mattaḥ sṛṇu
 

Rāmānuja


tatra evaṃ vādivipratipanne tyāge tyāgaviṣayaṃ niścayaṃ mattaś śṛṇu; tyāgaḥ kriyamāṇeṣv eva vaidikeṣu karmasu phalaviṣayatayā, karmaviṣayatayā, kartṛtvaviṣayatayā ca pūrvam eva hi mayā trividhas saṃprakīrtitaḥ, „mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṃnyasyādhyātmacetasā / nirāśīr nirmamo bhūtvā yuddhyasva vigatajvaraḥ” iti / karmajanyaṃ svargādikaṃ phalaṃ mama na syād iti phalatyāgaḥ; madīyaphalasādhanatayā madīyam idaṃ karmeti karmaṇi mamatāyāḥ parityāgaḥ karmaviṣayas tyāgaḥ; sarveśvare kartṛtvānusaṃdhānenātmanaḥ kartṛtātyāgaḥ kartṛtvaviṣayas tyāgaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ mata-bhedam upanyasya svamataṃ kathayitum āha niścayam iti | tatraivaṃ vipratipanne tyāge niścayaṃ ye vacanāt śṛṇu | tyāgasya loka-prasiddhatvāt kim atra śrotavym iti māvamaṃsthā ity āha he puruṣa-vyāghra puruṣa-śreṣṭha | tyāgo ‚yaṃ durbodhaḥ | hi yasmād ayaṃ karma-tyāgas tattvavidhbis tāmasādi-bhedena trividhaḥ samyag-vivekena prakīrtitaḥ | traividhyaṃ ca niyatasya tu sannyāsaḥ karmaṇa ity ādinā vakṣyati
 

Viśvanātha


svamatam āha niścayam iti | trividhaḥ sāttviko rājasas tāmasaś ceti | atra tyāgasya traividhyam uktramya niyatasya tu sannyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate | mohāt tasya parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ || iti tasya eva tāmasa-bhedaiḥ sannyāsa-śabda-prayogād bhagavan-mate tyāga-sannyāsa-śabdayor aikyārtham evety avagamyate
 

Baladeva


evaṃ mata-bhedam upavarṇya svamatam āha niścayam iti | mata-bheda-graste tyāge me parameśvarasya sarvajñasya niścayaṃ śṛṇu | nanu tyāgasya khyātatvāt tatra śrotavyaṃ kim asti | tatrāha tyāgo hīti | hi yatas tyāgas tāmasādi-bhedena vijñais trividhaḥ samprakīrtito vivicyoktaḥ | tathā ca durbodho ‚sau śrotavya iti tyāga-traividhyam | niyatasya tu ity ādibhir agre vācyam
 
 


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