BhG 18.3

tyājyaṃ doṣa-vad ity eke karma prāhur manīṣiṇaḥ
yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma na tyājyam iti cāpare

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syntax


[tatra tyāge] (in the matter of abandonment) eke manīṣiṇaḥ (some wise people) karma doṣa-vat iti (activity being full of faults) tyājyam (to be abandoned) prāhuḥ (they speak),
apare [mīmāṁsakāḥ] (other thinkers) yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma (sacrifice, charity austerity) na tyājyam iti (not to be abandoned) [prāhuḥ] (they speak).

 

grammar

tyājyam tyājya (tyaj – to abandon, to give up) PF 1n.1 n.to be abandoned;
doṣa-vat doṣa-vant 1n.1 n.which has faults, guilty, sinful (from: duṣ – to become bad, to be defiled, to perish, doṣa – evil, fault, guilt; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
eke eka sn. 1n.3 n.some;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
prāhuḥ pra-ah (to declare) [Perf.] P 1v.3they declared (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
manīṣiṇaḥ manīṣin 1n.3 m.who are thoughtful, wise (from: man – to think, to believe);
yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma 1n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: yajñānāṁ ca dānānāṁ ca tapasāṁ ca karmetisacrifices, acts of charity and austerities (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu; – to give, dāna – gift, charity; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
na av.not;
tyājyam tyājya (tyaj – to abandon, to give up) PF 1n.1 n.to be abandoned;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ca av.and;
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;

 

textual variants


tyājyamtyāgam (abandonment);
doṣa-vat → mokṣa-vat (as if liberation);
eke → ete (they);
manīṣiṇaḥ → vicakṣaṇaḥ (wise);

The third pada of verse 18.3 is similar to the second pada of verse BhG 17.24 and is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 18.5;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tyājyaṃ tyaktavyaṃ doṣavad doṣo’syāstīti doṣavat | kiṃ tat ? karma bandha-hetutvāt sarvam eva | athavā, doṣo yathā rāgādis tyajyate, tathā tyājyam ity eke karma prāhur manīṣiṇaḥ paṇḍitāḥ sāṃkhyādi-dṛṣṭim āśritāḥ, adhikṛtānāṃ karmiṇām apīti | tatraiva yajña-dāna-tapaḥ-karma na tyājyam iti cāpare | karmiṇa evādhikṛtās tān apekṣyaite vikalpāḥ, na tu jñāna-niṣṭhān vyutthāyinaḥ saṃnyāsino’pekṣya | jñāna-yogena sāṃkhyānāṃ [gītā 3.3] niṣṭhā mayā purā proktā iti karmādhikārād arpitā ye, na tān prati cintā ||

nanu karma-yogena yogināṃ [gītā 3.3] ity adhikṛtāḥ pūrvaṃ vibhakta-niṣṭhā apīha sarva-śāstrārthopasaṃhāra-prakaraṇe yathā vicāryante, tathā sāṃkhyāpi jñāna-niṣṭhā vicāryantām iti | na, teṣāṃ moha-duḥkha-nimitta-tyāgānupapatteḥ | na kāya-kleśa-nimittaṃ duḥkhaṃ sāṃkhyā ātmani paśyanti, icchādīnāṃ kṣetra-dharmatvenaiva darśitatvāt | atas te na kāya-kleśa-duḥkha-bhayāt karma parityajanti | nāpi te karmāṇy ātmani paśyanti, yena niyataṃ karma mohāt parityajeyuḥ | guṇānāṃ karma naiva kiṃcit karomi [gītā 5.8] iti hi te saṃnyasyanti |

sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya [gītā 5.13] ity ādibhis tattva-vidaḥ saṃnyāsa-prakāra uktaḥ | tasmād ye’nye’dhikṛtāḥ karmaṇy anātma-vido, yeṣāṃ ca moha-nimittas tyāgaḥ sambhavati kāya-kleśa-bhayāc ca, ta eva tāmasās tyāgino rājasāś ceti nindyante karmiṇām anātma-jñānāṃ karma-phala-tyāga-stuty-artham | sarvārambha-parityāgī maunī santuṣṭo yena kenacit | aniketaḥ sthira-matir [gītā 12.19] iti guṇātīta-lakṣaṇe ca paramārtha-saṃnyāsino viśeṣitvāt | vakṣyati ca niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā [gītā 18.10] iti | tasmāt jñāna-niṣṭhāḥ saṃnyāsino na iha vivakṣitāḥ | karma-phala-tyāga eva sāttvikatvena guṇena tāmasatvādy-apekṣayā saṃnyāsocyate, na mukhyaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ ||

sarva-karma-saṃnyāsāsambhave ca na hi deha-bhṛtā [gītā 18.11] iti hetu-vacanāt mukhya eveti cet, na | hetu-vacanasya stuty-arthatvāt | yathā tyāgāc chāntir anantaraṃ [gītā 12.12] iti karma-phala-tyāga-stutir eva yathoktāneka-pakṣānuṣṭhānāśaktimantam arjunam ajñaṃ prati vidhānāt | tathedam api na hi deha-bhṛtā śakyaṃ [gītā 18.11] iti karma-phala-tyāga-stuty-artham | na sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya naiva kurvan na kārayann āste [gītā 5.12] ity asya pakṣasyāpavādaḥ kenacid darśayituṃ śakyaḥ | tasmat karmaṇy adhikṛtān praty evaiṣa saṃnyāsa-tyāga-vikalpaḥ | ye tu paramārtha-darśinaḥ sāṃkhyāḥ, teṣāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāyām eva sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-lakṣaṇāyām adhikāraḥ, nānyatra, iti na te vikalpārhāḥ | tac copapāditam asmābhir vedāvināśinaṃ [gītā 2.21] ity asmin pradeśe, tṛtīyādau ca

 

Rāmānuja


eke manīṣiṇaḥ kāpilāḥ vaidikāś ca tanmatānusāriṇaḥ rāgādidoṣavad bandhakatvāt sarvaṃ yajñādikaṃ karma mumukṣuṇā tyājyam iti prāhuḥ; apare paṇḍitāḥ yajñādikaṃ karma na tyājyam iti prāhuḥ
 

Śrīdhara


aviduṣaḥ phala-tyāga-mātram eva tyāga-śabdārthaḥ | na karma-tyāga iti | etad eva matāntara-nirāsena dṛḍhīkartuṃ mata-bhedaṃ darśayati tyājyam iti | doṣavad dhiṃsādi-doṣakatvena kevalaṃ bandhakam iti hetoḥ sarveṣām api karma tyājyam iti eke sāṅkhyāḥ prāhur manīṣiṇa iti | asyāyaṃ bhāvaḥ – mā hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtānīti niṣedhaḥ puruṣasyānartha-hetur hiṃsā ity āha | agnīṣomīyaṃ paśum ālabhetety ādi-prākaraṇiko vidhis tu hiṃsāyāḥ kratūpakārakatvam āha | ato bhinna-viṣayakatvena sāmānya-viśeṣa-nyāyāgocaratvād vādhyavādhakatā nāsti | dravya-sādhyeṣu ca sarveṣv api karmasu hiṃsādeḥ sambhavāt sarvam api karma tyājyam eveti | tad uktaṃ – dṛṣṭavad ānuśravikaḥ sa hy aviśuddhi-kṣayātiśaya-yukta iti | asyārthaḥ guru-pāṭhād anuśrūyata iti anuśravo vedaḥ | tad bodhita upāyo jyotiṣṭhomādir ānuśravikaḥ | tatrāviśuddhir hiṃsā | tathā kṣayo vināśaḥ | agnihotra-jyotiṣṭhomādi-janyeṣu svargeṣu tāratamyaṃ ca vartate | parotkarṣas tu sarvān duḥkhīkaroti |

apare tu mīmāṃsakā yajñādikaṃ karma na tyājyam iti prāhuḥ | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ kratv-arthāpi satīyaṃ hiṃsā puruṣeṇa kartavyā | sā cānyoddeśenāpi kṛtā puruṣasya pratyavāya-hetur eva | yathā hi vidhir vidheyasya tad-uddeśyenānuṣṭhānaṃ vidhatte | tādarthya-lakṣaṇatvāc cheṣatvasya | na tv evaṃ niṣedho niṣedhasya tādarthyam apekṣate prāpti-mātrāpekṣitatvāt | anyathājñāna-pramādādi-kṛte doṣābhāva-prasaṅgāt | tad evaṃ samāna-viṣayakatvena sāmānya-śāstrasya viśeṣeṇa bādhān nāsti doṣavattvam | ato nityaṃ yajñādi-karma na tyājyam iti | anena vidhi-niṣedhayoḥ samāna-balatā bādhyate sāmānya-viśeṣa-nyāyaṃ sampādayitum

 

Viśvanātha


tyāge punar api mata-bhedam upakṣipati tyājyam iti | doṣavat hiṃsādi-doṣavattvāt karma svarūpata eva tyājyām ity eke sāṅkhyāḥ | pare mīmāṃsakā yajñādikaṃ karma śāstre vihitatvān na tyājyam ity āhuḥ
 

Baladeva


tyāge punar api mata-bhedam āha tyājyam iti | eke manīṣiṇo doṣavat na hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtānīti śruti-nidarśinaḥ kāpilāḥ karma-doṣavat paśu-hiṃsādi-doṣa-yuktaṃ bhavaty atas tyājyaṃ svarūpato heyam ity āhuḥ | agnīṣomīyaṃ paśum ālabheteti śrutis tu hiṃsāyāḥ kratv-aṅgatvam āha tv anartha-hetutvaṃ tasyā nivārayati | tathā ca dravya-sādhyatvena hiṃsāyāḥ sambhavāt | sarvaṃ karma tyājyam iti | apare jaiminīyās tu yajñādikarma na tyājyaṃ tasya veda-vihitatvena nirdoṣatvād ity āhuḥ – yadyapi hiṃsānugrahātmakaṃ karma tathāpi tasya vedena dharmatvābhidhānān na doṣavattvam ataḥ kāryam evety arthaḥ | na hiṃsyāt iti sāmānyato niṣedhas tu krator anyatra tasyāḥ pāpatām āheti na kiñcid avadyam
 
 


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