BhG 18.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ kavayo viduḥ
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇāḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
kavayaḥ (seers) kāmyānām karmaṇām (of intentions of activities) nyāsam (relinquishing) sannyāsam (renunciation) viduḥ (they know).
vicakṣaṇāḥ (the wise) sarva-karma-phala-tyāgam (abandonment of the fruit of all activities) tyāgam (abandonment) prāhuḥ (they declared).
 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
kāmyānām kāmyā 6n.3 f.of desires, of intentions (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure);
karmaṇām karman 6n.3 n.of activities (from: kṛ – to do);
nyāsam nyāsa 2n.1 m. giving up, relinquishing (from: ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
saṁnyāsam saṁnyāsa 2n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
kavayaḥ kavi 1n.3 m.poets, bards, seers (from: kav – to describe, to paint);
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know, they learned;
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgam sarva-karma-phala-tyāga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ karmaṇāṁ phalasya tyāgam iti abandonment of the fruit of all activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment);
prāhuḥ pra-ah (to declare) [Perf.] P 1v.3they declared (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
tyāgam tyāga 2n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
vicakṣaṇāḥ vicakṣaṇa 1n.3 m.bright, who are clear-sighted, wise (from: vi-cakṣ – to shine, to perceive, to see, to proclaim);

 

textual variants


nyāsaṁ tyāgaṁ (abandonment);

The third pada of verse 18.2 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 12.11;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tatra tatra nirdiṣṭau, na nirluṭhitārthau pūrveṣv adhyāyeṣu | ato’rjunāya pṛṣṭavate tan-nirṇayāya bhagavān uvāca—
kāmyānām aśvamedhādīnāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ saṃnyāsa-śabdārtham, anuṣṭheyatvena prāptasyānuṣṭhānam, kavayaḥ paṇḍitāḥ kecid vidur vijānanti | nitya-naimittikānām anuṣṭhīyamānānāṃ sarva-karmaṇām, ātma-sambandhitayā prāptasya phalasya parityāgaḥ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgas taṃ prāhuḥ kathayanti tyāgaṃ tyāga-śabdārthaṃ vicakṣaṇāḥ paṇḍitāḥ | yadi kāmya-karma-parityāgaḥ phala-parityāgo vārtho vaktavyaḥ, sarvathā parityāga-mātraṃ saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdayor eko’rthaḥ syāt, na ghaṭa-paṭa-śabdāv iva jāty-antara-bhūtārthau |

nanu nitya-naimittikānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalam eva nāstīti āhuḥ | katham ucyate teṣāṃ phala-tyāgaḥ, yathā vandhyāyāḥ putra-tyāgaḥ ? naiṣa doṣaḥ, nityānām api karmaṇāṃ bhagavatā phalavattvasya iṣṭatvāt | vakṣyati hi bhagavān aniṣṭa miṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca iti na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit [gītā 18.12] iti ca | saṃnyāsinām eva hi kevalaṃ karma-phalāsambandhaṃ darśayann asaṃnyāsināṃ nitya-karma-phala-prāptiṃ bhavaty atyāgināṃ pretya [gītā 18.12] iti darśayati

 

Rāmānuja


athānayor ekam eva svarūpam, tac cedṛśam iti nirṇetuṃ vādivipratipattiṃ darśayan śrībhagavān uvāca

kecana vidvāṃsaḥ kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ svarūpatyāgaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ viduḥ / kecic ca vicakṣaṇāḥ nityānāṃ naimittikānāṃ ca kāmyānāṃ sarveṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalatyāga eva mokṣaśāstreṣu tyāgaśabdārtha iti prāhuḥ / tatra śāstrīyatyāgaḥ kāmyakarmasvarūpaviṣayaḥ; sarvakarmaphalaviṣaya iti vivādaṃ pradarśayan ekatra saṃnyāsaśabdam itaratra tyāgaśabdaṃ prayuktavān / atas tyāgasaṃnyāsaśabdayor ekārthatvam aṅgīkṛtam iti jñāyate / tathā „niścayaṃ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama” iti tyāgaśabdenaiva nirṇayavacanāt, „niyatasya tu saṃnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate / mohāt tasya parityāgaḥ tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ // BhGR_18.”, „aniṣṭam iṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam / bhavaty atyāgināṃ pretya na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit /” iti parasparaparyāyatādarśanāc ca tayor ekārthatvam aṅgīkṛtam iti niścīyate

 

Śrīdhara


tatrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca – kāmyānām iti | kāmyānāṃ putra-kāmo yajeta svarga-kāmo yajetety evam ādi kāmopabandhena vihitānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ parityāgaṃ sannyāsaṃ kavayo viduḥ | samyak-phalaiḥsaha sarva-karmaṇām api nyāsaṃ sannyāsaṃ paṇḍitā vidur jānantīty arthaḥ | sarveṣāṃ kāmyānāṃ nitya-naimittikānāṃ ca karmaṇāṃ phala-mātra-tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇā nipuṇāḥ | na tu svarūpataḥ karma-tyāgam |

nanu nitya-naimittikānāṃ phalāśravaṇād avidyamānasya phalasya kathaṃ tyāgaḥ syāt | nahi bandhyāyāḥ putra-tyāgaḥ sambhavanti |
ucyate yadyapi svarga-kāmaḥ paśukāma ity ādivad aharahaḥ sandhyām upāsīta yāvaj-jīvam agnihotraṃ juhotīty ādiṣu phala-viśeṣo na śrūyate tathāpy apuruṣārthe vyāpāre prekṣāvantaṃ pravartayitum aśaknuvan vidhir viśvajitā yajetety ādiṣv iva sāmānyataḥ kim api phalam ākṣipaty eva | na cātīva-gurum ataḥ śraddhayā sva-siddhir eva vidheḥ prayojanam iti mantavyam | puruṣa-pravṛtty-anupapatter duṣparaharatvāt | śrūyate ca nityādiṣv api phalam – sarva ete puṇya-lokā bhavatīti | karmaṇā pitṛ-loka iti | dharmeṇa pāpam apanudanti ity evam ādiṣu | tasmād yuktam uktaṃ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇā iti |

nanu phala-tyāgena punar pai niṣphaleṣu karmasu pravṛttir eva na syāt | tan na, sarveṣām api karmaṇāṃ saṃyoga-pṛthaktvena vividiṣārthatayā viniyogāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ – tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakeneti | tataś ca śruti-padoktaṃ sarvaṃ phalaṃ bandhakatvena tyaktvā vividiṣārthaṃ sarva-karmānuṣṭhānaṃ ghaṭata eva | vividiṣā ca nityānitya-vastu-vivekena nivṛtta-dehādy-abhimānatayā buddheḥ pratyak-pravaṇatā | tāvat paryantaṃ ca sattva-śuddhy-arthaṃ jñānāviruddhaṃ yathocitam avaśyakaṃ karma kurvatas tat-phala-tyāga eva karma-tyāgo nāma | na svarūpeṇa | tathā ca śrutiḥ kurvann eveha karmāṇi jijīviṣec chatāṃ samāḥ (Īśo 2) iti | tataḥ parantu sarva-karma-nivṛttiḥ svata eva bhavati | tad uktaṃ naiṣkarmya-siddhau –
pratyak-pravaṇatāṃ buddheḥ karmāṇi utpādya śuddhitaḥ |
kṛtārthānyastam āyānti prāvṛḍaste ghanā iva ||
uktaṃ ca bhagavatā – yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād ity ādi | vaśiṣṭhena coktam –
na karmāṇi tyajed yogī
karmabhis tyajyate hy asau |
karmaṇo mūla-bhūtasya
saṅkalpasyaiva nāśataḥ || iti |
jñāna-niṣṭhā-vikṣepakatvam ālakṣya tyajed vā | tad uktaṃ śrī-bhāgavate –
tāvat karmāṇi kurvīta
na nirvidyeta yāvatā |
mat-kathā-śravaṇādau vā
śraddhā yāvan na jāyate || (BhP 11.20.9)
jñāna-niṣṭho virakto vā
mad-bhakto vānapekṣakaḥ |
saliṅgānāśramāṃs tyaktvā
cared avidhi-gocaraḥ || (BhP 11.18.28) ity ādi |
alam atiprasaṅgena prakṛtam anusarāmaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


prathamaṃ prācyaṃ matam āśritya sannyāsa-tyāga-śabdayor bhinna-jātīyārthatvam āha kāmyānām iti | putra-kāmo yajeta svarga-kāmo yajeta ity evaṃ kāmopabandhena vihitānāṃ kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ svarūpeṇaiva tyāgaṃ sannyāsaṃ vidur na tu nityānām api sandhyopāstādīnām iti bhāvaḥ | sarveṣāṃ kāmyānāṃ nityānām api karmaṇāṃ phalaṃ karmaṇā pitṛlokaḥ iti | dharmeṇa pāpam upanudati ity ādyāḥ śrutayaḥ pratipādayanty eva ity atas tyāge phalābhisandhi-rahitaṃ sarva-karma-karaṇam | sannyāse tu phalābhisandhi-rahitaṃ nitya-karma-karaṇam | kāmya-karmaṇāṃ tu svarūpeṇaiva tyāga iti bhedo jñeyaḥ
 

Baladeva


evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān uvāca kāmyānām iti | putra-kāmo yajeta svarga-kāmo yajeta ity evaṃ kāmopanibandhena vihitānāṃ putreṣṭi-jyotiṣṭomādīnāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ svarūpeṇatyāgaṃ kavayaḥ paṇḍitāḥ sannyāsaṃ vidur na tu nityānām agnihotrādīnām ity arthaḥ | teṣu vicakṣaṇās tu sarveṣāṃ kāmyānāṃ nityānāṃ ca karmaṇāṃ phala-tyāgam eva, na tu svarūpatas tyāgaṃ sannyāsa-lakṣaṇaṃ tyāgaṃ prāhuḥ | nitya-karmaṇāṃ ca phalam asti – karmaṇāṃ pitṛ-loko dharmeṇa pāpam apanudati ity ādi śravaṇāt | yadyapi aharahaḥ sandhyām upāsīta, yāvaj-jīvanam agnihotraṃ juhoti ity ādau, putra-kāmo yajeta ity ādāv iva phala-viśeṣo na śrutayas tathāpi viśvajitā yajeta ity ādāv iva vidhiḥ kiñcit phalam ākṣiped eva | itarathā puruṣa-pravṛtty-anupapatter duṣpariharatāpattiḥ | tathā ca kāmya-karmaṇāṃ svarūpatas tyāgo, nitya-karmaṇāṃ tu phala-tyāgaḥ sannyāsa-śabdārthaḥ | sarveṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ phalecchāṃ tyaktvānuṣṭhānaṃ khalu tyāga-śabdārthaḥ | pūrvokta-rītyā jñānodaya-phalasya sattvād apravṛtter duṣpariharatvaṃ pratyuktam
 
 


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