BhG 18.1

arjuna uvāca
saṃnyāsasya mahābāho tattvam icchāmi veditum
tyāgasya ca hṛṣīkeśa pṛthak keśi-niṣūdana

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syntax


arjuna (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he keśi-niṣūdana (O Keśiniṣūdana!) he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!) he hṛṣīkeśa (O Hṛṣīkeśa!),
sannyāsasya (of renunciation) tyāgasya ca (and abandonment) tattvam (the truth) pṛthak (separately) veditum (to know) icchāmi (I desire).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
saṁnyāsasya saṁnyāsa 6n.1 m. of laying aside, of resignation, of renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO mighty-armed one! (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
tattvam tat-tva abst. 2n.1 n.truth, reality (from: tat – that);
icchāmi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 3v.1I desire;
veditum vid (to know, to understand) [inf.] – to know, to learn;
tyāgasya tyāga 6n.1 m. of leaving, of abandoning (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
ca av.and;
hṛṣīkeśa hṛṣīkeśa 1n.1 m.erect hair, Hṛṣīkeśa (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair);
or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśa itilord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an organ of senses; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
pṛthak av.separately, one by one (from: pṛth – to extend);
keśi-niṣūdana keśi-niṣūdana 8n.1 m.;[TP]: keśinaḥ niṣūdanetiO killer of Keśin! (from: keśa – hair; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses; ni-sūd – to kill, niṣūdana – killing, destroying)

 

textual variants


saṁnyāsasyasaṁnyāsas tu (but renunciations);
pṛthak keśi-niṣūdanapṛthak keśi-nisūdana / pṛthak karma-niṣūdana (separately, O killer of Keśin! / separately, O killer of activity!);

The first pada of verse 18.1 is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 5.6;

 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvasyaiva gītāśāstrasyārtho’smin adhyāye upasaṃhṛtya sarvaś ca vedārtho vaktavyaḥ ity evam artho’yam adhyāya ārabhyate | sarveṣu hy atīteṣu adhyāyeṣūkto’rtho’sminn adhyāye’vagamyate | arjunas tu saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdārthayor eva viśeṣa-bubhutsur uvāca—

pūrvādhyāye śraddhā-traividhyenāhāra-yajña-tapo-dāna-traividhyena ca karmiṇāṃ traividhyam uktaṃ sāttvikānām ādānāya rājasa-tāmasāṃ ca hānāya | idānīṃ tu saṃnyāsa-traividhya-kathanena saṃnyāsinām api traividhyaṃ vaktavyam | tatra ttva-bodhānantaraṃ yaḥ phala-bhūtaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ sa caturdaśe’dhyāye guṇātītatvena vyākhyātatvān na sāttvika-rājasa-tāmasa-bhedam arhati | yo’pi tattva-bodhāt prāk tad-arthaṃ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsas tattva-bubhutsayā vedānta-vākya-vicārāya bhavati so’pi traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna ity ādinā nirguṇatvena vyākhyātaḥ | yas tv anutpanna-tattva-bodhānām anutpanna-tattva-bubhutsānāṃ ca karma-saṃnyāsaḥ sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca ity ādinā gauṇo vyākhyātas tasya traividhya-sambhavāt tad-viśeṣaṃ bubhutsuḥ arjuna uvāca saṃnyāsasyeti |

aviduṣām anupajāta-vividiṣāṇāṃ ca karmādhikṛtānām eva kiṃcit karma-parigrahena kiṃcit karma-parityāgo yaḥ sa tyāgāṃśa-guṇa-yogāt saṃnyāsa-śabdenocyate | etādṛśasyāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhy-artham avidvat-karmādhikāri-kartṛkasya saṃnyāsasya kenacid rūpeṇa karma- tyāgasya tattvaṃ svarūpaṃ pṛthak sāttvika-rājasa-tāmasa-bhedena veditum icchāmi | tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ veditum icchāmi |

kiṃ saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdau ghaṭa-paṭa-śabdāv iva bhinna-jātīya-padārthau kiṃ vā brāhmaṇa-parivrājaka-śabdāv ivaika-jātīyārthau | yady ādyas tarhi tyāgasya tattvaṃ saṃnyāsāt pṛthag veditum icchāmi | yadi dvitīyas tarhy avāntaropādhi-bheda-mātraṃ vaktavyam | eka-vyākhyānenaivobhayaṃ vyākhyātaṃ bhaviṣyati |
mahābāho keśiniṣūdaneti sambodhanābhyāṃ bāhyopadrava-nivāraṇa-svarūpa-yogyatā-phalopadhāne pradarśite | hṛṣīkeśa ity antar-upadrava-nivāraṇa-sāmarthyam iti bhedaḥ | atyanurāgāt sambodhana-trayam |
atrārjunasya dvau praśnau | karmādhikāri-kartṛkena pūrvokta-yajñādi-sādharmyeṇa saṃnyāsa-śabda-pratipādyatvena ca guṇātīta-saṃnyāsa-dvaya-sādharmyeṇa traiguṇya-sambhavāsambhavābhyāṃ saṃśayaḥ prathamasya praśnasya bījam | dvitīyasya tu saṃnyāsa-tyāga-śabdayoḥ paryāyatvāt karma-phala-tyāga-rūpeṇa ca vailakṣaṇyokteḥ saṃśayo bījaṃ saṃnyāsatyāgaśabdau

 

Rāmānuja


atītenādhyāyadvayena abhyudayaniśśreyasasādhanabhūtaṃ vaidikam eva yajñatapodānādikaṃ karma, nānyat; vaidikasya ca karmaṇas sāmānyalakṣaṇaṃ praṇavānvayaḥ; tatra mokṣābhyudayasādhanayor bhedaḥ tatsacchabdanirdeśyatvena; mokṣasādhanaṃ ca karma phalābhisandhirahitaṃ yajñādikam; tadārambhaś ca sattvodrekād bhavati; sattvavṛddhiś ca sāttvikāhārasevayā ityuktam / anantaraṃ mokṣasādhanatayā nirdiṣṭayos tyāgasaṃnyāsayor aikyam, tyāgasya ca svarūpam, bhagavati sarveśvare ca sarvakarmaṇāṃ kartṛtvānusandhānam, sattvarajastamasāṃ kāryavarṇanena sattvaguṇasyāvaśyopādeyatvam, svavarṇocitānāṃ karmaṇāṃ paramapuruṣārādhanabhūtānāṃ paramapuruṣaprāptinirvartanaprakāraḥ, kṛtsnasya gītāśāstrasya sārārtho bhaktiyoga ity ete pratipādyante / tatra tāvat tyāgasaṃnyāsayor pṛthaktvaikatvanirṇayāya svarūpanirṇayāya cārjunaḥ pṛcchati

tyāgasaṃnyāsau hi mokṣasādhanatayā vihitau, „na karmaṇā na prajayā dhanena tyāgenaike amṛtatvam ānaśuḥ vedāntavijñānasuniścitārthās saṃnyāsayogād yatayaś śuddhasattvāḥ / te brahmaloke tu parāntakāle parāmṛtāt parimucyanti sarve//” ityādiṣu / asya saṃnyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvam yāthātmyaṃ pṛthak veditum icchāmi / ayam abhiprāyaḥ kim etau saṃnyāsatyāgaśabdau pṛthagarthau, utaikārthav eva yadā pṛthagarthau, tadā anayoḥ pṛthaktvena svarūpaṃ veditum icchāmi; ekatve ‚pi tasya svarūpaṃ vaktavyam iti

 

Śrīdhara


atra ca –
sarva-karmāṇi manasā
sannyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī | (Gītā 5.13)
sannyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā (Gītā 9.28)
ity ādiṣu karma-sannyāsa upadiṣṭaḥ | tathā –
tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ
nitya-tṛpto nirāśrayaḥ |
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ
tataḥ kuru yatātmavān || (Gītā 4.20)
ity ādiṣu ca phala-mātra-tyāgena karmānuṣṭhānam upadiṣṭam | na ca paraspara-viruddhaṃ sarvajñaḥ parama-kāruṇiko bhagavān upadiśet | ataḥ karma-sannyāsasya tad-anuṣṭhānasya cāvirodha-prakāraṃ bubhutsur arjuna uvāca sannyāsasyeti | bho hṛṣīkeśa sarvendriya-niyāmaka | he keśī-nisūdana keśī-nāmno mahato hayākṛteḥ daityasya yuddhe mukhaṃ vyādāya bhakṣayitum āgacchato atyantaṃ vyātte mukhe vāma-bāhuṃ praveśya tat-kṣaṇam eva vivṛddhena tenaiva bāhunā karkaṭikā-phalavat taṃ vidārya nisūditavān | ataeva he mahābāho iti sambodhanam | sannyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ pṛthag vivekena veditum icchāmi
 

Viśvanātha


anantarādhyāye –
tad ity anabhisandhāya
phalaṃ yajña-tapaḥ-kriyāḥ |
dāna-kriyāś ca vividhāḥ
kriyante mokṣa-kāṅkṣibhiḥ || (Gītā 17.25)

ity atra bhagavad-vākye mokṣa-kāṅkṣi-śabdena sannyāsina eva ucyante | anye vā yady anya eva te, tarhi – sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān iti (Gītā 12.11) tvad-uktānāṃ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgināṃ teṣāṃ sa tyāgaḥ kaḥ | sannyāsināṃ ca ko sa sannyāsa iti vivekato jijñāsur āha sannyāsasyeti | pṛthag iti yadi sannyāsa-tyāga-śabdau bhinnārthau tadā sannyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ pṛthag veditum icchāmi | yadi tv ekārthau tāv api tvan-mate anya-mate vā tayor aikyārtham arthād ekārthatvam iti pṛthag veditum icchāmi | he hṛṣīkeśeti mad-buddheḥ pravartakatvāt tvam eva imaṃ sandeha-mukhāpayasi | keśi-nisūdana iti taṃ ca sandehaṃ tvam eva keśinam iva vidārayasīti bhāvaḥ | mahābāho iti tvaṃ mahā-bāhu-balānvito ‚haṃ kiñcid bāhubalānvita ity etad aṃśenaiva mayā saha sakhyaṃ tava | na tu sārvajñyādibhir aṃśair atas tvad-datta-kiñcit-sakhya-bhāvād eva praśne mama niḥśaṅkateti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


sarva-karmāṇi manasā sannyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī | (Gītā 5.13) ity ādau sannyāsa-śabdena kim uktam — tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ (Gītā 4.20) ityādau tyāga-śabdena ca kim uktaṃ bhagavatā tatra sandihāno ‚rjunaḥ pṛcchati sannyāsasyeti | sannyāsa-tyāga-śabdau śaila-taru-śabdāv iva vijātīyārthau kiṃ vā kuru-pāṇḍava-śabdāv iva sajātīyārthau | yady ādyas tarhi sannyāsasya tyāgasya ca tattvaṃ pṛthag-veditum icchāmi | yadyantas tarhi tatrāvāntaropādhi-mātraṃ bhedakaṃ bhāvi, tac ca veditum icchāmi | he mahābāho kṛṣṇa hṛṣīkeśeti dhī-vṛtti-prerakatvāt tvam eva mat-sandeham utpādayasi | keśi-nisūdaneti tvaṃ mat-sandehaṃ keśinam iva vināśayeti
 
 


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