atha ṣoḍaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ – devāsura-sampad-vibhāga-yogaḥ

Now the sixteen chapter: „The Yoga of Division into the Perfections of Divinities and Demons”

Śrīdhara


āsurīṃ sampadaṃ tyaktvā daivīm evāśritā narāḥ |
mucyanta iti nirṇetuṃ tad-viveko ‚tha ṣoḍaśe ||
 

Madhusūdana


anantārādhyāye adhaś ca mūlāny anusantatāni karmānubandhīni manuṣya-loke [Gītā 15.2] ity atra manuṣya-dehe prāg-bhavīya-karmānusāreṇa vyajyamānā vāsanāḥ saṃsārasyāvāntara-mūlatvenoktās tāś ca daivyāsurī rākṣasī ceti prāṇināṃ prakṛtayo navame ‚dhyāye sūcitāḥ | tatra veda-bodhita-karmātma-jñānopāyaānuṣṭhāna-pravṛtti-hetuḥ sāttvikī śubha-vāsanā daivī prakṛtir ity ucyate | evaṃ vaidika-niṣedhātikrameṇa svabhāva-siddha-rāga-dveṣānusāri-sarvānartha-hetu-pravṛtti-hetu-bhūtā rājasī tāmasī cāśubha-vāsanāsurī rākṣasī ca prakṛtir ucyate | tatra ca viṣaya-bhoga-prādhānyena rāga-prābalyād āsurītvaṃ hiṃsā-prādhānyena dveṣa-prābalyād rākṣasītvam iti vivekaḥ | samprati tu śāstrānusāreṇa tad-vihita-pravṛtti-hetu-bhūtā sāttvikī śubha-vāsanā daivī sampat | śāstrātikrameṇa tan-niṣiddha-viṣaya-pravṛtti-hetu-bhūtā rājasī tāmasī cāśubha-vāsanā rākṣasy āsuryor ekīkaraṇenāsurī sampad iti dvairāśyenaśubhāśubha-vāsanābhedaṃ dvayā ha prājāpatyā devāś cāsurāś ca ity ādi-śruti-prasiddhaṃ śubhānām ādānāyāśubhānāṃ hānāya ca pratipādayituṃ ṣoḍaśo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | tatrādau śloka-trayenṇādeyāṃ daivīṃ sampadam |
śāstropadiṣṭe ‚rthe sandehaṃ vinānuṣṭāna-niṣṭhatvam ekākī sarva-parigraha-śūnyaḥ kathaṃ jīviṣyāmīti bhaya-rāhityaṃ vābhayam | sattvasyāntaḥ-karaṇasya śuddhir nirmalatā tasyāḥ samyaktā bhagavat-tattva-sphūrti-yogyatā sattva-saṃśuddhiḥ para-vañcana-māyānṛtādi-parivarjanaṃ vā | parasya vyājena vaśīkaraṇaṃ para-vañcanam | hṛdaye ‚nyathā kṛtvā bahir anyathā vyavaharaṇaṃ māyā, anyathādṛṣṭa-kathanam anṛtam ity ādi | jñānaṃ śāstrād ātma-tattvasyāvagamaḥ | cittaikāgratayā tasya svānubhavārūḍhatvaṃ yogaḥ | tayor vyāvasthitiḥ sarvadā tan-niṣṭhatā jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ | yadā tv abhayaṃ sarva-bhūtābhaya-dāna-saṅkalpa-pālanam | etac cānyeṣām api paramahaṃsa-dharmāṇām upalakṣaṇam | sattva-saṃśuddhiḥ śravaṇādi-paripākeṇāntaḥ-karaṇasyāsambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanādi-mala-rāhityam | jñānam ātma-sākṣātkāraḥ | yogo mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayānukūlaḥ puruṣa-prayatnas tābhyāṃ viśiṣṭā saṃsāri-vilakṣaṇāvasthitir jīvan-muktir jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitir ity evaṃ vyākhyāyate tadā phala-mūrtaiva daivī sampad iyaṃ draṣṭavyā | bhagavad-bhaktiṃ vināntaḥ-karaṇa-saṃśuddher ayogāt tayā sāpi kathitā |
mahātmānas tu māṃ pārtha daivīṃ prakṛtim āśritāḥ |
bhajanty ananya-manaso jñātvā bhūtādim avyayam ||
iti navame daivyāṃ sampadi bhagavad-bhakter uktatvāc ca | bhagavad-bhakter atiśreṣṭhatvād abhayādibhiḥ saha pāṭho na kṛta iti draṣṭavyam |
 

Viśvanātha


ṣoḍaśe sampadaṃ daivīm āsurīm apy avarṇayat |
sargaṃ ca dvividhaṃ daivam āsuraṃ prabhur akṣayāt ||
 

Baladeva


daivīṃ tathāsurīṃ kṛṣṇaḥ sampadaṃ ṣoḍaśe ‚bravīt |
pādeyatva-heyatve bodhayan kramatas tayoḥ ||
 
 

BhG 16.1-3

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
abhayaṃ sattva-saṃśuddhir jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ
dānaṃ damaś
ca yajñaś ca svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam
ahiṃsā satyam akrodhas tyāgaḥ śāntir apaiśunam
dayā
bhūteṣv aloluptvaṃ mārdavaṃ hrīr acāpalam
tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucam adroho nāti-mānitā
bhavanti saṃpadaṃ daivīm abhijātasya bhārata

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata)
abhayam (fearlessness) sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ (purity of being) jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ (steadiness in knowledge and yoga) dānam (charity) damaḥ (sense-control) yajñaḥ (sacrifice) svādhyāyaḥ (studies) tapaḥ (austerity) ārjavam (simplicity)
ahiṁsā (non-violence) satyam (truth) akrodhaḥ (absence of anger) tyāgaḥ (abandonment) śāntiḥ (tranquility) apaiśunam (absence of calumny) bhūteṣu dayā (compassion towards beings) aloluptam (non-greediness) mārdavam (gentleness) hrīḥ (modesty) acāpalam (absence of fickleness)
tejaḥ (vigour) kṣamā (tolerance) dhṛtiḥ (firmness) śaucam (purity) adrohaḥ (absence of malice) na ati-mānitā ca (and lack of excessive pride)
[etāni ṣaḍ-viṁśati-prakārāṇi] (these 26 parts) daivīm sampadam (of divine perfection) abhijātasya (of one born to) bhavanti (they are).

 

grammar

 

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
abhayam a-bhaya 1n.1 n. fearlessness, safety (from: bhī – to scare);
sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ sattva-saṁśuddhi 1n.1 f.; [TP]: sattvasya saṁśuddhir iti purity of being (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas; sam-śudh – to become pure, saṁ-śuddhi – purification, sanctifying);
jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ jñāna-yoga-vyavasthiti 1n.1 f.; DV / [TP]: jñāne ca yoge ca vyavasthitir iti steadiness in knowledge and yoga (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; vi-ava-sthā – to arrange, to settle, vi-ava-sthiti – standing, steadiness, position, existence);
dānam dāna 1n.1 n. gift, charity (from: – to give);
damaḥ dama 1n.1 m.taming, sense-control (from: dam – to tame, to control, to subdue);
ca av.and;
yajñaḥ yajña 1n.1 m. sacrifice, worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
ca av.and;
svādhyāyaḥ svādhyāya 1n.1 m.recitation, repeating the Veda, studying, reading (from: su-ā-dhī – to contemplate, to think over);
tapaḥ tapas 1n.1 n.heat, austerity (from: tap – to scorch);
ārjavam ārjava 1n.1 n.simplicity, honesty, sincerity (from: arj – to obtain; ṛju – upright, honest, sincere);

*****

ahiṁsā a-hiṁsā 1n.1 f.non-violence, harmlessness (from: hiṁs – to injure, to harm, to kill);
satyam satya 1n.1 n.truth, truthfulness (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
akrodhaḥ a-krodha 1n.1 m.absence of anger (from: krudh – to be angry);
tyāgaḥ tyāga 1n.1 m. leaving, abandonment (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
śāntiḥ śānti 1n.1 f.tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
apaiśunam a-paiśuna 1n.1 n.absence of calumny (from: piś – to hew out, to carve, to adorn, piśuna – backbitings, treachery, paiśuna – backbitings, calumny, malignity);
dayā dayā 1n.1 f.compassion, pity (from: day – to divide, to sympathize, to have pity);
bhūteṣu bhūta 7n.3 m.towards beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
aloluptvam a-lolup-tva abst. 1n.1 n.lack of desires, non-greediness (from: lup – to break, to spoil, intens. lolupa – very destructive; very desirous, probably from: lubh – to desire, to long for, to covet);
mārdavam mārdava 1n.1 n.softmess, gentleness, kindness (from: mṛd – to crush, to destroy, to press, mṛdu – soft, delicate, tender);
hrīḥ hrī 1n.1 f.shame, modesty, shyness, timidity (from: hrī – to feel shame);
acāpalam a-cāpala 1n.1 n.absence of fickleness (from: cap – to caress, to soothe, cāpala – mobility, swiftness, fickleness);

*****

tejaḥ tejas 1n.1 n.sharpness, heat, splendour, vigour, semen (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
kṣamā kṣamā 1n.1 f.patience, tolerance, forbearance (from: kṣam – to forgive, to tolerate);
dhṛtiḥ dhṛti 1n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
śaucam śauca 1n.1 n.purity (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci – pure);
adrohaḥ a-droha 1n.1 m.absence of malice (from: druh – to hurt, to be hostile, droha – injury, harm, hostility, treachery);
na av.not;
ati-mānitā ati-mānitā abst. 1n.1 f.excessive pride (from: ati- – suffix: excessively, beyond; man – to think, to imagine, mānin – high-minded, proud, arrogant);
bhavanti bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.3they are;
saṁpadam saṁpad 2n.1 f.success, accomplishment, perfection, excellence, glory (from: sam-pad – to attain, to prosper);
daivīm daivī 2n.1 f.divine, pertaining to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
abhijātasya abhi-jāta (abhi-jan – to be born) [PP] 6n.1 m.of one born to;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


sattva-saṁśuddhir → sattva-saṁsiddhir (perfection of being);
jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ → jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitaḥ (steady in knowledge and yoga);
tyāgaḥ śāntir tyāgo ‘saktir (abandonment, non-attachment);
aloluptvaṁalaulyaṁ ca / alolutvam / alaubdhyaṁ ca / alolatvam (and absence of stability / ? / and non-greediness / absence of fickleness);
mārdavam → ārjavaṁ (simplicity);
śaucam → tuṣṭir (satisfaction);
nāti-mānitānābhimānitā / nāti-mānatā (not excessive pride);
bhārata → pāṁḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


daivī āsurī rākṣasī ceti prāṇiṇāṃ prakṛtayo navame’dhyāye sūcitāḥ | tāsāṃ vistareṇa pradarśanāya abhayaṃ sattva-saṃśuddhir ity ādir adhyāyaḥ ārabhyate | tatra saṃsāra-mokṣāya daivī prakṛtiḥ, nibandhāyāsurī rākṣasī ceti daivyā ādānāya pradarśanaṃ kriyate | itarayoḥ parivarjanāya ca śrī-bhagavān uvāca—
abhayam abhīrutā | sattva-saṃśuddhiḥ sattvasyāntaḥ-karaṇasya saṃśuddhiḥ | saṃvyavahāreṣu para-vañcanā-māyānṛtādi-parivarjanaṃ śuddha-sattva-bhāvena vyavahāra ity arthaḥ | jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitir jñānaṃ śāstrata ācāryataś ca ātmādi-padārthānām avagamaḥ | avagatānām indriyādy-upasaṃhāreṇaikāgratayā svātma-saṃvedyatāpādanaṃ yogaḥ | tayor jñāna-yogayor vyāvasthitiḥ vyavasthānaṃ tan-niṣṭhatā | eṣā pradhānā daivī sāttvikī socyate | dānaṃ yathā-śakti saṃvibhāgo’nnādīnām | damaś ca bāhya-karaṇānām upaśamaḥ | antaḥ-karaṇasyopaśamaṃ śāntiṃ vakṣyati | yajñaś ca śrauto’gnihotrādiḥ | smārtaś ca deva-yajñādiḥ | svādhyāya ṛg-vedādyadhyayanam adṛṣṭārtham | tapo vakṣyamāṇaṃ śārīrādi | ārjavam ṛjutvaṃ sarvadā |

kiṃ ca—
ahiṃsāhiṃsanaṃ prāṇināṃ pīḍā-varjanam | satyam apriyānṛta-varjitaṃ yathā-bhūtārtha-vacanam | akrodhaḥ parair ākruṣṭasyābhihatasya vā prāptasya krodhasya upaśamanam | tyāgaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ, pūrvaṃ dānasyoktatvāt | śāntir antaḥkaraṇasyopaśamaḥ | apaiśunam apiśunatā | parasmai para-randhra-prakaṭī-karaṇaṃ paiśunam, tad-abhāvo’paiśunam | dayā kṛpā bhūteṣu duḥkhiteṣu | aloluptvam indriyāṇāṃ viṣaya-saṃnidhāv avikriyā | mārdavaṃ mṛdutākrauryam | hrīr lajjā | acāpalam asati prayojane vāk-pāṇi-pādādīnām avyāpārayitṛtvam |

kiṃ ca—
tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ na tvag-gatā dīptiḥ | kṣamā ākruṣṭasya tāḍitasya vāntar-vikriyānutpattiḥ | utpannāyāṃ vikriyāyāṃ praśamanam akrodha ity avocāma | itthaṃ kṣamāyā akrodhasya ca viśeṣaḥ | dhṛtir dehendriyeṣv avasādaṃ prāpteṣu tasya pratiṣedhako’ntaḥ-karaṇa-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ | yenottambhitāni karaṇāni dehaś ca nāvasīdanti | śaucaṃ dvi-vidhaṃ mṛj-jala-kṛtaṃ bāhyam ābhyantaraṃ ca mano-buddhayor nairmalyaṃ māyā-rāgādi-kāluṣyābhāvaḥ | evaṃ dvi-vidhaṃ śaucam | adrohaḥ para-jighāṃsābhāvo’hiṃsanam | nātimānitā atyarthaṃ māno’timānaḥ, sa yasya vidyate so’timānī | tad-bhāvo’timānitā | tad-abhāvo nātimānitā ātmanaḥ pūjyatātiśaya-bhāvanābhāva ity arthaḥ | bhavanty abhayādīni etad-antāni saṃpadam abhijātasya | kiṃ-viśiṣṭaṃ saṃpadaṃ ? daivīṃ devānāṃ yā saṃpat tām abhilakṣya jātasya deva-vibhūty-arhasya bhāvi-kalyāṇasyety arthaḥ | he bhārata !

 

Rāmānuja


atītenādhyāyatrayeṇa prakṛtipuruṣayor viviktayoḥ saṃsṛṣṭayoś ca yāthātmyaṃ tatsaṃsargaviyogayoś ca guṇasaṅgatadviparyayahetutvam, sarvaprakāreṇāvasthitayoḥ prakṛtipuruṣayor bhagavadvibhūtitvam, vibhūtimato bhagavato vibhūtibhūtād acidvastunaś cidvastunaś ca baddhamuktobhayarūpād avyayatvavyāpanabharaṇasvāmyair arthāntaratayā puruṣottamatvena yāthātmyañ ca varṇitam / anantaram, uktasya kṛtsnasyārthasya sthemne śāstravaśyatāṃ vaktuṃ śāstravaśyatadviparītayor devāsurasargayor vibhāgaṃ

iṣṭāniṣṭaviyogasaṃyogarūpasya duḥkhasya hetudarśanajaṃ duḥkhaṃ bhayam, tannivṛttir abhayam / sattvasaṃśuddhiḥ sattvasyāntaḥkaraṇasya rajastamobhyām aspṛṣṭatvam / jñānayogavyavasthitiḥ prakṛtiviyuktātmasvarūpavivekaniṣṭhā / dānam nyāyārjitadhanasya pātre pratipādanam / damaḥ manaso viṣayonmukhyanivṛttisaṃśīlanam / yajñaḥ phalābhisandhirahitabhagavadārādhanarūpamahāyajñādyanuṣṭhānam / svādhyāyaḥ savibhūter bhagavatas tadārādhanaprakārasya ca pratipādakaḥ kṛtsno veda ityanusandhāya vedābhyāsaniṣṭhā / tapaḥ kṛcchracāndrāyaṇadvādaśyupavāsāder bhagavatprīṇanakarmayogyatāpādanasya karaṇam / ārjavam manovākkāyavṛttīnām ekaniṣṭhatā pareṣu / ahiṃsā parapīḍāvarjanam / satyam yathādṛṣṭārthagocarabhūtahitavākyam / akrodhaḥ parapīḍāphalacittavikārarahitatvam / tyāgaḥ ātmahitapratyanīkaparigrahavimocanam / śāntiḥ indriyāṇāṃ viṣayaprāvaṇyanirodhasaṃśīlanam / apaiśunam parānarthakaravākyanivedanākaraṇam / dayā bhūteṣu sarvabhūteṣu duḥkhāsahiṣṇutvam / aloluptvam alolupatvam / alolutvam iti vā pāṭhaḥ; viṣayeṣu nisspṛhatvam ityarthaḥ / mārdavam akāṭhinyam, sādhujanasaṃśleṣārhatetyarthaḥ / hrīḥ akāryakaraṇe vrīḍā / acāpalam spṛhaṇīyaviṣayasannidhau acañcalatvam / tejaḥ durjanair anabhibhavanīyatvam / kṣamā paranimittapīḍānubhave ‚pi pareṣu taṃ prati cittavikārarahitatā / dhṛtiḥ mahatyām apy āpadi kṛtyakartavyatāvadhāraṇam / śaucam bāhyāntarakaraṇānāṃ kṛtyayogyatā śāstrīyā / adrohaḥ pareṣv anuparodhaḥ; pareṣu svacchandavṛttinirodharahitatvam ityarthaḥ / nātimānitā asthāne garvo ‚timānitvam; tadrahitatā / ete guṇāḥ daivīṃ saṃpadam abhijātasya bhavanti / devasaṃbandhinī saṃpad daivī; devā bhagavadājñānuvṛttiśīlāḥ; teṣāṃ saṃpat / sā ca bhagavadājñānuvṛttir eva / tām abhijātasya tām abhimukhīkṛtya jātasya, tāṃ nivartayituṃ jātasya bhavantītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


pūrvādhyāyās tu etad-buddhvā buddhimān syāt kṛta-kṛtyaś ca bhāratety uktam | tatra ka etat tattvaṃ budhyate | ko vā na budhyate | ity apekṣāyāṃ tattva-jñāne ‚dhikāriṇo ‚nadhikāriṇaś ca vivekārthaṃ ṣoḍaśādhyāyasyārambhaḥ | nirūpite hi kāryārthe ‚dhikāri-jijñāsā bhavati | tad uktaṃ bhaṭṭaiḥ —
bhāro yo yena voḍhavyaḥ sa prāg āndolitā yadā |
tadā kaṇḍasya voḍheti śakyaṃ kartuṃ nirūpaṇam || iti |
tatrādhikāri-viśeṣaṇa-bhūtāṃ daivīṃ sampadam āha abharam iti tribhiḥ | abhayaṃ bhayābhāvaḥ | sattvasya cittasya saṃśuddhiḥ suprasannatā | jñāna-yoga ātma-jñānopāye vyavasthitiḥ pariniṣṭhā | dānaṃ svabhojyasya annāder yathocitaṃ saṃvibhāgaḥ | damo bāhyendriya-saṃyamaḥ | yajño yathādhikāraṃ darśa-paurṇamāsādiḥ | svādhyāyo brahma-yajñādiḥ | japa-yajño vā | tapa uttarādhyāye vakṣyamāṇaṃ śārīrādi | ārjavam avakratā |

kiṃ cāhiṃseti | ahiṃsā para-pīḍāvarjanam | satyaṃ yathā-dṛṣṭārtha-bhāṣaṇam | akrodhas tāḍitasyāpi citte kṣobhānutpattiḥ | tyāga audāryam | śāntiś cittoparatiḥ | paiśunaṃ parokṣe para-doṣa-prakāśanam | tad-varjanam apaiśunam | bhūteṣu dīneṣu dayā | alolupatam alolupatvaṃ lobhābhāvaḥ | avarṇa-lopa ārṣaḥ | mārdavaṃ mṛdutvam akrūratā | hrīr akārya-pravṛttau loka-lajjā | acāpalaṃ vyartha-kriyā-rāhityam |

kiṃ ca teja iti | tejaḥ prāgalbhyam | kṣamā paribhavādiṣu utpadyamāneṣu krodha-pratibandhaḥ | dhṛtir duḥkhādibhir avasīdataś cittasya sthirīkaraṇam | śaucaṃ bāhyābhyantara-śuddhiḥ | adroho jighāṃsā-rāhityam | ātimānitā ātmany atipūjyatvābhimānaḥ | tad-abhāvo nātimānitā | etāny abhayādīni ṣaḍ-viṃśati-prakārāṇi daivīṃ sampadam abhijātasya bhavanti | deva-yogyāṃ sāttvikīṃ sampadam abhilakṣya tad-ābhimukhyena jātasya | bhāvi-kalyāṇasya puṃso bhavantīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


mahā-bhāgyānāṃ paramahaṃsānāṃ phala-bhūtāṃ daivīṃ sampadam uktvā tato nyūnānāṃ gṛhasthādīnāṃ sādhana-bhūtām āha dānaṃ sva-svatvāspadānām annādīnāṃ yathā-śakti śāstroktaḥ saṃvibhāgaḥ | damo bāhyendriya-saṃyama ṛtu-kālādy-atirikta-kāle maithunādy-abhāvaḥ | ca-kāro ‚nuktānāṃ nivṛtti-lakṣaṇa-dharmāṇāṃ samuccayārthaḥ | yajñaś ca śrauto ‚gnihotra-darśapaurṇamāsādiḥ | smārto deva-yajñaḥ pitṛ-yajño bhūta-yajño manuṣya-yajña iti caturvidhaḥ | brahma-yajñasya svādhyāya-padena pṛthag-ukteḥ | ca-kāro ‚nuktānāṃ pravṛtti-lakṣaṇa-dharmāṇāṃ samuccayārthaḥ | etat trayaṃ gṛhasthasya | svādhyāyo brahma-yajño ‚dṛṣṭārtham ṛg-vedādyadhyayana-rūpaḥ | yajña-śabdena pañca-vidha-mahā-yajñokti-sambhave ‚py asādhāraṇyena bramacāri-dharmatva-kathanārthaṃ pṛthag-uktiḥ | tapas tri-vidhaṃ śārīrādi saptadaśe vakṣyamāṇaṃ vānaprasthasyāsādhāraṇo dharmaḥ | evaṃ caturṇām āśramāṇām asādhāraṇān dharmān uktvā caturṇāṃ varṇānām asādhāraṇa-dharmān āha ārjavam avakratvaṃ śraddadhāneṣu śrotṛṣu sva-jñātārthāsaṃgopanam |

prāṇi-vṛtti-cchedo hiṃsā tad-ahetutvam ahiṃsā | satyam anarthānanubandhi yathābhūtārtha-vacanam | parair ākrośe tāḍane vā kṛte sati prāpto yaḥ krodhas tasya tat-kālam upaśamanam akrodhaḥ | dānasya prāg-uktes tyāgaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ | damasya prāg-ukteḥ śāntir antaḥkaraṇasyopaśamaḥ | parasmai parokṣe para-doṣa-prakāśanaṃ paiśunam, tad-abhāvo ‚paiśunam | dayā bhūteṣu duḥkhiteṣv anukampā | aloluptvam alolupatvam indriyāṇāṃ viṣaya-saṃnidhāne ‚py avikriyatvam | mārdavaṃ akrūratvam vṛthāpūrvapakṣādi-kāriṣv api śiṣyādiṣv apriya-bhāṣaṇādi-vyatirekeṇa yodhayitṛtvam | hrīr akārya-pravṛtty-ārambhe tat-pratibandhikā loka-lajjā | acāpalam prayojanaṃ vināpi vāk-pāṇy-ādi-vyāpārayitṛtvaṃ cāpalaṃ tad-abhāvaḥ | ārjavādayo ‚cāpalāntā brāhmaṇasyāsādharaṇā dharmāḥ |

tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ strī-bālakādibhir mūḍhair anabhibhāvyatvam | kṣamā saty api sāmarthye paribhava-hetuṃ prati krodhasyānutpattiḥ | dhṛtir dehendriyeṣv avasādaṃ prāpteṣv api tad-uttambhakaḥ prayana-viśeṣaḥ | yenottambhitāni karaṇāni śarīraṃ ca nāvasīdanti | etat trayaṃ kṣatriyasyāsādhāraṇam | śaucam ābhyantaram artha-prayogādau māyānṛtādi-rāhityaṃ na tu mṛjjalādi-janitam bāhyam atra grāhyaṃ tasya śarīra-śuddhi-rūpatayā bāhyatvenāntaḥkaraṇa-vāsanātvābhāvāt | tad-vāsanānām eva sāttvikādi-bheda-bhinnānāṃ daivy-āsuryādi-sampad-rūpatvenātra pratipipādāyiṣitatvāt | svādhyāyādivat kenacid rūpeṇa vāsanā-rūpatve tad apy ādeyam eva | drohaḥ para-jighāṃsayā śastra-grahaṇādi tad-abhāvo ‚drohaḥ | etad dvayaṃ vaiśyasyāsādhāraṇam | asty arthaṃ mānitātmani pūjyatvātiśaya-bhāvanātimiānitā | tad-abhāvo nātimānitā pūjyeṣu namratā | ayaṃ śūdrasyāsādhāraṇo dharmaḥ | tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena [BAU 4.4.22] ity ādi śrutyā vividiṣaupayikatayā viniyuktā asādhāraṇāḥ sādhāraṇāś ca varṇāśrama-dharmā ihopalakṣyante | ete dharmā bhavanti niṣpadyante daivīṃ śuddha-sattva-mayīṃ sampadaṃ vāsanā-santatiṃ śarīrārambha-kāle puṇya-karmabhir abhivyaktām abhilakṣya jātasya puruṣasya taṃ vidyā-karmaṇī samanvārabhete pūrva-prajñā ca [BAU 4.4.2], puṇyaḥ puṇyena karmaṇā bhavati pāpaḥ pāpena [BAU 4.4.5] ity ādi śrutibhyaḥ | he bhārateti sambhodayn śuddha-vaṃśodbhavatvena pūtatvāt tvam etādṛśa-dharma-yogyo ‚sīti sūcayati

 

Viśvanātha


anantarādhyāye ūrdhva-mūlam adhaḥ-śākham ity ādinā varṇitasya saṃsārāśvattha-vṛkṣasya phalāni na varṇitānīty anusmṛtyāsminn adhyāye tasya dvividhāni mokacāni bandhakāni ca phalāni varṇayiṣyan prathamṃ mokaāny āha abhayam iti tribhiḥ | tyakta-putra-kalatrādika ekākī nirjane vane kathaṃ jīviṣyāmīti bhaya-rāhityam abhayam | sattva-saṃśuddhiś citta-prasādaḥ | jñāna-yoge jñānopāye ‚mānitvādau vyavasthitiḥ pariniṣṭhā | dānaṃ svabhojyānnāder yathocitaṃ saṃvibhāgaḥ | damo bāhyendriya-saṃyamaḥ | yajño deva-pūjā | svādhyāyo veda-pāṭhḥ | ādīni spaṣṭāni | tyāgaḥ putra-kalatrādiṣu yamatā-tyāgaḥ | aloluptvaṃ lobhābhāvaḥ | etāni ṣaḍ-viṃśatir abhayādīni daivīṃ sāttvikīṃ samapdam abhilakṣya jātasya sāttvikyāḥ sampadaḥ prāpt-vyañjake kṣaṇe janma labdhavataḥ puṃso bhavanti
 

Baladeva


pūrvatra aśvattha-mūlāny anusantatāni ity ādinā prācīna-karma-nimittāḥ śubhāśubha-vāsanāḥ saṃsāra-taror avāntara-mūlatvenoktāḥ | etā eva navame daivy āsurī rākṣasī cetei prāṇināṃ prakṛtayo nigaditāḥ | tatra vaidikārthānuṣṭhān ahetuḥ sāttvikī śubha-vāsanā mokṣopāyoginī daivī prakṛtiḥ | saiveha daivī sampat taror upādeyaṃ phalam | svābhāvika-rāga-dveṣānusāriṇī sarvānartha-hetū rājasī tāmasī cāśubha-vāsanā āsurī rākṣasī ca prakṛti-niraya-nipātopayoginī sā | sā cāsura-sampattayor heyaṃ phalam ity etad bodhayituṃ ṣoḍaśasyārambhaḥ |
atra daivīṃ sampadaṃ bhagavān uvāca abhayam ity ādinā trikeṇa | caturṇām āśramāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ ca dharmāḥ kramād iha kathyante | sannyāsināṃ tāvad āha abhayaṃ nirudyamaḥ katham ekākī jiviṣyāmīti bhaya-śūnyatvam | sattva-saṃśuddhiḥ svāśrama-dharmānuṣṭhānena mano-nairmalyam | jñāna-yoge śravaṇādau jñānopāye | vyavasthitiḥ pariniṣṭheti trayam ||
atha brahmacāriṇām āha svādhyāyo brahma-yajñaḥ śaktimato bhagavataḥ prati-pādako ‚yam apauruṣeyo ‚kṣara-rāśir ity anusandhāya vedābhyāsa-niṣṭhatety ekam |
atha vānaprasthānām āha tapa iti | tac ca śarīrādi-tribhedam ity aṣṭādaśe vakṣyamāṇaṃ bodhyam ity ekam |
atha varṇeṣu viprāṇām āha ārjavaṃ sāralyam | tac ca śraddhālu-śrotṛṣu sva-jñātārthāgopanaṃ jñeyam | ahiṃsā prāṇi-jīvikānucchedakatā | satyam anrthān anubhandi-yathādṛṣṭārtha-viṣayaṃ vākyam | akrodho durjana-kṛte sva-tiraskāre ‚bhyuditasya kopasya nirodhaḥ | tyāgo durukter api tatrāprakāśaḥ | śāntir manasaḥ saṃyamaḥ | apaiśunaṃ parokṣe parānartha-kāri-vākyāprakāśanam | bhūteṣu dayā tad-duḥkhāsahiṣṇutā | aloluptvaṃ nirlobhatā | pa-lopaś chāndasaḥ | mārdavaṃ komalatvam sat-pātra-saṅga-vicchedāsahanam | hrīr vikarmaṇi lajjā | acāpalaṃ vyartha-kriyā-viraha iti dvādaśa |
atha kṣatriyāṇām āha tejas tuccha-janānabhibhāvyatvam | kṣamā saty api sāmarthey svāsamānaṃ paribhāvakaṃ prati kopānudayaḥ | dhṛtiḥ śarīrendriyeṣv api tad-uttambhakaḥ prayatno yena teṣāṃ nāvasādaḥ syād iti trayam |
atha vaiśyānām āha śaucaṃ vyāpāre vāṇijye māyānṭrādi-rāhityam | adrohaḥ para-jighāṃsayā khaḍgādya-grahaṇam iti dvayam |
atha śūdrānām āha nātimānitā ātmani pūjyatva-bhāvanā-śūnyatā viprādiṣu triṣu namratety ekam iti ṣaḍ-viṃśatiḥ |
ete tatra tatra pradhāna-bhūtā bodhyā anuktānām apy upalakṣaṇārthāḥ | dehārambha-kālonmukhaiḥ sukṛtair vyaktāṃ daivīṃ śubha-vāsanām abhilakṣīkṛtya jātasya puruṣasya bhavanti udayante –puṇyaḥ puṇye karmaṇā bhavati pāpaḥ pāpena iti śruteḥ | devāh khalu pareśānu-vṛtti-śīlās teṣām iyaṃ sampad anayā tat-prāpaka-jñāna-bhakti-sambhavāt saṃsāra-taror upādeyaṃ phalam etat
 
 


BhG 16.4

dambho darpo ti-mānaś ca krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva ca
ajñānaṃ cābhijātasya pārtha saṃpadam āsurīm

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
dambhaḥ (deceit) darpaḥ (pride) ati-mānaḥ (conceit) krodhaḥ (anger) pāruṣyam ca (and harshness) ajñānam eva ca (and indeed ignorance)
[etāni ṣaḍ-vidhāni] (these 6 parts) āsurīm sampadam (of demoniac perfection) abhijātasya (of one born to) [bhavanti] (they are).

 

grammar

dambhaḥ dambha 1n.1 m.deceit, feigning, hypocrisy (from: dabh – to deceive, to destroy);
darpaḥ darpa 1n.1 m.pride, arrogance (from: dṛp – to be extravagant, to be proud);
ati-mānaḥ ati-māna 1n.1 m.excessive pride, conceit (from: ati- – suffix: zbyt, excessively, beyond; man – to think, māna – respect, honour, pride);
ca av.and;
krodhaḥ krodha 1n.1 m.anger, wrath (from: krudh – to be angry);
pāruṣyam pāruṣya 1n.1 n.roughness, harshness (from: paruṣa – hard, rough, uneven);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
ajñānam a-jñāna 1n.1 n. ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
ca av.and;
abhijātasya abhi-jāta (abhi-jan – to be born) [PP] 6n.1 m.of one born to;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
saṁpadam saṁpad 2n.1 f.success, accomplishment, perfection, excellence, glory (from: sam-pad – to attain);
āsurīm āsurī 2n.1 f.demoniac, hellish (from: asura – opponent of the heavenly, demon);

 

textual variants


‘ti-mānaś ‘bhi-mānaś (pride);
pāruṣyampāruṣya (harshness);
 
 



Śāṃkara


athedānīm āsurī saṃpad ucyate—
dambho dharma-dhvajitvam | darpo vidyā-dhana-svajanādi-nimitta utsekaḥ | atimānaḥ pūrvoktaḥ | krodhaś ca | pāruṣyam eva ca paruṣa-vacanam | yathā kāṇaṃ cakṣuṣmān, virūpaṃ rūpavān, hīnābhijanam uttamābhijana ity ādi | ajñānaṃ cāviveka-jñānaṃ kartavyākartavyādi-viṣaya-mithyā-pratyayaḥ | abhijātasya pārtha | kim-abhijātasyety āha—saṃpadam āsurīm asurāṇāṃ saṃpat āsurī tām abhijātasya ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


dambhaḥ dhārmikatvakhyāpanāya dharmānuṣṭhānam / darpaḥ kṛtyākṛtyāvivekakaro viṣayānubhavanimitto harṣaḥ / atimānaś ca svavidyābhijanān anuguṇo ‚bhimānaḥ / krodhaḥ parapiḍāphalacittavikāraḥ / pāruṣyam sādhūnām udvegakaraḥ svabhāvaḥ / ajñānam parāvaratattvakṛtyākṛtyāvivekaḥ / ete svabhāvāḥ āsurīṃ saṃpadam abhijātasya bhavanti / asurāḥ bhagavadājñātivṛttiśīlāḥ
 

Śrīdhara


āsurīṃ sampadam āha dambha iti | dambho dharma-dhvajitvam | darpo dhana-vidyādi-nimittaś cittasyotsekaḥ | abhimānaḥ pūrvoktaḥ | krodhaś ca | pāruṣyam eva ca paruṣa-vacanam | yathā kāṇaṃ cakṣuṣmān virūpaṃ rūpavān hīnābhijanam uttamābhijana ity ādi | ajñānaṃ ca aviveka-jñānaṃ mithyā-pratyayaḥ kartavyākartavyādi-viṣayaḥ | abhijātasya pārtha kim abhijātasyeti | āha āsurānāṃ sampad āsurī | tām abhijātasyety arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


ādeyatvena daivīṃ sampadam uktvedānīṃ heyatvenāsurīṃ saṃpadam ekena ślokena saṃkṣipyāha dambha iti | dambho dāarmikatayātmanaḥ khyāpanaṃ tad eva dharma-dhvajitvam | darpo dhana-svajanādi-nimitto mahad-avadhīraṇā-hetur garva-viśeṣaḥ | atimāna ātmany atyanta-pūjyatvātiśayādhyāropaḥ | devāś ca vā asurāś cobhaye prājāpatyāḥ paspṛdhire tato ‚surā atimānenaiva kasmin nu vayaṃ juhuyāmeti sveṣv evāsyeṣu juhvataś cerus te ‚timānenaiva parāvabhūvus tasmān nātimanyeta parābhavasya hy etan-mukhaṃ yad atimānaḥ iti śatapatha-śruty-uktaḥ | krodhaś ca sva-parāpakāra-vṛtti-hetur abhijvalanātmako ‚ntaḥkaraṇa-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ | pāruṣyam pratyakṣa-rūkṣa-vadana-śīlatvam | ca-kāro ‚nuktānāṃ bhāva-bhūtānāṃ cāpalādi-doṣāṇāṃ samuccayārthaḥ | ajñānaṃ kartavyākartavyādi-viṣaya-vivekābhāvaḥ | ca-śabdo ‚nuktānām abhāva-bhūtānām adhṛty-ādi-doṣāṇāṃ samuccayārthaḥ | āsurīm asura-ramaṇa-hetu-bhūtāṃ rajas-tamo-mayīṃ sampadam aśubha-vāsanā-santatiṃ śarīrārambha-kāle pāpa-karmabhir abhivyaktām abhilakṣya jātasya kupuruṣasya dambhādyā ajñānāntā doṣā eva bhavanti na tv abhayādyā guṇā ity arthaḥ | he pārtheti sambodhayan viśuddha-mātṛkatvena tad-ayogyatvaṃ sūcayati
 

Viśvanātha


bandhakāni phalāny āha dambhaḥ svasyādharmikatve ‚pi dhārmikatva-prakhyāpanam | darpo dhana-vidyādi-hetuko garvo ‚bhimāno ‚nya-kṛta-sammānanākāṅkṣitatvaṃ kalatra-putrādiṣv āsaktir vā | krodhaḥ prasiddhaḥ | pāruṣyaṃ niṣṭhuratā | ajñānam avivekaḥ | āsurīm ity upalakṣaṇaṃ rākṣasīm api sampadam abhijātasya rājasyāstāmasasyaś ca sampadaḥ prāpti-sūcaka-kṣaṇe janma labdhavataḥ puṃsa etāni dambhādīni bhavantīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha naraka-hetum āsurīṃ sampadam āha dambha ity ekena | dambho dhārmikatva-khyātaye dharmānuṣṭhānam | darpo vidyābhijana-janyo garvaḥ | svasminn abhyarcatva-buddhiḥ | krodhaḥ prasiddhaḥ | pāruṣyam pratyakṣaṃ rukṣa-bhāṣitam | ca-kāraś cāpalādeḥ samuccāyakaḥ | ajñānaṃ kāryākārya-viveka-dhī-śūnyatvam | cakāro ‚dhṛtyādeḥ samuccāyakaḥ | ete dehārambha-kālonmukhair duṣkṛtair vyaktām āsurīm aśubha-vāsanām abhilakṣya jātasya puruṣasya bhavanti | pāpaḥ pāpena iti śrutiḥ
 
 


BhG 16.5

daivī saṃpad vimokṣāya nibandhāyāsurī matā
śucaḥ saṃpadaṃ daivīm abhijāto si pāṇḍava

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he pāṇḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!),
daivī sampad (divine perfection) vimokṣāya (for liberation),
āsurī (demoniac) nibandhāya (for bondage) matā (considered),
[tvam] (you) daivīm sampadam (divine perfection) abhijātaḥ (born to) asi (you are)
[ataḥ eva] (therefore) mā śucaḥ (do not grieve!).

 

grammar

daivī daivī 1n.1 f.divine, pertaining to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
saṁpat saṁpad 1n.1 f.success, accomplishment, perfection, excellence, glory (from: sam-pad – to attain, to prosper);
vimokṣāya vimokṣa 4n.1 m. for liberation, for leaving (from: vi-muc – to liberate);
nibandhāya ni-bandha 4n.1 m.for bondage (from: ni-bandh – to bind, to fetter);
āsurī āsurī 1n.1 f.demoniac, hellish (from: asura – opponent of the heavenly, demon);
matā matā (from: man – to think, to believe) [PP] 1n.1 f.thought, considered;
av.not! (very strong negation mostly used with aorist deprived of  prefix ‘a-’);
śucaḥ śuc (to grieve,  to burn) Aor. P 2v.1 aśucaḥ – you grieved; used with particle loses prefix ‘a-’ and makes the imperative: do not grieve!
saṁpadam saṁpad 2n.1 f.success, accomplishment, perfection, excellence, glory (from: sam-pad – to attain, to prosper);
daivīm daivī 2n.1 f.divine, pertaining to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
abhijātaḥ abhi-jāta (abhi-jan – to be born) [PP] 1n.1 m.born to;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
pāṇḍava pāṇḍava 8n.1 m.O son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);

 

textual variants


pāṇḍava → bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


anayoḥ saṃpadoḥ kāryam ucyate—
daivī saṃpat yā sā vimokṣāya saṃsāra-bandhanāt | nibandhāya niyato bandho nibandhas tad-artham āsurī saṃpat matā abhipretā | tathā rākṣasī ca | tatraivam ukte saty ar junasyāntar-gataṃ bhāvaṃ kim aham āsura-saṃpad-yuktaḥ ? kiṃ vā daiva-saṃpad-yuktaḥ ? ity evam ālocanā-rūpam ālakṣya āha bhagavān—mā śucaḥ śokaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | saṃpadaṃ daivīm abhijāto’sy abhilakṣya jāto’si | bhāvi-kalyāṇas tvam asīty arthaḥ | he pāṇḍāva
 

Rāmānuja


daivī madājñānuvṛttirūpā saṃpad vimokṣāya bandhān muktaye bhavati / krameṇa matprāptaye bhavatītyarthaḥ / āsurī madājñātivṛttirūpā saṃpan nibandhāya bhavati adhogatiprāptaye bhavatītyarthaḥ //
etac chrutvā svaprakṛtyanirdhāraṇād atibhītāyārjunāyaivam āha
śokaṃ mā kṛthāḥ; tvaṃ tu daivīṃ saṃpadam abhijāto ‚si / pāṇḍava / dhārmikāgresarasya hi pāṇḍos tanayas tvam ityabhiprāyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


etayoḥ sampadoḥ kāryaṃ darśayann āha daivīti | daivī vā sampat tayā yukto mayopadiṣṭe tattva-jñāne ‚dhikārī | āsuryā sampadā yuktas tu nityaṃ saṃsārīty arthaḥ | etac chrutvā kim aham atrādhikārī na veti sandeh-vvyākula-cittam arjunam āśvāsayati he pāṇḍava mā śucaḥ śokaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | yatas tvaṃ daivīṃ sampad abhijāto ‚si
 

Madhusūdana


anayoḥ sampadoḥ phala-vibhāgo ‚bhidhīyate daivīti | yasya varṇasya yasyāśramasya ca yā vihitā sāttvikī phalābhisandhi-rahitā kriyā sā tasya daivī sampat sā sattva-śuddhi-bhagavad-bhakti-jñāna-yoga-sthiti-paryantā satī saṃsāra-bandhanād vimokṣāya kaivalyāya bhavati | ataḥ saivopādeyā śreyo ‚rthibhiḥ | yā tu yasya śāstra-niṣiddhā phalābhisandhi-pūrvā sāhaṅkārā ca rājasī tāmasī kriyā tasya sā sarvāpy āsurī sampat | ato rākṣasī api tad-antar-bhūtaiva | sā nibandhāya niyatāya saṃsāra-bandhāya matā saṃmatā śāstrāṇāṃ tad-anusāriṇāṃ ca | ataḥ sā heyaiva śreyo ‚rthibhir ity arthaḥ | tatraivaṃ saty ahaṃ kayā sampadā yukta iti sandihānam arjunam āśvāsayati bhagavān | mā śucaḥ | aham āsuryāṃ sampadā yukta iti śaṅkayā śokam anutāpaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | daivīṃ sampadam abhilakṣya jāto ‚si prāg-arjita-kalyāṇo bhāvi-kalyāṇaś ca tvam asi he pāṇḍava pāṇḍu-putreṣv anyeṣv api daivī sampat prasiddhā kiṃ punas tvayīti bhāvaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


etayoḥ sampadoḥ kāryaṃ darśayati daivīti | hanta hanta śar-prahārair bandhūn jighaṃsoḥ pāruṣya-krodhādi-mato mamaiveyam āsurī-sampat saṃsāra-bandha-prāpikā dṛśyata iti khidyantam arjunam āśvāsayati mā śucaḥ iti | pāṇḍaveti tava kṣatriya-kulotpannasya saṅgrāme pāruṣya-krodhādyā dharma-śāstre vihitā eva | tad-anyatraiva te hiṃsādyā āsurī sampad iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


etayoḥ sampadoḥ phala-bhedam āha daivīty ardhakena sphuṭam | bāṇa-vṛṣṭyā pūjyā droṇādīn jighaṃsoḥ krodha- pāruṣyavato mameyam āsurī sampat narakaṃ janayed iti śocayantaṃ pārtham ālakṣāha mā śuca iti | he pāṇḍaveti kṣatriyasya te yuddhe bāṇa-nikṣepa-pāruṣyādikaṃ vihitatvāt diavy eva sampat tato ‚nyatra tv āsurīti mā śucaḥ śokaṃ mā kuru
 
 


BhG 16.6

dvau bhūta-sargau loke smin daiva āsura eva ca
daivo vistaraśaḥ prokta āsuraṃ pārtha me śṛṇu

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!)
asmin loke (in this world) daivaḥ āsuraḥ ca (divine and demoniac) [etau] dvau bhūta-sargau (these two emanations of beings).
daivaḥ [sargaḥ] (divine emanation) vistaraśaḥ (extensively) proktaḥ (spoken),
[tvam] (you) āsuram [sargam] (demoniac emanation) me (from me) śṛṇu (you must listen).

 

grammar

dvau dvi 1n.2 m.two;
bhūta-sargau bhūta-sarga 1n.2 m.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ sargav iti emanations of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; sṛj – to let go, to emit, sarga – emanation, creation);
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
asmin idam sn. 7n.1 m.in this;
daivaḥ daiva 1n.1 m.divine, pertaining to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
āsuraḥ āsura 1n.1 m.demoniac, hellish, pertaining to the opponents of divinites (from: asura – opponent of the heavenly, demon);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
daivaḥ daiva 1n.1 m.divine, pertaining to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
vistaraśaḥ av.extensively, fully (from: vi-stṛ – to spread out, to expand, vistara – extensive);
proktaḥ prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 m.spoken;
āsuram āsura 2n.1 m.demoniac, hellish, pertaining to the opponents of divinites (from: asura – opponent of the heavenly, demon);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my [words] (shortened form of: mama);
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;

 

textual variants


bhūta-sargau → bhūta-saṁghau (in hosts of beings);
loke ‘smin bhūte ‘smin (in this being);
daivadaivī (divine);
vistaraśaḥvistarataḥ (extensively);
 
 



Śāṃkara


dvau dvi-saṃkhyākau bhūta-sargau bhūtānāṃ manuṣyāṇāṃ sargau sṛṣṭī bhūta-sargau sṛjyeteti sargau bhūtāny eva sṛjyamānāni daivāsura-saṃpad-dvaya-yuktānīti dvau bhūta-sargāv ity ucyate | dvayā ha vai prājāpatyā devāś cāsurā ca [bhāvātmauttaṃ 1.3.1] iti śruteḥ | loke’smin, saṃsāra ity arthaḥ | sarveṣāṃ dvaividhyopapatteḥ | kau tau bhūta-sargau ? ity ucyate—prakṛtāv eva daiva āsura eva ca | uktayor eva punar anuvāde prayojanam āha—daivo bhūta-sargo’bhayaṃ sattva-saṃśuddhir ity ādinā vistaraśo vistara-prakāraiḥ proktaḥ kathitaḥ, na tu āsuro vistaraśaḥ | atas tat-parivarjanārtham āsuraṃ pārtha me mama vacanād ucyamānaṃ vistaraśaḥ sṛṇu avadhāraya
 

Rāmānuja


asmin karmaloke karmakarāṇāṃ bhūtānāṃ sargo dvividhau daivaś cāsuraś ceti / sargaḥ utpattiḥ, prācīnapuṇyapāparūpakarmavaśād bhagavadājñānuvṛttitadviparītakaraṇāyotpattikāla eva vibhāgena bhūtāny utpadyanta ityarthaḥ / tatra daivaḥ sargo vistaraśaḥ proktaḥ devānāṃ madājñānuvṛttiśīlānām utpattir yadācārakaraṇārthā, sa ācāraḥ karmayogajñānayogabhaktiyogarūpo vistaraśaḥ proktaḥ / asurāṇāṃ sargaś ca yadācārārthaḥ, tam ācāraṃ me śṛṇu mama sakāśāc chṛṇu
 

Śrīdhara


āsurī sampat sarvātmanā varjayitavyety etad artham āsurīṃ sampadaṃ prapañcayitum āha dvāv iti | dvau dvi-prakārau bhūtānāṃ sargau me sad-vacanāt śṛṇu | āsura rākṣasa-prakṛtyor ekī-karaṇena dvāv ity uktam | ato rākṣasīm āsurīṃ caiva prakṛtiṃ mohinīṃ śritā ity ādinā navādhyāyokta-prakṛti-traividhyenāvirodhaḥ | spaṣṭam anyat
 

Madhusūdana


nanu bhavatu rākṣasī prakṛtir āsuryām antar-bhūtā śāstra-niṣiddha-kriyonmukhatvena sāmānyāt kāmopabhoga-prādhānya-prāṇi-hiṃsā-prādhānyābhyāṃ kvacid bhedena vyapadeśopapatteḥ, mānuṣī tu prakṛtis tṛtīyā pṛthag asti trayāḥ prājāpatyāḥ prajāpatau pitari brahmacaryam ūṣur devā manuṣyā asurāḥ [BAU 5.2.1] iti śruteḥ | ataḥ sāpi heya-koṭāv upādeya-koṭau vā vaktavyety atrāha dvāv iti |
asmin loke sarvasminn api saṃsāra-mārge dvau dvi-prakārāv eva bhūta-sargau manuṣya-sargau bhavataḥ | kau tau daiva āsuraś ca, na tu rākṣaso mānuṣo vādhikaḥ sargo ‚stīty arthaḥ | yo yadā manuṣyaḥ śāstra-saṃskāra-prābalyena svabhāva-siddhau rāga-dveṣāv abhibhūya dharma-parāyaṇo bhavati sa tadā devaḥ | yadā tu svabhāva-siddha-rāga-dveṣa-prābalyena śāstra-saṃskāram abhibhūyādharma-parāyaṇo bhavati sa tadāsura iti dvaividhyopapatteḥ | na hi dharmādharmābhyāṃ tṛtīyā koṭir asti | tathā ca śrūyate — dvayā ha prājāpatyā devāś cāsurāś ca | tataḥ kānīyasā eva devā jyāyasā asurās ta eṣu lokeṣv aspardhanta | te ha devā ūcur hantāsurān yajña udgīthenātyayām eti [BAU 1.3.1] iti | dama-dāna-dayā-vidhi-pare tu vākye trayāḥ prājāpatyā ity ādau dama-dāna-dayā-rahitā manuṣyā asurā eva santaḥ kenacit sādharmyeṇa devā manuṣyā asurā ity upacaryanta iti nādhikyāvakāśaḥ | ekenaiva da ity akṣareṇa prajāpatinā dama-rahitān manuṣyān prati damopadeśaḥ kṛtaḥ | dāna-rahitān prati dānopadeśaḥ, dayā-rahitān prati dayopadeśaḥ, na tu vijātīyā eva devāsura-manuṣyā iha vivakṣitā mauṣyādhikāratvāc chāstrasya | tathā cānta upasaṃharati — tad etad evaiṣā daivī vāg anuvadati stanayitnur da da da iti dāmyata datta dayadhvamiti | tad etat trayaṃ śikṣed damaṃ dānaṃ dayām [BAU 5.2.3] iti | tasmād rākṣasī mānuṣī ca prakṛtir āsuryām evāntarbhavatīti yuktam uktaṃ dvau bhūta-sargāv iti |
tatra daivo bhūta-sargo mayā tvāṃ prati visataraśo vistara-prakāraiḥ proktaḥ sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇe dvitīye bhakta-lakṣaṇe dvādaśe jñāna-lakṣaṇe trayodaśe guṇātīta-lakṣaṇe caturdaśa iha cābhayam ity ādinā | idānīm āsuraṃ bhūta-sargaṃ me mad-vacanair vistaraśaḥ pratipādyamānaṃ tvaṃ śṛṇu hānārtham avadhāraya samyaktayā jñātasya hi parivarjanaṃ śakyate kartum iti | he pārtheti sambandha-sūcanenānupekṣaṇīyatāṃ darśayati
 

Viśvanātha


tad api viṣaṇṇam arjunaṃ praty āsurīṃ sampadaṃ prapañcayitum āha dvāv iti | vistaraśaḥ prokta ity abhayaḥ sattva-saṃśuddhir ity ādi
 

Baladeva


tathāpy anivṛtta-śokaṃ tam ālakṣya āsurīṃ sampadaṃ prapañcayati dvāv iti | asmin karmādhikāriṇi manuṣya-loke dvivdhau bhūta-sargau manuṣya-sṛṣṭī bhavataḥ | yadāyaṃ manuṣya-loke śāstrāt svābhāvikau rāga-dveṣau vinirdhūya śāstrīyārthānuṣṭhāyī tadā daivaḥ | yadā śāstram utsṛjya svābhāvika-rāga-dveṣādhīno ‚śāstrīyān dharmān ācarati, tadā tv āsuraḥ | na hi dharmādharmābhyām anyā koṭi-sṛtīyāsti | śrutiś caivam āha – dvayā ha prājapatyā devāś cāsurāś ca ity [BAU 1.3.1] ādinā | tatra daivo vistaraśaḥ proktaḥ abhayam ity ādinā | athāsuraṃ śṛṇu vistaraśo vakṣyāmi
 
 


BhG 16.7

pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca janā na vidur āsurāḥ
na śaucaṃ nāpi cācāro na satyaṃ teṣu vidyate

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syntax


āsurāḥ janāḥ (demoniac people) pravṛttiṁ ca (and activity) nivṛttiṁ ca (and cessation) na viduḥ (they do not know),
teṣu [janeṣu] (in these people) śaucam (purity) na vidyate (there is not),
ācāraḥ api ca (and even good conduct) na [vidyate] (there is not),
satyam (truth) na [vidyate] (there is not).

 

grammar

pravṛttim pravṛtti 2n.1 f.activity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);
ca av.and;
nivṛttim nivṛttim 2n.1 f.cessation, stopping (from: ni-vṛt – to stop, to turn back);
ca av.and;
janāḥ jana 1n.3 m.people, men (from: jan – to be born, to produce);
na av.not;
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3 – they got to know, they learned; used as present tense – they know, they understand;
āsurāḥ āsura 1n.3 m.demoniac, pertaining to the opponents of divinites (from: asura – opponent of the heavenly, demon);
na av.not;
śaucam śauca 1n.1 n.purity (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci – pure);
na av.not;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
ācāraḥ ācāra 1n.1 m. custom, good conduct (from: ā-car – to come near to);
na av.not;
satyam satya 1n.1 n.truth, truthfulness (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
teṣu tat sn. 7n.3 m.in them;
vidyate vid (to be, to exist) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is;

 

textual variants


na śaucaṁ nāpi na śaucaṁ vāpi (or no purity);
cācāro → vācāro (or good conduct);

The first pada of verse 16.7 is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 18.30;

 
 



Śāṃkara


ā adhyāya-parisamāpter āsurī saṃpat prāṇi-viśeṣaṇatvena pradarśyate, pratyakṣī-karaṇena ca śakyate tasyāḥ parivarjanaṃ kartum iti—
pravṛttiṃ ca pravartanaṃ yasmin puruṣārtha-sādhane kartavye pravṛttis tām, nivṛttiṃ ca etad-viparītāṃ yasmāt anartha-hetoḥ nivartitavyaṃ sā nivṛttis tāṃ ca, janā āsurā na vidur na jānanti | na kevalaṃ pravṛtti-nivṛttī eva te na viduḥ, na śaucaṃ nāpi cācāro na satyaṃ teṣu vidyate | aśaucā anācārā māyāvino’nṛta-vādino hy āsurāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca abhyudayasādhanaṃ mokṣasādhanaṃ ca vaidikaṃ dharmam āsurā na viduḥ na jānanti / śaucam vaidikakarmayogyatvaṃ śāstrasiddham; tad bāhyam āntaraṃ cāsureṣu na vidyate / nāpi cācāraḥ tad bāhyāntaraśaucaṃ yena sandhyāvandanādinā ācāreṇa jāyate, so ‚py ācāras teṣu na vidyate / yathoktam, „saṃdhyāhīno ‚śucir nityam anarhas sarvakarmasu” iti / tathā satyaṃ ca teṣu na vidyate yathājñātabhūtahitarūpabhāṣaṇaṃ teṣu na vidyate
 

Śrīdhara


āsurīṃ vistaraśo nirūpayati pravṛttiṃ cety ādi-dvādaśabhiḥ | dharme pravṛttim adharmān nivṛttiṃ cāsura-svabhāvā janā na jānanti | ataḥ śaucam ācāraḥ satyaṃ ca teṣu nāsty eva
 

Madhusūdana


varjanīyām āsurīṃ sampadaṃ prāṇi-viśeṣaṇatayā tān aham ity ataḥ prāktanair dvādaśabhiḥ ślokair vivṛṇoti pravṛttim iti | pravṛttiṃ pravṛtti-viṣayaṃ dharmaṃ ca-kārāt tat-pratipādakaṃ niṣedha-vākyaṃ cāsura-svabhāvā janā na jānanti | atas teṣu na śaucaṃ dvividhaṃ nāpy ācāro manv-ādibhir uktaḥ | na satyaṃ ca priya-hita-yathārtha-bhāṣaṇaṃ vidyate | śauca-satyayor ācārāntarbhāve ‚pi brāhmaṇa-parivrājaka-nyāyena pṛthag-upādānam | aśaucā anācārā anṛta-vādino hy āsurā māyāvinaḥ prasiddhāḥ
 

Viśvanātha


dharme pravṛttim adharmān nivṛttim
 

Baladeva


āsuraṃ sargam āha pravṛttiṃ ceti dvādaśabhiḥ | āsurā janā dharme pravṛttim adharmān nivṛttim ca na jānanti | ca-kārābhyāṃ tayoḥ pratipādake vidhi-niṣedha-vākye ca na jānanti | vedeṣv āsthābhāvād ity uktam | teṣu śaucaṃ bāhyābhyantaraṃ tat-pravṛtty-upayogi na vidyate | nāpy ācāro manvādibhir uktaḥ | na ca satyaṃ prāṇihitānubandhi yathā-dṛṣṭārtha-viṣaya-vākyam iti gṛdhra-gomāyuvat teṣām upadeśādi
 
 


BhG 16.8

asatyam apratiṣṭhaṃ te jagad āhur anīśvaram
aparaspara-saṃbhūtaṃ kim anyat kāma-haitukam

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syntax


jagat (world) asatyam (unreal) apratiṣṭham (without foundation) anīśvaram (without a lord) aparaspara-sambhūtam (not generated one from the other),
kim anyat (what other?) kāma-haitukam iti (that has the cause in desire)
te [āsurāḥ] (these demoniac) āhuḥ (they spoke).

 

grammar

asatyam a-satya 1n.1 n.; BV: yasmin satyaṁ nāsti tatin which there is no truth, no reality (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
apratiṣṭham a-pratiṣṭha 1n.1 n.; BV: yasya pratiṣṭhā nāsti tatwhich has no founation, unstable (from: prati-sthā – to stand firmly, pratiṣṭhā – base, foundation, position);
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
jagat jagat 1n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
āhuḥ ah (to speak – inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū) [Perf.] P 1v.3they spoke, they declared;
anīśvaram an-īśvara 1n.1 n.; BV: yasyeśvaro nāsti tatwithout a lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
aparaspara-saṁbhūtam a-paras-para-saṁbhūta 1n.1 n.; [TP]: paras-parato asaṁbhūtam itinot generated one by one, one from another (from: para – another, strange, paras-para – mutual, one by one; sam-bhū – to come into being, [PP] saṁbhūta – produced, born);or DV / [TP]: aparaś ca paraś cety aparasparam, aparasparataḥ strī-puruṣa-mithunāt saṁbhūtam iti born from the union of higher and lower, [or] from the union of man and woman;
kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
anyat anya sn. 1n.1 n.other;
kāma-haitukam kāma-haituka 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya hetuḥ kāmo ‘sti tatwhose cause is desire (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; hetu – cause, motive, reason, haituka – that has the cause);

 

textual variants


te → ca (and);
kim anyat kāma-haitukam → akiṁcit kama-hetukam / kim anyat kāma-hetukam / akiṁcit kāmahaitukam (that has nothing else [but] desire as the cause / what other than desire is [its] cause? / that has nothing else [but] desire as the cause);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
asatyaṃ yathā vayam anṛta-prāyās tathedaṃ jagat sarvam asatyam | apratiṣṭhaṃ ca nāsya dharmādharmau pratiṣṭhāto’pratiṣṭhaṃ ceti | te āsurāḥ janāḥ jagad āhur anīśvaraṃ na ca dharmādharma-sa-vyapekṣako’sya śāsiteśvaro vidyata ity ato’nīśvaraṃ jagad āhuḥ | kiṃ ca, aparaspara-saṃbhūtaṃ kāma-prayuktayoḥ strī-puruṣayor anyonya-saṃyogāj jagat sarvaṃ saṃbhūtam | kim anyat kāma-haitukam | kāma-hetukam eva kāma-haitukam | kim anyaj jagataḥ kāraṇaṃ ? na kiṃcit adṛṣṭaṃ dharmādharmādi kāraṇāntaraṃ vidyate | jagataḥ kāma eva prāṇināṃ kāraṇam iti lokāyatika-dṛṣṭir iyam
 

Rāmānuja


kiṃ ca
asatyam jagad etat satyaśabdanirdiṣṭabrahmakāryatayā brahmātmakam iti nāhuḥ / apratiṣṭham tathā brahmaṇi pratiṣṭhitam iti na vadanti / brahmaṇānantena dhṛtā hi pṛthivī sarvān lokān bibharti / yathoktam, „teneyaṃ nāgavaryeṇa śirasā vidhṛtā mahī / bibharti mālāṃ lokānāṃ sad evāsuramānuṣām” iti / anīśvaram / satyasaṃkalpena pareṇa brahmaṇā sarveśvareṇa mayaitanniyamitam iti ca na vadanti / „ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate” iti hy uktam / vadanti caivam aparas parasaṃbhūtam; kim anyat / yoṣitpuruṣayoḥ parasparasaṃbandhena jātam idaṃ manuṣyapaśvādikam upalabhyate; anevaṃbhūtaṃ kim anyad upalabhyate ? kiṃcid api nopalabhyata ityarthaḥ / ataḥ sarvam idaṃ jagat kāmahetukam iti
 

Śrīdhara


nanu vedoktayor dharmādharmayoḥ pravṛttiṃ nivṛttiṃ ca kathaṃ na viduḥ | kuto vā dharmādharmayor anaṅgīkāre jagataḥ sukha-duḥkhādi-vyavasthā syāt | kathaṃ vā śaucācārādi-viṣayān īśvarājñān ativarteran | īśvarānaṅgīkāre ca kuto jagad-utpattiḥ syāt | ata āha asatyam iti | nāsti satyaṃ veda-purāṇādi-pramāṇaṃ yasmin tādṛśaṃ jagad āhuḥ | vedādīnāṃ prāmāṇyaṃ na manyanta ity arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ trayo vedasya kartāro bhaṇḍa-dhūrta-niśācarā ity ādi || ataeva nāsti dharmādharma-rūpā pratiṣṭhā vyavasthā-hetur yasya tat | svābhāvikaṃ jagad-vaicitryam āhur ity arthaḥ | ataeva nāsti īśvaraḥ kartā vyavasthāpakaś ca yasya tādṛśaṃ jagad āhuḥ | tarhi kuto ‚sya jagata utpattiṃ vadantīti | ata āha aparaspara-sambhūtam iti | aparaś cety aparasparam | aparasparato ‚nonyataḥ strī-puruṣayor mithunāt sambhūtaṃ jagat | kim anyat | kāraṇam asya nāsti anyat kiñcit | kintu kāma-haitukam eva | strī-puruṣayor ubhayoḥ kāma eva pravāha-rūpeṇa hetur asyety āhur ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


nanu dharmādharmayoḥ pravṛtti-nivṛtti-viṣayayoḥ pratipādakaṃ vedākhyaṃ pramāṇam asti nirdoṣaṃ bhagavad-ājñā-rūpaṃ sarva-loka-prasiddhaṃ tad-upajīvīni ca smṛti-purāṇetihāsādīni santi, tat kathaṃ pravṛtti-nivṛtti-tat-pramāṇādy ajñānam | jñāne vājñollaṅghināṃ śāsitari bhagavati sati kathaṃ tad-ananuṣṭhānena śaucācārādi-rahitatvaṃ duṣṭānāṃ śāsitur bhagavato ‚pi loka-veda-prasiddhatvād ata āha asatyam iti | satyam abādhita-tātparya-viṣayaṃ tattvāvedakaṃ vedākhyaṃ pramāṇaṃ tad-upajīvi purāṇādi ca nāsti yatra tad asatyaṃ veda-svarūpasya pratyakṣa-siddhatve ‚pi tat-prāmāṇyānabhyupagamād viśiṣṭābhāvaḥ | ata eva nāsti dharmādharma-rūpā pratiṣṭhitā vyavasthā-hetur yasya tad apratiṣṭham | tathā nāsti śubhāśubhayoḥ karmaṇoḥ phala-dāneśvaro niyantā yasya tad anīśvaraṃ ta āsurā jagad āhuḥ | balavat pāpa-pratibandhād vedasya prāmāṇyaṃ te na manyante | tataś ca tad bodhitayor dharmādharmayor īśvarasya cānaṅgīkārād yatheṣṭācaraṇena te puruṣārtha-bhraṣṭā ity arthaḥ |
śāstraika-samadhigamya-dharmādharma-sahāyena prakṛty-adhiṣṭhātrā parameśvareṇa rahitaṃ jagad iṣyate cet kāraṇābhāvāt kathaṃ tad utpattir ity āśaṅkyāha aparaspara-saṃbhūtaṃ kāma-prayuktayoḥ strī-puruṣayor anyonya-saṃyogāt saṃbhūtam jagat kāma-haitukaṃ kāma-hetukam eva kāma-haitukaṃ kāmātiriktaa-kāraṇa-śūnyam |
nanu dharmādy apy asti kāraṇam ? nety āha kim anyat, anyad adṛṣṭaṃ kāraṇaṃ kim asti ? nāsty evety arthaḥ | adṛṣṭāṅgīkāre ‚pi kvacid gatvā svabhāve paryavasānāt svābhāvikam eva jagad-vaicitryam astu dṛṣṭe sambhavaty adṛṣṭa-kalpanānavakāśāt | ataḥ kāma eva prāṇināṃ kāraṇaṃ nānyad adṛṣṭeśvarādīty āhur iti lokāyatika-dṛṣṭir iyam
 

Viśvanātha


asurāṇāṃ matam āha asatyaṃ mithyā-bhūtaṃ bhramopalabdham eva jagat te vadnait | apratiṣṭhaṃ pratiṣṭhāśrayas tad-rahitam | na hi kha-puṣpasya kiñcid adhiṣṭhānam astīti bhāvaḥ | anīśvaraṃ mithyābhūtatvād eva īśvara-kartṛkam etan na bhavati | svedajādīnām akasmād eva jātatvāt aparaspara-sambhūtam | anyat kiṃ vaktavyam | kāma-haitukam kāmo vādinām icchaiva hetur yasya tat | mithyābhūtatvād eva ye yathā kalpayituṃ śaknuvanti tathiavaitad iti |
kecit punar evaṃ vyācakṣate asatyaṃ nāsti satyaṃ veda-purāṇādikaṃ pramāṇaṃ yatra tat | tad uktaṃ trayo vedasya kartāro bhaṇḍa-dhūrta-niśācarā ity ādi | apratiṣṭhaṃ nāsti dharmādharma-rūpā pratiṣṭhā vyavasthā yatra tat | dharmādharmāv api bhramopalabdhāv iti bhāvaḥ | anīśvaram īśvaro ‚pi bhrameṇopalabhyata iti bhāvaḥ |
nanu strī-puṃsayoḥ paraspara-prayatna-viśeṣād jagad etad utpannaṃ dṛśyata ity api bhrama eva kulālasya ghaṭotpādane jñānam iva mātāpitros tādṛśa-bālotpādane kila nāsti jñānm iti bhāvaḥ | kim anyat kim anyat vaktavyam iti bhāvaḥ | tasmād idaṃ jagat kāma-hetukaṃ kāmena svecchayaiva hetukā hetu-kalpakā yatra tat | yukti-balena ye yat paramāṇu-māyeśvarādikaṃ jalpayituṃ śaknuvanti te tad eva tasya hetuṃ vadantīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


teṣāṃ siddhāntān darśayati tatraika-jīva-vādinām āha asatyam iti | idaṃ jagad asatyaṃ śukti-rajatādivad bhrānti-vijṛmbhitam | apratiṣṭhaṃ kha-puṣpavan nirāśrayam | nāsty eveśvaro janmādi-hetur yasya tat | so ‚pi tadvad bhrānti-racita eva | pāramārthike tasmin sthite tan nirmita-jagat tadvad dṛṣṭa-naṣṭa-prāyaṃ na syāt | tasmād asatyaṃ jagat ta eva manyante | ekaiva nirviśeṣo sarva-pramāṇāvedyā cid-bhramād eko jīvas tato ‚nyaj jaḍa-jīveśvarātmakaṃ tad-ajñānāt pratibhāṣate | ā-svarūpa-sākṣāt-kārād avisaṃvādi svāpnikam iva hasty-aśva-rathādikam ā-jāgarāt | sati ca svarūpa-sākṣātkāre tad-ajñāna-kalpitaṃ taj-jīvatvena saha nivarteta svāpnika-rathāśādīva suṣuptāv iti |
atha svabhāva-vādināṃ bauddhānām āha aparaspara-sambhūtam iti strī-puruṣa-sambhoga-janyaṃ jagan na bhavati ghaṭotpādane kulālasyeva bālotpādane pitrāder jñānābhāvāt saty apy asakṛt sambhoge santānān utpatteś ca svedajādīnām akasmād utpatteś ca | tasmāt svabhāvād evedaṃ bhavatīti |
atha lokāyatikānām āha kāma-hetukam iti | kim anyad vācym | strī-puruṣayoḥ kāma eva pravāhātmanā hetur asyeti svārthe ṭhañ | athavā jainānām āha kāmaḥ svecchayaiva hetur asyeti | yukti-balena yo yat kalpayituṃ śaknuyāt sa tad eva tasya hetuṃ vadatīty arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 16.9

etāṃ dṛṣṭim avaṣṭabhya naṣṭātmāno lpa-buddhayaḥ
prabhavanty ugra-karmāṇaḥ kṣayāya jagato hitāḥ

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alpa-buddhayaḥ (those with little intelligence) etāṁ dṛṣṭim (such view) avaṣṭabhya (after holding),
naṣṭātmānaḥ (who destroyed themselves) ugra-karmāṇaḥ (whose acts are terrible) ahitāḥ (enemies) jagataḥ kṣayāya (for the destruction of the world) prabhavanti (they are born).

 

grammar

etām etat sn. 2n.1 f.this;
dṛṣṭim dṛṣṭi 2n.1 f.seeing, view, notion (from: dṛś – to see [PP] dṛṣṭa – seen);
avaṣṭabhya ava-stambh (to support, to hold) absol.after holding;
naṣṭātmānaḥ naṣṭa-ātman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā naṣṭo ‘sti tehwose self is destroyed; who destroyed themselves (from: naś – to disappear, to be lost, to perish, [PP] naṣṭa destroyed; ātman – self);
alpa-buddhayaḥ alpa-buddhi 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ buddhir alpāsti tewhose intelligence is small (from: alpa – small, minute, trifling; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
prabhavanti pra-bhū (to spring up from, to produce) Praes. P 1v.3they are born;
ugra-karmāṇaḥ ugra-karman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ karmāṇy ugrāṇi santi tewhose activities are terrible (from: rūp – to form, ugra powerful, terrible, cruel; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
kṣayāya kṣaya (kṣi – to decrease) PF 4n.1 m.for destruction; meant to be destroyed;
jagataḥ jagat 6n.1 n.of the world, of the mankind (from: gam – to go);
ahitāḥ a-hita 1n.1 m.who are unbeneficial, enemies (from: dhā – to put, [PP] hita – placed, fixed, stablished, beneficial, suitable, favourable);

 

textual variants


dṛṣṭim → budhim (intelligence);
prabhavanti → pravartaṁti / pravartate (they act, they are generated);
‘hitāḥ‘śubhāḥ (inauspicious);
 
 



Śāṃkara


etāṃ dṛṣṭim avaṣṭabhya āśritya naṣṭatmāno naṣṭa-svabhāvā vibhraṣṭa-para-loka-sādhanā alpa-buddhayo viṣaya-viṣayālpaiva buddhir yeṣāṃ te’lpa-buddhayaḥ prabhavanti udbhavanti ugra-karmāṇaḥ krūra-karmāṇo hiṃsātmakāḥ | kṣayāya jagataḥ prabhavantīti saṃbandhaḥ || jagato’hitāḥ śatravaḥ ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


etāṃ dṛṣṭim avaṣṭabhya avalambya, naṣṭātmānaḥ adṛṣṭadehātiriktātmānaḥ, alpabuddhayaḥ ghaṭādivaj jñeyabhūte dehe jñātṛtvena dehavyatirikta ātmopalabhyata iti vivekākuśalāḥ, ugrakarmāṇaḥ sarveṣāṃ hiṃsakā jagataḥ kṣayāya prabhavanti
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca etām iti | etāṃ lokāyatikānāṃ dṛṣṭiṃ darśanam āśritya naṣṭātmano malīmasa-cittāḥ santo ‚lpa-buddhayo duṣṭārtha-mātra-matayaḥ | ateva ugraṃ hiṃsraṃ karma yeṣāṃ te ahitā vairiṇo bhūtvā jagataḥ kṣayāya prabhavanti udbhavantīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


iyaṃ dṛṣṭiḥ śāstrīya-dṛṣṭivad iṣṭaivety āśaṅkyāha etām iti | etāṃ prāg-uktāṃ lokāyatika-dṛṣṭim avaṣṭabhyālambya naṣṭatmāno bhraṣṭa-para-loka-sādhanā alpa-buddhayo dṛṣṭa-mātroddeśa-pravṛtta-mataya ugra-karmāṇo hiṃsā ahitāḥ śatravo jagataḥ prāṇi-jātasya kṣayāya vyāghra-sarpādi-rūpeṇa prabhavanti utpadyante | tasmād iyaṃ dṛṣṭir atyantādho-gati-hetutayā sarvātmanā śreyo ‚rthibhir avaheyaivety arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ vādino ‚surāḥ kecin naṣṭātmānaḥ kecid alpajñānāḥ kecid ugra-karmāṇaḥ svacchandācārā mahā-nārakino bhavantīty āha | etām ity ekādaśabhiḥ | avaṣṭabhya ālambya
 

Baladeva


sva-sva-mata-nirṇāyakāni darśanāni ca taiḥ kṛtāni yāny āsthāya jagad-vinaśyatīty āha etām iti jātyaika-vacanam | etāni darśanāny avaṣṭabhyālambyālpa-buddhayo naṣṭātmāno ‚dṛṣṭa-dehādi-viviktātma-tattvā ugra-karmāṇo hiṃsā-paiśunya-pāruṣyādi-karma-niṣṭhā jagato ‚hitāḥ śatravaś ca santasya kṣayāya prabhavanti parmārthāj jagad-bhraṃśayantīty arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 16.10

kāmam āśritya duṣpūraṃ dambha-māna-madānvitāḥ
mohād gṛhītvāsad-grāhān pravartante śuci-vratāḥ

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duṣpūram kāmam (of a desire difficult to fulfil) āśritya (after taking shelter),
dambha-māna-madānvitāḥ (who are endowed with deceit, madness and pride) mohāt (out of bewilderment) asad-grāhān (untrue views) gṛhītvā (after taking),
aśuci-vratāḥ (those of impure vows) pravartante (they act).

 

grammar

kāmam kāma 2n.1 m.wish, desire, pleasure (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for);
āśritya ā-śri (to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) absol.after taking shelter – of whom? – requires accusative);
duṣpūram duṣ-pūra 2n.1 m.difficult to fill, insatiable (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūra – filling, satisfying);
dambha-māna-madānvitāḥ dambha-māna-mada-anvita 1n.3 m.; DV / [TP]: dambhena ca mānena ca madena cānvitāḥwho are endowed with deceit, madness and pride (from: dabh – to deceive, to destroy, dambha – deceit, feigning, hypocrisy; man – to think, māna – respect, honour, pride; mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude, mada – excitement, madness, arrogance; anu-i – to go along, [PP] anv-ita – endowed: with what? – requires instrumental);
mohāt moha 5n.1 m.out of bewilderment (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
gṛhītvā grah (to take) absol.after taking;
asad-grāhān asad-grāha 2n.3 m.; KD: asataḥ grāhān iti untrue views (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, a-sant – untrue, non-existing; grah – to take, grāha – seizing, understanding, view, conception);
pravartante pra-vṛt (to start to act, to surpass) Praes. Ā 1v.3they start to act, they act;
aśuci-vratāḥ aśuci-vrata 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ vratāny aśucīni santi tewhose vows are impure (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci pure; vṛ – to choose, to like or vṛ – to cover, to restrain, vrata – austerity, a vow);

 

textual variants


dambha-māna-madānvitāḥ → daṁbha-māna-madānvitaḥ / daṁbha-lobha-madānvitāḥ (possessed of deceit, madness and pride / joined to deceit, madness and pride);
mohād gṛhītvāsad-grāhān → asad-grahāśritāḥ (who took shelter in untrue views);
pravartante ‘śuci-vratāḥ → prabhavaṁtaḥ śuci-vratāḥ / pracaraṁty aśuci-vratāḥ (they become ones with clean vows / whose vows are unclean they act);
 
 



Śāṃkara


te ca—
kāmam icchā-viśeṣam āśritya avaṣṭabhya duṣpūram aśakya-pūraṇaṃ dambha-māna-madānvitā dambhaś ca mānaś ca madaś ca dambha-māna-madās tair anvitāḥ dambha-māna-madānvitā mohād avivekato gṛhītvā upādāya asad-grāhān aśubha-niścayān pravartante loke aśuci-vratāḥ aśucīni vratāni yeṣāṃ te’śuci-vratāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


duṣpūram duṣprāpaviṣayaṃ kāmam āśritya tatsisādhayiṣayā mohād ajñānāt, asadgrāhān anyāyagṛhītaparigrahān gṛhītvā, aśucivratāḥ aśāstravihitavratayuktāḥ dambhamānamadānvitāḥ pravartante
 

Śrīdhara


api ca kāmam āśrityeti | duṣpūraṃ purayitum aśakyaṃ kāmam āśritya dambhādibhir yuktāḥ santaḥ kṣudra-devatārādhanādau pravartante | katham | asad-grāhān gṛhītvā anena mantreṇaitāṃ devatām ārādhya mahā-nidhīn sādhayiṣyāma ity ādīn durāgrahān moha-mātreṇa svīkṛtya pravartante | aśuci-vratāḥ aśucīni madya-māṃsādi-viṣayīṇi vratāni yeṣāṃ te
 

Madhusūdana


te ca yadā kenacit karmaṇā manuṣya-yonim āpadyante, tadā kāmaṃ tat tad dṛṣṭa-viṣayābhilāṣaṃ duṣpūraṃ pūrayitum aśakyaṃ dambhenādhārmikatve ‚pi dhārmikatva-khyāpanena mānenāpūjyatve ‚pi pūjyatva-khyāpanena madenotkarṣa-rahitatve ‚py utkarṣa-viśeṣādhyāropeṇa mahad-avadhīraṇā-hetunānvitā asad-grāhān aśubha-niścayān anena mantreṇemāṃ devatām ārādhya kāminīnām ākarṣaṇaṃ kariṣyāmaḥ, anena mantreṇemāṃ devatām ārādhya mahānidhīn sādhayiṣyāma ity ādi-durāgraha-rūpān mohād avivekād gṛhītvā na tu śāstrāt, aśuci-vratāḥ pravartante yatra kutrāpy avaidike dṛṣṭa-phale kṣudra-devatārādhanādāv iti śeṣaḥ | etādṛśāḥ patanti narake ‚śucāv ity agrimeṇānvayaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


asad-grāhān pravartante kumate eva pravṛttā bhavanti | aśucīni śaucācāra-varjitāni vratāni yeṣāṃ te
 

Baladeva


atha teṣāṃ durvṛttatāṃ durācāratāṃ cāha kāmam iti | duṣpūraṃ kāmaṃ viṣaya-tṛṣṇām āśritya mohān na tu śāstrād asad-grāhān gṛhītvāśuci-vratāḥ santaḥ pravartante | asad-grāhān duṣṭa-nakravad ātma-vināśakān kalpita-devatā-tan-mantra-tad-ārādhana-nimittaka-kāminī-pārthiva-nidhy-ākarṣaṇa-rūpān durāgrahān ity arthaḥ | aśucīni śmaśāna-niṣevaṇa-madya-māṃsa-viṣayāṇi vratāni yeṣāṃ te | dambhenādhariṣṭhatve ‚pi dharmiṣṭhatva-khyāpanena mānenāpūjyatve ‚pi pūjyatvaṃ khyāpanena madenaānutkṛṣṭatve ‚py utkṛṣṭatvāropaṇena cānvitāḥ
 
 


BhG 16.11-12

cintām aparimeyāṃ ca pralayāntām upāśritāḥ
kāmopabhoga-paramā etāvad iti niścitāḥ
āśā-pāśa-śatair baddhāḥ kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ
īhante kāma-bhogārtham anyāyenārtha-saṃcayān

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pralayāntām (whose end is destruction) aparimeyām ca (and immeasurable) cintām (in a thought) upāśritāḥ (who took refuge),
kāmopabhoga-paramāḥ (for whom enjoying pleasures is the supreme) etāvat iti (so much) niścitāḥ (they are convinced)
āśā-pāśa-śataiḥ (by hundreds of ropes of hopes) baddhāḥ (bound) kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ (dedicated to desire and anger) kāma-bhogārtham (for the sake of enjoying the pleasures) anyāyena (not in the right manner) artha-saṁcayān (heaps of wealth) īhante (they endeavour to obtain).

 

grammar

cintām cintā 2n.1 f.thought, anxiety (from: cint – to think, to consider);
aparimeyām a-pari-meya (a-pari- – to measure) PF 2n.1 f.not to be measured, immeasurable;
ca av.and;
pralayāntām pralaya-antā 2n.1 f.; yasyā antaḥ prayayo ‘sti tāmwhose end is destruction (from: pra- – to dissolve, to vanish, pralaya – annihilation, dissolution, end, death; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
upāśritāḥ upāśrita (upa-ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.3 m.who took refuge, who approached – whom? – requires accusative);
kāmopabhoga-paramāḥ kāma-upabhoga-parama 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ kāmānām upabhogaḥ paramo ‘sti tefor whom enjoying pleasures is the supreme (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, upa-bhoga – enjoyment, food, wealth; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest);
etāvat av.so far, so much, in such a degree (from: etāvat – so great);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
niścitāḥ niścita (nir-ci – to ascertain, to resolve) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are convinced;

*****

āśā-pāśa-śataiḥ āśā-pāśa-śata 3n.3 n.; BV: āśāyāḥ pāśānām śataiḥby hundreds of ropes of hopes (from: – to reach, to eat, to enjoy, āśa – gain, food, āśā – hope, desire; paś – to bind, pāśa – snare, trap, bond, noose, cord, śata – hundred);
baddhāḥ baddha (bandh – to bind, to fetter) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are bound;
kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ kāma-krodha-parāyaṇa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ kāmaś ca krodhaś ca parāyaṇam asti tefor whom desire and anger are the highest goal (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; krudh – to be angry, krodha – anger, wrath; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; ayana – a path; parāyaṇa – supreme path, the final goal; in compounds: fully dedicated to);
īhante īh (to endeavour to abtain, to long for) Praes. Ā 1v.3they endeavour to obtain, they desire;
kāma-bhogārtham av. – kāmānāṁ bhogasyārtham for the sake of enjoying the pleasures (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoga – enjoyment, food, wealth; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use, suffix: for the sake of, on account of);
anyāyena a-nyāya 3n.1 m.not in the right manner (from: – to lead, nyāya – rule, manner, system);
artha-saṁcayān artha-saṁcaya 2n.3 m.; [TP]: arthāṇāṁ saṁcayān itiheaps of wealth (from: arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use; sam-ci – to heap up, to pile up, to accumulate, saṁcaya – collection, heap, hoard);

 

textual variants


aparimeyāṁ → aparimeye / aparimīyāṁ / aparameyāṁ (in immeasurable);
ca → tāṁ (this);
upāśritāḥ → apāśritāḥ (who took shelter);
īhante → rohaṁte / īhate (they mount upon / he endeavours to obtain);
kāma-bhogārtham kāma-bhogārthān / kāma-lobhārtham (objects of enjoying and pleasures / for the sake of gaining pleasure);
artha-saṁcayān → artha-saṁcayaṁ / artha-saṁjayān (heap of wealth / gaining wealth);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
cintām aparimeyāṃ ca, na parimātuṃ śakyate yasyāś cintāyā iyattā sāparimeyā, tām aparimeyām, pralayāntāṃ maraṇāntām upāśritāḥ, sadā cintā-parā ity arthaḥ | kāmopabhoga-paramāḥ, kāmyante iti kāmā viṣayāḥ śabdādayas tad-upabhoga-paramā ayam eva paramaḥ puruṣārtho yaḥ kāmopabhoga ity evaṃ niścitātmānaḥ | etāvat iti niścitāḥ|

āśā-pāśa-śatair āśaiva pāśās tac-chatair baddhāḥ niyantritāḥ santaḥ sarvata ākṛṣyamāṇāḥ, kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ kāma-krodhau param ayanam āśrayo yeṣāṃ te kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ | īhante ceṣṭante kāma-bhogārthaṃ kāma-bhoga-prayojanāya na dharmārtham | anyāyena para-svāpaharaṇādinety arthaḥ | kiṃ ? artha-saṃcayān artha-pracayān

 

Rāmānuja


adya śvo vā mumūrṣavaḥ cintām aparimeyām aparicchedyāṃ pralayāntāṃ prākṛtapralayāvadhikālasādhyaviṣayām upāśritāḥ, tathā kāmopabhogaparamāḥ kāmopabhoga eva paramapuruṣārtha iti manvānāḥ, etāvad iti niścitāḥ ito ‚dhikaḥ puruṣārtho na vidyata iti saṃjātaniścayāḥ /

āśāpāśaśataiḥ āśākhyapāśaśatair baddhāḥ, kāmakrodhaparāyaṇāḥ kāmakrodhaikaniṣṭhāḥ, kāmabhogārtham anyāyenārthasaṃcayān prati īhante

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca cintām iti | pralayo maraṇam evānto yasyāstām aparimeyāṃ parimātum aśakyāṃ cintām āśritāḥ | nityaṃ cintāparā ity arthaḥ | kāmopabhoga eva paramo yeṣāṃ te | etāvad iti kāmopabhoga eva paramaḥ puruṣārtho nānyad astīti kṛta-niścayāḥ | artha-sañcayān īhantu ity uttareṇānvayaḥ | tathā ca bārhaspatyaṃ sūtraṃ – kāma evaikaḥ puruṣārtha iti | caitanya-viśiṣṭaḥ kāmaḥ puruṣa iti ca

ataeva āśeti | āśā eva pāśāḥ | teṣāṃ śatair baddhā itas tata ākṛṣyamāṇāḥ | kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ kāma-krodhau param-ayanāśrayo yeṣāṃ te | kāma-bhogārtham anyāyena cauryādinārthānāṃ sañcayān rāśīn īhanta icchanti

 

Madhusūdana


tān eva punar viśinaṣṭi cintām iti | cintām ātmīya-yoga-kṣemopāyālocanātmikām aparimeyām aparimeya-viṣayatv}at parm}atum aśakyāṃ pralayo maraṇam evānto yasyās tāṃ pralayāntāṃ yāvaj-jīvam anuvartamānām iti yāvat | na kevalam aśuci-vratāḥ pravartante kiṃ tv etādṛśīṃ cintāṃ copāśritā iti samuccayārthaś ca-kāraḥ |
sadānanta-cintā-parā api na kadācit pāralaukika-cintāyutāḥ kiṃ tu kāmopabhoga-paramāḥ kāmyanta iti kāmā dṛṣṭāḥ śabdādayo viṣayās tad-upabhoga eva paramaḥ puruṣārtho na dharmādir yeṣāṃ te tathā | pāralaukikam uttamaṃ sukhaṃ kuto na kāmayante tatrāha etāvad dṛṣṭam eva sukhaṃ nānyad etac charīra-viyoge bhogyaṃ sukham asti etat kāyātiriktasya bhoktur abhāvād iti niścitā evaṃ-niścayavantaḥ | tathā ca bārhaspatyaṃ sūtraṃ caitanya-viśiṣṭaḥ kāyaḥ puruṣaḥ, kāma evaikaḥ puruṣārthaḥ iti ca

ta īdṛśā asurāḥ aśakyopāyārtha-viṣayā anavagatopāyārtha-viṣayā vā prārthanā āśāstā eva pāśā iva bandhana-hetutvāt pāśās teṣāṃ śataiḥ samūhair baddhā iva śreyasaḥ pacyāvyetas tata ākṛṣya nīyamānāḥ kāma-krodhau param ayanam āśrayo yesāṃ te kāma-krodha-parāyaṇāḥ strī-vyatikarābhilāṣa-parāniṣṭābhilāṣābhyāṃ sadā parigṛhītā iti yāvat | īhante kartuṃ ceṣṭante kāma-bhogārthaṃ na tu dharmārtham anyāyena parasva-haraṇādinārtha-saṃcayān dhana-rāśīn | saṃcayān iti bahu-vacanena dhana-prāptāv api tat-tṛṣṇānuvṛtter viṣaya-prāpti-vardhamāna-tṛṣṇatva-rūpo lobho darśitaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 16.15
 

Baladeva


aparimeyām aparā pralayāntāṃ ca maraṇa-kālāvadhi-sādhya-vastu-viṣayāṃ cintām upāśritaḥ kāmopabhogaḥ samyag-viṣaya-sevaiva paramaḥ pumartho yeṣāṃ te | etāvad eva kāmopabhoga-mātram evaihikam | na tvato ‚nyat pāralaukikaṃ sukham astīti kṛta-niścayāḥ

āśeti spaṣṭam | īhante kartuṃ ceṣṭante anyāyena kūṭa-sākṣyeṇa cauryeṇa ca

 
 


BhG 16.13

idam adya mayā labdham idaṃ prāpsye mano-ratham
idam astīdam api me bhaviṣyati punar dhanam

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syntax


adya (today) mayā (by me) idam labdham (it obtained) [asti] (it is),
[aham] (I) idam manoratham (this desire) prāpsye (I will obtain),
idam (this) asti (it is),
punaḥ (again) me (my) idam api dhanam (also this wealth) bhaviṣyati (it will be).

 

grammar

idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
a-dya av.today, now (from: div – to shine, dyu – day, heaven);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
labdham labdha (labh – to obtain) [PP] 1n.1 n.obtained, acquired;
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
prāpsye pra-āp (to obtain) Fut. Ā 3v.1I will obtain;
mano-ratham mano-ratha 2n.1 n.; BV: yasya ratho manaḥ asti tatwhose chariot is the mind; desire, imagination, illusion (from: man – to think, manas – the mind; ratha – chariot);
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it is;
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
bhaviṣyati bhū (to be) Fut. P 1v.1it will be;
punaḥ av.back, again;
dhanam dhana 2n.1 n.booty, prey, riches;

 

textual variants


idaṁ → imaṁ (this);
mano-rathaṁ → mano-gataṁ (being in the mind);
 
 



Śāṃkara


īdṛśaś ca teṣām abhiprāyaḥ—
idaṃ dravyam adya idānīṃ mayā labdham | idaṃ cānyat prāpsye manorathaṃ manas-tuṣṭi-karam | idaṃ cāstīdam api me bhaviṣyati āgāmini saṃvatsare punar dhanaṃ tenāhaṃ dhanī vikhyāto bhaviṣyāmīti
 

Rāmānuja


idam kṣetraputrādikaṃ sarvaṃ mayā matsāmarthyenaiva labdham, nādṛṣṭādinā; imaṃ ca manoratham aham eva prāpsye, nādṛṣṭādisahitaḥ / idaṃ dhanaṃ matsāmarthyena labdhaṃ me asti, idam api punar me matsāmarthyenaiva bhaviṣyati
 

Śrīdhara


teṣāṃ manorathaṃ kathayan naraka-prāptim āha idam adya mayeti caturbhiḥ | prāpsye prāpsyāmi | manorathaṃ manasaḥ priyam | spaṣṭam anyat | eteṣāṃ ca trayāṇāṃ ślokānām ity ajñāna-vimohitāḥ santo narake patantīti caturthenānvayaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


teṣām īdṛśīṃ dhana-tṛṣṇānuvṛttiṃ manorājya-kathanena vivṛṇoti idam iti | idaṃ dhanam adyedānīṃ anenopāyena mayā labdham | idaṃ tad anya-manorathaṃ manas-tuṣṭi-karaṃ śīghram eva prāpsye | idaṃ puraiva saṃcitaṃ mama gṛhe ‚sti | idam api bahutaraṃ bhaviṣyaty āgāmini saṃvatsare punar dhanam | evaṃ dhana-tṛṣṇākulāḥ patanti narake ‚śucāv ity agrimeṇānvayaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 16.15
 

Baladeva


teṣāṃ dhanāśānuvṛttiṃ manorājyoktyā vivṛṇvan naraka-nipātam āha idam iti caturbhiḥ | idaṃ kṣetraṃ paśu-putrādi mayaivādya sva-dhī-balena labdham | imaṃ manorathaṃ manaḥ-priyam artham aham eva sva-balena prāpsyāmi, svabalenaiva labdham idaṃ dhanaṃ mama sampraty asti | idam iṣyamāṇaṃ dhanam āgāmi-varṣe mad-balenaiva me bhaviṣyati | na tv adṛṣṭa-balena īśvara-prasādena vety arthaḥ | evaṃ dhana-tṛṣṇāṃ prapañcya duṣṭaṃ bhāvaṃ prapañcayati asāv iti | yajña-dattākhyo ‚sau śatrur mayātibalinā hataḥ | aparān api śatrūn aham eva haniṣyāmi | teṣāṃ dāra-dhanādi ca neṣyāmīti ca-śabdāt matto na ko ‚pi jīved iti bhāvaḥ | nanv īśvarecchām adṛṣṭaṃ ca kecij jaya-hetum āhus tatrāhaaham eveśvaraḥ svatantro yad ahaṃ bhogī svato nikhila-bhoga-sampannaḥ siddho ‚smīti | yadi kaścid īśvaraṃ kalpayati | tarhi sa mām eveśvaraṃ kalpayatu na tu matto ‚nyam anupalabdher iti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 16.14

asau mayā hataḥ śatrur haniṣye cāparān api
īśvaro ham ahaṃ bhogī siddho haṃ balavān sukhī

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syntax


mayā (by me) asau śatruḥ (that enemy) hataḥ [asti] (he is killed),
[aham] (I) aparān [śatrūn] api (also ohter enemies) haniṣye (I will kill).
aham (I) īśvaraḥ [asmi] (I am the lord),
aham (I) bhogī [asmi] (I am the enjoyer),
aham (I) siddhaḥ (perfect) balavān (powerful) sukhī ca (and happy) [asmi] (I am).
 

grammar

asau adas sn. 1n.1 m.that (pronoun indicating sth far, not seen with the eyes);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
hataḥ hata (han – to kill) [PP] 1n.1 m.killed;
śatruḥ śatru 1n.1 m.enemy, rival (from: śad – to fall, to disperse, to kill);
haniṣye han (to kill) Fut. Ā 3v.1I will kill;
ca av.and;
aparān apara 2n.3 m.other, later ones;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
īśvaraḥ īśvara 1n.1 m.ruler, lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
bhogī bhogin 1n.1 m.who enjoys luxuries, food, wealth (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoga – enjoyment, food, luxuries, wealth; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
siddhaḥ siddha (sidh – to succeed, to become perfect) [PP] 1n.1 m.who succeeded; perfect one;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
balavān balavant 1n.1 m.powerful, mighty (from: bala – strength, force; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
sukhī sukhin 1n.1 m. who is happy (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);

 

textual variants


bhogī → yogī / bhāgī (a yogī / happy, who has a share);
balavān → balavat (very [happy]);
 
 



Śāṃkara


asau devadattanāmā mayā hato durjayaḥ śatruḥ | haniṣye cāparān anyān varākān api | kim ete kariṣyanti tapasvinaḥ | sarvathāpi nāsti mattulyaḥ | kathaṃ ? īśvaro’ham, ahaṃ bhogī | sarva-prakāreṇaś ca siddho’haṃ saṃpannaḥ putraiḥ naptṛbhiḥ, na kevalaṃ mānuṣaḥ, balavān sukhī cāham eva | anye tu bhūmibhārāyāvitīrṇāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


asau mayā balavatā hataḥ śatruḥ / aparān api śatrūn ahaṃ śūro dhīraś ca haniṣye / kim atra mandadhībhir durbalaiḥ parikalpitenādṛṣṭaparikareṇa //
tathā ca
īśvaro ‚ham svādhīno ‚ham; anyeṣāṃ cāham eva niyantā / ahaṃ bhogī svata evāhaṃ bhogī; nādṛṣṭādibhiḥ / siddho ‚ham svatassiddho ‚ham; na kasmāccid adṛṣṭādeḥ / tathā svata eva balavān; svata eva sukhī
 

Śrīdhara


asāv iti | siddhaḥ kṛta-kṛtyaḥ | spaṣṭam anyat
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ lobhaṃ prapañcya tad-abhiprāya-kathanenaiva teṣāṃ krodhaṃ prapañcayati asāv iti | asau devadatta-nāmā mayā hataḥ śatrur atidurjayaḥ | ata idānīm anāyāsena haniṣye ca haniṣyāmi aparān sarvān api śatrūn | na ko ‚pi mat-sakāśāj jīviṣyatīty aper arthaḥ | ca-kārān na kevalaṃ haniṣyāmi tān kiṃ tu teṣāṃ dāra-dhanādikam api grahīṣyāmīty abhiprāyaḥ | kutas tavaitādṛśaṃ sāmarthyaṃ tvat-tulyānāṃ tvad-adhikānāṃ vā śatrūṇāṃ sambhavād ity ata āha – īśvaro ‚haṃ na kevalaṃ mānuṣo yena mat-tulyo ‚dhiko vā kaścit syāt | kim ete kariṣyanti varākāḥ sarvathā nāsti mat-tulyaḥ kaścid ity anenābhiprāyeṇśvaratvaṃ vivṛṇoti | yasmād ahaṃ bhogī sarvair bhogopakaraṇair upetaḥ siddho ‚haṃ putra-bhṛtyādibhiḥ sahāyaiḥ saṃpannaḥ svato ‚pi balavān atyojasvī sukhī sarvathā nīrogaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 16.15
 

Baladeva


commentary under the verse BhG 16.16
 
 


BhG 16.15

āḍhyo bhijanavān asmi ko nyo sti sadṛśo mayā
yakṣye dāsyāmi modiṣya ity ajñāna-vimohitāḥ

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syntax


[aham] (I) āḍhyaḥ (wealthy) abhijana-vān [ca] (and o fnoble descent) asmi (I am).
mayā (to me) kaḥ sadṛśaḥ anyaḥ (who other similar?) asti (he is).
[aham] (I) yakṣye (I will sacrifice),
[aham] (I) dāsyāmi (I will give [gifts]),
[aham] (I) modiṣye iti (I will rejoice),
[evam] (thus) [te] ajñāna-vimohitāḥ (they deluded by ignorance) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

āḍhyaḥ āḍhya 1n.1 m.opulent, wealthy (from: ṛdh – to grow, to prosper);
abhijanavān abhi-janavant 1n.1 m.who is of noble descent (from: -abhi – prefix: from all sides; jan – to be born, to produce, jana – man, people, creature; abhi-jana – family, race, noble descent; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
kaḥ kim sn. 1n.1 m.who;
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1he is;
sadṛśaḥ sadṛśa 1n.1 m.similar, resembling (do kogo: requires instrumental);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1to me;
yakṣye yaj (to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) Fut. Ā 3v.1I sacrifice, I offer into fire;
dāsyāmi (to give) Fut. P 3v.1I will give;
modiṣye mud (to rejoice) Fut. Ā 3v.1I will rejoice;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ajñāna-vimohitāḥ ajñāna-vimohita 1n.3 m.; [TP]: ajñānena vimohitā iti who are deluded by ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand, a-jñāna – ignorance; vi-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] caus. vi-mohita – bewildered, deluded);

 

textual variants


āḍhyo ‘bhijanavānadyābhijanavān / āḍhyo ‘pi janavān (today one of noble descent / wealthy and with people);
sadṛśo mayāsadṛśo ‘pi vā (or even similar);
modiṣya ity ajñāna-vimohimadiṣye ‘ty-ajñāna-vimohi (I will rejoice, excessively bewildered by ignorance);
ity ajñāna-vimohi → iti jñāna-vimohi (thus bewildered by knowledge);
 
 



Śāṃkara


āḍhyaḥ dhanena, abhijanavān saptapuruṣaṃ śrotriyatvādisaṃpannaḥ—tenāpi na mama tulyo’sti kaścit | ko’nyo’sti sadṛśas tulyaḥ mayā ? kiṃ ca, yakṣye yāgenāpy anyān abhibhaviṣyāmi, dāsyāmi naṭādibhyaḥ, modiṣye harṣaṃ cātiśayaṃ prāpsyāmi, iti evam ajñānavimohitāḥ ajñānena vimohitāḥ vividham avivekabhāvam āpannāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


ahaṃ svataś cāḍhyo ‚smi; abhijanavān asmi svata evottamakule prasūto ‚smi; asmin loke mayā sadṛśaḥ ko ‚nyaḥ svasāmarthyalabdhasarvavibhavo vidyate? ahaṃ svayam eva yakṣye dāsyāmi, modiṣye ityajñānavimohitāḥ īśvarānugrahanirapekṣeṇa svenaiva yāgadānādikaṃ kartuṃ śakyam ityajñānavimohitā manyante
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca āḍhya iti | āḍhyo dhanādi-sampannaḥ | abhijanavān kulīnaḥ | yakṣye yāgādy-anuṣṭhānenāpi dīkṣitāntarebhyaḥ sakāśān mahatīṃ pratiṣṭhāṃ prāpsyāmi | dāsyāmis tāvakebhyaḥ | modiṣye harṣaṃ prāpsyāmi ity evam ajñānena vimohitā mithyābhiniveśaṃ prāpitāḥ
 

Madhusūdana


nanu dhanena kulena vā kaścit tat-tulyaḥ syād ity ata āha āḍhya iti | āḍhyo dhanī, abhijanavān kulīno ‚py aham evāsmi | ataḥ ko ‚nyo ‚sti sadṛśo mayā na ko ‚pīty arthaḥ | yogena dānena vā kaścit tat-tulyaḥ syād ity ata āha — yakṣye yāgenāpy anyān abhibhaviṣyāmi, dāsyāmi dhanaṃ stāvakebhyo naṭādibhyaś ca | tataś ca modiṣye harṣaṃ lapsye nartakyādibhiḥ sahety evam ajñānenāvivekena vimohitā vividhaṃ mohaṃ bhrama-paramparāṃ prāpitāḥ
 

Viśvanātha


pralayāntāṃ pralayo maraṇaṃ tat-paryantām | etāvad iti indriyāṇi viṣaya-sukhe majjantu nāma kā cintā ity etāvad eva śāstrārtha-tātparyam iti niścitaṃ yeṣāṃ te
 

Baladeva


commentary under the verse BhG 16.16
 
 


BhG 16.16

aneka-citta-vibhrāntā moha-jāla-samāvṛtāḥ
prasaktāḥ
kāma-bhogeṣu patanti narake ‘śucau

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aneka-citta-vibhrāntāḥ (who are confused by many thoughts) moha-jāla-samāvṛtāḥ (covered by the net of delusion) kāma-bhogeṣu (to enjoying the pleasures) prasaktāḥ (who are atached) aśucau narake (in impure hell) patanti (they fall).

 

grammar

aneka-citta-vibhrāntāḥ aneka-citta-vibhrānta 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām anekeṣu [manoratheṣu pravṛttena] cittena vibhrānto ‘sti tewho are confused by the mind [following] many [desires] (from: an-eka – not one, many; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness; vi-bhram – to roam, to be confused, vibhrānta – wandering, confusion, insanity);
moha-jāla-samāvṛtāḥ moha-jāla-samāvṛta 1n.3 m.; [TP]: mohasya jālena samāvṛtā iticovered by the net of delusion (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, moha – perplexity, loss of consciousness, bewilderment, error; jāla – net, web; samā-vṛ – to cover [PP] sam-ā-vṛta – covered);
prasaktāḥ prasakta (pra-sañj – to attach, to stick) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are attached;
kāma-bhogeṣu kāma-bhoga 7n.3 m.; [TP]: kāmānāṁ bhogeṣv iti in enjoying the pleasures (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoga – enjoyment, food, luxuries);
patanti pat (to fall) Praes. P 1v.3they fall;
narake naraka 7n.1 m.in hell;
aśucau aśuci 7n.1 m.in impure (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci pure);

 

textual variants


aneka-citta-vibhrāntā aneka-cittā vibhrāntā (who have many thoughts, confused);
moha-jāla-samāvṛtāḥmohasyaiva vaśaṁ gatāḥ / moha-jāla-vimohitāḥ (who are under bewilderment / deluded by the net of bewilderment);
kāma-bhogeṣu kāma-yajñais ([they fall] because of the sacrifices of desires);
narake → niraye (in a place with no happiness, in hell);
‘śucau → ‘śubhau (in inauspicious);
 
 



Śāṃkara


aneka-citta-vibhrāntā ukta-prakārair anekaiś cittaiḥ vividhaṃ bhrāntāḥ aneka-citta-vibhrāntāḥ, mohajālasamāvṛtāḥ moho’viveko’jñānaṃ tad eva jālamiva āvaraṇātmakatvāt, tena samāvṛtāḥ | prasaktāḥ kāmabhogeṣu tatraiva niṣaṇṇāḥ santas tena upacita-kalmaṣāḥ patanti narake’śucau vaitaraṇyādau
 

Rāmānuja


adṛṣṭeśvarādisahakāram ṛte svenaiva sarvaṃ kartuṃ śakyam iti kṛtvā, evaṃ kuryām, tac ca kuryām, anyac ca kuryām ity anekacittavibhrāntāḥ, evaṃrūpeṇa mohajālena samāvṛtāḥ, kāmabhogeṣu prakarṣeṇa saktāḥ, madhye mṛtāḥ aśucau narake patanti
 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtā yat prāpnuvanti tac chṛṇu aneketi | anekeṣu manoratheṣu pravṛttaṃ cittam anke-cittam | tena vibhrāntā vikṣiptāḥ | tenaiva mohamayena jālena samāvṛtāḥ | matsyā iva sūtramayena jālena yantritāḥ | evaṃ kāma-bhogeṣu prasaktā abhiniviṣṭā santo ‚śucau kalmaṣe narake patanti
 

Madhusūdana


ukta-prakārair anekaiś cittais tat-tad-duṣṭa-saṅkalpair vividhaṃ bhrāntāḥ, yato moha-jāla-samāvṛtāḥ moho hitāhita-vastu-vivekāsāmarthyaṃ tad eva jālam ivāvaraṇātmakatvena bandha-hetutvāt | tena samyag-āvṛtāḥ sarvato veṣṭitā matsyā iva sūtramayena jālena para-vaśī-kṛtā ity arthaḥ | ata eva svāniṣṭa-sādhanesv api kāma-bhogeṣu prasaktāḥ sarvathā tad-eka-parāḥ pratikṣaṇam upacīyamāna-kalmaṣāḥ patanti narake vaitaraṇyādāv aśucau viṇ-mūtra-śleṣmādi-pūrṇe
 

Viśvanātha


aśucau narake vaitarṇyādau
 

Baladeva


nanu sampadā kulena cānye tvat-samā vīkṣyante tat katham īśvaras tvam iti ced āha āḍhyaḥ sampannaḥ svato ‚ham asmy abhijanavān kulīnaś ca | na tu kenacin nimittenāto mat-sadṛśo ‚nyaḥ ko ‚sti | na ko ‚pīty aham eveśvaraḥ | ato ‚haṃ tv abalenaiva yakṣye divyāṅganānāṃ saṅgatiḥ kariṣye | dāsyāmi | tāsām adharādi khaṇḍayiṣāmy eva mohiṣa ity ajñāna-vimohitāḥ santo narake patantīty agrimeṇānvayaḥ | anekeṣu cira-prayāsa-sādhyeṣu vastuṣ yac cittaṃ tena vibhrāntā vikṣiptā moha-mayena jālena samāvṛtā matsyā iva tato nirgantu-kṣamāḥ | kāma-bhogeṣu prasaktā madhye mṛtāḥ santo narake patanty aśucau vaitaraṇyādau
 
 


BhG 16.17

ātma-saṃbhāvitāḥ stabdhā dhana-māna-madānvitāḥ
yajante nāma-yajñais te dambhenāvidhi-pūrvakam

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te ātma-sambhāvitāḥ (they who have self-respect) stabdhāḥ (arrogant) dhana-māna-madānvitāḥ (who are endowed with pride and madness due to wealth) dambhena (with deceit) nāma-yajñaiḥ (with sacrifices [meant] to gain good name) avidhi-pūrvakam (not according to rule) yajante (they worship).

 

grammar

ātma-saṁbhāvitāḥ ātma-saṁbhāvita 1n.3 m.; [TP]: ātmanā saṁbhāvitā iti who have self-respect (from: ātman – self; sam-bhū come together, to come into being, to be adequate, [PP] caus. saṁ-bhāvita – honoured, considered, adequate);
stabdhāḥ stabdha (stambh – to stand firmly, to become immovable) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are immovable, proud, arrogant;
dhana-māna-madānvitāḥ dhana-māna-mada-anvita 1n.3 m.; [TP]: dhanasya mānena ca madena cānvitāḥwho are endowed with pride and madness due to wealth (from: dhana – booty, prey, riches; man – to think, māna – respect, honour, pride; mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude, mada madness, arrogance; anu-i – to go along, [PP] anv-ita – endowed: with what? – requires instrumental);
yajante yaj (to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they offer in sacrifice;
nāma-yajñaiḥ nāma-yajña 3n.3 m.; [TP]: ye nāma-mātra-prasiddhaye yajñāḥ taiḥwith sacrifices [done for the sake of] good name (from: nāman – name, call, good name, fame; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
or ye nāma-mātrena yajñāḥ taiḥ with sacrifices in name only;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
dambhena dambha 3n.1 m.with deceit, with hypocrisy (from: dabh – to deceive, to destroy);
avidhi-pūrvakam av.not according to rule (from: vidhi – a rule, formula, injunction; pūrvaka – previous, ancient, suffix: according to;

 

textual variants


dhana-māna-madānvitāḥdhana-māna-samanvitāḥ (endowed with pride due to wealth);
nāma-yajñais → kāma-yajñais / māna-yajñais (with sacrifices to gain pleasures / with sacrifices to gain respect);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ātmasaṃbhāvittāḥ sarvaguṇaviśiṣṭatayā ātmanaiva saṃbhāvitāḥ ātmasaṃbhāvitāḥ, na sādhubhiḥ | stabdhāḥ apraṇatātmānaḥ | dhanamānamadānvitāḥ dhananimittaḥ mānaḥ madaś ca, tābhyāṃ dhanamānamadābhyām anvitāḥ | yajante nāmayajñaiḥ nāmamātrair yajñais te dambhena dharmadhvajitayāvidhipūrvakaṃ vidhivihitāṅgetikartavyatārahitam
 

Rāmānuja


ātmanaiva saṃbhāvitāḥ / ātmanaivātmānaṃ saṃbhāvayantītyarthaḥ / stabdhāḥ paripūrṇaṃ manyamānā na kiṃcitkurvāṇāḥ / katham ? dhanamānamadānvitāḥ dhanena vidyābhijanābhimānena ca janitamadānvitāḥ, nāmayajñaiḥ nāmaprayojanaiḥ yaṣṭetināmamātraprayojanair yajñaiḥ yajante / tad api dambhena hetunā yaṣṭṛtvakhyāpanāya, avidhipūrvakam ayathācodanaṃ yajante
 

Śrīdhara


yaksya iti ca yas teṣāṃ manoratha uktaḥ sa kevalaṃ dambhāhaṅkārādi-pradhāna eva na tu sāttvika ity abhiprāyeṇāha ātmeti dvābhyām | ātmanaiva sambhāvitāḥ pūjyatāṃ nītāḥ | na tu sādhubhiḥ kaiścit | ataeva stabdhā anamrāḥ | dhanena yo manomadaś ca tābhyāṃ samanvitāḥ santas te | nāma-mātreṇa ye yajñās te nāma-yajñāḥ | yad vā dīkṣitaḥ soma-yājīty evam ādi nāma-mātra-prasiddhaye ye yajñās tair yajante | katham | dambhena | na tu śraddhayā | avidhi-pūrvakaṃ ca yathā bhavati tathā
 

Madhusūdana


nanu teṣām api keṣāṃcid vaidike karmaṇi yāga-dānādau pravṛtti-darśanād ayuktaṃ narake patanam iti nety āha ātma-sambhāvitā iti | sarva-guṇa-viśiṣṭatā vayam ity ātmanaiva saṃbhāvitāḥ pūjyatāṃ prāpitā na tu sādhubhiḥ kaiścit | stabdhā anamrāḥ | yato dhana-māna-madānvitā dhana-nimitto yo māna ātmani pūjyatvātiśayādhyāsas tan-nimittaś ca yo madaḥ parasmin gurvādāv apy apūjyatvābhimānas tābhyām anvitās te nāma-yajñaiḥ nāma-mātrair yajñair na tāttvikair dīkṣitāḥ soma-yājīty ādinām amātra-sampādakair vā yajñair avidhi-pūrvakaṃ vihitāṅgeti-kartavyatā-rahitair dambhena dharma-dhvajitayā na tu śraddhayā yajante | atas tat-phala-bhājo na bhavantīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


ātmanaiva sambhāvitāḥ pūjyatāṃ nītā na tu sādhubhiḥ kaiścid ity arthaḥ | ataeva stabdhā anamrāḥ | nāma-mātreṇaiva ye yajñās te nāma-yajñās taiḥ
 

Baladeva


ātmanaiva sambhāvitāḥ śraiṣṭhyaṃ nītāḥ | na tu śāstrajñaiḥ sadbhiḥ | stabdhāḥ anamrāḥ | dhanena sampadā mānena ca paramahaṃso mahā-śramaṇaḥ śrī-pūjya-pādo mahā-pūjāvid ity evaṃ lakṣaṇena ssat-kāreṇa yo mado garvas tenānvitāḥ | nāma-yajñair nāma-mātreṇa yajñaiḥ pūjā-vidhibhiḥ sva-kalpitā devatā yajante sva-svakānāṃ gṛhiṇām abhyudayāya dambhena dharma-dhvajitvena viśiṣṭā virakta-veśāḥ santa ity arthaḥ | avidhi-pūrvakam aveda-vihitaṃ yathā bhavati tathā
 
 


BhG 16.18

ahaṃ-kāraṃ balaṃ darpaṃ kāmaṃ krodhaṃ ca saṃśritāḥ
mām ātma-para-deheṣu pradviṣanto bhyasūyakāḥ

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[te] abhyasūyakāḥ (these envious) ahaṁ-kāram (egotism) balam (strength) darpam (pride) kāmam (desire) krodham ca (anger) saṁśritāḥ (who took shelter of)
ātma-para-deheṣu (in [their] own and other bodies) mām (me) pradviṣantaḥ (hating) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

ahaṁ-kāram ahaṁ-kāra 2n.1 m. ego, egotism, pride (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer);
balam bala 2n.1 n.strength, power;
darpam darpa 2n.1 m.pride, arrogance (from: dṛp – to be extravagant, to be proud);
kāmam kāma 2n.1 m. wish, desire, pleasure (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for);
krodham krodha 2n.1 m.anger, wrath (from: krudh – to be angry);
ca av.and;
saṁśritāḥ saṁśrita (sam-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.3 m.who taken shelter (of whom? – requires accusative);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
ātma-para-deheṣu ātma-para-deha 7n.3 m.; DV / [TP]: ātmanaḥ svasya pareṣāṁ ca deheṣuin the bodies of others and one’s own (from: ātman – self; para – another, strange; dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
pradviṣantaḥ pra-dviṣant (pra-dviṣ to hate, to feel disgust) PPr 1n.3 m.who hate, who feel disgust;
abhyasūyakāḥ abhy-asūyaka 1n.3 m.who are full of spite, envy, ill-will (from: asūya – to be displeased)

 

textual variants


kāmaṁ krodhaṁ kāma-krodhe (desire and anger);
ca saṁśritāḥsamāśritāḥ / ca saṁsthitāḥ (who took shelter/ and situated);
mām ātma-para-deheṣu māmātmā para-deheṣu (my self in other bodies);
abhyasūyakāḥabhisūryakaḥ / hy asūyakāḥ / abhyasūyayā (resembling the Sun / indeed envious / by envy);

The first and second pada of verse 16.18 are similar to the first and second pada of verse BhG 18.53;

 
 



Śāṃkara


ahaṃkāram ahaṃkaraṇam ahaṃkāraḥ | vidyamānair avidyamānaiś ca guṇair ātmany adhyāropitair viśiṣṭam ātmānam aham iti manyate, so’haṃkāro’vidyākhyaḥ kaṣṭatamaḥ sarva-doṣāṇāṃ mūlaṃ sarvānartha-pravṛttīnāṃ ca, tam | tathā balaṃ parābhibhava-nimittaṃ kāma-rāgānvitam | darpaṃ darpo nāma yasya udbhave dharmam atikrāmati so’yam antaḥkaraṇāśrayo doṣa-viśeṣaḥ | kāmaṃ stry-ādi-viṣayam | krodham aniṣṭa-viṣayam | etān anyāṃś ca mahato doṣān saṃśritāḥ | kiṃ ca te mām īśvaram ātma-para-deheṣu sva-dehe para-deheṣu ca tad-buddhi-karma-sākṣi-bhūtaṃ māṃ pradviṣantaḥ, mac-chāsanātivartitvaṃ pradveṣaḥ, taṃ kurvanto’bhyasūyakāḥ san-mārga-sthānāṃ guṇeṣu asahamānāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


te cedṛgbhūtā yajanta ity āha
ananyāpekṣo ‚ham eva sarvaṃ karomītyevaṃrūpam ahaṃkāram āśritāḥ, tathā sarvasya karaṇe madbalam eva paryāptam iti ca balam, ato matsadṛśo na kaścid astīti ca darpam, evaṃbhūtasya mama kāmamātreṇa sarvaṃ saṃpatsyata iti kāmam, mama ye aniṣṭakāriṇas tān sarvān haniṣyāmīti ca krodham, evam etān saṃśritāḥ, svadeheṣu paradeheṣu cāvasthitaṃ sarvasya kārayitāraṃ puruṣottamaṃ mām abhyasūyakāḥ pradviṣantaḥ, kuyuktibhir matsthitau doṣam āviṣkurvanto mām asahamānāḥ / ahaṃkārādikān saṃśritā yāgādikaṃ sarvaṃ kriyājātaṃ kurvata ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


avidhi-pūrvakatvam eva prapañcayati ahaṅkāram iti | ahaṅkārādīn saṃśritāḥ santaḥ ātma-para-deheṣv ātma-deheṣu para-deheṣu ca cid-aṃśena sthitaṃ māṃ pradviṣanto yajante | dambha-yajñeṣu śraddhāyā abhāvād ātmano vṛthaiva pīḍā bhavati | tathā paśv-ādīnām apy avidhinā hiṃsāyāṃ caitanya-droha evāvaśiṣyata iti pradviṣanta ity uktam | abhyasūyakāḥ san-mārga-vartināṃ guṇeṣu doṣāropakāḥ
 

Madhusūdana


yakṣye dāsyāmīty ādi-saṅkalpena dambhāhaṅkārādi-pradhānena pravṛttānām āsurāṇāṃ bahiraṅga-sādhanam api yāga-dānādikaṃ karma na sidhyati, antaraṅga-sādhanaṃ tu jñāna-vairāgya-bhagavad-bhajanādi teṣāṃ durāpās tam evety āha ahaṅkāram iti | aham abhimāna-rūpo yo ‚haṅkāraḥ sa sarva-sādhāraṇaḥ | etais tv āropitair guṇair ātmano mahattvābhimānam ahaṅkāraṃ tathā balaṃ para-paribhava-nimittaṃ śarīra-gata-sāmarthya-viśeṣaṃ darpaṃ parāvadhīraṇā-rūpaṃ guru-nṛpādy-atikrama-kāraṇaṃ citta-doṣa-viśeṣaṃ kāmam iṣṭa-viṣayābhilāṣaṃ krodham aniṣṭa-viṣaya-dveṣam | ca-kārāt para-guṇāsahiṣṇutva-rūpaṃ mātsaryam | evam anyāṃś ca mahato doṣān saṃśritāḥ |
etādṛśā api patitās tava bhaktyā pūtāḥ santo narake na patiṣyantīti cen nety āha mām īśvaraṃ bhagavantam apara-deheṣu ātmanāṃ teṣām āsurāṇāṃ pareṣāṃ ca tat-putra-bhāryādīnāṃ deheṣu premāspadeṣu tat-tad-buddhi-karma-sākṣitayā santam atipremāspadam api durdaiva-paripākāt pradviṣanta īśvarasya mama śāsanaṃ śruti-smṛti-rūpaṃ tad-uktārthānuṣṭhāna-parāṅmukhatayā tad-ativartanaṃ me pradveṣas taṃ kurvantaḥ | nṛpādy-ājñā-laṅghanam eva hi tat-pradveṣa iti prasiddhaṃ loke |
nanu gurvādayaḥ kathaṃ tān nānuśāsati tatrāha abhyasūyakā gurv-ādīnāṃ vaidika-mārga-sthānāṃ kāruṇyādi-guṇeṣu pratāraṇādi-doṣāropakāḥ | atas te sarva-sādhana-śūnyā naraka eva patantīty arthaḥ |
mām ātma-para-deheṣv ity asyāparā vyākhyā sva-deheṣu para-deheṣu ca cid-aṃśena sthitaṃ māṃ pradviṣantāṃ yajante dambha-yajñeṣu śraddhāyā abhāvād dīkṣādinātmano vṛtahiva pīḍā bhavati | tathā paśv-ādīnām apy avidhinā hiṃsayā caitanya-droha-mātram avaśiṣyata iti |
aparā vyākhyā ātma-dehe jīvān āviṣṭe bhagaval-līlā-vigrahe vāsudevādi-samākhye manuṣyatvādi-bhramān māṃ pradviṣantaḥ | tathā para-deheṣu bhakta-deheṣu prahlādādi-samākhyeṣu sarvadāvirbhūtaṃ māṃ pradviṣanta iti yojanā | uktaṃ hi navame –
avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam |
paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto mama bhūta-maheśvaram ||
moghāśā mogha-karmāṇo mogha-jñānā vicetasaḥ |
rākṣasīm āsurīṃ caiva prakṛtiṃ mohinīṃ śritāḥ || [Gītā 9.11-12]
avyaktaṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ manyante mām abuddhayaḥ [Gītā 8.23] iti cānyatra | tathā ca bhajanīye dveṣān na bhaktyā pūtanā teṣāṃ sambhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


māṃ paramātmānam amānayanta eva pradviṣantaḥ | yad vā ātma-parāḥ paramātma-parāyaṇāḥ sādhavas teṣāṃ deheṣu sthitaṃ māṃ pradviṣantaḥ sādhu-deha-dveṣād eva mad-dveṣa iti bhāvaḥ | abhyasūyakāḥ sādhūnāṃ guṇeṣu doṣāropakāḥ
 

Baladeva


sarvathā veda-tat-pratipādyeśvarāvamantarāc ta ity āha ahaṅkāram iti | ahaṅkārādīn saṃśritās te ātmanaḥ pareṣāṃ ca deheṣu niyāmakatayā bhartṛtayā cāvasthitaṃ māṃ sarveśvaraṃ mad-viṣayakaṃ vedaṃ ca pradviṣanto ‚vajñayākurvanto bhavanti | abhyasūyakāḥ kuṭila-yuktibhir mama vedasya ca guṇeṣu doṣān āropayantaḥ | aham eva svatantraḥ karomīty ahaṅkāraḥ | aham eva parākramīti balam | mat-tulyo na ko ‚py astīti darpaḥ | mad-icchaiva sarva-sādhiketi kāmaḥ | mat-pratīpam aham eva haniṣyāmīti krodhaś ca
 
 


BhG 16.19

tān ahaṃ dviṣataḥ krūrān saṃsāreṣu narādhamān
kṣipāmy ajasram aśubhān āsurīṣv eva yoniṣu

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aham (I) tān (them) [mām] (me) dviṣataḥ (who are hating) narādhamān (the lowest of men) krūrān (cruel) aśubhān (inauspicious) saṁsāreṣu (into transmigrations) āsurīṣu yoniṣu eva (just into demoniac wombs) ajasram (perpetually) kṣipāmi (I throw).

 

grammar

tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
dviṣataḥ dviṣant (pra-dviṣ to hate, to feel disgust) PPr 2n.3 m.who hate, who feel disgust;
krūrān krūra 2n.3 m.who are cruel;
saṁsāreṣu saṁsāra 7n.3 m. in transmigrations, in deaths, in cycles of rebirth (from: sam-xs – to flow together, to undergo transmigration);
narādhamān nara-adhama 1n.3 m.; [TP]: nareṣv adhamān iti the lowest among men (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person; adhas – low, adhara – lower, adhama – lowest, vilest);
kṣipāmi kṣip (to throw) Praes. P 3v.1I throw, I send;
ajasram av.perpetually, for ever (from: jas – to go, to liberate; ajasra – not to be obstructed, perpetual)
aśubhān aśubha 2n.3 m.who are inauspicious (from: śubh – to shine, śubha – splendid, pleasant, auspicious, good);
āsurīṣu āsurī 7n.3 f.into demoniac, pertaining to the opponents of divinites (from: asura – rival of divinities, demon);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yoniṣu yoni 1n.1 f.into wombs, in sources;

 

textual variants


aśubhān āsurīṣv eva → aśubhāsv āsurīṣv eva / aśubhām āsurīṣv eva (into inauspicious, indeed into demoniac / indeed into demoniac deprived of beauty);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tān ahaṃ sanmārgapratipakṣabhūtān sādhudveṣiṇo dviṣataś ca māṃ krūrān saṃsāreṣu evānekanarakasaṃsaraṇamārgeṣu narādhamān adharmadoṣavattvāt kṣipāmi prakṣipāmy ajasraṃ saṃtatam aśubhān aśubhakarmakāriṇaḥ āsurīṣveva krūra-karma-prāyāsu vyāghrāṇāṃsahādiyoniṣu kṣipāmītyanena saṃbandhaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


ya evaṃ māṃ dviṣanti, tān krūrān narādhamān aśubhān aham ajasraṃ saṃsāreṣu janmajarāmaraṇādirūpeṇa parivartamāneṣu saṃtāneṣu, tatrāpy āsurīṣv eva yoniṣu kṣipāmi madānukūlyapratyanīkeṣv eva janmasu kṣipāmi / tattajjanmaprāptyanuguṇapravṛttihetubhūtabuddhiṣu krūrāsv aham eva saṃyojayāmītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


teṣāṃ ca kadācid api āsura-svabhāva-pracyutir na bhavatīty āha tān iti dvābhyām | tān ahaṃ dviṣataḥ krūrān saṃsāreṣu janma-mṛtyu-mārgeṣu tatrāpy āsurīṣv evātikrūrāsu vyāghra-sarpādi-yoniṣu ajasram anavarataṃ kṣipāmi | teṣāṃ pāpa-karmaṇāṃ tādṛśaṃ phalaṃ dadāmīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


teṣāṃ tvat-kṛpayā kadācin nistāraḥ syād iti nety āha tān iti | tān san-mārga-pratipakṣa-bhūtān dviṣataḥ sādhūn mā ca krūrān hiṃsā-parān ato narādhamān atininidtān ajasraṃ santatam aśubhān aśubha-karma-kāriṇo ‚haṃ sarva-karma-phala-dāteśvaraḥ saṃsāreṣv eva naraka-saṃsaraṇa-mārgeṣu kṣipāmi pātayāmi | naraka-gatāś cāsurīṣv evātikrūrāsu vyāghra-sarpādi-yoniṣu tat-tat-karma-vāsanānusāreṇa kṣipāmīty anuṣajyate | etādṛśeṣu drohiṣu nāsti mameśvarasya kṛpety arthaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ – atha ya iha kapūya-caraṇā abhyāśo ha yat te kapūyāṃ yonim āpadyerañ śva-yoniṃ vā sūkara-yoniṃ vā caṇḍāla-yoniṃ vā [ChāU 5.10.7] iti | kapūya-caraṇāḥ kutsita-karmāṇo ‚bhyāśo ha śīghram eva kapūyāṃ kutsitāṃyonim āpadyanta iti śruter arthaḥ | ata eva pūrva-pūrva-karmānusāritvān neśvarasya vaiṣamyaṃ nairghṛṇyaṃ vā | tathā ca pāramarṣaṃ sūtraṃ – vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye na sāpekṣatvāt tathā hi darśayati [Vs 2.1.34] iti | evaṃ ca pāpa-karmāṇy eva teṣāṃ kārayati bhagavāṃs teṣu tad-bīja-sattvāt | kāruṇikatve ‚pi tāni na nāśayati tan-nāśaka-puṇyopacayābhāvāt purṇyopacayaṃ na kārayati teṣām ayogyatvāt | na hīśvaraḥ pāṣāṇeṣu yavāṅkurān karoti | īśvaratvād ayogyasyāpi yogyatāṃ sampādayituṃ śaknotīti cet, śaknoty eva satya-saṅkalpatvāt yadi saṅkalpayet | na tu saṅkalpayati ājñā-laṅghiṣu svabhakta-drohiṣu durātma-sva-prasannatvāt | ata eva śrūyate – eṣa u hy eva sādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam unninīṣate, eṣa u evāsādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam adho ninīṣate iti | yeṣu prasāda-kāraṇam asty ājñā-pālanādi teṣu prasīdati | yeṣu tu tad-vaiparītyaṃ teṣu na prasīdati sati kāraṇe kāryaṃ kāraṇābhāve kāryābhāva iti kim atra vaiṣamyam | parāt tu tac chruteḥ [Vs. 2.3.39] iti nyāyāc ca | antato gatvā kiṃcid vaiṣamyāpādane mahā-māyatvād adoṣaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 16.20
 

Baladeva


eṣām āsura-svabhāvān kvacid api vimokṣo na bhavatīty āha tān iti dvābhyām | āsurīṣv eva hiṃsā-tṛṣṇādi-yuktāsu mleccha-vyādha-yoniṣu tat-tat-karmānu-guṇa-phaladaḥ sarveśvaro ‚ham ajasraṃ punaḥ punaḥ kṣipāmi
 
 


BhG 16.20

āsurīṃ yonim āpannā mūḍhā janmani janmani
mām aprāpyaiva kaunteya tato yānty adhamāṃ gatim

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he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!)
janmani janmani (in birth after birth) mūḍhāḥ (fools) āsurīm yonim (into demoniac wombs) āpannāḥ (who entered)
mām (me) aprāpya eva (indeed after not obtaining)
tataḥ (then) adhamām gatim (to the lowest abode) yānti (they go).

 

grammar

āsurīm āsurī 2n.1 f.demoniac, pertaining to the opponents of divinites (from: asura – rival of divinities, demon);
yonim yoni 2n.1 f. womb, source, origin;
āpannāḥ ā-panna (ā-pad – to come, to attain) [PP] 1n.3 m.who attained;
mūḍhāḥ mūḍha (muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.3 m. bewildered, fools;
janmani janmani janman 7n.1 n.in birth after birth (from: jan – to be born; repetition meaning continuity);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
aprāpya na pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after not obtaining;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
adhamām adhama 2n.1 f. lowest, vilest (from: adhas – low, adhara – lower);
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


āsurīṁ yonim āsurī-yonim (demoniac womb);
aprāpyaiva → aprāpya ca / aprāpyeva (and after not obtaining / as if after not obtaining);
 
 



Śāṃkara


āsurīṃ yonim āpannāḥ pratipannāḥ mūḍhāḥ avivekino janmani janmani pratijanma tamobahulāsveva yoniṣu jāyamānāḥ adho gacchanto mūḍhāḥ mām īśvaram aprāpyānāsādya eva he kaunteya, tatas tasmādapi yānty adhamāṃ gatiṃ nikṛṣṭatamāṃ gatim | mām aprāpyaiveti na mat-prāptau kācid api āśaṅkāsti, ataḥ macchiṣṭasādhumārgam aprāpya ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


madānukūlyapratyanīkajanmāpannāḥ punar api janmani janmani mūḍhāḥ madviparītajñānā mām aprāpyaiva „asti bhagavān sarveśvaro vāsudevaḥ” iti jñānam aprāpya tataḥ tato janmano ‚dhamām eva gatiṃ yānti
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca āsurīm iti | te ca mām aprāpyaiva iti eva-kāreṇa mat-prāpti-śaṅkāpi kutas teṣām | mat-prāpty-upāyaṃ san-mārgam aprāpya tato ‚py adhamāṃ kṛmi-kīṭādi-yoniṃ yāntīty uktam | śeṣaṃ spaṣṭam
 

Madhusūdana


nanu teṣām api krameṇa bahūnāṃ janmanām ante [Gītā 7.19] śreyo bhaviṣyati nety āha āsurīm iti | ye kadācid āsurīṃ yonim āpannās te janmani janmani prati janma mūḍhās tamo-bahulatvenāvivekinas tatas tasmād api yānty adhamāṃ gatiṃ nikṛṣṭatamāṃ gatim | mām aprāpyeti na mat-prāptau kācid āśaṅkāpy asti | ato mad-upadiṣṭaṃ veda-mārgam aprāpyety arthaḥ | eva-kāras tiryak-sthāvarādiṣu veda-mārga-prāpti-svarūpāyogyatāṃ darśayati | tenātyantatamo-bahulatvena veda-mārga-prāpti-svarūpāyogyā bhūtvā pūrva-pūrva-nikṛṣṭa-yonito nikṛṣṭatamām adhamāṃ yonim uttarottaraṃ gacchantīty arthaḥ | he kaunteyeti nija-sambandha-kathanena tvam ito nistīrṇa iti sūcayati | yasmād ekadāsurīṃ yonim āpannānām uttarottaraṃ nikṛṣṭatara-nikṛṣṭatama-yoni-lābho na tu tat-pratīkāra-sāmarthyam atyanta-tamo-bahulatvāt, tasmād yāvan manuṣya-deha-lābho ‚sti tāvan mahatāpi prayatnenāsuryāḥ sampadaḥ parama-kaṣṭatamāyāḥ parihārāya tvarayaiva yathā-śakti daivī sampad anuṣṭheyā śreyo ‚rthibhir anyathā tiryag-ādi-deha-prāptau sādhanānuṣṭhānāyogyatvān na kadāpi nistāro ‚stīti mahat saṅkaṭam āpadyeteti samudāyārthaḥ | tad uktaṃ –
ihaiva naraka-vyādheś cikitsāṃ na karoti yaḥ |
gatvā nirauṣadhaṃ sthānaṃ sa-rujaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati || iti
 

Viśvanātha


mām aprāpyaiveti na tu māṃ prāpyeti | vaivasvata-manvantararīyāṣṭāviṃśa-caturvyuga-dvāparānte ‚vatīrṇaṃ māṃ kṛṣṇaṃ kaṃsādi-rūpās te prāpya pradviṣanto ‚pi muktim eva prāpnuvantīti bhakti-jñāna-paripākato labhyām api muktiṃ tādṛśa-pāpibhyo ‚py aham apāra-kṛpā-sindhur dadāmi | nibhṛta-marun-mano ‚kṣa dṛḍha-yoga-yujo hṛdi yan munaya upāsate tad-arayo ‚pi yayuḥ smaraṇāt [BhP 10.87.23] iti śrutayo ‚py āhuḥ | ataḥ pūrvoktā mamaiva sarvotkarṣo varīvartīti bhāgavatāmṛta-kārikā yathā –
māṃ kṛṣṇa-rūpiṇaṃ yāvan nāpnuvanti mama dviṣaḥ |
tāvad evādhamaṃ yoniṃ prāpnuvantīti hi sphuṭam || iti | [LBhāg 1.5.83]
 

Baladeva


nanu bahu-janmānte teṣāṃ kadācit tvad-anukampayāsurayoner vimuktiḥ syād iti cet tatrāha āsurīm iti | te mūḍhā janmany āsurīṃ yonim āpannā mām aprāpyaiva tato ‚py adhamām atinikṛṣṭāṃ śvādi-yoniṃ yānti | mām aprāpyaiva atra eva-kāreṇa mad-anukampāyāḥ sambhāvanāpi nāsti | tal-lābhopāya-yogyā saj-jātir api durlabheti | śrutiś caivam āha – atha kapūya-caraṇā abhyāso ha yat te kapūyāṃ yonim āpadyeran śva-yoniṃ vā śūkara-yoniṃ vā caṇḍāla-yoniṃ vā [ChāU 5.10.7] ity ādikā |
nanv īśvaraḥ satya-saṅkalpatvāday ayogyasyāpi yogyatāṃ śaknuvāt kartum iti cet, śaknuyād eva | yadi saṅkalpayet bījābhāvān na saṅkalpayatīty atas tasyā vaiṣamyam āha sūtrakāraḥ – vaiṣyamya-niarghṛṇye na [Vs 2.1.35] ity ādinā | tataś ca tān aham ity ādi-dvayaṃ sūpapannam | ete nāstikāḥ sarvadā nārakino darśitāḥ | ye tu śāpād asurās tad-anuyāyinaś ca rājanyāḥ pratyakṣe upendra-nṛhari-varāhādau viṣṇau sva-śatru-pakṣatvena vidveṣiṇo ‚pi veda-vaidika-karma-parāḥ sarva-niyantāraṃ kāla-śaktikam apratyakṣaṃ sarveśvaraṃ manyante | te tūpendrādibhir nihatāḥ kramāt tyajanty āsurī-yonim | kṛṣṇena nihatās tu vimucyante ceti | na te veda bāhyāḥ
 
 


BhG 16.21

tri-vidhaṃ narakasyedaṃ dvāraṃ nāśanam ātmanaḥ
kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobhas tasmād etat trayaṃ tyajet

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syntax


kāmaḥ (desire) krodhaḥ (anger) tathā (as well) lobhaḥ [iti] (greed)
narakasya (of hell) idam tri-vidham dvāram (this gate of three parts) ātmanaḥ nāśanam (destruction of the self) [asti] (it is).
tasmāt (therefore) etat trayam (this three) tyajet (he should abandon).

 

grammar

tri-vidham tri-vidha 1n.1 n.threefold, of three parts (from: tri – three; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
narakasya naraka 6n.1 m. of hell;
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
dvāram dvāra 1n.1 n. gate, entrance, passage;
nāśanam nāśana 1n.1 n.destruction, removal (from: naś – to destroy, to vanish, nāśa – destruction, loss);
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
kāmaḥ kāma 1n.1 m.wish, desire, pleasure (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for);
krodhaḥ krodha 1n.1 m.anger, wrath (from: krudh – to be angry);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
lobhaḥ lobha 1n.1 m.greed, covetousness (from: lubh – to be greedy);
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
etat etat sn. 2n.1 n.this;
trayam traya 2n.1 n.triad (from: tri – three);
tyajet tyaj (to abandon, to give up) Pot. Ā 1v.1he should abandon;

 

textual variants


narakasyedaṁ narakasyaitad (this of hell);
nāśanamnāśakam (destroyer);
kāmaḥ krodhas kāma-krodhas (desire, anger);
tyajet → tyaja (you must abandon);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvasyā āsuryāḥ saṃpadaḥ saṃkṣepo’yam ucyate, yasmin trividhe sarvaḥ āsurīsaṃpadbhedo’nanto’py antarbhavati | yatparihāreṇa parihṛtaś ca bhavati, yat mūlaṃ sarvasyānarthasya, tat etad ucyate—

trividhaṃ triprakāraṃ narakasya prāptāv idaṃ dvāraṃ nāśanam ātmanaḥ, yat dvāraṃ praviśanneva naśyati ātmā | kasmaicit puruṣārthāya yogyo na bhavatītyetat, atar ucyate dvāraṃ nāśanam ātmanaḥ iti | kiṃ tat ? kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobhaḥ | tasmāt etat trayaṃ tyajet | yataḥ etat dvāraṃ nāśanam ātmanas tasmāt kāmāditrayametat tyajet

 

Rāmānuja


asyāsurasvabhāvasyātmanāśasya mūlahetum āha
asyāsurasvabhāvarūpasya narakasyaitat trividhaṃ dvāram, tac cātmano nāśanam; kāmaḥ krodho lobha iti trayāṇāṃ svarūpaṃ pūrvam eva vyākhyātam / dvāram mārgaḥ; hetur ityarthaḥ / tasmād etattrayaṃ tyajet; tasmād atighoranarakahetutvāt kāmakrodhalobhānām, etattritayaṃ dūrataḥ parityajet
 

Śrīdhara


uktānām āsura-doṣāṇāṃ madhye sakala-doṣa-mūla-bhūtaṃ doṣa-trayaṃ sarvathā varjanīyam ity āha trividham iti | kāmaḥ krodho lobhaś ceti idaṃ trividhaṃ narakasya dvāram | ata evātmano nāśanaṃ nīcayoni-prāpakam | tasmād etat trayaṃ sarvātmanā tyajet
 

Madhusūdana


nanv āsurī sampad ananta-bhedavatī kathaṃ puruṣāyuṣeṇāpi parihartuṃ śakyaitetvāśaṅkya tāṃ saṅkṣipyāha trividham iti | idaṃ trividhaṃ tri-prakāraṃ narakasya prāptau dvāraṃ sādhanaṃ sarvasyā āsuryāḥ sampado mūla-bhūtam ātmano nāśanaṃ sarva-puruṣārthāyogyatā-sampādanenātyantādhama-yoni-prāpakam | kiṃ tat ? ity ata āha kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobha iti | prāg vyākhyātam | yasmād etat trayam eva sarvānartha-mūlaṃ tasmād etat trayaṃ tyajet | etat-traya-tyāgenaiva sarvāpy āsurī sampat tyaktā bhavati | etat-traya-tyāgaś cotpannasya vivekena kārya-pratibandhaḥ | tataḥ paraṃ cānutpattir iti draṣṭavyam
 

Viśvanātha


tad evam āsurīḥ samapttīr vistārya proktā itas tataḥ sādhūktam mā śucaḥ sampadaṃ daivīm abhijāto ‚si bhārata iti | kiṃ vāsurāṇām etat trikam eva svābhāvikam ity āha trividham iti
 

Baladeva


nanv āsurīṃ prakṛtiṃ naraka-hetuṃ śrutvā ye manuṣyās tāṃ parihartum icchanti | taiḥ kim anuṣṭheyam iti cet tatrāha trividham iti | etat-traya-parihāre tasyāḥ parihāraḥ syād ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 16.22

etair vimuktaḥ kaunteya tamo-dvārais tribhir naraḥ
ācaraty ātmanaḥ śreyas tato yāti parāṃ gatim

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
etaiḥ tribhiḥ tamo-dvāraiḥ (from these three gates of darkness) vimuktaḥ naraḥ (liberated person) ātmanaḥ (own) śreyaḥ (welfare) ācarati (he performs).
tataḥ (then) parām gatim (to the supreme abode) yāti (he goes).

 

grammar

etaiḥ etat sn. 3n.3 m.from these;
vimuktaḥ vimukta (vi-muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.1 m.liberated;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
tamo-dvāraiḥ tamas-dvāra 3n.3 n.; [TP]: tamaso dvārair iti from gates of darkness (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas; dvṛ – to obstruct, to cover, dvāra – gate, entrance, passage);
tribhiḥ tri 3n.3 m.from three;
naraḥ nara 1n.1 m. a person (from: nṛ man, mankind);
ācarati ā-car (to behave, to perform) Praes. P 1v.1he performs;
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
śreyaḥ śreyas 2n.1 n. better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
yāti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, way, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


vimuktaḥ → vimuktāḥ / viyuktaḥ (those liberated / not endowed);
yātiyāṁti (they go);

The third pada of verse 16.22 is similar to the third pada of verses: BhG 6.45; 8.13, 9.32, 13.28;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tyāga-stutir iyaṃ—
etaiḥ vimuktaḥ kaunteya tamo-dvārais tamaso narakasya duḥkha-mohātmakasya dvārāṇi kāmādayas taiḥ, etais tribhiḥ vimukto nara ācaraty anutiṣṭhati | kiṃ ? ātmanaḥ śreyaḥ | yat-pratibaddhaḥ pūrvaṃ nācacāra, tad-apagamād ācarati | tatas tad-ācaraṇāt yāti parāṃ gatiṃ mokṣam apīti
 

Rāmānuja


etaiḥ kāmakrodhalobhaiḥ tamodvāraiḥ madviparītajñānahetubhiḥ vimuko naraḥ ātmanaḥ śreya ācarati labdhamadviṣayajñāno madānukūlye prayatate / tato mām eva parāṃ gatiṃ yāti
 

Śrīdhara


tyāge ca viśiṣṭaṃ phalam āha etair iti | tamaso narakasya dvāra-bhūtair etais tribhiḥ kāmādibhir vimukto nara ātmanaḥ śreyaḥ sādhanaṃ tapo-yogādikam ācarati | tataś ca mokṣaṃ prāpnoti
 

Madhusūdana


etat trayaṃ tyajataḥ kiṃ syād iti tatrāha etair iti | etaiḥ kāma-krodha-lobhais tribhir tamo-dvārair naraka-sādhanair vimukto virahitaḥ puruṣa ācaraty ātmanaḥ śreyo yad dhitaṃ veda-bodhitaṃ he kaunteya pūrvaṃ hi kāmādi-pratibaddhaḥ śreyo nācarati yena puruṣārthaḥ sidhyet | aśreyaś cācarati yena nirapayātaḥ syāt | adhunā tat-pratibandha-rahitaḥ sann aśreyo nācarati śreyaś cācarati tata aihikaṃ sukham anubhūya samyag-dhī-dvārā yāti parāṃ gatiṃ mokṣam
 

Viśvanātha


brak komentarza do BhG 16.23
 

Baladeva


tat-tyāge phalam āha etair iti | śreyaḥ svāśrama-karmādi-śreyaḥ-sādhanam | parāṃ gatiṃ muktim
 
 


BhG 16.23

yaḥ śāstra-vidhim utsṛjya vartate kāma-kārataḥ
na sa siddhim avāpnoti na sukhaṃ na parāṃ gatim

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) śāstra-vidhim (injuction of scriptures) utsṛjya (after discarding)
kāma-kārataḥ (prompted by desire) vartate (he exists),
saḥ (he) siddhim (perfection) na avāpnoti (he does not obtain),
sukham (happiness) parām gatim ca (and supreme abode) na [āpnoti] (he does not obtain).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
śāstra-vidhim śāstra-vidhi 2n.1 m.; [TP]: śāstrāṇāṁ vidhim itiinjunction of scriptures (from: śās – to teach, śāstra – order, precept, teaching, scripture; vidhi – a rule, formula, injunction);
utsṛjya ut-sṛj (to let go, to throw off) absol.after discarding;
vartate vṛt (to move, to happen, to act) Praes. Ā 1v.1he moves, he exists;
kāma-kārataḥ av.kāmasya kārata iti prompted by desire (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; kṛ – to do, kāra – suffix: making, doer, power);
na av.not;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
siddhim siddhi 2n.1 f.accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
avāpnoti ava-āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he achieves;
na av.not;
sukham sukha 2n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
na av.not;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, way, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


kāma-kārataḥ kāma-cārataḥ / kāma-kātaraḥ / kāma-kārakaḥ / kāma-kārakam (who acts for pleasure / bewildered by desire / who acts for pleasure / activities for pleasure);
na parāṁ → paramāṁ (supreme);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvasya etasya āsurī-saṃpat-parivarjanasya śreya-ācaraṇasya ca śāstraṃ kāraṇam | śāstra-pramāṇād ubhayaṃ śakyaṃ kartum, nānyathā | ataḥ—
yaḥ śāstra-vidhiṃ śāstraṃ vedas tasya vidhiṃ kartavyākartavya-jñāna-kāraṇaṃ vidhi-pratiṣedhākhyam utsṛjya tyaktvā vartate kāma-kārataḥ kāma-prayuktaḥ san, na sa siddhiṃ puruṣārtha-yogyatām avāpnoti, nāpy asmin loke sukhaṃ nāpi parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ svargaṃ mokṣaṃ vā
 

Rāmānuja


śāstrānādaro ‚sya narakasya pradhānahetur ity āha
śāstraṃ vedāḥ; vidhiḥ anuśāsanam / vedākhyaṃ madanuśāsanam utsṛjya yaḥ kāmakārato vartate svacchandānuguṇamārgeṇa vartate, na sa siddhim avāpnoti na kām apy āmuṣmikīṃ siddhim avāpnoti; na sukhaṃ kiṃcid avāpnoti / na parāṃ gatim / kutaḥ parāṃ gatiṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kāmādi-tyāgaś ca sva-dharmācaraṇaṃ vinā na sambhavatīty āha ya iti | śāstra-vidhiṃ veda-vihitaṃ dharmam utsṛjya yaḥ kāma-cārato yathecchaṃ vartate sa siddhiṃ tattva-jñānaṃ na prāpnoti | na ca parāṃ gatiṃ mokṣaṃ prāpnoti
 

Madhusūdana


yasmād aśreyo nācaraṇasya śreya-ācaraṇasya ca śāstram eva nimittaṃ tayoḥ śāstraika-gamyatvāt tasmāt ya iti | śiṣyate ‚nuśiṣyate ‚pūrvo ‚rtho bodhyate ‚neneti śāstraṃ vedas tad-upajīvi-smṛti-purāṇādi ca | tat-sambandhī vidhi-liṅ-ādi-śabdaḥ kuryān na kuryād ity evaṃ-pravartanānvartanātmakaḥ kartavyākartavya-jñāna-hetur vidhi-niṣedhākhyas taṃ śāstra-vidhim vidhi-niṣedhātiriktam api brahma-pratipādakaṃ śāstram astīti sūcayituṃ vidhi-śabdaḥ | utsṛjyāśraddhayā parityajya kāma-kārataḥ svecchā-mātreṇa vartate vihitam api nācarati niṣiddham apy ācarati yaḥ sa siddhim puruṣārtha-prāpti-yogyatām antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhiṃ karmāṇi kurvann api nāpnoti, na sukham aihikaṃ, nāpi parāṃ gatim svargaṃ mokṣaṃ vā
 

Viśvanātha


āstikyavata eva śreya ity āha ya iti kāma-cārataḥ
 

Baladeva


kāmādi-tyāgaḥ sva-dharmād vinā na bhavet | sva-dharmaś ca śāstrād vinā na sidhyed ataḥ śāstram evāstheyaṃ sudhiyety āha ya iti | kāma-cārataḥ svācchandyena yo vartate vihitam api na karoti | niṣiddham api karotīty arthaḥ | sa siddhiṃ pumarthopāya-bhūtāṃ hṛd-viśuddhiṃ naivāpnoti | sukham upaśamātmakaṃ ca parāṃ gatiṃ muktiṃ kuto vāpnuyāt
 
 


BhG 16.24

tasmāc chāstraṃ pramāṇaṃ te kāryākārya-vyavasthitau
jñātvā śāstra-vidhānoktaṃ karma kartum ihārhasi

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syntax


tasmāt (therefore) kāryākārya-vyavasthitau (in ascertaining duty and improper act) śāstram (injunction) te pramāṇam (your principle) [asti] (it is),
iha (here) [tvam] (you) śāstra-vidhānoktam (said by the orders from the scriptures) jñātvā (after knowing)
karma (activity) kartum (to do) arhasi (you deign).

 

grammar

tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
śāstram śāstra 2n.1 n.order, precept, teaching, scripture (from: śās – to teach);
pramāṇam pramāṇa 2n.1 n.measure, standard, principle (from: pra- – to measure, to make ready);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
kāryākārya-vyavasthitau kārya-akārya-vyavasthiti 7n.1 f.; DV / [TP]: kāryasya cākāryasya ca vyavasthitav iti in ascertaining duty and improper act (from: kṛ to do, PF kārya – to be done, work, duty, especially religious one, akārya – not to be done, improper; vi-ava-sthā – to arrange, to settle, vi-ava-sthiti – standing, steadiness, position, existence);
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
śāstra-vidhānoktam śāstra-vidhāna-ukta 2n.1 n.; [TP]: śāstrasya vidhānenoktam itisaid by the order of scripture (from: śās – to teach, śāstra – order, precept, teaching, scripture; vi-dhā – to put, to arrange, to give, vidhāna – order, regulation, method; vac – to speak, [PP] ukta – spoken, called);
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kartum kṛ (to do) [inf.] – to do;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1 you deserve;

 

textual variants


kāryākārya-vyavasthitaukāryaṁ kārya-vyavasthitau (duty in the state of duty);
jñātvā → kṛtvā (after doing);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tasmāt śāstraṃ pramāṇaṃ jñāna-sādhanaṃ te tava kāryākārya-vyavasthitau kartavyākartavya-vyavasthāyām | ato jñātvā buddhvā śāstra-vidhānoktaṃ —vidhir vidhānaṃ śāstram eva vidhānaṃ śāstra-vidhānaṃ kuryān na kuryād ity evaṃ-lakṣaṇam, tena uktaṃ sva-karma yat tat kartum ihārhasi | iheti karmādhikāra-bhūmi-pradarśanārtham iti
 

Rāmānuja


tasmāt kāryākāryavyvasthitau upādeyānupādeyavyavasthāyāṃ śāstram eva tava pramāṇam / dharmaśāstretihāsapurāṇādyupabṛṃhitā vedāḥ yad eva puruṣottamākhyaṃ paraṃ tattvaṃ tatprīṇanarūpaṃ tatprāptyupāyabhūtaṃ ca karmāvabodhayanti, tac śāstravidhānoktaṃ tattvaṃ karma ca jñātvā yathāvad anyūnātiriktaṃ vijñāya, kartuṃ tvam arhasi tad evopādātum arhasi
 

Śrīdhara


phalitam āha tasmād iti | idaṃ kāryam idam akāryam ity asyāṃ vyavasthāyāṃ te tava śāstraṃ śruti-smṛti-purāṇādikam eva pramāṇam | ataḥ śāstra-vidhānoktaṃ karma jñātvā iha karmādhikāre vartmāno yathā ‚dhikāraṃ karma kartum arhasi tan-mūlatvāt sattva-śuddhi-samyag jñāna-muktīnām ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


yasmād evam tasmād iti | yasmāc chāstra-vimukhatayā kāmādhīna-pravṛttir aihika-pāratrika-sarva-puruṣārtha-yogyas tasmāt te tava śreyo ‚rthinaḥ kāryākārya-vyavasthitau kiṃ kāryaṃ kim akāryam iti viṣaye śāstraṃ veda-tad-upajīvi-smṛti-purāṇādikam eva pramāṇaṃ bodhakaṃ nānyat svotprekṣā-buddha-vākyādīty abhiprāyaḥ | evaṃ ceha karmādhikāra-bhūmau śāstra-vidhānena kuryān na kuryād ity evaṃ-pravartanānivartanā-rūpeṇa vaidika-liṅ-ādi-padenoktaṃ karma-vihitaṃ pratiṣiddhaṃ ca jñātvā niṣiddhaṃ varjayan vihitaṃ kṣatriyasya yuddhādi-karma tvaṃ kartum arhasi sattva-śuddhi-paryantam ity arthaḥ | tad evam asminn adhyāye sarvasyā āsuryāḥ sampado mūla-bhūtān sarvāśreyaḥ-prāpakān sarva-śreyaḥ-pratibandhakān mahā-doṣān kāma-krodha-lobhān apahāya śreyo ‚rthinā śraddadhānatayā śāstra-pravaṇena tad-upadiṣṭārthānuṣṭhāna-pareṇa bhavativyam iti saṃpad-dvaya-vibhāga-pradarśana-mukhena nirdhāritam
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 17.1
 

Baladeva


yasmāc chāstra-vimukhatayā kāmādy-adhīnā pravṛttiḥ pumarthād vibhraṃśayati | tasmāt tava kāryākārya-vyavasthitau kiṃ kartavyaṃ kim akartavyam ity asmin viṣaye nirdoṣam apauruṣeyaṃ veda-rūpaṃ śāstram eva pramāṇam | na tu bhramādi-doṣavatā puruṣeṇotprekṣitaṃ vākyam | ataḥ śāstra-vidhānena kuryān na kuryād iti pravartanā-nivartanātmakena liṅ-tavyādi-padenoktam | karma vihitaṃ niṣiddhaṃ ca jñātvā niṣiddhaṃ tat parityajan iha karma-bhūmau vihita-karmāgni-hotrādi yuddhādi ca kartum arhasi loka-saṅgrahāya
 
 


BhG 16.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi aṣṭā-triṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation


Thus [ends] the thirty-eighth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde daivāsurī-saṃpad-vibhāgo / prakṛti-vibhāga-yogo / daivāsura-saṃpatti-yogo / daivyāsura-saṃpad-daivāsura-bhūta-sarga-varṇana-pūrvakam āsura-bhāvāpanna-jaṃtūnāṃ daśā-nirūpaṇaṃ / daivāsura-saṃpad-viveka-yogo / devāsura-saṃpad-vibhāgo / devāsura-saṃpad-vibhāga-yogo nāma ṣoḍaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the sixteenth chapter entitled: Division into Divine and Demoniac Perfections / The Yoga of Division of Nature / The Yoga of Divine and Demoniac Wealth / Description of Living Conditions of Descendants Endowed with Demoniac Nature, Preceded by Description of the Emanation of Divine Beings, and Divine and Demoniac Perfections / The Yoga of Discussion on Divine and Demoniac Perfections / Division into Divine and Demoniac Perfections / The Yoga od Division into Perfections of Divinities nad Demons.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


deva-daiteya-sampatti-saṃvibhāgena ṣoḍaśe |
tattva-jñāne ‚dhikāras tu sāttvikasyeti darśitam ||
 

Madhusūdana


iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām daivāsura-sampad-vibhāga-yogo nāma ṣoḍaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


āstikā eva vindanti sad-gatiṃ santa eva te |
nāstikā narakaṃ yāntīty adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu ṣoḍaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||
 

Baladeva


vedārtha-naiṣṭhikā yānti svargaṃ mokṣaṃ ca śāśvatam |
veda-bāhyās tu narakān iti ṣoḍaśa-nirṇayaḥ ||