atha dvitīyo ‘dhyāyaḥ – sāṃkhya-yoga

Now the second chapter: “Sāṁkhya-yoga”

BhG 2.1

saṃjaya uvāca
taṃ tathā kṛpayāviṣṭam aśru-pūrṇākulekṣaṇam
viṣīdantam idaṃ vākyam
uvāca madhusūdanaḥ

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syntax


saṁjaya (Saṁjaya) uvāca (he spoke):
tathā (so) madhu-sūdanaḥ (slayer of Madhu) tam (to him) kṛpayā (with pity) āviṣṭam (filled) viṣīdantam (to the grieving one) aśru-pūrṇa-akula-ikṣaṇam (to one whose eyes are perturbed and full of tears) idam (this) vākyam (word) uvāca (he spoke).

 

grammar

saṁjayaḥ sam-jaya 1n.1 m.conquest, complete victory, Saṁjaya  (from: sam-ji – to conquer);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.to him;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
kṛpayā kṛpā 3n.1 f.with grief, pity, compassion, tenderness (from: kṛp – to lament, to pity, to long for);
āviṣṭam   āviṣṭa (ā-viś – to approach, to enter) [PP] 2n.1 m.filled;
aśru-pūrṇākulekṣaṇam aśru-pūrṇa-ākula-īkṣaṇa 2n.1 m.; BV: yasyāśrubhiḥ pūrṇa ākula īkṣaṇe stas tam to one whose eyes are perturbed and full of tears (from: aśru – a tear; pṝ to fill, to nourish, pūrṇa – full; ākula – confused, perturbed; īkṣ to see, īkṣaṇa – a look, sight, eye);
viṣīdantam viṣīdant (vi-sad – to grieve, to be dejected) PPr 2n.1 m.to the grieving one;
idam idam sn. 2n.1 n.this;
vākyam vākya 2n.1 n. the speech, word (from: vac – to speak);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
madhu-sūdana madhu-sūdana 8n.1 m.slayer of Madhu (from: madhu – sweet, name of a demon; sūd – to put in order, to kill, sūdana – killing, destroying);

 

textual variants


aśru-pūrṇākulekṣaṇaṃ → aśru-pūrṇa-mukhekṣaṇaṃ (to ne with eyes and face full of tears);
viṣīdantam → sīdamānam (to one sunk into grief);
 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 2.3

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

dvitīye śoka-saṃtaptam arjunaṃ brahma-vidyayā | pratibodhya hariś cakre sthita-prajñasya lakṣaṇam | tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca – taṃ tathety ādi | aśrubhiḥ pūrṇe ākule īkṣaṇe yasya taṃ tathā, ukta-prakāreṇa visam arjunaṃ prati madhusūdana idaṃ vākyam uvāca

 

Madhusūdana

ahiṃsā paramo dharmo bhikṣāśanaṃ cety evaṃ-lakṣaṇayā buddhyā yuddha-vaimukhyam arjunasya śrutvā svaputrāṇāṃ rājyam apracalitam avadhārya svastha-hṛdayasya dhṛtarāṣṭrasya harṣa-nimittāṃ tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity ākāṅkṣām apaninīṣuḥ saṃjayas taṃ pratyuktavān ity āha vaiśampāyanaḥ |
kṛpā mamaita iti vyāmoha-nimittaḥ sneha-viśeṣaḥ | tayāviṣṭaṃ svabhāva-siddhyā vyāptam | arjunasya karmatvaṃ kṛpāyāś ca kartṛtvaṃ vadatā tasyā āgantukatvaṃ vyudastam | ataeva viṣīdantaṃ sneha-viṣayī-bhūta-svajana-vicchedāśaṅkā-nimittaḥ śokāpara-paryāyaś citta-vyākulī-bhāvo viṣādas taṃ prāpnuvantam | atra viṣādasya karmatvenārjunasya kartṛtvena ca tasyāgantukatvaṃ sūcitam |
ataeva kṛpā-viṣāda-vaśād aśrubhiḥ pūrṇe ākule darśanākṣame cekṣaṇe yasya tam | evam aśru-pāta-vyākulī-bhāvākhya-kārya-dvaya-janakatayā paripoṣaṃ gatābhyāṃ kṛpā-viṣādābhyām udvignaṃ tam arjunam idaṃ sopapattikaṃ vakṣyamāṇaṃ vākyam uvāca na tūpekṣitavān | madhusūdana iti | svayaṃ duṣṭa-nigraha-kartārjunaṃ praty api tathaiva vakṣyatīti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

ātmānātma-vivekena śoka-moha-tamo nudan |
dvitīye kṛṣṇa-candro ‚tra proce muktasya lakṣaṇam

 

Baladeva

dvitīye jīva-yāthātmya-jñānaṃ tat-sādhanaṃ hariḥ |
niṣkāma-karma ca proce sthita-prajñasya lakṣaṇam ||
evam arjuna-vairāgyam upaśrutya sva-putra-rājyābhraṃśāśayā hṛṣyantaṃ dhṛtarāṣṭram ālakṣya sañjaya uvāca taṃ tatheti | madhusūdana iti tasya śokam api madhuvan nihaniṣyatīti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṃ viṣame samupasthitam
anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam akīrti-karam
arjuna

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
viṣame (in danger) idaṁ (this) anārya-juṣṭam (not befitting the noble ones) asvargyam (not leading to heaven) akīrti-karam (causing infamy) kaśmalam (impurity) kutaḥ (how?) tvā (to you) samupasthitam (has come).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord  united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
kutaḥ av.from where, how? (from: kim – what? indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas)
tvā yuṣmat sn. 2n.1to you (shortened form of: tvām);
kaśmalam kaśmala 1n.1 n.impurity, weakness, despair;
idam idam sn. 1n.1 n.this;
viṣame viṣama 7n.1 n.in critical situation, in danger (from: vi-sama – not the same);
samupasthitam sam-upa-sthita (from: upa-sthā – to stand near) [PP] 1n.1 n.that approached and stood near, attained;
anārya-juṣṭam an-ārya-juṣṭa 1n.1 n.; [TP]: anāryair juṣṭam itinot befitting the noble ones (from: ā- – to go up, ārya – noble; juṣ – to favour, to like, to rejoice, [PP] juṣṭa – liked)
asvargyam a-svargya 1n.1 n.not leading to heaven (from: sūr – to hurt, to be firm, sūra – the sun, a wise man, svar – heaven, svar-ga – leading to heaven, heaven, svar-gya – heavenly, leading to heaven);
akīrti-karam a-kīrti-kara 1n.1 n.; [TP]: akīrtiṁ karam iticausing infamy (from: kīrt – to praise, to glorify, kīrti – fame; kṛ – to do, kara – a a doer, cause);
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;

 

 

textual variants

tvā →tvāṃ (to you);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 2.3

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tad eva vākyam āha śrī-bhagavān uvāca kuta iti | kuto hetos tvā tvāṃ viṣame saṅkaṭe idaṃ kuśalaṃ samupasthitam ayaṃ mohaḥ prāptaḥ, yata āryair asevitam | asvargyam adharmyam ayaśaskaraṃ ca

 

Madhusūdana

tad eva bhagavato vākyam avatārayati kutas tveti |
aiśvaryasya samagrasya dharmasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ |
vairāgyasyātha mokṣasya ṣaṇṇāṃ bhaga itīṅganā || [ViP 6.74]
samagasyeti pratyekaṃ sambandhaḥ | mokṣasyeti tat-sādhanasya jñānasya | iṅganā saṃjñā | etādṛśaṃ samagramaiśvaryādikaṃ nityam apratibandhena yatra vartate sa bhagavān | nitya-yoge matup | tathā-
utpattiṃ ca vināśaṃ ca bhūtānām āgatiṃ gatim |
vetti vidyām avidyāṃ ca sa vācyo bhagavān iti || [ViP 6.78]
atra bhūtānām iti pratyekaṃ sambadhyate | utpatti-vināśa-śabdau tat-kāraṇasyāpy upalakṣakau | āgati-gatī āgaminyau sampadāpadau | etādṛśo bhagavac-chabdārthaḥ śrī-vāsudeva eva paryavasita iti tathocyate |
idaṃ svadharmāt parāṅmukhatvaṃ kṛpā-vyāmohāśru-pātādi-puraḥ-saraṃ kaśmalaṃ śiṣṭa-garhitatvena malinaṃ viṣame sa-bhaye sthāne tvā tvāṃ sarva-kṣatriya-pravaraṃ kuto hetoḥ samupasthitaṃ prāptam ? kiṃ mokṣecchātaḥ ? kiṃ vā svargecchātaḥ ? iti kiṃ-śabdenākṣipyate | hetu-trayam api niṣedhati tribhir viśesaṇair uttarārdhena | āryair mumukṣubhir na juṣṭam asevitam | sva-dharmair āśaya-śuddhi-dvārā moks icchadbhir apakva-kaṣāyair mumukṣubhiḥ kathaṃ sva-dharmas tyājya ity arthaḥ | saṃnyāsādhikārī tu pakva-kaṣāyo ‚gre vakṣyate | asvargyaṃ svarga-hetu-dharma-virodhitvān na svargecchayā sevyam | akīrtikaraṃ kīrty-abhāva-karam apakīrtikaraṃ vā na kīrtīcchayā sevyam | tathā ca mokṣa-kāmaiḥ svarga-kāmaiḥ kīrti-kāmaiś ca varjanīyam | tat kāma eva tvaṃ sevasva ity aho anucitaṃ ceṣṭitaṃ taveti bhāvaḥ ||2||

 

Viśvanātha

kaśmalaṃ mohaḥ | viṣame ‚tra saṅgrāma-saṅkaṭe | kuto hetoḥ | upasthitaṃ tvāṃ prāptam abhūt | anārya-juṣṭaṃ supratiṣṭhita-lokair asevitam | asvargyam akīrtikaram iti pāratrikaihika-sukha-pratikūlam ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

tad vākyam anuvadati śrī-bhagavān iti |
aiśvaryasya samagrasya dharmasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ |
vairāgyasyātha mokṣasya ṣaṇṇāṃ bhaga itīṅganā || [ViP 6.74]
iti parāśaroktaiśvaryādibhiḥ ṣaḍbhir nityaṃ viśiṣṭaḥ | samagrasyety etat ṣaṭsu yojyam | he arjuna ! idaṃ sva-dharma-vaimukhyaṃ kaśmalaṃ śiṣṭa-nindyatvān malinaṃ kuto hetos tvāṃ kṣatriya-cūḍāmaṇiṃ samupasthitam abhūt ? viṣame yuddha-samaye | na ca mokṣāya svargāya kīrtaye vaitad-yuddha-vairāgyam ity āha anāryeti | āryair mumukṣubhir na juṣṭam sevitam | āryāḥ khalu hṛd-viśuddhaye svadharmān ācaranti | asvargyaṃ svargopalambhaka-dharma-viruddham | akīrti-karaṃ kīrti-viplāvakam

 
 

BhG 2.3

klaibyaṃ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha naitat tvayy upapadyate
kṣudraṃ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṃ tyaktvottiṣṭha paraṃtapa

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!), he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!),
klaibyam (into weakness) mā sma gamaḥ (do not go),
tvayi (for you) etat (this) na upapadyate (it does not befit).
kṣudram (mean) hṛdaya-daurbalyam (weakness of heart) tyaktvā (after abandoning) uttiṣṭha (stand up).

 

grammar

klaibyam

klaibya 2n.1 n.weakness, impotence, cowardice (from: klīb – to be impotent, to be timorous, klība – impotent, timorous);
mā sma av.not! (very strong negation with the intensifying particle: sma; mostly used with aorist deprived of  prefix ‘a-’ making the imperative – do not go!);
[a]gamaḥ gam (to go) Aor. P 2v.1 agamaḥyou went; used with particle loses prefix ‘a-’ and makes the imperative: do not go!
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
na av.not;
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
tvayi yuṣmat sn. 7n.1 m.in you;
upapadyate upa-pad (to approach, to exist, to be suitable, to attain) Praes. Ā 1v.1it befits (requires locative);
kṣudram   kṣudra 2n.1 n.tiny, low, mean;
hṛdaya-daurbalyam hṛdaya-daurbalya 1n.1 n.; [TP]: hṛdayasya daurbalyam iti – weakness of heart (from: hṛdaya / hṛd – heart; dur-bala – of little strength);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
uttiṣṭha ut-sthā (to stand up) Imperat. P 2v.1stand up;
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);

 

textual variants


klaibyaṃ mā sma gamaḥ → mā klaibyaṃ gaccha kaunteya (O son of Kuntī, do not go into weakness);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

evam upaviṣṭe pārthe kuto’yam asthāne samupasthitaḥ śokaḥ ? ity ākṣipya tam imaṃ viṣama-sthaṃ śokam avidvat-sevitaṃ para-loka-virodhinam akīrti-karam atikṣudraṃ hṛdaya-daurbalya-kṛtaṃ parityajya yuddhāyottiṣṭheti śrī-bhagavān uvāca

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

klaibyaṃ mā sma gama iti | tasmāt he pārtha ! klaibyaṃ kātaryaṃ mā sma gamaḥ | na prāpnuhi | yatas tvayi etan nopapadyate yogyaṃ na bhavati | kṣudraṃ tucchaṃ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṃ kātaryaṃ yuddhāya uttiṣṭha, he parantapa śatru-tāpana !

 

Madhusūdana

nanu bandhu-senāvekṣaṇa-jātenādhairyeṇa dhanur api dhārayitum aśaknuvatā mayā kiṃ kartuṃ śakyam ity ata āha klaibyam iti | klaibyaṃ klīb-bhāvam adhairyam ojas-teja-ādi-bhaṅga-rūpaṃ mā sma gamo mā gā | he pārtha pṛthā-tanaya! pṛthayā deva-prasāda-labdhe tat-tanaya-mātre vīryātiśayasya prasiddhatvāt pṛthā-tanayatvena tvaṃ klaibyāyogya ity arthaḥ | arjunatvenāpi tad-ayogyatvam āha naitad iti | tvayi arjune sākṣān-maheśvareṇāpi saha kṛtāhave prakhyāta-mahā-prabhāve nopapadyate na yujyata etat-klaibyam ity asādhāraṇyena tad-ayogyatva-nirdeśaḥ |
nanu na ca śaknomy avasthātuṃ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ iti pūrvam eva mayoktam ity āśaṅkyāha kṣudram iti | hṛdaya-daurbalyaṃ manaso bhramaṇādi-rūpam adhairyaṃ kṣudratva-kāraṇatvāt kṣudraṃ sunirasanaṃ vā tyaktvā vivekenāpanīyottiṣṭha yuddhāya sajjo bhava | he parantapa ! paraṃ śatruṃ tāpayatīti tathā saṃbodhyate hetu-garbham

 

Viśvanātha

klaibyaṃ klīb-dharmaṃ kātaryam | he pārtheti tvaṃ pṛthā-putraḥ sann api gacchasi | tasmān mā sma gamaḥ, mā prāpnuhi, anyasmin kṣatra-bandhau varam idam upapadyatām, tvayi mat-sakhau tu nopayujyate |
nanv idaṃ śauryābhāva-lakṣaṇaṃ klaibyaṃ mā śaṅkiṣṭhāḥ | kintu bhīṣma-droṇādi-guruṣu dharma-dṛṣṭyā viveko ‚yaṃ dhārtarāṣṭreṣu tu durbaleṣu mad-astrāghātam āsādya martum udyateṣu dayaiveyam iti tatrāha kṣudram iti | naite tava viveka-daye, kintu śoka-mohāv eva | tau ca manaso daurbalya-vyañjakau | tasmāt hṛdaya-daurbalyam idaṃ tyaktvā uttiṣṭha | he parantapa ! parān śatrūn tāpayan yudhyasva

 

Baladeva

nanu bandhu-kṣayādhyavasāya-doṣāt prakampitena mayā kiṃ bhāvyam iti cet tatrāha klaibyam iti | he pārtha ! devarāja-prasādāt pṛthāyām utpanna ! klaibyaṃ kātaryaṃ mā sma gamaḥ prāpnuhi | tvayi viśva-vijetari mat-sakhe ‚rjune kṣatra-bandhāv ivaitad īdṛśaṃ klaibyaṃ nopayujyate |
nanu na me śauryābhāva-rūpaṃ klaibyaṃ kintu bhīṣmādiṣu pūjyeṣu dharma-buddhyā viveko ‚yaṃ duryodhanādiṣu bhrātṛṣu mac-chastra-prahāreṇa mariṣyatsu kṛpeyam iti cet tatrāha kṣudram iti | naite tava viveka-kṛpe, kintu kṣudraṃ laghiṣṭhaṃ hṛdaya-daurbalyam eva | tasmāt tat tyaktvā yuddhāyottiṣṭha sajjībhava | he parantapa ! śatru-tāpaneti śatru-hāsa-pātratāṃ mā gāḥ

 
 

BhG 2.4

arjuna uvāca
kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṃkhye droṇaṃ ca madhusūdana
iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi pūjārhāv arisūdana

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he ari-sūdana (O slayer of enemies!), he madhu-sūdana (O slayer of Madhu!),
saṁkhye (in battle) aham (I) pūjārhau (two worthy of worship) bhīṣmam (Bhīṣma) droṇam ca (and Droṇa) katham (how?) iṣubhiḥ (with arrows) pratiyotsyāmi (I will fight against).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
katham av.how?, in what manner?, w jaki sposób?
bhīṣmam bhīṣma 2n.1 m.frightful, Bhīṣma (from: bhī – to scare);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
saṁkhye saṁkhya 7n.1 n.in battle (from: sam-khyā – to count, saṁkhya – counting, conflict);
droṇam droṇa 2n.1 m.cloud full of rain, tree, Droṇa;
ca av.and;
madhu-sūdana madhu-sūdana 8n.1 m.O slayer of Madhu (from: madhu – sweet, name of a demon; sūd – to put in order, to kill, sūdana – killing, destroying);
iṣubhiḥ iṣu 3n.3 m.with arrows;
pratiyotsyāmi prati-yudh (to fight against) Fut. P 3v.1I will fight against;
pūjārhau pūjā-arha 2n.2 m.; [TP]: pūjāyām arhāv iti two worthy of worship (from: pūj – to honour, to worship, pūjā ritual of worship; arh – to deserve, to be able to, arha – deserving, worthy);
ari-sūdana ari-sūdana 8n.1 m.; [TP]: arīṇām sūdana itithe slayer of enemies (from: to give, to surrender, a-ri – hostile; sūd – to put in order, to kill, sūdana – killing, destroying);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 2.5

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

nāhaṃ kātaratvena yuddhāt uparato ‚smi, kintu yuddhasya anyāyyatvād adharmyatvāc cety āha arjuna uvāca katham iti | bhīṣma-droṇau pūjārhau pūjāyām arho yogyau tau prati katham ahaṃ yotsyāmi, tatrāpi iṣubhiḥ yatra vācāpi yotsyāmīti vaktum anucitaṃ tatra bāṇaiḥ kathaṃ yotsyāmīty arthaḥ | he ari-sūdana śatru-mardana

 

Madhusūdana

nanu nāyaṃ svadharmasya tyāgaḥ śoka-mohādi-vaśāt kintu dharatvābhāvād adharmatvāc cāsya yuddhasya tyāgo mayā kriyata iti bhagavad-abhiprāyam apratipadyamānasyārjunasyābhiprāyam avatārayati katham iti | bhīṣmaṃ pitāmahaṃ droṇām cācāryaṃ saṅkhye raṇa iṣubhiḥ sāyakaiḥ pratiyotsyāmi prahariṣyāmi katham ? na kathaṃcid apīty arthaḥ | yatas tau pūjārhau kusumādibhir arcana-yogyau | pūjārhābhyāṃ saha krīḍā-sthāne ‚pi vācāpi harṣa-phalam api līlā-yuddham anucitaṃ kiṃ punar yuddha-bhūmau śaraiḥ prāṇa-tyāga-phalakaṃ praharaṇam ity arthaḥ |
madhusūdanārisūdaneti sambodhana-dvayaṃ śoka-vyākulatvena pūrvāpara-parāmarśa-vaikalyāt | ato na madhusūdanārisūdanety asyārthasya punar uktatvaṃ doṣaḥ | yuddha-mātram api yatra nocitaṃ dūre tatra vadha iti pratiyotsyāmīty anena sūcitam |
athavā pūjārhau kathaṃ pratiyotsyāmi | pūjārhayor eva vivaraṇaṃ bhīṣmaṃ droṇaṃ ceti | dvau brāhmaṇau bhojaya deva-dattaṃ yajña-dattaṃ cetivat sambandhaḥ | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ – duryodhanādayo nāpuraskṛtya bhīṣma-droṇau yuddhāya sajjībhavanti | tatra tābhyāṃ saha yuddhaṃ na tāvad dharmaḥ pūjādivad avihitatvāt | na cāyam aniṣiddhatvād adharmo ‚pi na bhavatīti vācyam | guruṃ huṅkṛtya tvaṃkṛtya ity ādinā śabda-mātreṇāpi guru-droho yadāniṣṭa-phalatva-pradarśanena niṣiddhas tadā kiṃ vācyaṃ tābhyāṃ saha saṅgrāmasyādharmatve niṣiddhatve ceti

 

Viśvanātha

nanu pratibadhnāti hi śreyaḥ pūjya-pūjā-vyatikramaḥ iti dharma-śāstram | ato ‚haṃ yuddhān nivarta ity āha katham iti | pratiyotsyāmi pratiyotsye | nanv etau yudhyete tarhy anayoḥ pratiyoddhā bhavituṃ tvaṃ kiṃ na śaknoṣi ? satyaṃ na śaknomy evety āha pūjārhāv iti | anayoś caraṇeṣu bhaktyā kusumāny eva dātum arhāmi na tu krodhena tīkṣṇa-śarān iti bhāvaḥ | bho vayasya kṛṣṇa tvam api śatrūn eva yuddhe haṃsi, na tu sandīpaniṃ sva-guruṃ, nāpi bandhūn yadūn ity āha he madhusūdaneti | nanu mādhavo yadava eva | tatrāha he arisūdana ! madhur nāma daityo yas tavārir iti bravīmīti

 

Baladeva

nanu bhīṣmādiṣu pratiyoddhṛṣu satsu tvayā kathaṃ na yoddhavyam | āhūto na nivarteta iti yuddha-vidhānāc ca kṣatriyasyeti cet tatrāha katham iti | bhīṣmaṃ pitāmahaṃ droṇaṃ ca vidyā-gurum | iṣubhiḥ kathaṃ yotsye ? yad imau pūjārhau puṣpādibhir abhyarcyau, parihāsa-vāgbhir api yābhyāṃ yuddhaṃ na yuktam | tābhyāṃ saheṣubhis tat kathaṃ yujyeta ? pratibadhnāti hi śreyaḥ pūjya- pūjya-pūjā-vyatikramaḥ iti smṛteś ca | madhusūdanārisūdaneti sambodhana-punar-uktiḥ | śokākulasya pūrvottarānusandhi-virahāt | tad-bhāvaś ca tvam api śatrūn eva yuddhe nihaṃsi na tūgrasena-sāndīpany-ādīn pūjyān iti

 
 

BhG 2.5

gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvāñ śreyo bhoktuṃ bhaikṣam apīha loke
hatvārtha-kāmāṃs tu gurūn ihaiva bhuñjīya bhogān rudhira-pradigdhān

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syntax


mahānubhāvān (those who have great experience) gurūn (masters) ahatvā hi (after ot killing indeed),
iha loke (in this world) bhaikṣam api (even obtained from begging) bhoktum (to eat) śreyaḥ (better).
tu (but) artha-kāmān (those who desire benefits) gurūn (masters) hatvā (after killing),
iha eva (here certainly) rudhira-pradigdhān (stained with blood) bhogān (luxuries) bhuñjīya (I would enjoy).

 

grammar

gurūn guru 2n.3 m.heavy ones, masters, preceptors;
a-hatvā han (to kill, to strike, to beat) absol.after not killing;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
mahānubhāvān mahā-anubhāva 2n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ mahān anubhāvaḥ santi tānthose who have great experience (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; anu-bhū – to experience, to understand, anubhāva – experience, understanding);
śreyaḥ av.better (from: śreyas – better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare; comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha; can be followed by [inf.])
bhoktum bhuj (to eat, to enjoy) [inf.] – to eat;
bhaikṣam bhaikṣa 2n.1 n.obtained from begging (from: bhikṣ – to beg, bhikṣā begging);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
hatvā han (to kill, to strike, to beat) absol.after killing;
artha-kāmān artha-kāma 2n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām arthānāṁ kāmo ‘sti tān – those who desire benefits (from: arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use; kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire, pleasure); or artha-kāmātmakān bhogānluxuries, whose nature is desire of wealth;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
gurūn guru 2n.3 m.heavy ones, masters, preceptors;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
bhuñjīya bhuj (to eat, to enjoy) Pot. Ā 3v.1I would enjoy;
bhogān bhoga 2n.3 m.luxuries, food, wealth (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy);
rudhira-pradigdhān rudhira-pradigdha 2n.3 m.; [TP]: rudhireṇa pradigdhān itiwhich are stained with blood (from: rudhira – blood, red; pra-dih – to smear, [PP] pradigdha – smeared, stained);

 

textual variants


śreyo bhoktuṁ → śreyaś cartuṁ / śreyas karaṁ / śreyo bhuktaṁ (better to practice / better acting / better food);
bhaikṣam → bhaikṣyam (that which is to be begged);
hatvārtha-kāmāṁs tu → hatvārtha-kāmāṁś ca / hatvārtha-kāmyāṁs tu (and after killing those desiring wealth / but after destroying the desired wealth);
hatvārtha-kāmāṁs tu gurūn ihaiva → na tvārtha-kāmaṁs tu gurūn nihatya (after not killing the masters  desiring wealth);
bhuñjīya → bhuṁjīta (he would enjoy);
rudhira-pradigdhān → rudhira-pradagdhān (destroyed by blood);
 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

punar api pārthaḥ sneha-kāruṇya-dharmādharma-bhayākulo bhagavad-uktaṃ hitatamam ajānan idam uvāca | bhīṣma-droṇādikān bahu-mantavyān gurūn katham ahaṃ haniṣyāmi ? kathantarāṃ bhogeṣv atimātra-prasaktān tān hatvā tair bhujyamānān tān eva bhogāṃs tad-rudhireṇa upasicya teṣv āsaneṣūpaviśya bhuñjīya ?

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tarhi tān ahatvā tava deha-yātrāpi na syād iti cet, tatrāha gurūn iti | gurūn droṇācāryādīn ahatvā para-loka-viruddhaṃ guru-vadham akṛtvā iha-loke bhaikṣyaṃ bhikṣānnam api bhoktuṃ śreya ucitam | vipakṣe tu na kevalaṃ paratra duḥkhaṃ, kintu ihaiva ca naraka-duḥkham anubhaveyam ity āha hatveti | gurūn hatvā ihaiva tu rudhireṇa pradigdhān prakarṣeṇa liptān artha-kāmātmakān bhogān ahaṃ bhuñjīya aśnīyām | yad vā artha-kāmān iti gurūṇāṃ viśeṣaṇam | artha-tṛṣṇākulatvād ete tāvad yuddhān na nivarteran tasmād etad vadhaḥ prasajyetaivety arthaḥ | tathā ca yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati bhīṣmeṇoktaṃ –
arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho ‚smy arthena kauravaiḥ || iti [MBh 6.41.36]

 

Madhusūdana

nanu bhīṣma-droṇayoḥ pūjārhatvaṃ gurutvenaiva, evam anyeṣām api kṛpādīnāṃ, na ca teṣāṃ gurutvena svīkāraḥ sāmpratam ucitaḥ –
guror apy avaliptasya kāryākāryam ajānataḥ |
utpathapratipannasya parityāgo vidhīyate || [MBh 5.178.24]
iti smṛteḥ | tasmād eṣāṃ yuddha-garveṇāvaliptānām anyāya-rājya-grahaṇena śiṣya-droheṇa ca kāryākārya-viveka-śūnyānām utpatha-niṣṭhānāṃ vadha eva śreyān ity āśaṅkyāha gurūn iti |
gurūn ahatvā para-lokas tāvad asty eva | asmiṃs tu loke tair hṛta-rājyānāṃ no nṛpādīnāṃ niṣiddhaṃ bhaikṣam api bhoktuṃ śreyaḥ praśasyataram ucitaṃ na tu tad-vadhena rājyam api śreya iti dharme ‚pi yuddhe vṛtti-mātra-phalatvaṃ gṛhītvā pāpam āropya vrate |
nanv avaliptatvādinā teṣāṃ gurutvābhāva ukta ity āśaṅkyāha mahānubhāvān iti | mahānubhāvaḥ śrutādhyayana-tapa-ācārādi-nibandhanaḥ prabhāvo yeṣāṃ tān | tathā ca kāla-kāmādayo ‚pi yair vaśīkṛtās teṣāṃ puṇyātiśaya-śālināṃ nāvaliptatvādi-kṣudra-pāpma-saṃśleṣa ity arthaḥ | himahānubhāvān ity ekaṃ vā padam | himaṃ jāḍyam apahantīti himahā ādityo ‚gnir vā tasyaivānubhāvaḥ sāmarthyaṃ yeṣāṃ tān | tathā cātitejasvitvāt teṣām avaliptatvādi-doṣo nāsty eva |
dharma-vyatikramo dṛṣṭa īśvarāṇāṃ ca sāhasam |
tejīyasāṃ na doṣāya vahneḥ sarva-bhujo yathā || [BhP 10.33.30]
nanu yadārtha-lubdhāḥ santo yuddhe pravṛttās tadaiṣāṃ vikrītātmanāṃ kutastyaṃ pūrvoktaṃ māhātmyaṃ, tathā coktaṃ bhīṣmeṇa yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati –
arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho ‚smy arthena kauravaiḥ || [MBh 6.41.36]
ity āśaṅkyāha hatveti | artha-lubdhā api te mad-apekṣayā guravo bhavanty eveti punar guru-grahaṇenoktam | tu-śabdo ‚py arthe īdṛśān api gurūn hatvā bhogān eva bhuñjīya na tu mokṣaṃ labheya | bhujyanta iti bhogā viṣayāḥ karmaṇi ghañ | te ca bhogā ihaiva na para-loke | ihāpi ca rudhira-pradigdhā ivāpayaśo-vyāptatvenātyanta-jugupsitā ity arthaḥ | yadehāpy evaṃ tadā para-loka-duḥkhaṃ kiyad varṇanīyam iti bhāvaḥ |
athavā gurūn hatvārtha-kāmātmakān bhogān eva bhuñjīya na tu dharma-mokṣāv ity artha-kāma-padasya bhoga-viśeṣaṇatayā vyākhyānāntaraṃ draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha

nanv evaṃ te yadi svarājye ‚smin nāsti jighṛkṣā, tarhi kayā vṛttyā jīviṣyasīty atrāha gurūn ahatveti | guru-vadham akṛtvā bhaikṣyaṃ kṣatriyair vigītam api bhikṣānnam api bhoktuṃ śreyaḥ | aihika-duryaśo-lābhe ‚pi pāratrikam amaṅgalaṃ tu naiva syād iti bhāvaḥ | na caiva guravo ‚valiptāḥ kāryākāryam ajānantaś cādhārmika-duryodhanādy-anugatās tyājyā eva | yad uktaṃ –
guror apy avaliptasya kāryākāryam ajānataḥ |
utpatha-pratipannasya parityāgo vidhīyate || [MBh 5.178.24] iti vācyam |
ity āha – mahānubhāvān iti | kāla-kāmādayo ‚pi yair vaśīkṛtās teṣāṃ bhīṣmādīnāṃ kutas tad-doṣa-sambhava iti bhāvaḥ | nanu –
arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho ‚smy arthena kauravaiḥ || [MBh 6.41.36]
iti yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati bhīṣmeṇaivoktam ataḥ sāmpratam artha-kāmatvād eteṣāṃ mahānubhāvatvaṃ prāktanaṃ vigalitam ? satyam, tad apy etān hatavato mama duḥkham eva syād ity āha artha-kāmānartha-lubdhān apy etān kurūn hatvāhaṃ bhogān bhuñjīya kintv eteṣāṃ rudhireṇa pradigdhān praliptān eva | ayam arthaḥ – eteṣām artha-lubdhatve ‚pi mad-gurutvam asty eva, ataevaitad-vadhe sati guru-drohiṇo mama khalu bhogo duṣkṛti-miśraḥ syād iti

 

Baladeva

nanu svarājye spṛhā cet tava nāsti tarhi deha-yātrā vā kathaṃ setsyatīti cet tatrāha gurūn iti | gurūn ahatvā guru-vadham akṛtvā sthitasya me bhaikṣyānnaṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ nindyam api bhoktuṃ śreyaḥ praśastataram | aihika-duryaśo-hetutve ‚pi para-lokāvighātitvāt |
nanv ete bhīṣmādayo guravo ‚pi yuddha-garvāvalepāt chadmanā yuṣmad-rājyāpahāraṃ yuṣmad-drohaṃ ca kurvatāṃ duryodhanādīnāṃ saṃsargeṇa kāryākārya-viveka-virahāc ca samprati tyājyā eva-
guror apy avaliptasya kāryākāryam ajānataḥ |
utpathapratipannasya parityāgo vidhīyate || [MBh 5.178.24] iti smṛteḥ |
iti cet tatrāha – mahānubhāvān iti | mahān sarvotkṛṣṭo ‚nubhāvo vedādhyayana-brahmacaryādi-hetukaḥ prabhāvo yeṣāṃ tān | kāla-kāmādayo ‚pi yad-vaśyās teṣāṃ tad-doṣa-sambandho neti bhāvaḥ |
nanu –
arthasya puruṣo dāso dāsas tv artho na kasyacit |
iti satyaṃ mahārāja baddho ‚smy arthena kauravaiḥ || [MBh 6.41.36]
iti bhīṣmokter artha-lobhena vikrītātmanāṃ teṣāṃ kuto mahānubhāvatā ? tato yuddhe hantavyās te iti cet tatrāha hatvārtha-kāmān iti | artha-kāmān api gurūn hatvāham ihaiva loke bhogān bhuñjīya, na tu para-loke | tāṃś ca rudhira-pradigdhān tad-rudhira-miśrān eva, na tu śuddhān bhuñjīya tad-dhiṃsayā tal-lābhāt | tathā ca yuddha-garvāvalepādi-mattve ‚pi teṣāṃ mad-gurutvam asty eveti punar guru-grahaṇena sūcyate

 
 

BhG 2.6

na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ
yān eva hatvā na jijīviṣāmas te vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ

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syntax


yad vā (if) [vayam] (we) jayema (we should conquer),
yadi vā (or if) [ete] (they) naḥ (us) jayeyuḥ (they should conquer),
naḥ (for us) katarat (which of the two) garīyaḥ (better) [asti] (is),
etat ca (and this) na vidmaḥ (we do not know).
yān eva (certainly those whom) hatvā (after killing),
[vayam] (we) na jijīviṣāmaḥ (we will not desire to live),
te eva (just they) dhārtarāṭrāḥ (the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) pramukhe (in front of) avasthitāḥ (they are arrayed).

 

grammar

na av.not;
ca av.and;
etat etat sn. 2n.1 n.this;
vidmaḥ vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 3v.3we know;
katarat katarat sn. 2n.1 n.which of the two;
naḥ asmat sn. 6n.3for us (shortened form of: asmākam);
garīyaḥ garīyas 2n.1 n.heavier, better (comparative of: gurugarīyas, gariṣṭha);
yat vā av.however, or (from: yat – which, correlative of tat; – or, on the other hand, optionally);
jayema ji (to conquer) Pot. P 3v.3we should conquer;
yadi vā av.this or that (from: yadi – if, correlative of tarhi; – or, on the other hand, optionally);
naḥ asmat sn. 2n.3us (shortened form of: asmān);
jayeyuḥ ji (to conquer) Pot. P 1v.3they should conquer;
yān yat sn. 2n.3 m.those whom;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
hatvā han (to kill, to strike, to beat) absol.after killing;
na av.not;
jijīviṣāmaḥ jīv (to live) Praes. des. P 3v.3we desiring to live (jīvitum icchāmaḥ – we desire to live);
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
avasthitāḥ ava-sthita (ava-sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.3 m.they are arrayed;
pramukhe pra-mukha 7n.1 n.in front of, facing (from: mukha – face);
dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ dhārtarāṣṭra 1n.3 m.the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (from: dhṛta-rāṣṭra – by whom the kingdom is held, from: dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held; rāṣṭra – kingdom);

 

textual variants


na caitad vidmaḥ → naitad vidmaḥ / naitad viduḥ (this we do not know / this they do not know);
te ‚vasthitāḥ → te naḥ sthitāḥ / tenāsthitāḥ (they standing in front of us / therefore standing);
pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ → praty-anīkeṣu yodhāḥ (warriors int he opposite ranks);
 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 2.8

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca yadyapy adharmam aṅgīkariṣyāmaḥ tathāpi kim asmākaṃ jayaḥ parājayo vā garīyān bhaved iti na jñāyata ity āha na ced ity ādi | etad dvayor madhye no ‚smākaṃ katarat kiṃ nāma garīyo ‚dhikataraṃ bhaviṣyatīti na vidmaḥ | tad eva dvayaṃ darśayati | yad vā etān vayaṃ jayema jeṣyāmaḥ yadi vā no ‚smān ete jayeyuḥ jeṣyantīti | jayo ‚pi kiṃ cāsmākaṃ katarat jaya-parājayayor madhye kiṃ khalu garīyo ‚dhikataraṃ bhaviṣyati etan na vidmaḥ | tad eva pakṣa-dvayaṃ darśayati etān vayaṃ jayema, no ‚smān vā ete jayeyur iti | kiṃ ca jayo ‚py asmākaṃ phalataḥ parājaya evety āha yān eveti

 

Madhusūdana

nanu bhikṣāśanasya kṣatriyaṃ prati niṣiddhatvād yuddhasya ca vihitatvāt svadharmatvena yuddham eva tatra śreyaskaram ity āśaṅkyāha na caitad iti | etad api na jānīmo bhaikṣa-yuddhayor madhye kataran no ‚smākaṃ garīyaḥ śreṣṭham | kiṃ bhaikṣaṃ hiṃsā-śūnyatvād uta yuddhaṃ svadharmatvād iti | idaṃ ca na vidma ārabdhe ‚pi yuddhe yad vā vayaṃ jayemātiśayīmahi yadi vā no ‚smān jayeyur dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ | ubhayoḥ sāmya-pakṣo ‚py arthād boddhavyaḥ |
kiṃ ca jāto ‚pi jayo naḥ phalataḥ parājaya eva | yato yān bandhūn hatvā jīvitum api vayaṃ necchāmaḥ kiṃ punar viṣayānupabhoktum ? ta evāvasthitāḥ saṃmukhe dhārtarāṣṭrā dhṛtarāṣṭra-sambandhino bhīṣma-droṇādayaḥ sarve ‚pi | tasmād bhaikṣād yuddhasya śreṣṭhatvaṃ na siddham ity arthaḥ |
tad evaṃ prāktanena granthena saṃsāra-doṣa-nirūpaṇād adhikāri-viśeṣaṇāny uktāni | tatra na ca śreyo ‚nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave ity atra raṇe hatasya parivrāṭ-samāna-yoga-kṣematvokteḥ anyac chreyo ‚nyad utaiva preyaḥ [KaṭhU 2.1] ity ādi-śruti-siddhaṃ śreyo mokṣākhyam upanyastam | arthāc ca tad itarad aśreya iti nityānitya-vastu-viveko darśitaḥ, na kāṅkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇety [Gītā 1.32] atraihika-phala-virāgaḥ | api trailokya-rājyasya [Gītā 1.35] hetor ity atra pāralaukika-phala-virāgaḥ | narake niyataṃ vāsa [Gītā 1.44] ity atra sthūla-dehātirikta ātmā, kiṃ no rājyena [Gītā 1.32] iti vyākhyāta-vartmanā śamaḥ | kiṃ bhogair [Gītā 1.32] iti damaḥ | yadyapy ete na paśyanti [Gītā 1.38] ity atra nirlobhatā | tan me kṣemataraṃ bhaved [Gītā 1.46] ity atra titikṣā | iti prathamādhyāyārthaḥ saṃnyāsa-sādhana-sūcanam | asmiṃs tv adhyāye śreyo bhoktuṃ bhaikṣam api [Gītā 2.5] ity atra bhikṣā-caryopalakṣitaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ pratipāditaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

kiṃ ca guru-drohe pravṛttasyāpi mama jayaḥ parājayo vā bhaved ity api na jñāyata ity āha na caitad ity ādi | tathāpi no ‚smākaṃ katarat jaya-parājayayor madhye kiṃ khalu garīyo ‚dhikataraṃ bhaviṣyati etan na vidmaḥ | tad eva pakṣa-dvayaṃ darśayati — etān vayaṃ jayema, no ‚smān vā ete jayeyur iti | kiṃ ca jayo ‚py asmākaṃ phalataḥ parājaya evety āha yān eveti

 

Baladeva

nanu bhaikṣa-bhojanaṃ kṣatriyasya vigarhitaṃ, yuddhaṃ ca sva-dharmaṃ vijānann api vibhāṣase iti cet tatrāha na caitad iti | etad vayaṃ na vidmaḥ | bhaikṣya-yuddhayor madhye no ‚smākaṃ katarad garīyaḥ praśastataram | hiṃsā-virahād bhaikṣaṃ garīyaḥ svadharmatvād yuddhaṃ veti, etac ca na vidmaḥ | samārabdhe yuddhe vayaṃ dhārtarāṣṭrān jayema te vā no ‚smān jayeyur iti |
nanu mahā-vikramiṇāṃ dharmiṣṭhānāṃ ca bhavatām eva vijayo bhāvīti cet tatrāha yān eveti | yān dhārtarāṣṭrān bhīṣmādīn sarvān | na jijīviṣāmo jīvitum api necchāmaḥ kiṃ punar bhogān bhoktum ity arthaḥ | tathā ca vijayo ‚py asmākaṃ phalataḥ parājaya eveti | tasmād yuddhasya bhaikṣād garīyas tvam aprasiddham iti | evam etāvatā granthena tasmād evaṃvic chānta-dānta uparatas titikṣuḥ śraddhānvito bhūtvātmany evātmānaṃ paśyet iti śruti-prasiddham arjunasya jñānādhikāritvaṃ darśitam | tatra kiṃ no rājyena [Gītā 1.32] iti śama-damau | api trailokya-rājyasya [Gītā 1.35] ity aihika-pāratrika-bhogopekṣā-lakṣaṇā uparatiḥ | bhaikṣaṃ bhoktuṃ śreya iti dvandva-sahiṣṇutva-lakṣaṇā titikṣā | guru-vākya-dṛḍha-viśvāsa-lakṣaṇā śraddhā tūttara-vākye vyaktībhaviṣyati, na khalu śamādi-śūnyasya jñāne ‚sty adhikāraḥ paṅgāder iva karmaṇīti

 
 

BhG 2.7

kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ pṛcchāmi tvā dharma-saṃmūḍha-cetāḥ
yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṃ brūhi tan me śiṣyas te haṃ śādhi māṃ tvāṃ prapannam

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kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ (one whose nature is afflicted with miserly weakness) dharma-saṁmūḍha-cetāḥ (one whose mind is bewildered with regard to the duty) [tādṛśaḥ aham] (this kind of me) tvā (you) pṛcchāmi (I ask).
yat (that which) niścitam (certainly) śreyaḥ (the best) syāt (it would be),
tat (this) me (to me) brūhi (speak).
aham (I) te (your) śiṣyaḥ (disciple),
[ataḥ] (therefore) mām (me) tvām (to you) prapannam (surrendered) śādhi (instruct).

 

grammar

kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ kārpaṇya-doṣa-upahata-svabhāva 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya kārpaṇyasya doṣenopahataḥ svabhāvo ‘sti saḥ one whose nature is afflicted with miserly weakness (from: kṛp – to lament, to pity, to long for; kṛpā – grief, pity, compassion, tenderness, kṛpaṇa – pitiable, miserable, poor, kārpaṇya – weakness, poorness, compassion; duṣ – to become bad, to be defiled, to perish, doṣa – evil, fault, guilt; upa-han – to strike, to beat, to afflict, [PP] upahata – afflicted; sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature, sva-bhāva – own nature, natural state);
pṛcchāmi prach (to ask) Praes. P 3v.1I ask;
tvā yuṣmat sn. 2n.1 m.you (shortened form of: tvām);
dharma-saṁmūḍha-cetāḥ dharma-saṁmūḍha-cetas 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya dharme sammūḍhaṁ ceto ‘sti saḥ one whose mind is bewildered with regard to the duty (from: dhṛ to hold; sam-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, [PP] sammūḍha – to be bewildered; cit – to perceive, to think; cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
śreyaḥ śreyas 1n.1 n. better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
syāt as (to be) Pot. P 1v.1it would be;
niścitam niścita (nir-ci – to ascertain, to resolve) [PP] 1n.1 n.ascertained, settled, or av.certainly, decidedly, positively;
brūhi brū (to speak) Imperat. P 2v.1speak;
tan tat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
me asmat sn. 4n.1to me (shortened form of: mahyam);
śiṣyaḥ śiṣya (śās – to instruct) PF 1n.1 m.disciple;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
śādhi śās (to instruct) Imperat. P 2v.1instruct;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
prapannam prapanna (pra-pat – to fall down, to surrender) [PP] 2n.1 m.surrendered, poor;

 

textual variants

tvā → tvaṃ (you);
tvāṃ → tvaṃ (you);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 2.8

 

Madhva

brak komentarza aż do wersu BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

upadeśa-grahaṇe svādhikāraṃ sūcayati kārpaṇyety ādi | arthāt kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ etān hatvā kathaṃ jīviṣyāma iti kārpaṇyaṃ dosaś ca svakula-kṣaya-kṛtaḥ, tābhyām upahato ‚bhibhūtaḥ svabhāvaḥ śauryādi-lakṣaṇo yasya so ‚haṃ tvāṃ pṛcchāmi, tathā dharme saṃmūḍhaṃ ceto yasya saḥ | yuddhaṃ tyaktvā bhikṣāṭanam api kṣatriyasya dharmo ‚dharmo veti sandigdha-cittaḥ sann ity arthaḥ | ato me yan niścitaṃ śreyaḥ yuktaṃ syāt tad brūhi | kiṃ ca te ‚haṃ śiṣyaḥ śāsanārhaḥ | atas tvāṃ prapannaṃ śaraṇāgataṃ māṃ śādhi śikṣaya

 

Madhusūdana

gurūpasadanam idānīṃ pratipādyate samadhigata-saṃsāra-doṣa-jātasyātitarāṃ nirviṇṇasya vidhivad gurum upasannasyaiva vidyā-grahaṇe ‚dhikārāt | tad evaṃ bhīṣmādi-saṃkaṭa-vaśāt | vyutthāyātha bhikṣācaryaṃ caranti [BAU 3.5.1] iti śruti-siddha-bhikṣā-carye ‚rjunasyābhilāṣaṃ pradarśya vidhivad gurūpasattim api tat-saṅkaṭa-vyājenaiva darśayati kārpaṇyeti |
yaḥ svalpām api citta-kṣatiṃ na kṣamate sa kṛpaṇa iti loke prasiddhaḥ | tad-vidhatvād akhilo ‚nātma-vid aprāpta-puruṣārthatayā kṛpaṇo bhavati | yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śruteḥ | tasya bhāvaḥ kārpaṇyam anātmādhyāsavattvaṃ tan-nimitto ‚smin janmany eta eva madīyās teṣu hateṣu kiṃ jīvitenety abhiniveśa-rūpo mamatā-lakṣaṇo doṣas tenopahatas tiraskṛtaḥ svabhāvaḥ kṣātro yuddhodyoga-lakṣaṇo yasya sa tathā | dharme viṣaye nirṇāyaka-pramāṇaādarśanāt saṃmūḍhaṃ kim eteṣāṃ vadho dharmaḥ kim etat-paripālanaṃ dharmaḥ | tathā kiṃ pṛthvī-paripālanaṃ dharmaḥ kiṃ vā yathāvasthito ‚raṇya-nivāsa eva dharma ity ādi-saṃśayair vyāptaṃ ceto yasya sa tathā | na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīya ity atra vyākhyātam etat | evaṃvidhaḥ sann ahaṃ tvā tvām idānīṃ pṛcchāmi śreya ity anuṣaṅgaḥ |
ato yan niścitam aikāntikam ātyantikaṃ ca śreyaḥ parama-pumartha-bhūtaṃ phalaṃ syāt tan me mahyaṃ brūhi | sādhanānantaram avaśyambhāvitvam aikāntikatavaṃ, jātasyāvināśa ātyantikatvam | yathā hy auṣadhe kṛte kadācid roga-nivṛttir na bhaved api jātāpi ca roga-nivṛttiḥ punar api rogotpattyā vināśyate | evaṃ kṛte ‚pi yāge pratibandha-vaśāt svargo na bhaved api jāto ‚pi svargo duḥkhākrānto naśyati ceti naikāntikatvam ātyantikatvaṃ vā tayoḥ | tad uktam –
duḥkha-trayābhighātāj jijñāsā tad-apaghātake hetau |
dṛṣṭe sāpārthā cen naikāntātyantato ‚bhāvāt || (Sa.K. 1) iti |
dṛṣṭavad ānuśravikaḥ sa hy avaiśuddhi-kṣayātiśaya-yuktaḥ |
tad-viparītaḥ śreyān vyaktāvyaktajña-vijñānāt || (Sa.K. 1) iti |
nanu tvaṃ mama sakhā na tu śiṣyo ‚ta āha śiṣyas te ‚ham iti | tvad-anuśāsanayogyatvād ahaṃ tava śiṣya eva bhavāmi na sakhā nyūna-jñānatvāt | atas tvāṃ prapannaṃ śaraṇāgataṃ māṃ śādhi śikṣaya karuṇayā na tv aśiṣyatva-śaṅkayopekṣaṇīyo ‚ham ity arthaḥ | etena – tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham [ṃuṇḍU 1.2.11], bhṛgur vai vāruṇiḥ | varuṇaṃ pitaram upasasāra | adhīhi bhagavo brahmeti [TaittU 3.1] ity ādi-gurūpasatti-pratipādakaḥ śruty-artho darśitaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

nanu tarhi sopapattikaṃ śāstrārthaṃ tvam eva bruvāṇaḥ kṣatriyo bhūtvā bhikṣāṭanaṃ niścinoṣi tarhy alaṃ mad-uktyeti tatrāha kārpaṇyeti | svābhāvikasya śauryasya tyāga eva me kārpaṇyam | dharmasya sūkṣmā gatir ity ato dharma-vyavasthāyām apy ahaṃ mūḍha-buddhir evāsmi | atas tvam eva niścitya śreyo brūhi |
nanu mad-vācas tvaṃ paṇḍata-mānitvena khaṇḍayasi cet, kathaṃ brūyām ? tatrāha śiṣyas te ‚ham asmi | nātaṃ paraṃ vṛthā khaṇḍayāmīti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

atha tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham [ṃuṇḍU 1.2.11], ācāryavān puruṣo veda [Chā 6.14.2] ity ādi śruti-siddhāṃ gurūpasattiṃ darśayati kārpaṇyeti | yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śravaṇād abrahmavittvaṃ kārpaṇyam | tena hetunā yo doṣo yān eva hatveti bandhu-vargam amatālakṣaṇas tenopahata-svabhāvo yuddha-spṛhā-lakṣaṇaḥ svadharmo yasya saḥ | dharme saṃmūḍhaṃ kṣatriyasya me yuddhaṃ svadharmas tad vihāya bhikṣāṭanaṃ vety evaṃ sandihānaṃ ceto yasya saḥ | īdṛśaḥ sann ahaṃ tvām idānīṃ pṛcchāmi – tasmān niścitaṃ ekāntikaṃ ātyantikaṃ yan me śreyaḥ syāt tat tvaṃ brūhi | sādhanottaram avaśyaṃbhāvitvaṃ aikāntikatvaṃ, bhūtasyāvināśitvaṃ ātyantikatvam |
nanu śaraṇāgatasyopadeśaḥ tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet ity ādi-śruteḥ | sakhāyaṃ tvāṃ katham upadiśāmīti cet tatrāha śiṣyas te ‚ham iti | śādhi śikṣaya

 
 

BhG 2.8

na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām
avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṃ rājyaṃ surāṇām api cādhipatyam

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bhūmau (on earth) asapatnam (unrivaled) ṛddham (prosperous) rājyam (kingdom) [avāpya] (after obtaining),
surāṇām ca (and of the divinities) ādhipatyam (supremacy) avāpya api (even after obtaining),
yat (that which) indriyāṇām (of the senses) ucchoṣaṇam (which is drying up) mama (my) śokam (grief) apanudyāt (it would remove),
[tat] (this) aham (I) na hi prapaśyāmi (just I do not see).

 

grammar

na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
prapaśyāmi pra-dṛś (to see clearly) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
apanudyāt apa-nud (to remove) Pot. P 1v.1it would remove;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 m.that which (correlative of: tat);
śokam śoka 2n.1 m.sorrow, heat (from: śuc – to grieve,  to burn);
ucchoṣaṇam ucchoṣaṇa 2n.1 m.which is drying up (from: ut-śuṣ – to dry up):
indriyāṇām indriya 6n.3 n.of the senses (from: ind – to be powerful);
avāpya ava-āp (to obtain) absol.after obtaining;
bhūmau bhūmi 7n.1 f.on earth;
asapatnam a-sa-patna 2n.1 n.unrivaled (from: sa-patna – rival; sa-patnī – co-wife);
ṛddham ṛddha (ṛdh – to grow) [PP] 2n.1 n.grown, prosperous, thriving;
rājyam rājya (rāj – to reign) PF 2n.1 n.kingdom, power;
surāṇām sura 6n.3 m.of the gods, divinities;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
ādhipatyam ādhi-patya 2n.1 n.rule, supremacy (from: adhi-pati – ruler ober others);

 

textual variants

yat → yaḥ (that which);

 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

evaṃ yuddham ārabhya nivṛttavyāpārān bhavato dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ prasahya hanyur iti cet, astu, tad-vadha-labdha-vijayād adharmyād asmākaṃ dharmādharmāv ajānadbhis tair hananam eva garīya iti me pratibhātīty uktvā, yan mahyaṃ śreya iti niścitaṃ tat śarṇāgatāya tava śiṣyāya me brūhīty atimātra-kṛpaṇo bhagavat-pādāmbujam upasasāra

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tvam eva vicārya yad yuktaṃ tat kurv iti cet, tatrāha na hi prapaśyāmīti | indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇam atiśoṣaṇa-karaṃ madīyaṃ śokaṃ yat karma apanudyāt apanayet tad ahaṃ na prapaśyāmīti | yadyapi bhūmau niṣkaṇṭakaṃ samṛddhaṃ rājyaṃ prāpsyāmi | tathā surendratvam api yadi prāpsyāmi evam abhīṣṭaṃ tat tat sarvam avāpyāpi śokāpanodanopāyaṃ na prapaśyāmīty anvayaḥ ||8||

 

Madhusūdana

nanu svayam eva tvaṃ śreyo vicāraya śruta-sampanno ‚si kiṃ para-śiṣyatvenety ata āha nahīti | yac-chreyaḥ prāptaṃ sat-kartṛ mama śokam apanudyād apanuden nivārayet tan na paśyāmi hi yasmāt tasmān māṃ śādhīti so ‚haṃ bhagavaḥ śocāmi taṃ mā bhagavāñ chokasya pāraṃ tārayatu [ChāU 7.1.3] iti śruty-artho darśitaḥ | śokānapanode ko doṣa ity āśaṅkya tad-viśeṣaṇam āha indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇam iti | sarvadā santāpa-karam ity arthaḥ |
nanu yuddhe prayatamānasya tava śoka-nivṛttir bhaviṣyati jeṣyasi cet tadā rājya-prāptyā dvāv etau puruṣau loke ity ādi-dharma-śāstrād ity āśaṅkyāha avāpyety ādinā | śatru-varjitaṃ sasyādi-sampannaṃ ca rājyaṃ tathā surāṇām ādhipatyaṃ hiraṇyagarbhatva-paryantam aiśvaryam avāpya sthitasyāpi mama yac chokam apanudyāt tan na paśyāmīty anvayaḥ | tad yatheha karma-jito lokaḥ kṣīyata evam evāmutra puṇya-jito lokaḥ kṣīyate [Chā 8.1.6] iti śruteḥ | yat-kṛtakaṃ tad-anityam ity anumānāt pratyakṣeṇāpy aihikānāṃ vināśa-darśanāc ca naihika āmutriko vā bhogaḥ śoka-nivartakaḥ kintu sva-sattā-kāle ‚pi bhoga-pāratantryādinā vināśa-kāle ‚pi vicchedāc choka-janaka eveti na yuddhaṃ śoka-nivṛttaye ‚nuṣṭheyam ity arthaḥ | etenehāmutra-bhoga-virāgo ‚dhikāri-viśeṣaṇatvena darśitaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

nanu mayi tava sakhya-bhāva eva, na tu gauravam | atas tvāṃ katham ahaṃ śiṣyaṃ karomi ? tasmād yatra tava gauravaṃ taṃ kam api dvaipāyanādikaṃ prapadyasva ity ata āha na hīti | mama śokam apanudyāt dūrīkuryād evaṃ janaṃ na prakarṣeṇa paśyāmi trijagaty ekaṃ tvāṃ vinā | svasmād adhika-buddhimantaṃ bṛhaspatim api na jānāmīty ataḥ śokārta eva khalu kaṃ prapadyeya iti bhāvaḥ | yad yataḥ śokād indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇaṃ mahā-nidāghāt kṣudra-sarasām iva utkarṣeṇa śoṣo bhavati |
nanu tarhi sāmprataṃ tvaṃ śokārta eva khalu yudhyasva | tataś caitān jitvā rājyaṃ prātavatas tava rājya-bhogābhiniveśenaiva śoko ‚payāsyatīty āha avāpyeti | bhūmau niṣkaṇṭakaṃ rājyaṃ svarge surāṇām ādhipatyaṃ vā prāpyāpi sthitasya mamendriyāṇām etad ucchoṣaṇam evety arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanu tvaṃ śāstrajño ‚si sva-hitaṃ vicāryānutiṣṭha, sakhyur me śiṣyaḥ kathaṃ bhaver iti cet tatrāha na hīti | yat karma mama śokam apanudyād dūrīkuryāt tad ahaṃ na prapaśyāmi | śokaṃ viśinaṣṭi – indriyāṇām ucchoṣaṇam iti | tasmāc choka-vināśāya tvāṃ prapanno ‚smīti | itthaṃ ca so ‚haṃ bhagavaḥ śocāmi taṃ māṃ bhavān śokasya pāraṃ tārayatu iti śruty-artho darśitaḥ |
nanu tvam adhunā śokākulaḥ prapadyase yuddhāt sukha-samṛddhi-lābhe viśoko bhaviṣyasīti cet tatrāha avāpyeti | yadi yuddhe vijayī syāṃ tadā bhūmāv asapatnaṃ niṣkaṇṭakaṃ rājyaṃ prāpya yadi ca tatra hataḥ syāṃ tadā svarge surāṇām ādhipatyaṃ prāpya sthitasya me viśokatvaṃ na bhaved ity arthaḥ | tad yatheha karma-jito lokaḥ kṣīyata evam evāmutra puṇya-jito lokaḥ kṣīyate [ChāU 8.1.6] iti śruter naihikaṃ pāratrikaṃ vā yuddha-labdhaṃ sukhaṃ śokāpahaṃ tasmāt tādṛśam eva śreyastvaṃ brūhīti na yuddhaṃ śoka-haram

 
 

BhG 2.9

saṃjaya uvāca
evam uktvā hṛṣīkeśaṃ guḍākeśaḥ paraṃtapa
na yotsya iti govindam uktvā tūṣṇīṃ babhūva ha

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syntax


saṁjaya (Saṁjaya) uvāca (he spoke):
he paraṁtapaḥ (O scorcher of enemies!),
guḍākeśaḥ (Guḍākeśa) hṛṣīkeśam (to Hṛṣīkeśa) evam (thus) uktvā (after speaking),
[aham] (I) na yotsye iti (I will not fight) govindam (to Govinda) uktvā (after speaking),
tūṣṇīm babhūva ha (indeed he became silent).

 

grammar

saṁjayaḥ sam-jaya 1n.1 m.conquest, complete victory, Saṁjaya  (from: sam-ji – to conquer);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
evam av.thus;
uktvā vac (to speak) absol.after speaking;
hṛṣīkeśam hṛṣīkeśa 2n.1 m.to one with erect hair, to Hṛṣīkeśa (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair) or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśa itito the lord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an organ of senses; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
guḍākeśaḥ guḍākeśa 1n.1 m.one with thick hair, Guḍākeśa (from: guḍa – ball, molasses; keśa – hair) or [TP]: guḍākāyā īśa iti lord of laziness (from: guḍākā – laziness, idleness, sleep; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
na av.not;
yotsye yudh (to fight) Fut. Ā 3v.1I will fight;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
govindam govinda 2n.1 m.; BV: yo gā vindati tamto one who gets the cows, to Govinda;
uktvā vac (to speak) absol.after speaking;
tūṣṇīm av.silently, quietly (from: tuṣ – to become calm, to be pleased);
babhūva bhū (to be) [Perf.] P 1v.1he became;
ha av.indeed, assuredly (emphases a preceding word);

 

textual variants


paraṁtapa → paraṁtapaḥ (the slayer of enemies);
na yotsya iti → na yotsyāmīti (I will not fight);
tūṣṇīm → tūṣṇī (silent);
 
 

Śāṁkara

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.10

 

Rāmānuja

evaṃ asthāne samupasthita-sneha-kāruṇyābhyām aprakṛtiṅgataṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ yuddhaṃ parama-dharmam apy adharmaṃ manvānaṃ dharma-bubhutsayā ca śaraṇāgataṃ pārtham uddiśya ātma-yāthātmya-jñānena yuddhasya phalābhisandhi-rahitasya svadharmasya ātma-yāthārthya-prāpty-upāyatā-jñānena ca vinā asya moho na śāmyatīti matvā bhagavatā parama-purṣeṇa adhyātma-śāstrāvataraṇaṃ kṛtam | tad uktam—
asthāna-sneha-kāruṇya-dharmādharma-dhiyākulam |
pārtha prapannam uddiśya śāstrāvataraṇaṃ kṛtam || [gītārtha-saṃgraha 5] iti

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

evam uktvārjunaḥ kiṃ kṛtavān ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam ity ādi | spaṣṭārthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

tad-anantaram arjunaḥ kiṃ kṛtavān iti dhṛtarāṣṭrākāṅkṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam ity ādi | guḍākeśo jitālasyaḥ parantapaḥ śatru-tāpano ‚rjuno hṛṣīkeśaṃ sarvendriya-pravartakatvenāntaryāmiṇaṃ govindaṃ gāṃ veda-lakṣaṇāṃ vāṇīṃ vindatīti vyutpattyā sarva-vedopādānatvena sarvajñam ādāv evaṃ kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhya ity ādinā yuddha-svarūpāyogyatām uktvā tad-anantaraṃ na yotsya iti yuddha-phalābhāvaṃ coktvā tūṣṇīṃ babhūva bāhyendriya-vyāpārasya yuddhārthaṃ pūrvaṃ kṛtasya nivṛttyā nirvyāpāro jāta ity arthaḥ | svabhāvato jitālasye sarva-śatru-tāpane ca tasminn āgantukam ālasyam atāpakatvaṃ ca nāspadam ādhāsyatīti dyotayituṃ ha-śabdaḥ | govinda-hṛṣīkeśa-padābhyāṃ sarvajñatva-sarva-śaktitva-sūcakābhyāṃ bhagavatas tan-mohāpanodanam anāyāsa-sādhyam iti sūcitam

 

Viśvanātha

no commentary up to the verse 2.10

 

Baladeva

tato ‚rjunaḥ kim akarod ity apekṣāyāṃ sañjaya uvāca evam uktvety ādi | guḍākeśo hṛṣīkeśaṃ prati evaṃ na hi prapaśyāmīty ādinā yuddhasya śokānivartakatvam uktvā parantapo ‚pi govindaṃ sarva-vedajñaṃ prati na yotsye iti coktveti yojyam | tatra hṛṣīkeśatvād buddhiṃ yuddhe pravartayiṣyati | sarva-veda-vittvād yuddhe sva-dharmatvaṃ grāhayiṣyatīti vyajya dhṛtarāṣṭra-hṛdi saṃjātā sva-putra-rājyāśā nirasyate

 
 

BhG 2.10

tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ prahasann iva bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye viṣīdantam idaṃ vacaḥ

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he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
ubhayoḥ (of both) senāyoḥ (of the two armies) madhye (in the middle) prahasan iva (as if laughing) hṛṣīkeśaḥ (Hṛṣīkeśa) tam (to him) viṣīdantam (to the grieving one) [arjunam] (to Arjuna) idam (this) vacaḥ (word) uvāca (he spoke).

 

grammar

tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.to him;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
hṛṣīkeśaḥ hṛṣīkeśa 1n.1 m.erect hair, Hṛṣīkeśa (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair) or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśa itilord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an organ of senses; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
prahasan prahasant (pra-has – to burst into laughter) PPr 1n.1. –who is laughing;
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
senayoḥ senā 6n.2 f.of the two armies;
ubhayoḥ ubhā sn. 6n.2 f.of both;
madhye madhya 7n.1 n.in the middle, inside;
viṣīdantam viṣīdant (vi-sad – to grieve, to be dejected) PPr 2n.1 m.to the grieving one;
idam idam sn. 2n.1 n.this;
vacaḥ vacas 2n.1 n.word, the speech (from: vac – to speak);

 

textual variants


senayor ubhayor madhye → ubhayoḥ senayor madhye (in the middle of the two armies);
viṣīdantam → sīdamānam (to one sunk into grief);
 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

10. To him who was grieving in the midst of the two armies,
O descendant of Bharata, Hrishikesa, as if smiling, spoke these words:

tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ prahasann iva bhārata |
senayor ubhayor madhye viṣīdantam idaṃ vacaḥ ||2.10||

Self-knowledge alone eradicates misery.
Now the portion from 1.2 to 2.9 should be interpreted as showing whence arise those evils of grief, delusion, etc., which in sentient creatures cause the misery of samsara. – To explain: In 2.4 et seq .

atra ca dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkam (BhG 1.2) ity ārabhya yāvat na yotsya iti govindam uktvā tūṣṇīṃ babhūva ha (Bh 2.9) ity etad-antaḥ prāṇināṃ śoka-mohādi-saṃsāra-bīja-bhūta-doṣodbhava-kāraṇa-pradarśanārthatvena vyākhyeyo granthaḥ |

Arjuna displayed grief and delusion caused by his attachment for, and the sense of separation from, dominior, the elders, sons, friends, wellwishers, kinsmen, near and remote relations, – all this arising from his notion that „I am theirs and they are mine.”

tathā hi – arjunena rājya-guru-putra-mitra-suhṛt-svajana-saṃbandhi-bāndhaveṣu aham eteṣāṃ mamaite ity evaṃ bhrānti-pratyaya-nimitta-sneha-vicchedādi-nimittau ātmanaḥ śoka-mohau pradarśitau |

It was when discrimination was overpowered by grief and delusion that Arjuna, who had of himself been engaged in battle as the duty of the warrior caste, abstained from fighting and proposed to lead a mendicant’s life, which was the duty of a different caste.

kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṃkhye (BhG 2.4) ity ādinā | śoka-mohābhyāṃ hy abhibhūta-viveka-vijñānaḥ svata eva kṣatra-dharme yuddhe pravṛtto ’pi tasmād yuddhād upararāma | para-dharmaṃ ca bhikṣā-jīvanādikaṃ kartuṃ pravavṛte |

Accordingly, all creatures whose intelligence is swayed by grief and delusion and other evil influences naturally abandon their proper duties and resort to those which are prohibited. Even if they are engaged in their duties, their conduct in speech, thought and deed is egoistic and is prompted by a longing for reward.

tathā ca sarva-prāṇināṃ śoka-mohādi-doṣāviṣṭa-cetasāṃ svabhāvata eva svadharma-parityāgaḥ pratiṣiddha-sevā ca syāt | sva-dharme pravṛttānām api teṣāṃ vāṅ-manaḥ-kāyādīnāṃ pravṛttiḥ phalābhisaṃdhi-pūrvikaiva sāhaṃkārā ca bhavati |

In their case, then, owing to an accumulation of marit and demerit, of dharma and a-dharma, the samsara, which consists in passing through good and bad births, happiness and misery, becomes incessant. Grief and delusion are thus the cause of samsara.

tatraivaṃ sati dharmādharmopacayād iṣṭāniṣṭa-janma-sukha-duḥkhādi-prāpti-lakṣaṇaḥ saṃsāro ’nuparato bhavati | ity ataḥ saṃsāra-bīja-bhūtau śoka-mohau |

And seeing that their cessation could not be brought about except by Self-knowledge added to renunciation of all works, Lord Vasudeva wished to teach that knowledge for the benefit of the whole world through Arjuna and began His teaching with 2.11.

tayoś ca sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-pūrvakād ātma-jñānāt nānyato nivṛttir iti tad-upadidikṣuḥ sarva-lokānugrahārtham arjunaṃ nimittīkṛtya āha bhagavān vāsudevaḥ – aśocyān (BhG 2.11) ityādi |

The doctrine that knowledge should be conjoined with works.
Against the foregoing view some say: – Moksha cannot at all be attained by mere Ātma-jñāna-nishṣṭha, by mere devotion to Self-knowledge preceded by the renunciation of all works – By what then? – Absolute freedom can be attained by knowledge conjoined with works, such as the Agnihotra, prescribed in the śruti and the smriti. This is the conclusive teaching of the whole Gītā. As supporting this view may be cited – they say – the verses 2.33, 2.47, 4.15, etc.

atra kecid āhuḥ – sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-pūrvakād ātma-jñāna-niṣṭhā-mātrād eva kevalāt kaivalyaṃ na prāpyata eva | kiṃ tarhi ? agnihotrādi-śrauta-smārta-karma-sahitāt jñānāt kaivalya-prāptir iti sarvāsu gītāsu niścito ’rtha iti | jñāpakaṃ cāhur asyārthasya
atha cet tvam imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃgrāmaṃ na kariṣyasi (BhG 2.33)
karmaṇy evādhikāras te (BhG 2.47),
kuru karmaiva tasmāt tvaṃ (BhG 4.15) ity ādi |

It should not be supposed that the Vedic ritual is sinful because it involves cruelty, etc. – Why?. For, our Lord says that, since fighting which is the profession of the warrior caste is the proper duty (of the caste), it is not sinful though it involves cruelty to elders, brothers, sons and the like and is therefore very horrible; and He further says that, in the case of a neglect of this duty,
abandoning thy duty and fame thou shalt incur sin” (2.33).
This is clearly tantamount to asserting that those rites which are enjoined as life-long duties by the Vedas are sinless though they involve cruelty to animals.

hiṃsādi-yuktatvāt vaidikaṃ karma adharmāya itīyam apy āśaṅkā na kāryā | kathaṃ ? kṣātraṃ karma yuddha-lakṣaṇaṃ guru-bhrātṛ-putrādi-hiṃsā-lakṣaṇam atyantaṃ krūram api sva-dharma iti kṛtvā nādharmāya | tad-akaraṇe catataḥ sva-dharmaṃ kīrtiṃ ca hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi (BhG 2.33) iti bruvatā yāvaj jīvādi-śruti-coditānāṃ paśv-ādi-hiṃsā-lakṣaṇānāṃ ca karmaṇāṃ prāg eva nādharmatvam iti suniścitam uktaṃ bhavati – iti |

Sankhya and Yoga distinguished.
This is wrong, since the Lord has made a distinction between Jñana-nishtha and Karma-nishtha, between the devotion of knowledge and the devotion of works, as based respectively upon two distinct standpoints The real nature of the Self as expounded here in 2.11-30 by the Lord is called Sankhya;

tad asat | jñāna-karma-niṣṭhayor vibhāga-vacanād buddhi-dvayāśrayayoḥ | aśocyān (BhG 2.11) ity ādinā bhagavatā yāvat svadharmam api cāvekṣya (BhG 2.31) ity etad-antena granthena yat-paramārthātma-tattva-nirūpaṇaṃ kṛtam, tat sāṃkhyam |

An intellectual conviction of the truth produced by a study of that section, – that the Self is no doer, owing to the absence in Him of such changes as birth – forms the Sankhya standpoint (Sankhya-buddhi); and the enlightened who hold this view are called Sankhyas.

tad-viṣayā buddhir ātmano janmādi-ṣaḍ-vikriyābhāvād akartā ātmeti prakaraṇārtha-nirūpaṇād yā jāyate, sā sāṃkhya-buddhiḥ | sā yeṣāṃ jñāninām ucitā bhavati, te sāṃkhyāḥ |

Yoga consists in the performance – before the rise of the foregoing conviction – of works as a means to moksha, requiring a knowledge of virtue and sin, and presupposing that the Self is distinct from the body and is the doer and the enjoyer. Such conviction forms the Yoga standpoint (Yoga-buddhi), and the performers of works who hold this view are Yogins.

etasyā buddher janmanaḥ prāk ātmano dehādi-vyatiriktatva-kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādy-apekṣo dharmādharma-viveka-pūrvako mokṣa-sādhanānuṣṭhāna-lakṣaṇo yogaḥ | tad-viṣayā buddhiḥ yoga-buddhiḥ | sā yeṣāṃ karmiṇām ucitā bhavati te yoginaḥ |

Accordingly two distinct standpoints are referred to by the Lord in 2.39. Of these, He will assign to the Sankhyas the Jnana-yoga, or devotion to knowledge, based upon the Siinkhya standpoint; and so also He will assign to the Yogins the path of Karma-yoga, or devotion to works, based upon the Yoga standpoint (3.3).

tathā ca bhagavatā vibhakte dve buddhī nirdiṣṭe eṣā te ’bhihitā sāṃkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu (BhG 2.39) iti tayoś ca sāṃkhya-buddhy-āśrayāṃ jñāna-yogena niṣṭhāṃ sāṃkhyānāṃ vibhaktāṃ vakṣyati purā vedātmanā mayā proktā (BhG 3.3)iti | tathā ca yoga-buddhy-āśrayāṃ karma-yogena niṣṭhāṃ vibhaktāṃ vakṣyati – karma-yogena yoginām (BhG 3.3) iti |

Thus with reference to the Sankhya and the Yoga standpoints two distinct paths have been shown by the Lord, seeing the impossibility of Jñāna and Karma being conjoined in one and the same person simultaneously, the one being based upon the idea of nonagency and unity, and the other on the idea of agency and multiplicity.

evaṃ sāṃkhya-buddhiṃ yoga-buddhiṃ ca āśritya dve niṣṭhe vibhakte bhagavataiva ukte jñāna-karmaṇoḥ kartṛtvākartṛtvaikatvānekatva-buddhy-āśrayayoḥ yugapad-eka-puruṣāśrayatvāsaṃbhavaṃ paśyatā |

The distinction made here is also referred to in the Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa. – Having enjoined renunciation of all works in the words,
The brahmaṇas who, having no worldly attachments, wish only for this region of the Self, should give up all worldly concerns,” (Bṛh-up, 4.4.22)
the Brahmaṇa continues thus in explanation of the said injunction:
What have we to do with progeny, – we who live in this region, this Self?” (Bṛh-up, 4.4.22).

yathā etad-vibhāga-vacanaṃ tathaiva darśitaṃ śātapathīye brāhmaṇe –
etam eva pravrājino lokam icchanto brāhmaṇāḥ pravrajanti (Bṛh-up, 4.4.22) iti sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaṃ vidhāya tac-cheṣeṇa
kiṃ prajayā kariṣyāmo yeṣāṃ no ’yam ātmāyaṃ lokaḥ (Bṛh-up, 4.4.22) iti |

In the same Brahmaṇa (Bṛh-up 1.4.17) we are told that, before marriage and after completing the investigation into the nature of the Dharma or Vedic injunctions, the man of the world ‚desired’ to acquire the means of attaining to the three regions (of man, of Pitris, and of Devas), namely, a son and the twofold wealth, – the one kind of wealth being called human (manusha), consisting of works and leading to the region of Pitris, and the other kind of wealth being called “godly” (daiva), consisting in wisdom (vidyā, upāsana) and leading to the region of Devas.

tatraiva ca prāg dāra-parigrahāt puruṣa ātmo prākṛto dharma-jijñāsottara-kālaṃ loka-traya-sādhanam putraṃ dvi-prakāraṃ ca vittaṃ mānuṣaṃ daivaṁ ca | tatra mānuṣaṃ vittaṁ karma-rūpaṃ pitṛ-loka-prāpti-sādhanaṃ vidyāṃ ca daivaṃ vittaṃ deva-loka-prāpti-sādhanam | so ’kāmayata (Bṛh-up 1.4.17) iti avidyā-kāmavata eva sarvāṇi karmāṇi śrautādīni darśitāni |

Thus the Vedic rites are intended for him only who has desires and has no knowledge of the Self. The renunciation of these is enjoined on him who seeks only the region of the Self and is free from desire. This assigning of the two path to two distinct classes of people would be unjustifiable if the Lord had intended a simultaneous conjunction of knowledge and Vedic rites.

tebhyo vyutthāya (Bṛh-up 3.5.1), pravrajanti (Bṛh-up 4.4.22) iti vyutthānam ātmānam eva lokam icchato ’kāmasya vihitam | tad etad vibhāga-vacanam anupapannaṃ syād yadi śrauta-karma-jñānayoḥ samuccayo ’bhipretaḥ syād bhagavataḥ |

Conjunction inconsistent with the sequel
Neither could Arjuna’s question with which the Third Discourse opens be satisfactorily explained (on that theory). How might Arjuna falsely impute to the Lord – as he did in 3.1 – that which is alleged (by the opponent) to have not been taught before by the Lord and to have not been heard by Arjuna – namely, the impossibility of both knowledge and works being followed by one and the same person, as well as the superiority of knowledge to works.

na cārjunasya praśna upapanno bhavati jyāyasī cet karmaṇas te (BhG 3.1) ity ādiḥ | eka-puruṣānuṣṭheyatvāsaṃbhavaṃ buddhi-karmaṇoḥ bhagavatā pūrvam anuktaṃ katham arjuno ’śrutaṃ buddheḥ ca karmaṇo jyāyastvaṃ bhagavaty adhyāropayen mṛṣaiva jyāyasī cet karmaṇas te matā buddhiḥ (BhG 3.1) iti |

Moreover, if conjunction of knowledge and works be intended for all, it must have been intended for Arjuna as well. In that case how might Arjuna ask about only one of the two:
Tell me conclusively that which is the better of the two” (BhG 5.1)
If a physician has prescribed a mixture composed of both sweet and cooling articles for a man who wishes to reduce bilious heat (in the system), there cannot arise the question: “which one alone of the two ingredients can alleviate bilious heat?”

kiṃ ca – yadi buddhi-karmaṇoḥ sarveṣāṃ samuccaya uktaḥ syāt arjunasyāpi sa ukta eveti, yac chrāya etayor ekaṃ tan me brūhi suniścitam (BhG 5.1) iti katham ubhayor upadeśe sati anyatara-viṣaya eva praśnaḥ syāt ? na hi pitta-praśamanārthinaḥ vaidyena madhuraṃ śītalaṃ ca bhoktavyam ity upadiṣṭe tayor anyatarat-pitta-praśamana-kāraṇaṃ brūhi iti praśnaḥ saṃbhavati |

Arjuna’s question, it might be alleged on the other side, was due to his not having understood aright the teaching of the Lord. Even then, the reply of the Lord should have been given in accordance with the question and in the following form: „I meant a conjunction of knowledge and works; why are you thus mistaken?” It would not, on the other hand, be proper to answer in the words „A twofold path was taught by Me ” (3.3), – an answer which is not in accordance with the question and is altogether beside it.

athārjunasya bhagavad-ukta-vacanārtha-vivekānavadhāraṇa-nimittaḥ praśnaḥ kalpyeta, tathāpi bhagavatā praśnānurūpaṃ prativacanaṃ deyaṃ – mayā buddhi-karmaṇoḥ samuccaya uktaḥ kim artham itthaṃ tvaṃ bhrānto ’si – iti | na tu punaḥ prativacanam ananurūpaṃ pṛṣṭād anyad eva dve niṣṭhā mayā purā proktā iti (BhG3.3) vaktuṃ yuktam |

If it be held that knowledge is to be conjoined with such works only as are enjoined in the smriti, even then the assigning of the two paths to two distinct classes of people respectively and other statements in that connection would be equally inexplicable. Moreover, Arjuna’s blame of the Lord as conveyed by his words „why dost Thou command me to do this horrible deed?” (3.1) would be inexplicable, since he knew that fighting was enjoined in the smriti as a kshatriya’s duty.

nāpi smārtenaiva karmaṇā buddheḥ samuccaye abhiprete vibhāga-vacanādi sarvam upapananam | kiṃ ca – kṣatriyasya yuddhaṃ smārtaṃ karma sva-dharma iti jānataḥ tat kiṃ karmaṇi ghoro māṃ niyojayasi (BhG 3.1) ity upālambho ’nupapannaḥ |
It is not, therefore, possible for anybody to show that the Gitā-śastra teaches a conjunction of knowledge with any work whatever, enjoined in the sruti or in the smriti. tasmād gītā-śāstre īṣan-mātreṇāpi śrautena smārtena vā karmaṇā ātma-jñānasya samuccayo na kenacid darśayituṃ śakyaḥ |

Some cases of apparent conjunction explained.
Now a person who, having been first engaged in works owing to ignorance and worldly attachment and other evil tendencies, and having since attained purity of mind by sacrificial rites, gifts, austerity, etc., arrives at the knowledge of the grand truth that „all this is one, the Brahman, the Absolute, the non-agent,” may continue performing works in the same manner as before with a view to set an example to the masses, though neither works nor their results attract him any longer.

yasya tv ajñānāt rāgādi-doṣato vā karmaṇi pravṛttasya yajñena dānena tapasā vā viśuddha-sattvasya jñānam utpannaṃ paramārtha-tattva-viṣayam ekam evedaṃ sarvaṃ brahma akartṛ ca iti, tasya karmaṇi karma-prayojane ca nivṛtte ’pi loka-saṃgrahārthaṃ yatna-pūrvaṃ yathā pravṛttaḥ, tathaiva karmaṇi pravṛttasya yat pravṛtti-rūpaṃ dṛśyate na tat karma yena buddheḥ samuccayaḥ syāt |

This semblance of active life on his part cannot constitute that course of action with which knowledge is sought to be conjoined as a means of attaining moksha, any more than Lord Vasudeva’s activity in His discharge of the duty of the military caste can constitute the action that is to be conjoined with His knowledge as a means to moksha, or that conduces to the attainment of any specific end of His; egotism and hope of reward being absent in both alike. He who knows the truth does not think ‚I act,’ nor does he long for the results.

yathā bhagavato vāsudevasya kṣatra-dharma-ceṣṭitaṃ na jñānena samuccīyate puruṣārtha-siddhaye, tadvat tat-phalābhisaṃdhy-ahaṃkārābhāvasya tulyatvād viduṣaḥ | tattvavin nāhaṃ karomīti manyate, na ca tat-phalam abhisandhatte |

Or to take another example: suppose a man seeking svarga or other such objects of desire goes through the ceremony of the Agni-adhana as a preliminary to the performance of sacrificial rites such as the Agnihotra whereby to attain his desire, and then commences the Agnihotra, which has thus became a kamya (interested) rite; and suppose further that the desire vanishes when the sacrifice is half completed, but that the man goes on with it all the same: the Agnihotra can no longer be regarded as an interested rite. Accordingly our Lord says „though doing, he is not tainted,” (5.7), and „The Self neither acts nor is tainted.” (13.31).

yathā ca svargādi-kāmārthino ’gnihotrādi-karma-lakṣaṇa[1]-dharmānuṣṭhānāya āhitāgneḥ kāmye eva agnihotrādau pravṛttasya sami-kṛte vinaṣṭe ’pi kāme tad eva agnihotrādy anutiṣṭhato ’pi na tat-kāmyam agnihotrādi bhavati | tathā ca darśayati bhagavān – kurvann api na lipyate (BhG 5.7), na karoti na lipyate (BhG 13.31) iti tatra tatra ||

Now as regards the passages,
Do thou also perform action as did the ancients in the olden time” (4.15), and
By action alone, indeed, did Janaka and others aim at perfection” (3.20),
we must distinguish two cases and interpret the passages thus:

yac ca pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtaṃ (BhG 4.15),
karmaṇaiva hi saṃsiddhim āsthitā janakādayaḥ
(BhG 3.20)
iti, tat tu pravibhajya vijñeyam | tat kathaṃ?

First, suppose that Janaka and the rest were engaged in works though they knew the truth. Then, they did so lest people at large might go astray; whereas they were sincerely convinced that ‚the senses‚ – but not the Self – were engaged in the objects (3.28). Thus they reached perfection by knowledge alone. Though the stage of renunciation had been reached, they attained perfection without abandoning works; that is to say, they did not formally renounce works.

yadi tāvat pūrve janakādayaḥ tattva-vido ’pi pravṛtta-karmāṇaḥ syuḥ, te loka-saṃgrahārthaṃ guṇā guṇeṣu vartante (BhG 3.28) iti jñānenaiva saṃsiddhim āsthitāḥ, karma-saṃnyāse prāpte ’pi karmaṇā sahaiva saṃsiddhim āsthitāḥ, na karma-saṃnyāsaṃ kṛtavanta ity arthaḥ |

Secondly, suppose that they had not known the truth. Then the passages should be interpreted thus: – By means of works dedicated to Īśvara, Janaka and the rest attained perfection, – ‚perfection’ meaning here either ‚purity of mind’ or ‚the dawn of true knowledge.’ It is to this doctrine that the Lord refers when he says „The Yogin performs action for the purification of the self.” (5.11) . Elsewhere, after having said that “man attains perfection by worshipping Him with his own duty” (18.46) , the Lord again recommends the path of knowledge, to him who has attained perfection, in the following words: „How he who has attained perfection reaches Brahman, that do thou learn from Me.” (18.50) .

atha na te tattva-vidaḥ | īśvara-samarpitena karmaṇā sādhana-bhūtena saṃsiddhiṃ sattva-śuddhim, jñānotpatti-lakṣaṇāṃ vā saṃsiddhim, āsthitā janakādaya iti vyākhyeyam | etam evārthaṃ vakṣyati bhagavān sattva-śuddhaye karma kurvanti (BhG 5.11) iti | sva-karmaṇā tam abhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ (BhG 18.46) ity uktvā siddhiṃ prāptasya punar jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ vakṣyati – siddhiṃ prāpto yathā brahma (BhG 18.50) ity ādinā ||

The conclusion, therefore, of the Bhagavad-gita is that salvation is attained by knowledge alone, not by knowledge conjoined with works. That such is the teaching of the Gita we shall shew here and there in the following sections according to the context.

tasmād gītā-śāstre kevalād eva tattva-jñānān mokṣa-prāptiḥ na karma-samuccitāt iti niścito ’rthaḥ | yathā cāyam arthaḥ, tathā prakaraṇaśo vibhajya tatra tatra darśayiṣyāmaḥ ||

[1] -kāma-sādhanāruṣṭhānāy

 

Rāmānuja

tam evaṃ dehātmanor yāthātmya-jñāna-nimitta-śokāviṣṭaṃ dehātiriktātma-jñāna-nimittaṃ ca dharmādharmau bhāṣamāṇaṃ parasparaṃ viruddha-guṇānvitam ubhayoḥ senayor yuddhāya udyuktayor madhye akasmān nirudyogaṃ pārtham ālokya parama-puruṣaḥ prahasann ivedam uvāca | pārthaṃ prahasann iva parihāsa-vākyaṃ vadann iva ātma-paramātma-yāthātmya-tat-prāpty-upāya-bhūta-karma-yoga-jñāna-yoga-bhakti-yoga-gocaram | na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsam [gītā 2.12] ity ārabhya ahaṃ tvā sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ [gītā 18.66] ity etad-antam uvāca ity arthaḥ

 

Madhva

no commentary up to the verse BhG 2.11

 

Śrīdhara

tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyām āha tam uvāceti | prahasann iva prasanna-mukhaḥ sann ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

evaṃ yuddham upekṣitavaty apy arjune bhagavān nopekṣitavān iti dhṛtarāṣṭra-durāśā-nirāsāyā ‚ha tam uvāceti | senayor ubhayor madhye yuddhodyamenāgatya tad-virodhinaṃ viṣādaṃ mohaṃ prāpnuvantaṃ tam arjunaṃ prahasann ivānucitācāraṇa-prakāśanena lajjāmbudhau majjayann iva hṛṣīkeśaḥ sarvāntaryāmī bhagavān idaṃ vakṣyamāṇam aśocyān ity ādi vacaḥ parama-gambhīrārtham anucitācaraṇa-prakāśakam uktavān na t”pekṣitavān ity arthaḥ |
anucitācaraṇa-prakāśanena lajjotpādanaṃ prahāsaḥ | lajjā ca duḥkhātmiketi dveṣa-viṣaya eva sa mukhyaḥ | arjunasya tu bhagavat-kṛpā-viṣayatvād anucitācaraṇa-prakāśanasya ca vivekotpatti-hetutvād eka-dalābhāvena gauṇa evāyaṃ prahāsa iti kathayitum iva-śabdaḥ | lajjām utpādayitum iva vivkam utpādayitum arjunasyānucitācaraṇaṃ bhagavatā prakāśyate | lajjotpattis tu nāntarīyakatayāstu māstu veti na vivakṣiteti bhāvaḥ |
yadi hi yuddhārambhāt prāg eva sthito yuddham upekṣeta tadā nānucitaṃ kuryāt | mahatā saṃrambheṇa tu yuddha-bhūmāv āgatya tad-upekṣaṇam atīvānucitam iti kathayituṃ senayor ity ādi-viśeṣaṇam | etac cāśocyānityādau spaṣṭaṃ bhaviṣyati

 

Viśvanātha

aho tvāpy etāvān khalv aviveka iti sakhya-bhāvena taṃ prahasan anaucitya-prakāśena lajjāmbudhau nimajjayan iveti tadānīṃ śiṣya-bhāvaṃ prāpte tasmin hāsyam anucitam ity adharoṣṭha-nikuñcanena hāsyam āvṛṇvaṃś cety arthaḥ | hṛṣīkeśa iti pūrvaṃ premāivārjuna-vāṅ-niyamyo ‚pi sāmpratam arjuna-hita-kāritvāt premṇaivārjuna-mano-niyantāpi bhavatīti bhāvaḥ | senayor ubhayor madhe ity arjunasya viṣādo bhagavatā prabodhaś ca ubhābhyāṃ senābhyāṃ sāmānyato dṛṣṭa eveti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

vyaṅgam arthaṃ prakāśayann āha tam uvāceti taṃ viṣīdantam arjunaṃ prati hṛṣīkeśo bhagavān aśocyān ity ādikam atigambhīrārthaṃ vacanam uvāca | ahotavāpīdṛg vivekaḥ iti sakhya-bhāvena prahasan | anaucitya-bhāṣitvena trapā-sindhau nimajjayan ity arthaḥ | iveti tadaiva śiṣyatāṃ prāpte tasmin hāsānaucityādīṣad adharollāsaṃ kurvann ity arthaḥ | arjunasya viṣādo bhagavatā tasyopadeśaś ca sarva-sākṣika iti bodhayituṃ senayor ubhayor ity etat

 
 

BhG 2.11

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṃ prajñā-vādāṃś ca bhāṣase
gatāsūn agatāsūṃś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
tvam (you) aśocyān (things not to be grieved upon) anvaśocaḥ (you lamented),
prajñā-vādān ca (and words of wisdom) bhāṣase (you speak).
paṇḍitāḥ (the learned) gatāsūn (for those whose breaths are gone) agatāsūn ca (and for those whose breaths are gone) na anuśocanti (they do not lament).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord  united with majesty (from: śrī lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
aśocyān a-śocya (śuc – to grieve,  to burn) PF 2n.3 m.not to be grieved upon;
anvaśocaḥ anu-śuc (to lament, to bewail) [Imperf.] P 2v.1you lamented;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
prajñā-vādān prajñā-vāda 2n.3 m.; [TP]: prajñāyā vādān iti – words of wisdoom (from: pra-jñā – to know, to understand, to discern, prajñā – discrimination, wisdom, judgement; vad – to speak, vāda – speech, dispute, doctrine);
ca av.and;
bhāṣase bhāṣ (to speak) Praes. Ā 2v.1you speak;
gatāsūn gata-asu 2n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām asavo gatāḥ santi tānthose whose breaths are gone (from: gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone; asu – breath, life, plural: breaths of life);
agatāsūn a-gata-asu 2n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām asavo ‘gatāḥ santi tānthose whose breaths are not gone (from: gam – to go [PP] gata – gone; asu – breath, life, plural: breaths of life);
ca av.and;
na av.not;
anuśocanti anu-śuc (to lament, to bewail) Praes. P 1v.3they lament;
paṇḍitāḥ paṇḍita 1n.3 m.the learned, wise (paṇḍā wisdom, knowledge);

 

textual variants


anvaśocas tvaṁ → anuśocaṁs tvaṁ / anvaśocyas tvaṁ / avaśocas tvaṁ (you are grieving / is being grieved, you… / you lament);
prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase → prājñavan nābhibhāṣase / prajñāvān nābhibhāṣase (having kowledge you do not speak…);

… → verse, not found in critical edition, after verse 2.11:
tvaṁ mānuṣyeṇopahatāntarātmā viṣāda-mohābhibhavād visaṁjñaḥ
kṛpā-gṛhītaḥ samavekṣya bandhūn abhiprapannān mukham antakasya

You, whose inner nature is rendered helpless by humanity,
are unconscious because of the grief and bewilderment,
grasped by the pity after seeing your relatives,
who got close to the lips of death.

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The Self is immortal.
Now finding no means other than Self-knowledge for the deliverance of Arjuna who was thus confounded as to his duty and was deeply plunged in the mighty ocean of grief, Lord Vasudeva who wished to help him out of it introduced him to Self-knowledge in the following words:

tatraiva dharma-saṃmūḍha-cetaso mithyā-jñānavato mahati śoka-sāgare nimagnasya arjunasya anyatrātma-jñānād uddharaṇam apaśyan bhagavān vāsudevaḥ, tataḥ kṛpayā arjunam uddidhārayiṣuḥ ātma-jñānāyāvatārayann āha

The Lord said:
11. For those who deserve no grief thou hast grieved, and words of wisdom thou speakest. For the living and for the dead the wise grieve not.

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṃ prajñā-vādāṃś ca bhāṣase
|
gatāsūn agatāsūṃś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ ||2.11||

Such people as Bhishma and Droṇa deserve no grief, for they are men of good conduct and are eternal in their real nature. You have grieved for them saying „I am the cause of then death; of what avail are pleasures of dominion and other things to me left alone without them?” (1.32).

na śocyā aśocyāḥ bhīṣma-droṇādayaḥ | sad-vṛttatvāt paramārtha-svarūpeṇa ca nityatvāt, tān aśocyān anvaśoco ’nuśocitavān asi te mriyante man-nimittam, ahaṃ tair vinābhūtaḥ kiṃ kariṣyāmi rājya-sukhādinā (BhG 1.32) iti |

And you also speak the words of wise men. Thus you exhibit inconsistency in yourself, – foolishness and wisdom, – like a maniac.

tvaṃ prajñā-vādān prajñāvatāṃ buddhimatāṃ vādāṃś ca vacanāni ca bhāṣase | tad etat mauḍhyaṃ pāṇḍityaṃ ca viruddham ātmani darśayasi unmatta iva ity abhiprāyaḥ |

For , the wise (paṇḍitāḥ) – those who know the Self – grieve neither for the living nor for the dead.

yasmāt gatāsūn gata-prāṇān mṛtān, agatāsūn agata-prāṇān jīvataś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ ātmajñāḥ |

They alone are wise who know the Self. For, the śruti says:
Having obtained wisdom (pāṇḍitya., i. e., knowledge of the Self) in its entirety…[1] (Bṛh-up. 3.5.1)

paṇḍā ātma-viṣayā buddhir yeṣāṃ te hi paṇḍitāḥ, pāṇḍityaṃ nirvidya (Bṛh-up. 3.5.1) iti śruteḥ |

That is, you grieve for those who are really eternal and who really deserve no grief; wherefore you are foolish.

paramārthatas tu tān nityān aśocyān anuśocasi, ato mūḍho ’si ity abhiprāyaḥ ||2.11||


[1] Bṛh-up 3.5.1:
tasmād brāmaṇaḥ pāṇḍityaṃ nirvidya bālyena tiṣṭhāset |
bālyaṃ ca pāṇḍityaṃ ca nirvidyātha muniḥ |

 

Rāmānuja

aśocyān prati anuśocasi patanti pitaro hy eṣāṃ lupta-piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ [gītā 1.41] ity ādikān dehātma-svabhāva-prajñā-nimitta-vādāṃś ca bhāṣase | dehātma-svabhāva-jñānavatāṃ nātra kiñcit śoka-nimittam asti | gatāsūn dehān agatāsūn ātmanaś ca prati tayoḥ svabhāva-yāthātmya-vido na śocanti | atas tvayi vipratiṣiddham idam upalabhyate | yad etān haniṣyāmīty anuśocanam, yac ca dehātiriktātma-jñāna-kṛtaṃ dharmādharma-bhāṣaṇam | ato deha-svabhāvaṃ ca na jānāsi, tad-atiriktam ātmānaṃ ca nityam, tat-prāpty-upāya-bhūtaṃ yuddhādikaṃ dharmaṃ ca | idaṃ ca yuddhaṃ phalābhisandhi-rahitam | ātma-yāthātmyāvāpty-upāya-bhūtam | ātmā hi na janmādhīna-sad-bhāvo na maraṇādhīna-vināśaś ca; tasya janma-maraṇayoḥ abhāvāt; ataḥ sa na śoka-sthānam | dehas tv acetanaḥ pariṇāma-svabhāvaḥ, tasya utpatti-vināśa-yogaḥ svābhāvikaḥ, iti so’pi na śoka-sthānam ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

dehātmanor avivekād asyaivaṃ śoko bhavatīti tad-viveka-darśanārthaṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca aśocyān ity ādi | śokasyāviṣayī-bhūtān eva bandhūn tvam anvaśocaḥ anuśocitavān asi dṛṣṭvemān svajanān kṛṣṇa ity ādinā | tatra kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṃ viṣame samupasthitam ity ādinā mayā bodhito ‚pi punaś ca prajñāvatāṃ paṇḍitānāṃ vādān śabdān kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādīn kevalaṃ bhāṣase, na tu paṇḍito ‚si, yataḥ gatāsūn gata-prāṇān bandhūn agatāsūṃś ca jīvato ‚pi, bandhu-hīnā ete kathaṃ jīviṣyantīti nānuśocanti paṇḍitā vivekinaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.18

 

Viśvanātha

bho arjuna ! tavāyaṃ bandha-vadha-hetukaḥ śoko bhrama-mūlaka eva, tathā kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādiko vivekaś cāprajñā-mūlaka evety āha aśocyān ity ādi | aśocyān śokānārhān eva tvam anvaśoco ‚nuśocitavān asi | tathā tvāṃ prabodhayantaṃ māṃ prati prajñā-vādān prajñāyāṃ satyām eva ye vādāḥ kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādīni vākyāni tān bhāṣase, na tu tava kāpi prajñā vartate iti bhāvaḥ | yataḥ paṇḍitāḥ prajñāvanto gatāsūn gatā niḥsṛtā bhavanty asavo yebhyas tān sthūla-dehān na śocanti, teṣāṃ naśvara-bhāvatvād iti bhāvaḥ | agatāsūn aniḥsṛta-prāṇān sūkṣma-dehān api na śocanti, te hi mukteḥ pūrvaṃ naśvarā eva | ubhayeṣām api tathā tathā svabhāvasya duṣpariharatvāt | mūrkhās tu pirtrādi-dehebhyaḥ prāṇeṣu niḥsṛteṣv eva śocanti, sūkṣma-dehāṃs tu na, te prāyaḥ paricinvantyas atas tair alam | ete hi sarve bhīṣmādayaḥ sthūla-sūkṣma-deha-sahitā ātmāna eva | ātmanāṃ tu ityatvāt teṣu śoka-pravṛttir eva nāstīty atas tvayā yat pūrvam artha-śāstrāt dharma-śāstraṃ balavad ity uktaṃ tatra mayā tu dharma-śāstrād api jñāna-śāstraṃ balavad ity ucyata iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

evaṃ arjune tūṣṇīṃ sthite tad-buddhim ākṣipan bhagavān āha aśocyān iti | he arjuna ! aśocyān śocitum ayogyān eva dhārtarāṣṭrāṃs tvaṃ anvaśocaḥ śocitavān asi | tathā māṃ prati prajñā-vādān prajñāvatām iva vacanāni dṛṣṭvemaṃ svajanam ity ādīni, kathaṃ bhīṣmam ity ādīni ca bhāṣase, na ca te prajñā-leśo ‚py astīti bhāvaḥ | ye tu prajñāvantas te gatāsūn nirgata-prāṇān sthūla-dehān, agatāsūṃś cānirgata-prāṇān sūkṣma-dehāṃś ca, śabdād ātmanaś ca na śocanti | ayam arthaḥ – śokaḥ sthūla-dehānāṃ vināśitvāt, nāntyaḥ sūkṣma-dehānāṃ mukteḥ prāg avaināśitvāt tadvatām ātmanāṃ tu ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-varjitānāṃ nityatvān na śocyāteti | dehātma-svabhāva-vidāṃ na ko ‚pi śoka-hetuḥ | yad-artha-śāstrād dharma-śāstrasya balavattvam ucyate | tat kila tato ‚pi balavatā jñāna-śāstreṇa pratyucyate | tasmād aśocye śocya-bhramaḥ pāmara-sādhāraṇaḥ paṇḍitasya te na yogya iti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.12

na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsaṃ na tvaṃ neme janādhipāḥ
na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ sarve vayam ataḥ param

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jātu (never) aham (I) na āsam (I did not exist),
tvam na [āsīḥ] (you did not exist),
ime (these) janādhipāḥ (the rulers of men) na [āsan] (they did not exist) [iti]
tu na eva (but certainly not).
ataḥ param (hereafter) sarve (all) vayam (we) na bhaviṣyṣmaḥ (we will not exist) [iti]
na ca eva (and certainly not).

 

grammar

na av.not;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
jātu av.at all, ever, once, some day;
na av.not;
āsam as (to be) [Imperf.] P 3v.1I was, I existed;
na av.not;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
na av.not;
ime idam sn. 1n.3 m.these;
janādhipāḥ jana-adhipa 1n.3 m.; [TP]: janānām adhipā itithe rulers of men (from: jan – to be born, to produce, jana – man, people, creature; adhi – over, above, pa – ruler, in compounds shortened form of: pati, adhi-pa – ruler, king);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
na av.not;
bhaviṣyāmaḥ bhū (to be) Fut. P 3v.3we will be, we will exist;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
vayam asmat sn. 1n.3we;
ataḥ av.from this, hence, therefore (indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
param av.later, next, future (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);

 

textual variants


na tv evāhaṁ → na hy evāhaṁ / na evāhaṁ / na tv enāhaṁ (certainly indeed not me / certainly not me / but not this me);
neme → nāmī (named, bent);
caiva → caivaṁ (and thus);
vayam ataḥ → vayam itaḥ (we from here);
 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

(Question): – Why do they deserve no grief?
(Answer): – For, they are eternal.
(Question): – How?
(Answer): – The Lord says:

kutas te aśocyāḥ ? yato nityāḥ | kathaṃ ?

12. Never did I not exist, nor thou, nor these rulers of men;and no one of us will ever hereafter cease to exist.

na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsaṃ na tvaṃ neme janādhipāḥ |
na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ sarve vayam ataḥ param ||2.12||

Never did I cease to exist; on the other hand, I always did exist; that is, through the past bodily births and deaths, I always existed.

na tv eva jātu kadācid ahaṃ nāsaṃ kintv āsam eva | atīteṣu dehotpatti-vināśeṣu ghaṭādiṣu viyad iva nitya eva aham āsam ity abhiprāyaḥ |

So also, never did you cease to exist; on the other hand, you always did exist. So, never did these rulers of men cease to exist; on the other hand, they always did exist.

tathā na tvaṃ nāsīḥ, kintv āsīr eva | tathā neme janādhipā āsan kintv āsann eva |

So, neither shall we ever cease to exist; on the other hand, we shall all certainly continue to exist even after the death of these bodies. As the Self, the Atman, we are eternal in all the three periods of time (past, present and future).

tathā na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ, kintu bhaviṣyāma eva, sarve vayam ato ’smād deha-vināśāt param uttara-kāle ’pi | triṣv api kāleṣu nityā ātma-svarūpeṇa ity arthaḥ |
The plural ‚us’ is used with reference to the bodies that are different ; it does not mean that there are more than one Self. deha-bhedānuvṛttyā bahu-vacanam, nātma-bhedābhiprāyeṇa ||2.12||

 

Rāmānuja

prathamaṃ tāvad ātmanāṃ svabhāvaṃ śṛṇu | ahaṃ sarveśvaras tāvad ato vartamānāt pūrvasmin anādau kāle na nāsam api tu āsam | tvan-mukhāś caite īśitavyāḥ kṣetrajñā na nāsan api tv āsan | ahaṃ ca yūyaṃ ca sarve vayam ataḥ param asmād anantare kāle na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ, api tu bhaviṣyāma eva | yathā ahaṃ sarveśvaraḥ paramātmā nitya iti nātra saṃśayaḥ, tathaiva bhavantaḥ kṣetrajñā ātmāno’pi nityā eveti mantavyāḥ | evaṃ bhagavataḥ sarveśvarad ātmanāṃ parasparaṃ ca bhedaḥ pāramārthakaḥ, iti bhagavatā evoktam iti pratīyate |
ajñāna-mohitaṃ prati tan-nivṛttaye pāramārthika-nityatvopadeśa-samaye aham ‚tvam ‚ime’ sarve ‚vayam iti vyapadeśāt | aupādhikātma-bheda-vāde hy ātma-bhedasyātāttvikatvena tattvopadeśa-samaye bheda-nirdeśo na saṃgacchate | bhagavad-uktātma-bhedaḥ svābhāvika iti | śrutir apy āha—nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān [śve.u. 6.13] iti | nityānāṃ bahūnāṃ cetanānāṃ ya ekaś cetano nityaḥ sa kāmān vidadhātīty arthaḥ |
ajñāna-kṛta-bheda-dṛṣṭi-vāde tu parama-puruṣasya paramārtha-dṛṣṭer nirviśeṣa-kūṭastha-nitya-caitanyātma-yāthātmya-sākṣāt-kārat nivṛttājñāna-tat-kāryatayā ajñāna-kṛta-bheda-darśanaṃ tan-mūlopadeśādi-vyavahāraś ca na saṃgacchante | [parama-puruṣo’py ajña iti pakṣe’rjuna-vākyāt parama-puruṣa-vākyasyājñāna-mūla-mithyārthatve viśeṣābhāvān na tasyopadeśa-rūpatvāt |]
atha parama-puruṣasyādhigatād dvaita-jñānasya bādhitānuvṛtti-rūpam idaṃ bheda-jñānaṃ dagdha-paṭādivan na bandhakam iti ucyate, naitad upapadyate | marīcikā-jala-jñānādikaṃ hi bādhitam anuvartamānam api na jalāharaṇādi-pravṛtti-hetuḥ | evam atrāpy advaita-jñānena bādhitaṃ bheda-jñānam anuvartamānam api mithyārtha-viṣayatva-niścayāt nopadeśādi-pravṛtti-hetuḥ bhavati | na ceśvarsya pūrvam ajñasya śāstrādhigata-tattva-jñānatayā bādhitānuvṛttiḥ śakyate vaktum | yaḥ sarvajñaḥ sarvavit [mu.u. 2.1.9] parasya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate svābhāvikī jñāna-bala-kriyā ca [śve.u. 6.8]
vedāhaṃ samatītāni
vartamānāni cārjuna |
bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni
māṃ tu veda na kaścana [gītā 7.26] iti śruti-smṛti-virodhāt |
kiṃ ca, parama-puruṣaś cedānīntana-guru-paramparā cādvitīyātma-svarūpa-niścaye sati anuvartamāne’pi bheda-jñāne sva-niścayānurūpam advitīyam ātma-jñānaṃ kasmā upadiśatīti vaktavyam ? pratibimbavat pratīyamānebhyaḥ arjunādibhya iti cet, naitad upapadyate; na hy anunmattaḥ ko’pi maṇi-kṛpāṇa-darpaṇādiṣu pratīyamāneṣu svātma-pratibimbeṣu teṣāṃ svātmano’nanyatvaṃ jānan tebhyaḥ kam apy artham upadiśati |
bādhitānuvṛttir api tair na śakyate vaktum | bādhakenādvitīyātma-jñānena ātma-vyatirikta-bheda-jñana-kāraṇasyānāder vinaṣṭatvāt | dvi-candra-jñānādau tu candraikatva-jñānena pārmārthika-timirādi-doṣasya dvi-candra-jñāna-hetoḥ avinaṣṭatvād bādhitānuvṛttiḥ yuktā | anuvartamānam api prabala-pramāṇa-bādhitvenākiñcitkaram | iha tu bheda-jñānasya sa-viṣayasya sa-kāraṇasya apāramārthikatvena vastu-yāthātmya-jñāna-vinaṣṭatvāt na kathaṃcid api bādhitānuvṛttiḥ saṃbhavati | ataḥ sarveśvarasya idānīntana-guru-paramparāyāś ca tattva-jñānam asti ced bheda-darśana-tat-kāryopadeśādya-saṃbhavaḥ | bheda-darśnam astīti ced, ajñānasya tad-dhetoḥ sthitatvenājñatvād eva sutarām upadeśo na saṃbhavati |
kiṃ ca, guror advitīyātma-vijñānād eva brahma-jñānasya sakāryasya vinaṣṭatvāt śiṣyaṃ prati upadeśo niṣprayojanaḥ | gurus taj-jñānaṃ ca kalpitam iti cet, śiṣya-taj-jñānayor api kalpitatvāt tad apy anivartakam | kalpitatve’pi pūrva-virodhitvena nivartakam iti cet, tad ācārya-jñāne’pi samānam iti tad eka nivartakaṃ bhavatīty upadeśānarthakyam eva | iti kṛtam asamīcīna-vādair nirastaiḥ

 

Śrīdhara

aśocyatve hetum āha na tv evāham iti | yathāhaṃ parameśvaro jātu kadācit līlā-vigrahasyāvirbhāva-tirobhāvato nāsam iti tu naiva | api tv āsam eva anāditvāt | na ca tvaṃ nāsīḥ nābhūḥ, api tv āsīr eva | ime vā janādhipā nṛpā nāsann iti na, api tu āsann eva mad-aṃśatvāt | tathātaḥ param ita upary api na bhaviṣyāmo na sthāsyāma iti ca naiva, api tu sthāsyāma eveti janma-maraṇa-śūnyatvād aśocyā ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.18

 

Viśvanātha

athavā sakhe tvām aham evaṃ pṛcchāmi | kiṃ ca prītyāspadasya maraṇe dṛṣṭe sati śoko jāyate, tatreha prītyāspadam ātmā deho vā ? sarveṣām eva bhūtānāṃ nṛpa svātmaiva vallabhaḥ [BhP 10.14.57] iti śukokter ātmaiva prīty-āspadam iti cet tarhi jīveśvara-bhedena dvividhasyaivātmano nityatvād eva maraṇābhāvād ātmā śokasya viṣayo nety āha na tv evāham iti | ahaṃ paramātmā jātu kadācid api pūrvaṃ nāsam iti na, api tv āsam eva | tathā tvam api jīvātmā āsīr eva | tatheme janādhipā rājānaś ca jīvātmāna āsann eveti prāg-abhāvābhāvo darśitaḥ | tathā sarve vayam ahaṃ tvam ime janādhipāś cātaḥ paraṃ na bhaviṣyāmo na sthāsyāma iti na, api tu sthāsyāma eveti dhvaṃsābhāvaś ca darśita iti paramātmano jīvātmanāṃ ca nityatvād ātmā na śoka-viṣaya iti sādhitam | atra śrutayaḥ – nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān [ŚvetU 6.13] ity ādyāḥ

 

Baladeva

evam asthāna-śocitvād apāṇḍityam arjunasyāpādya tattva-jijñāsuṃ niyojitāñjaliṃ taṃ prati sarveśvaro bhagavān nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān [ŚvetU 6.13] iti śruti-siddhaṃ svasmāj jīvānāṃ ca pāramarthikaṃ bhedam āha na tv evāham iti | he arjuna ! ahaṃ sarveśvaro bhagavān itaḥ
pūrvasminn ādau kāle jātu kadācin nāsam iti na, api tv āsam eva | tathā tvam arjuno nāsīr iti na, kintv āsīr eva | ime janādhipā rājāno nāsann iti na, kintv āsann eva | tathetaḥ parasminn ante kāle sarve vayam ahaṃ ca tvaṃ ca ime ca na bhaviṣyāma iti na, kintu bhaviṣyāma eveti | sarveśvaravaj jīvānāṃ ca traikālika-sattā-yogitvāt tad-viṣayako na śoko yukta ity arthaḥ | na cāvidyā-kṛtatvād vyavahāriko ‚yaṃ bhedaḥ | sarvajñe bhagavaty avidyā-yogāt | idaṃ jñānam upāśritya ity ādinā mokṣe ‚pi tasyābhidāsyamānatvāc ca | na cābhedajñasyāpi harer bādhitānuvṛtti-nyāyeneyam arjunādi-bheda-dṛṣṭir iti vācyam | tathā saty upadeśāsiddheḥ | maru-marīcikādāv udaka-buddhir bādhitāpy anuvartamānā mithyārtha-viṣayatva-niścayān nodakāharaṇādau pravartayed evam abheda-bodha-bādhitāpy anuvartamānārjunādi-bheda-dṛṣṭis tattva-niścayān nopadeśādau pravartayiṣyatīti yat kiñcid etat |
nanu phalavaty ajñāte ‚rthe śāstra-tātparya-vīkṣaṇāt tādṛśo ‚bhedas tātparya-viṣayo vaiphalyāj jñātatvāc ca | bhedas tad-viṣayo na syāt, kintu adbhyo vā eṣa prātar udety apaḥ sāyaṃ praviśati ity ādi-śruty-arthavad anuvādya eva sa iti cen mandam etat | pṛthag ātmānaṃ preritāraṃ ca matvā juṣṭas tatas tenāmṛtatvam eti [ŚvetU 1.6] ity ādinā bheda evāmṛtatva-phala-śravaṇāt | viruddha-dharmāvacchinna-pratiyogikatayā loke tasyājñātatvāc ca | te ca dharmā vibhutvāṇutva-svāmitva-bhṛtyatvādayaḥ śāstraika-gamyā mitho viruddhā bodhyāḥ | abhedas tv aphalas tatra phalānaṅgīkārāt | ajñātaś ca śaśa-śṛṅgavad asattvāt | tasmāt paramārthikas tad-bhedaḥ siddhaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.13

dehino smin yathā dehe kaumāraṃ yauvanaṃ jarā
tathā dehāntara-prāptir dhīras tatra na muhyati

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yathā (as) asmin (in this) dehe (in the body) dehinaḥ (of the embodied one) kaumāram (childhood), yauvanam (youth), jarā (old age) [bhavanti] (they are),
tathā (so) dehāntara-prāptiḥ (obtainment of another body),
tatra (in this) dhīraḥ (the wise) na muhyati (he is not bewildered).

 

grammar

dehinaḥ dehin 6n.1 m.of the embodied one (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);
asmin idam sn. 7n.1 m.in this;
yathā av.as (corelativum do: tathā);
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
kaumāram kaumāra 1n.1 n.childhood, tenderness (from: ku – in compounds expresses a question– how? from where?, what type?; mṛ to die; ku-māra – easily dying, child);
yauvanam yauvana 1n.1 n.youth (from: yuvan – young, adult, strong, healthy);
jarā jarā 1n.1 f.old age (from: jṝ to grow old, to decay);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
dehāntara-prāptiḥ deha-antara-prāpti 1n.1 f.; [TP]: dehasya antarasya prāptir itiobtainment of another body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; antara – inside, different, other; pra-āp – to obtain, to reach, prāpta [PP] – obtained; prāpti – obtainment);
dhīraḥ dhīra 1n.1 m.steady, calm, sober, wise (from: dhṛ – to hold or dhā to put);
tatra av.in that, therein (from: tat – indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
na av.not;
muhyati muh (to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) Praes. P 1v.1is bewildered, deluded, confused;

 

textual variants

dhīras → vīras (heroic);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

(Question):—Now, how is the Self eternal?
(Answer):—Here follows an illustration:

tatra katham iva nitya ātmeti dṛṣṭāntam āha

13. Just as in this body the embodied (Self) passes into childhood and youth and old age,
so does He pass into another body.
There the wise man is not distressed
.

dehino ’smin yathā dehe kaumāraṃ yauvanaṃ jarā |
tathā dehāntara-prāptir dhīras tatra na muhyati ||2.13||

We see how the embodied Self passes unchanged in the present body into the three stages (avasthas) of childhood, youth or the middle age, and old age or the age of decay, all distinct from one another.

deho ’sya astīti dehī, tasya dehino dehavataḥ ātmano ’smin vartamāne dehe yathā yena prakāreṇa kaumāraṃ kumāra-bhāvo bālyāvasthā, yauvanaṃ yūno bhāvo madhyamāvasthā, jarā vayo-hāniḥ jīrṇāvasthā, ity etāḥ tisro ’vasthāḥ anyonya-vilakṣaṇāḥ |

At the close of the first of these stages the Self is not dead, nor is He born again at the commencement of the second; on the other hand, we see the Self passing unchanged into the second and third stages.

tāsāṃ prathamāvasthā-nāśe na nāśaḥ, dvitīyāvasthopajane na upajana ātmanaḥ | kiṃ tarhi? avikriyasyaiva dvitīya-tṛtīyāvasthā-prāptiḥ ātmano dṛṣṭā |

Just so does the Self pass unchanged into another body.

tathā tadvad eva dehād anyo deho dehāntaram, tasya prāptiḥ dehāntara-prāptiḥ avikriyasyaiva ātmana ity arthaḥ |

Such being the case, the wise man is not troubled (in mind) about it.

dhīro dhīmān tatraivaṃ sati na muhyati na moham āpadyate ||2.13||

 

Rāmānuja

ekasmin dehe vartamānasya dehinaḥ kaumārāvasthāṃ vihāya yauvanādy-avasthā-prāptau ātmanaḥ sthira-buddhyā yathātmā naṣṭa iti na śocati, dehād dehāntara-prāptāv api tathaiva sthira ātmeti buddhimān na śocati | ata ātmanāṃ nityatvād ātmāno na śoka-sthānam | etāvad atra kartavyam—ātmanāṃ nityānām eva anādi-karma-vaśyatayā tat-tat-karmocita-deha-saṃsṛṣṭānāṃ tair eva dehair bandha-nivṛttaye śāstrīyaṃ sva-varṇocitaṃ yuddhādikam anabhisaṃhita-phalaṃ karma kurvatām avarjanīyatayā indriyaiḥ indriyārtha-sparśāḥ śītoṣṇādi-prayukta-sukha-duḥkha-dā bhavanti | te tu yāvac-chāstrīya-karma-samāpti kṣantavyā iti

 

Śrīdhara

nanv īśvarasya tava janmādi-śūnyatvaṃ satyam eva, jīvānāṃ tu janma-maraṇe prasiddhe | tatrāha dehina ity ādi | dehino dehābhimānino jīvasya yathāsmin sthūla-dehe kaumārādy-avasthās tad-deha-nibandhanā eva, na tu svataḥ, pūrvāvāsthā-nāśe |vasthāntarotpattāv api sa evāham iti pratyabhijñānāt | tathaiva etad-deha-nāśe dehāntara-prāptir api liṅga-deha-nibandhanaiva | na tāvad ātmano nāśaḥ, jāta-mātrasya pūrva-saṃskāreṇa stanya-pānādau pravṛtti-darśanāt | ato dhīro dhīmān tatra tayor deha-nāśotpattyor na muhyati | ātmaiva mṛto jātaś ceti na manyate

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.18

 

Viśvanātha

nanu cātma-sambandhena deho ‚pi prīty-āspadaṃ syāt, deha-sambandhena putra-bhrātrādayo ‚pi, tat-sambandhena tat-putrādayo ‚pi | atas teṣāṃ nāśe śokaḥ syād eveti ced ata āha dehina iti | dehino jīvasyāsmin dehe kaumāra kaumāraṃ kaumāra-prāptir bhavati, tataḥ kaumāra-nāśānantaraṃ jarā-prāptir yathā tathaiva dehāntara-prāptir iti | tatas cātma-sambandhināṃ kaumārādīnāṃ prīty-āspadānāṃ nāśe yathā śoko na kriyate tathā dehasyāpi ātma-sambandhinaḥ prītyāspadasya nāśe śoko na kartavyaḥ | yauvanasya nāśe jarā-prāptau śoko jāyate iti cet kaumārasya nāśe yauvana-prāptau harṣo ‚pi jāyate ity ato bhīṣma-droṇādīnāṃ jīrṇa-deha-nāśe khalu navya-dehāntara-prāptau tarhi harṣaḥ kriyatām iti bhāvaḥ | yad vā, ekasminn api dehe kaumārādīnāṃ yathā prāptis tathaivaikasyāpi dehino jīvasya nānā-dehānāṃ prāptir iti

 

Baladeva

nanu bhīṣmādi-dehāvacchinnānām ātmanāṃ nityatve ‚pi tad-dehānāṃ tad-bhogāyatanānāṃ nāśe yuktaḥ śoka iti cet tatrāha dehino ‚sminn iti | traikālikā bahavo dehā yasya santi, tasya dehino jīvasyāsmin vartamāne dehe kramāt kaumāra-yauvana-jarās tisro ‚vasthā bhavanti | tāsām ātma-sambandhināṃ tad-bhogopayuktānāṃ pūrva-pūrva-vināśena para-para-prāptau yathā na śokas tathaiva tad-deha-vināśe sati dehāntara-prāptir yayāti-yauvana-prāpti-nyāyena harṣa-hetur eveti, na tad-deha-vināśa-hetukaḥ śokas tavocita iti bhāvaḥ | dhīro dhīmān deha-svabhāva-jīva-karma-vipāka-svarūpa-jñaḥ | atra dehina ity eka-vacanaṃ jāty-abhiprāyeṇa bodhyaṃ pūrvatrātma-bahutvokteḥ |
atrāhuḥ – eka eva viśuddhātmā tasyāvidyayāparicchinnasya tasyāṃ pratibimbitasya vā nānātmatvam | śrutiś caivam āha ākāśam ekaṃ hi yathā ghaṭādiṣu pṛthag bhavet, tathātmaiko hy anekastho jalādhāreṣv ivāṃśumān iti | tad-vijñānena tasya vināśe tu tan-nānātva-nivṛttyā tad-aikyaṃ sidhyatīty eka-vacanenaitat pārtha-sārathir āheti | tan-mandaṃ jaḍayā tayā caitanya-rāśeś chedāsambhavāt | tair api tad-viṣayatvānaṅgīkārāc ca | vāstave cchede vikāritvādy-āpattiḥ ṭaṅka-chinna-pāṣāṇavat syāt – nīrūpasya vibhoḥ pratibimbāsambhavāc ca | anyathākāśādi-gādīnāṃ tad-āpattiḥ | na ca pratīty-anyathānupapattir evākāśasya pratibimbe mānaṃ tad-varti-graha-nakṣatra-prabhā-maṇḍalaṃ tasyiavāmbhasi bhāsamānatvena pratīteḥ | ākāśam ekaṃ hi iti śrutis tu paramātma-viṣayā tasyākāśavat sūryavac ca bahu-vṛttikatvaṃ vadatīty aviruddham | na cātmaikyasyopadeṣṭā sambhavati | sa hi tattvavin na vā ? ādye ‚dvitīyam ātmānaṃ vijānatas tasyopadeśyāpari-sphūrtiḥ | antye tv ajñatvād eva nātma-jñānopadeṣṭṛtvam | bādhitānuvṛttyāśrayaṇaṃ tu pūrva-nirastam

 
 

BhG 2.14

mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ
āgamāpāyino nityās tāṃs titikṣasva bhārata

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he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!), he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
mātrā-sparśāḥ tu (but material sensations) śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ (which give [feelings of] cold and heat, pleasure and distress) [bhavanti] (they are).
[te] (these) āgamāpāyinaḥ (which are coming and going),
[ataḥ eva] (therefore indeed) anityāḥ (impermanent) [bhavanti] (they are).
[ataḥ] (hence) tān (them) titikṣasva (tolerate patiently).

 

grammar

mātrā-sparśāḥ mātrā-sparśa 1n.3 m.; [TP]: mātrāṇāṁ sparśā itimaterial sensations (from: – to measure, mātrā – measure, size, matter, substance; spṛś – to touch, sparśa – touch, sensation; mīyante / jñāyante viṣayā ābhir iti mātrāḥindriya-vṛttayaḥ [by them] from all sides the things are measured / learned about therefore they are named objects – fields of activities for the senses);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ śīta-uṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-da 1n.3 m.; [TP]/DV: ye sītaṁ ca uṣṇaṁ ca sukhaṁ ca duḥkhaṁ ca dadhati tethese which give [feelings of] cold and heat, pleasure and distress (from: śīta – cold, frigid; uṣ – to burn, uṣṇa – hot, warm; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not; or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā; – to give, da – suffix meaning giver);
āgamāpāyinaḥ āgama-apāyin 1n.3 m.; yeṣām āgamaś ca apāyaś ca stas tethese which are coming and going (from: ā-gam – to come, āgama – arrival; apa-i – to go away; apāya – departure, apāyin – going away, departing);
anityāḥ a-nitya 1n.3 m.impermanent (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
titikṣasva tij (to sharpen, to tolerate) Imperat. des. Ā 2v.1you must desire to be firm, endevour to endure, tolerate patiently;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Endurance is a condition of wisdom.
Now Arjuna might argue as follows: It is true that when one knows the Self to be eternal there is no room for the distressful delusion that the Self will die. But quite common among people, as we see, is the distressful delusion that the Self is subject to heat and cold, pleasure and pain, as also to grief due to the loss of pleasure or to the suffering of pain. As against the foregoing, the Lord says:

yady apy ātma-vināśa-nimitto moho na saṃbhavati nitya ātmā iti vijānataḥ, tathāpi śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-prāpti-nimitto moho laukiko dṛśyate, sukha-viyoga-nimitto moho duḥkha-saṃyoga-nimitta ca śokaḥ | ity etad arjunasya vacanam āśaṅkaya bhagavān āha

The sense-contacts it is, O son of Kunti, which cause heat and cold, pleasure and pain; they come and go, they are impermanent. Them endure bravely, O descendant of Bharata.

mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhadāḥ |
āgamāpāyino’nityās tāṃs titikṣasva bhārata ||2.14||

The senses are those of hearing and the like, by which sound and other things are perceived. It is the contacts of the senses with their objects such as sound –

mātrā ābhiḥ mīyante śabdādaya iti śrotrādīni indriyāṇi | mātrāṇāṃ sparśāḥ śabdādibhiḥ saṃyogāḥ | te śītoṣṇasukha-duḥkha-dāḥ śītam uṣṇaṃ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca prayacchantīti |

or, according to another interpretation, it is the senses and the contacts – i. e., the sense-objects, such as sound, which are contacted by the senses, – which produce heat and cold, pleasure and pain.

athavā spṛśyanta iti sparśā viṣayāḥ śabdādayaḥ | mātrāś ca sparśāś ca śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ |

Cold is pleasant at one time and painful at another. So also heat is of an inconstant nature. But pleasure and pain are constant in their respective natures as pleasure and pain. Wherefore heat and cold are mentioned separately from pleasure and pain.

śītaṃ kadācit sukhaṃ kadācit duḥkham | tathā uṣṇam api aniyata-svarūpam | sukha-duḥkhe punaḥ niyata-rūpe yato na vyabhicarataḥ | atas tābhyāṃ pṛthak śītoṣṇayoḥ grahaṇam |

Because these sense-contacts, etc., have, by nature, a beginning and an end, therefore they are not permanent. Wherefore do thou bravely endure them, heat and cold &c.; i. e., give not thyself up to joy or grief on their account.

yasmāt te mātrā-sparśādayaḥ āgamāpāyinaḥ āgamāpāyaśīlāḥ tasmāt anityāḥ | ataḥ tān śītoṣṇādīn titikṣasva prasahasva | teṣu harṣaṃ viṣādaṃ vā mā kārṣīḥ ity arthaḥ ||2.14||

 

Rāmānuja

imam artham anantaram eva āha mātrā-śparśās tv iti | śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhāḥ sāśrayāḥ tan-mātrā-kāryatvāt mātrā iti ucyante | śrotrādibhis teṣāṃ sparśāḥ śītoṣṇa-mṛdu-paruṣādi-rūpa-sukha-duḥkhadā bhavanti | śītoṣṇa-śabdaḥ pradarśanārthaḥ | tān dhairyeṇa yāvad-yuddhādi-śāstrīya-karma-samāpti titikṣasva | te cāgamāpāyitvād dharyavatāṃ kṣantuṃ yogyāḥ | anityāś caite bandha-hetu-bhūta-karma-nāśe sati, āgamāpāyitvenāpi nivartanta ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

nanu tān ahaṃ na śocāmi, kintu tad-viyogādi-duḥkha-bhājaṃ mām eveti cet tatrāha mātrā-sparśā iti | mīyante jāyante viṣayā ābhir iti mātrā indriya-vṛttayaḥ, tāsāṃ sparśā viṣayeṣu sambaddhāḥ, te śītoṣṇādi-pradā bhavanti | te tu āgamāpāyitvād anityā asthirāḥ | atas tān titikṣasva sahasva | yathā jalātapādi-saṃsargās tat-tat-kāla-kṛtāḥ svabhāvataḥ śītoṣṇādi prayacchanti evam iṣṭa-saṃyoga-viyogā api sukha-duḥkhāni prayacchanti, teṣāṃ cāsthiratvāt sahanaṃ tava dhīrasyocitaṃ na tu tan-nimitta-harṣa-viṣāda-pāravaśyam ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.18

 

Viśvanātha

nanu satyam eva tattvam | tad apy avivekino mama mana evānarthakāni vṛtahiva śoka-moha-vyāptaṃ duḥkhayatīti | tatra na kevalam ekaṃ mana evāpi tu manaso vṛttayo ‚pi sarvās tv agādīndriya-rūpāḥ sva-viṣayān anubhāvyānarthakāriṇya ity āha mātrā indriya-grāhya-viṣayās teṣāṃ sparśā anubhavāḥ | śītoṣṇety āgamāpāyina iti yad eva śītala-jalādikam uṣṇa-kāle sukhadam | tad eva śīta-kāle duḥkhadam ato ‚niyatatvād āgamāpāyitvāc ca tān viṣayānubhavān titikṣasva sahasva | teṣāṃ sahanam eva śāstra-vihito dharmaḥ | nahi māghe māsi jalasya duḥkhatva-buddhyaiva śāstre vihitaḥ snāna-rūpo dharmas tyajyate | dharma eva kāle sarvānartha-nivartako bhavati | evam eva ye putra-bhrātrādyotpatti-kāle dhanādy-upārjana-kāle ca sukhadās ta eva mṛtyu-kāle duḥkhadā āgamāpāyino ‚nityās tān api titikṣasva | na tu tad-anurodhena yuddha-rūpaḥ śāstra-vihitaḥ sva-dharmas tyājyo vihita-dharmānācaraṇaṃ khalu kāle mahānarthakṛd eveti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanu bhīṣmādayo mṛtāḥ kathaṃ bhaviṣyantīti tad-duḥkha-nimittaḥ śoko mābhūt | tad-viccheda-duḥkha-nimittas tu me mana-prabhṛtīni pradahantīti cet tatrāha mātreti | mātrās tv agādīndriya-vṛttayaḥ mīyante paricchidyante viṣayā abhir iti vyutpatteḥ | sparśās tābhir viṣayāṇām anubhavānte khalu śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhadā bhavanti | yad eva śītalam udakaṃ grīṣme sukhadaṃ tad eva hemante duḥkhadam ity ato ‚niyatatvād āgamāpāyitvāc cānityān asthirāṃs tān titikṣasva sahasva | etad uktaṃ bhavati māgha-snānaṃ duḥkha-karam api dharmatayā vidhānād yathā kriyate tathā bhīṣmādibhiḥ saha yuddhaṃ duḥkha-karam api tathā vidhānāt kāryam eva | tatratyo duḥkhānubhavas tv āgantuko dharma-siddhatvāt soḍhavyaḥ | dharmāj jñānodayena mokṣa-lābhe tūttaratra tasya nānuvṛttiś ca jñāna-niṣṭhā paripākaṃ vinaiva dharma-tyāgas tv anartha-hetur iti | kaunteya bhārateti padābhyām ubhaya-kula-śuddhasya te dharma-bhraṃśo nocita iti sūcyate

 
 

BhG 2.15


yaṃ hi na vyathayanty ete puruṣaṃ puruṣa-rṣabha
sama-duḥkha-sukhaṃ dhīraṃ so mṛtatvāya kalpate

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syntax


he puruṣarṣabha (O bull among men!),
ete (these) [mātrā-sparśāḥ] (material sensations) yam (whom) sama-duḥkha-sukham (for whom pleasure and distress are equal) dhīram (the wise) puruṣam (person) na vyathayanti (they do not afflict),
saḥ hi (he indeed) amṛtatvāya (to immortality) kalpate (he is eligible).

 

grammar

yam yat sn. 2n.1 m.whom;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
na av.not;
vyathayanti vyath (to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid) Praes. caus. P 1v.3they cause to tremble, they affllict;
ete etat sn. 1n.3 m.these;
puruṣam puruṣa 2n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
puruṣa-rṣabha puruṣa-rṣabha 8n.1 m.; KD: puruṣo ṛṣabha ivaman as if a bull, the best of men (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; ṛṣabha – bull, the best of any kind); or [TP]: puruṣāṇām ṛṣabha itibull among men;
sama-duḥkha-sukham sama-duḥkha-sukha 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya duḥkhaṁ ca sukhaṁ ca same stas tamfor whom pleasure and distress are equal (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not; or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā);
dhīram dhīra 2n.1 m.steady, calm, sober, wise (from: dhṛ – to hold or dhā to put);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
amṛtatvāya amṛtatva abst. 4n.1 n.for immortality (from: mṛ – to die; mṛta [PP] – dead, a-mṛta – not dead, eternal, nectar of immortality, amṛtatva – immortality, eternallity, liberation);
kalpate kḷp (to be fit for, to correspond, to be able) Praes. Ā 1v.1he is eligible;

 

textual variants


puruṣaṁ puruṣa-rṣabha → puruṣāḥ puruṣa-rṣabha (people, O bull among men);
sama-duḥkha-sukhaṁ → sama-sukhaṁ-duḥkha (equally treating pleasure and distress);
dhīraṁ → dhīrāḥ (they wise);
kalpate → kaṁpate (he trembles);
 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

(Question): – What good will accrue to him who bears heat and cold and the like?
(Answer): – Listen.

śītoṣṇādīn sahataḥ kiṃ syād iti śṛṇu

That wise man whom, verily, these afflict not, O chief of men,
to whom pleasure and pain are same, he for immortality is fit.

yaṃ hi na vyathayanty ete puruṣaṃ puruṣarṣabha |
sama-duḥkha-sukhaṃ dhīraṃ so ’mṛtatvāya kalpate ||2.15||

That person to whom pleasure and pain are alike, – who neither exults in pleasure nor feels dejected in pain, – who is a man of wisdom, whom heat and cold and other things such as those mentioned above do not affect in virtue of his vision of the eternal Self, –

yaṃ hi puruṣaṃ same duḥkha-sukhe yasya taṃ sama-duḥkha-sukhaṃ sukha-duḥkha-prāptau harṣa-viṣāda-rahitaṃ dhīraṃ dhīmantaṃ na vyathayanti na cālayanti nityātma-darśanāt ete yathoktāḥ śītoṣṇādayaḥ |

that man, firm in his vision of the eternal Self and bearing calmly the pairs of opposites (such as heat and cold), is able to attain immortality (moksha).

sa nityātma-svarūpa-darśa-niṣṭho dvandva-sahiṣṇuḥ amṛtatvāya amṛta-bhāvāya mokṣāyety arthaḥ kalpate samartho bhavati ||2.15||

 

Rāmānuja

tat-kṣāntiḥ kim arthā ? ity ata āha—yaṃ hi iti | yaṃ puruṣaṃ dhairya-yuktam avarjanīya-duḥkhaṃ sukhavan manyamānam amṛtatva-sādhanatayā sva-varṇocitaṃ yuddhādi-karma anabhisaṃhita-phalaṃ kurvāṇaṃ tad-antargatāḥ śastra-pātādi-mṛdu-krūra-sparśā na vyathayanti sa eva amṛtatvaṃ sādhayati | na tvādṛśo duḥkhāsahiṣṇur ity arthaḥ | ata ātmanāṃ nityatvād etāvad atra kartavyam ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

tat-pratikāra-prayatnād api tat-sahanam evocitaṃ mahā-phalatvād ity āha yaṃ hīti | ete mātrā-sparśā yaṃ puruṣaṃ na vyathayanti nābhibhavanti | same duḥkha-sukhe sa tam | sa tair avikṣipyamāṇo dharma-jñāna-dvārā amṛtatvāya mokṣāya kalpate yogyo bhavati

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.18

 

Viśvanātha

evaṃ vicāreṇa tat-tat-sahanābhyāse sati te viṣayānubhavāḥ kāle kila nāpi duḥkhayanti | yadi ca na duḥkhayanti, tadātma-muktiḥ sva-pratyāsannaivety āha yam iti | amṛtatvāya mokṣāya

 

Baladeva

dharmārtha-duḥkha-sahanābhyāsasyottaratra sukha-hetutvaṃ darśayann āha yaṃ hīti | ete mātrā-sparśāḥ priyāpriya-viṣayānubhāvā yaṃ dhīraṃ dhiyam īrayati dharmeṣv iti vyutpatter dharma-niṣṭhaṃ puruṣaṃ na vyathayanti sukha-duḥkha-mūrcchitaṃ na kurvanti so ‚mṛtatvāya muktaye kalpyate | na tu tādṛśo duḥkha-sukha-mūrcchita ity arthaḥ | uktam arthaṃ sphuṭayan puruṣaṃ viśinaṣṭi sameti | dharmānuṣṭhānasya kaṣṭa-sādhyatvād duḥkham anuṣaṅga-labdhaṃ sukhaṃ ca yasya samaṃ bhavati tābhyāṃ mukha-mlānitollāsa-rahitam ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.16

nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ
ubhayor api dṛṣṭo ntas tv anayos tattva-darśibhiḥ

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syntax


asataḥ (of the unreal) bhāvaḥ (existence) na vidyate (there is not).
sataḥ (of the real) abhāvaḥ (non-existence) na vidyate (there is not).
tattva-darśibhiḥ tu (by for the seers of the truth) anayoḥ (of these two) ubhayoḥ (both) antaḥ (nature) dṛṣṭaḥ (seen) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

na av.not;
asataḥ a-sant (as – to be) PPr 6n.1 n.of the unreal, of the untrue (from: as – to be; PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
vidyate vid (to be) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is; or from: vid (to find) Praes. pass. 1v.1is found; or from: vid (to know, to understand) Praes. pass. 1v.1is understood;
bhāvaḥ bhāva 1n.1 m.state, existence, nature, emotions (from: bhū – to be);
na av.not;
abhāvaḥ a-bhāva 1n.1 m.non-existence, lack of emotions (from: bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
vidyate vid (to be) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is; or from: vid (to find) Praes. pass. 1v.1is found; or from: vid (to know, to understand) Praes. pass. 1v.1is understood;
sataḥ sant (as – to be) PPr 6n.1 n.of the real, of the true (from: as – to be; PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
ubhayoḥ ubhaya sn. 6n.2 m.of both;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
dṛṣṭaḥ dṛṣṭa (dṛś – to see) [PP] 1n.1 m.seen;
antaḥ anta 1n.1 m.end, limit, settlement, inside, nature;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
anayoḥ idam sn. 6n.2 m.of these two;
tattva-darśibhiḥ tattva-darśin 3n.3 m.; [TP]: tattvaṁ darśibhiḥ itiby the seers of truth (from: tat – this, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; dṛś – to see, darśa – view, appearance, darśin – one who sees, seer);

 

textual variants


vidyate bhāvo → vidyate ’bhāvo (there is non-existence);
ubhayor api → ubhayor aṁtaraṁ (inside of the two);
tattva-darśibhiḥ → vastu-darśibhiḥ (by the seers of things);
 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The Real and the Unreal.
For the following reason also it is proper that thou shouldst abandon grief and distressful delusion and calmly endure heat and cold, etc. For,

itaś ca śoka-mohau akṛtvā śītoṣṇādi-sahanaṃ yuktam, yasmāt

Of the unreal no being there is; there is no non-being of the real.
Of both these is the truth seen by the seers of the Essence.

nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ |
ubhayor api dṛṣṭo ’ntas tv anayos tattva-darśibhiḥ ||2.16||

There is no bhava – no being, no existence – of the unreal (asat) such as heat and cold as well as their causes.

na asato ’vidyamānasya śītoṣṇādeḥ sa-kāraṇasya na vidyate nāsti bhāvo bhavanam astitā ||

Heat, cold, etc., and the causes thereof, which are (no doubt) perceived through the organs of perception, are not absolutely real (vastu-sat); for, they are effects or changes (vikara), and every change is temporary.

na hi śītoṣṇādi sa-kāraṇaṃ pramāṇair nirūpyamāṇaṃ vastu sambhavati | vikāro hi saḥ, vikāraś ca vyabhicarati |

For instance, no objective form, such as an earthen pot, presented to consciousness by the eye, proves to be real, because it is not perceived apart from clay. Thus every effect is unreal, because it is not perceived as distinct from its cause. Every effect, such as a pot, is unreal, also because it is not perceived before its production and after its destruction.

yathā ghaṭādi-saṃsthānaṃ cakṣuṣā nirūpyamāṇaṃ mṛd-vyatirekeṇānupalabdher asat | tathā sarvo vikāraḥ kāraṇa-vyatirekeṇānupalabdher asat | janma-pradhvaṃsābhyāṃ prāg ūrdhvaṃ cānupalabdheḥ |

And likewise the cause, such as clay, is unreal because it is not perceived apart from its cause,

kāryasya ghaṭādeḥ mṛd-ādi-kāraṇasya ca tat-kāraṇa-vyatirekeṇānupalabdher asattvam ||

(Objection): – Then it comes to this: nothing at all exists.
(Answer): – No (such objection applies here). For, every fact of experience involves twofold consciousness (buddhi). the consciousness of the real (sat) and the consciousness of the unreal (asat). Now that is (said to be) real, of which our consciousness never fails; and that to be unreal, of which our consciousness fails. Thus the distinction of reality and unreality depends on our consciousness.

tad-asattve sarvābhāva-prasaṅga iti cet, na | sarvatra buddhi-dvayopalabdheḥ, sad-buddhir asad-buddhir iti | yad-viṣayā buddhir na vyabhicarati, tat sat | yad-viṣayā vyabhicarati, tad asat | iti sad-asad-vibhāge buddhi-tantre sthite |

Now, in all our experience, twofold consciousness arises with reference to one and the same substratum (samānādhikaraṇa), as, ‚a cloth existent,’ ‚a pot existent,’ ‚an elephant existent’ – not as in the expression ‚a blue lotus’ – and so on everywhere.

sarvatra dve buddhī sarvair upalabhyete samānādhikaraṇe na nīlotpalavat, san ghaṭaḥ san paṭaḥ, san hastī iti | evaṃ sarvatra |

Of the two, the consciousness of pot, &c., is temporary as was already pointed out, but not the consciousness of existence. Thus, the object corresponding to our consciousness of pot, &c., is unreal, because the consciousness is temporary; but what corresponds to our consciousness of existence is not unreal, because the consciousness is unfailing.

tayor buddhyoḥ ghaṭādi-buddhir vyabhicarati | tathā ca darśitam | na tu sad-buddhiḥ | tasmāt ghaṭādi-buddhi-viṣayo ’san, vyabhicārāt | na tu sad-buddhi-viṣayaḥ, avyabhicārāt ||

(Objection): – When the pot is absent and the consciousness of it fails, the consciousness of existence also fails.
(Answer): – No (such objection applies here). For the consciousness of existence still arises with reference to other objects such as cloth. The consciousness of existence corresponds indeed only to the attributive (viśeṣaṇa).

ghaṭe vinaṣṭe ghaṭa-buddhau vyabhicarantyāṃ sad-buddhir api vyabhicaratīti cet na | paṭād evapi sad-buddhi-darśanāt | viśeṣaṇa-viṣayaiva sā sad-buddhiḥ |
(Objection): – Like the consciousness of existence, the consciousness of the pot also arises with reference to another pot (present).
(Answer): – You cannot say so, for the consciousness of the pot does not arise with reference to a cloth.
sad-buddhivat ghaṭa-buddhir api ghaṭāntarā dṛśyata iti cet, na | paṭādau adarśanāt ||

(Objection): – Neither does the consciousness of existence arise in the case of the pot that has disappeared.
(Answer): – You cannot say so, for there is no substantive (viśeṣya) present. The consciousness of existence corresponds to the attributive; and as there can be no consciousness of the attributive without that of the corresponding substantive, how can the consciousness of the attributive arise in the absence of the substantive? – Not that there is no objective reality present, corresponding to the consciousness of existence.

sad-buddhir api naṣṭe ghaṭe na dṛśyata iti cet, na | viśeṣyābhāvāt | sad-buddhir viśeṣaṇa-viṣayā satī viśeṣyābhāve viśeṣaṇānupapattau kiṃ-viṣayā syāt? na tu punaḥ sad-buddheḥ viṣayābhāvāt ||

(Objection): – If the substantive such as the pot be unreal, twofold consciousness arising with reference to one and the same substratum is inexplicable.
(Answer): – No; for, we find the twofold consciousness arising with reference to one and the same substratum, even though one of the two objects corresponding to the twofold consciousness is unreal, as for instance in the case of a mirage, where our consciousness takes the form „this is water.”

ekādhikaraṇatvaṃ ghaṭādi-viśeṣyābhāve na yuktam iti cet, na | idam udakam iti marīcy-ādau anyatarābhāve ’pi sāmānādhikaraṇya-darśanāt ||

Therefore, there is no existence of the unreal, the fictitious – such as the body and the pairs of opposites – or of their causes.

tasmād dehāder dvandvasya ca sa-kāraṇasya asato na vidyate bhāva iti |

Neither does the real – the Self (Atman) – ever cease to exist; for, as already pointed out, our consciousness of the Self never fails.

tathā sataś ca ātmano ’bhāvo ’vidyamānatā na vidyate, sarvatrāvyabhicārāt ity avocāma ||
This conclusion – that the real is ever existent and the unreal is never existent – regarding the two, the Self and the non-Self, the real and the unreal, is always present before the minds of those who attend only to truth, to the real nature of the Brahman, the Absolute, the All. evam ātmānātmanoḥ sad-asatoḥ ubhayor api dṛṣṭaḥ upalabdho ’nto nirṇayaḥ sat sad eva, asat asad eveti, tv anayoḥ yathoktayoḥ tattva-darśibhiḥ |

‚That’. Thou hadst therefore better follow the view of such truth-seers, shake off grief and delusion, and. being assured that all phenomena (vikaras) are really non-existent and are, like the mirage, mere false appearances, do thou calmly bear heat and cold and other pairs of opposites, of which some are constant and others inconstant in their nature as productive of pleasure or pain.

tad iti sarva-nāma sarvaṃ ca brahma, tasya nāma tad iti, tad-bhāvas tattvam, brahmaṇo yāthātmyam | tad draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te tattva-darśinaḥ, tais tattva-darśibhiḥ | tvam api tattva-darśināṃ dṛṣṭim āśritya śokaṃ mohaṃ ca hitvā śītoṣṇādīni niyatāniyata-rūpāṇi dvandvāni vikāro ’yam asann eva marīci-jalavan mithyāvabhāsate iti manasi niścitya titikṣasva ity abhiprāyaḥ ||2.16||

 

Rāmānuja

yat tv ātmanāṃ nityatvaṃ dehānāṃ svābhāvikaṃ nāśitvaṃ ca śokānimittim uktam gatāsūn agatāsūṃś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ [gītā 2.11] iti tad upapādayitum ārabhate | tat-kṣāntiḥ kim arthā? ity ata āha—nāsata iti |
asato dehasya sad-bhāvo na vidyate | sataś cātmano nāsadbhāvaḥ | ubhayor dehātmanor upalabhyamānayoḥ yathopalabdhi tattva-darśibhir anto dṛṣṭaḥ | nirṇayāntatvān nirūpaṇasya nirṇaya iha anta-śabdenocyate | dehasyācid-vastuno’sattvam eva svarūpam | ātmanaś cetanasya sattvam eva svarūpam iti niṇayo dṛṣṭa ity arthaḥ |
vināśa-svabhāvo hy asattvam | avināśa-svabhāvaś ca sattvam | yathoktaṃ bhagavatā paraśareṇa tasmān na vijñānam ṛte’sti kiñcit kvacit kadācid dvija vastu-jātam [vi.pu. 2.12.43] sad-bhāva evaṃ bhavato mayokto jñānaṃ yathā satyam asatyam anyat [vi.pu. 2.12.45]
anāśī paramārthaś ca prājñair abhyupagamyate |
tat tu nāśi na sandeho nāśi-dravyopapāditam || [vi.pu. 2.14.24]
yat tu kālāntareṇāpi nānyāṃ saṃjñām upaiti vai |
pariṇāmādi-saṃbhūtā tad vastu nṛpa tac ca kim || [vi.pu. 2.13.100] iti |
atrāpi antavanta ime dehāḥ [gītā 2.18] avināśi tu tad viddhi [gītā 2.17] ity ucyate | tad eva sattvāsattva-vyapadeśa-hetuḥ iti gamyate |
atra tu sat-kārya-vādasyāsaṅgatvān na tat-paro’yaṃ ślokaḥ | dehātma-svabhāvājñāna-mohitasya tan-moha-śāntaye hy ubhayor nāśitvānāśitva-svarūpa-svabhāva-viveka eva vaktavyaḥ | sa eva gatāsūn agatāsūṃś ca nānuśocanti [gītā 2.11] iti prastutaḥ | sa eva ca avināśi tu tad viddhi [gītā 2.17] antavanta ime dehāḥ [gītā 2.18] ity anantaram upapādyate | ato yathokta evārthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

nanu tathāpi śītoṣṇādikam atiduḥsahaṃ kathaṃ soḍhavyam | atyantaṃ tat-sahane ca kadācid deha-nāśaḥ syād ity āśaṅkya tattva-vicārataḥ sarvaṃ soḍhuṃ śakyam ity āśayenāha nāsato vidyata iti | asato ‚nātma-dharmatvād avidyamānasya śītoṣṇāder ātmani bhāvaḥ sattā na vidyate | tathā sataḥ sat-svabhāvasyātmano ‚bhāvo nāśo na vidyate | evam ubhayoḥ sad-asator anto nirṇayo dṛṣṭaḥ | kaiḥ ? tattva-darśibhiḥ vastu-yāthārthya-vedibhiḥ | evambhūta-vivekena sahasvety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.18

 

Viśvanātha

etac ca viveka-daśān adhirūḍhān prati uktam | vastutas tu asaṅgo hy ayaṃ puruṣaḥ iti śruter jīvātmanaś ca sthūla-sūkṣma-dehābhyāṃ tad-dharmaiḥ śoka-mohādibhiś ca sambandho nāsty eva | tat-sambandhasya avidyā kalpitatvād ity āha neti | asato ‚nātma-dharmatvād ātmani jīve avartamānasya śoka-mohādes tad-āśrayasya dehasya ca bhāvaḥ sattā nāsti | tathā sataḥ satya-rūpasya jīvātmano ‚bhāvo nāśo nāsti | tasmād ubhayor etayor asat-sator anto nirṇayo ‚yaṃ dṛṣṭaḥ | tena bhīṣmādiṣu tvad-ādiṣu ca jīvātmasu satyatvād anaśvareṣu deha-daihika-viveka-śoka-mohādayo naiva santi kathaṃ bhīṣmādayo naṅkṣanti | kathaṃ vā tāṃs tvaṃ śocasīti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

tad evaṃ bhagavatā pārthasyāsthānāśocitvena tat-pāṇḍityam ākṣiptam | śoka-haraṃ ca svopāsanam eva tac copāsopāsaka-bheda-ghaṭitam ity upāsyāj jīvāṃśinaḥ svasmād upāsakānāṃ jīvāṃśānāṃ tāttvikaṃ dvaitam upadiṣṭam | atha yad ātma-tattvena tu brahma-tattvaṃ dīpopameneha yuktaḥ prapaśyet [ŚvetU 2.15] ity ādāv aṃśa-svarūpa-jñānasyāṃśi-svarūpa-jñānopayogitva-śravaṇāt tad ādau saniṣṭhādīn sarvān pratyaviśeṣeṇopadeśyaṃ tac ca dehātmanor vaidharmya-dhiyam antarā na syād iti tad-vaidharmya-bodhāyārabhyate nāsata ity ādibhiḥ | asataḥ pariṇāmino dehāder bhāvo ‚pariṇāmitvaṃ na vidyate | sato ‚ pariṇāmina ātmanas tv abhāvaḥ pariṇāmitvaṃ na vidyate | dehātmānau pariṇāmāpariṇāma-svabhāvau bhavataḥ | evam ubhayor asat-sac-chabditayor dehātmanor anto nirṇayas tattva-darśibhis tad-ubhaya-svabhāva-vedibhiḥ puruṣair dṛṣṭo ‚nubhūtaḥ | atrāsac-chabdena vinaśvaraṃ dehādi jaḍaṃ sac-chabdena tv avinaśvaram ātma-caitanyam ucyate | evam eva śrī-viṣṇu-purāṇe ‚pi nirṇītaṃ dṛṣṭaṃ jyotīṃṣi viṣṇur bhuvanāni viṣṇur [ViP 2.12.38] ity upakramya yad asti yan nāsti ca vipra-varya [?] ity asti | nāsti-śabda-vācyayoś cetana-jaḍayos tathātvaṃ vastv asti kiṃ kutradcid ity ādibhir nirūpitaḥ | tatra nāsti śabda-vācyaṃ jaḍam | asti-śabdavātyaṃ tu caitanyam iti svayam eva vivṛtam | yat tu sat-kārya-vāda-sthāpanāyai tat-padyam ity āhus tan-niravadhānaṃ dehātma-svabhāvānabhijñāna-mohitaṃ prati tan-moha-vinivṛttaye tat-svabhāvābhijñāpanasya prakṛtatvāt

 
 

BhG 2.17

avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṃ tatam
vināśam avyayasyāsya na kaś-cit kartum arhati

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syntax


yena tu (but by which) idam (this) sarvam (whole) tatam (pervaded) [asti] (it is),
tat (this) avināśi (indestructible) viddhi (you must know).
kaś-cit (someone) asya (of this) avyayasya (of the unchangeble) vināśam (destruction) kartum (to do) na arhati (he is not able).

 

grammar

avināśi a-vināśin 2n.1 n.indestructible (from: vi-naś – to destroy, to vanish, vināśin – perishable);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
yena yat sn. 3n.1 n.that by which, wherefore;
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
tatam tata (tan – to spread, to pervade) [PP] 1n.1 n.spread, pervaded, covered over;
vināśam vināśa 2n.1 m.destruction (from: vi-naś – to destroy, to vanish);
avyayasya a-vyaya 6n.1 n.of the unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
na av.not;
kaś-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
kartum kṛ (to do) [inf.] – to do;
arhati arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 1v.1he is able;

 

textual variants

kaś-cit → kiṃ-cit (something);
arhati → arhasi (you are able);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

What, then, is that which is ever real? Listen: –

kiṃ punas tat yat sad eva sarvadaiva astīti | ucyate

But know that to be imperishable by which all this is pervaded.
None can cause the destruction of That, the Inexhaustible
.

avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṃ tatam |
vināśam avyayasyāsya na kaścit kartum arhati ||2.17||

Unlike the unreal, That – you must understand – does not vanish;

avināśi na vinaṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yasyeti | tu-śabdo ’sato viśeṣaṇārthaḥ |

That, the Brahman, the ‚Sat’, the Real, by which all this world, including the ākāśa, is pervaded, just as pots and other objects are pervaded by the ākāśa or space.

tat viddhi vijānīhi | kiṃ? yena sarvam idaṃ jagat tataṃ vyāptaṃ sad-ākhyena brahmaṇā sākāśam, ākāśenaiva ghaṭādayaḥ |

Brahman does not undergo increase or diminution and is therefore inexhaustible. This Brahman, the ‚Sat’, is not exhausted in Itself; for, unlike the body It has no parts. Nor does It diminish by (loss of) anything belonging to It; for, nothing belongs to the Self.

vināśam adarśanam abhāvam | avyayasya na vyeti upacayāpacayau na yāti iti avyayaṃ tasya avyayasya | naitat sad-ākhyaṃ brahma svena rūpeṇa vyeti vyabhicarati, niravayavatvāt, dehādivat |

Devadatta, for instance, is ruined by loss of wealth; but Brahman does not suffer loss in that way. Wherefore, nobody can bring about the disappearance or destruction of the inexhaustible Brahman.

nāpy ātmīyena, ātmīyābhāvāt | yathā devadatto dhana-hānyā vyeti, na tu evaṃ brahma vyeti |

Nobody – not even the Īśvara, the Supreme Lord – can destroy the Self. For, the Self is Brahman Itself, and one cannot act upon oneself.

ato ’vyayasya asya brahmaṇaḥ vināśaṃ na kaścit kartum arhati, na kaścit atmānaṃ vināśayituṃ śaknoti īśvaro ’pi | ātmā hi brahma, svātmani ca kriyā-virodhāt ||2.17||

 

Rāmānuja

tad ātma-tattvam avināśi iti viddhi, yena ātma-tattvena cetanena tad-vyatiriktam idam acetana-tattvaṃ sarvaṃ tataṃ vyāptam | vyāpakatvena niratiśaya-sūkṣmatvād ātmano vināśānarhasya tad-vyatirikto na kaścit padārtho vināśaṃ kartum arhati, tad-vyāpyatayā tasmāt sthūlatvāt | nāśakaṃ hi śastra-jalāgni-vāyv-ādikaṃ nāśyaṃ vyāpya śithilīkaroti | mudgarādayo’pi hi vegavat-saṃyogena vāyum utpādya tad-dvāreṇa nāśayanti | ata ātma-tattvam avināśi

 

Śrīdhara

atra sat-svabhāvam avināśi vastu sāmānyenoktaṃ tataṃ tat-sākṣitvena vyāptaṃ taṃ tu ātma-svarūpam avināśi vināśa-śūnyaṃ viddhi jānīhi | tatra hetum āha vināśam iti

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.18

 

Viśvanātha

nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ ity asyārthaṃ spaṣṭayati avināśīti | taṃ jīvātma-svarūpaṃ yena sarvam idaṃ śarīraṃ tataṃ vyāptam | nanu śarīra-mātra-vyāpi-caitanyatve jīvātmano madhyama-parimāṇatvena anityatva-prasaktiḥ ? maivam | sūkṣmāṇām apy ahaṃ jīvaḥ iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | eṣoṇur ātmā cetasā veditavyo yasmin prāṇaḥ pañcadhā saṃviveśa iti,
bālāgra-śata-bhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca |
bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ [ŚvetU 5.9] iti,
ārāgra-mātro hy aparo ‚pi dṛṣṭaḥ iti śrutibhyaś ca tasya paramāṇu-parimāṇatvam eva | tad api sampūrṇa-deha-vyāpi-śaktimattvaṃ jatu-jaṭitasya mahā-maṇer mahauṣadhi-khaṇḍasya vā śirasy urasi vā dhṛtasya sampūrṇa-deha-puṣṭi-karaṇa-śaktimattvam iva nāsamañjasam | svarga-naraka-nānā-yoniṣu gamanaṃ ca tasyopādhi-pāravaśyād eva | tad uktaṃ prāṇam adhikṛtya dattātrayeṇa yena saṃsarate pumān iti | ataevāsya sarva-gatatvam apy agrima-śloke vakṣyamāṇaṃ nāsamañjasam | ataevāvyayasya nityasya nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān [ŚvetU 6.13] iti śruteḥ |
yad vā, nanu deho jīvātmā paramātmety etad vastu-trikaṃ manuṣya-tiryag-ādiṣu sarvatra dṛśyate, tatrādyayor deha-jīvayos tattvaṃ nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ ity anenoktam | tṛtīyasya paramātma-vastunaḥ kiṃ tattvam ity ata āha avināśi tv iti | tu bhinnopakrame | paramātmano māyā-jīvābhyāṃ svarūpataḥ pārthakyād idaṃ jagat

 

Baladeva

uktaṃ jīvātma-dehayoḥ svabhāvaṃ viśadayaty avināśīti dvābhyām | taj jīvātma-tattvam avināśi nityaṃ viddhi | yena sarvam idaṃ śarīraṃ tataṃ dharma-bhūtena jñānena vyāptam asti | asyāvyayasya parmāṇutvena ca vināśānarhasya vināśaṃ na kaścit sthūlo ‚rthaḥ kartum arhati prāṇasyeva dehaḥ | iha jīvātmano deha-parimitatvaṃ na pratyetavyam | eṣo ‚ṇur ātmā cetasā veditavyo yasmin prāṇaḥ pañcadhā saṃviveśa [ṃuṇḍU 3.1.9] ity ādiṣu tasya paramāṇutva-śravaṇāt | tādṛśasya nikhila-deha-vyāptis tu dharma-bhūta-jñānenaiva syāt | evam āha bhagavān sūtrakāraḥ – guṇād vālokavad [Vs. 2.3.26] iti | ihāpi svayaṃ vakṣyati yathā prakāśayaty ekaḥ [Gītā 13.33] ity ādinā

 
 

BhG 2.18

antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ
anāśino prameyasya tasmād yudhyasva bhārata

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syntax


nityasya (of the eternal) anāśinaḥ (of the indestructible) aprameyasya (of the immeasurable) śarīriṇaḥ (of the embodied one) ime (these) dehāḥ (bodies) anta-vantaḥ (temporary) uktāḥ (are said).
he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!), tasmāt (therefore) yudhyasva (fight).

 

grammar

antavantaḥ anta-vant 1n.3 m.temporary, having an end (from: anta – end, limit, border; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
ime idam sn. 1n.3 m.these;
dehāḥ deha 1n.3 m.bodies (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
nityasya nitya 6n.1 m.of continual, eternal;
uktāḥ ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.3 m.are said, spoken;
śarīriṇaḥ śarīrin 6n.1 m.of the embodied one (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);
anāśinaḥ a-nāśin 6n.1 m.of the indestructible (from: naś – to destroy, to vanish, nāśin – perishable);
aprameyasya a-pra-meya (pra- – to measure) PF 6n.1 m.of the immeasurable;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
yudhyasva yudh Imperat. Ā 2v.1fight;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants

anāśino → vināśino (destructible);
anāśino prameyasya → vināśam avyayasyāsya (destruction of the unchangeable);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

What, then, is the unreal (asat), whose existence is not constant? Listen:

kiṃ punas tad asat yat svātma-sattāṃ vyabhicaratīti, ucyate

These bodies of the embodied (Self) who is eternal, indestructible and unknowable,
are said to have an end. Do fight therefore, O descendant of Bharata
.

antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ |
anāśino ’prameyasya tasmād yudhyasva bhārata ||2.18||

It is said by the enlightened that these bodies of the Self, who is eternal, indestructible and unknowable, have an end, like those seen in dreams or produced by a juggler. – The end of such objects as the mirage consists in the cessation – as the result of investigation into their nature by proper tests of truth – of the idea of reality which has been associated with them. So also these bodies have an end.

antaḥ vināśaḥ vidyate yeṣāṃ te antavantaḥ | yathā mṛga-tṛṣṇikādau sad-buddhiḥ anuvṛttā pramāṇa-nirūpaṇānte vicchidyate, sa tasyā antaḥ | tathā ime dehāḥ svapna-māyā-dehādi-vat ca antavantaḥ | nityasya śarīriṇaḥ śarīra-vato ’nāśino ’prameyasya ātmano ’ntavanta iti uktāḥ vivekibhir ity arthaḥ |

[No tautology is involved in the use of both ‚eternal’ and ‚indestructible;’ for, two kinds of eternality and of destruction are met with in our experience.

nityasya anāśinaḥ iti na punar uktam | nityatvasya dvividhatvāt loke nāśasya ca |

The physical body, for instance, entirely disappearing when reduced to ashes, is said to have been destroyed. The physical body, while existing as such, may be transformed owing to sickness or such other causes, and it is then said to have ceased to be (something) and to have become (something else). „Eternal” and ‚indestructible’ here imply that the Self is subject to neither sort of destruction.

yathā deho bhasmī-bhūto ’darśanaṃ gato naṣṭa ucyate | vidyamāno ’pi yathā anyathā pariṇato vyādhyādi-yukto jāto naṣṭa ucyate | tatra anāśino nityasya iti dvividhenāpi nāśena asaṃbandho ’syety arthaḥ |

Otherwise, the eternality of Atman, the Self, might perhaps be understood to be like that of clay or other material objects. It is the denial of this which is conveyed by the two epithets.

anyathā pṛthivy-ādivad api nityatvaṃ syāt ātmanaḥ | tat mā bhūd iti nityasya anāśinaḥ ity āha |

The Self is unknowable, – not determinable by the senses (pratyaksha) or any other means of knowledge.

aprameyasya na prameyasya pratyakṣādi-pramāṇaiḥ aparicchādyasyety arthaḥ |

(Objection): – The Self is determined by the Agama or Revelation, and by perception &c. prior to Revelation,
(Answer): – The objection is untenable, for the Self is self-determind (svatas-siddha). When the Self, the knower (pramātṛ), has been determined, then only is possible a search for proper authorities on the part of the knower with a view to obtain right knowledge.

nanu āgamena ātmā paricchidyate pratyakṣādinā ca pūrvam | na | ātmanaḥ svataḥ siddhatvāt | siddhe hi ātmani pramātari pramitsoḥ pramāṇānveṣaṇā bhavati |

In fact, without determining the Self – ‚I am I’ – -none seeks to determine the knowable objects. Indeed the Self is unknown (aprasiddha) to nobody.

na hi pūrvam ittham aham iti ātmānam apramāya paścāt prameya-paricchedāya pravartate |

And the Scripture (Śāstra) which is the final authority obtains its authoritativeness regarding the Self, as serving only to eliminate the adhyaropaṇa or superimposition (on the Self) of the attributes alien to Him, but not as revealing what has been altogether unknown.

na hi ātmā nāma kasyacit aprasiddho bhavati | śāstraṃ tu antyaṃ pramāṇam atad-dharmādhyāropaṇa-mātra-nivartakatvena pramāṇatvam ātmanaḥ pratipadyate, na hy ajñātārtha-jñāpakatvena |

The śuti also describes the Self thus:
That which is the Immediate, the Unremote, the Brahman, which is the Self, which is within all.” (Bṛh-up 2.4.1).

tathā ca śrutiḥ –
yat sākṣād aparokṣād brahma ya ātmā sarvāntaraḥ (Bṛh-up. 3.4.1) iti |

Because the Self is thus eternal (nitya) and immutable (avikriya), therefore, do thou fight, – do not abstain from fighting.

yasmād evaṃ nityo ’vikriyaś cātmā tasmād yudhyasva, yuddhād uparamaṃ mā kārṣīḥ ity arthaḥ |

Here the duty of fighting is not enjoined. Arjuna had already been engaged in lighting. But overpowered by grief and delusion he abstained from fighting. It is only the removal of obstructive causes (pratibandha, viz., grief and delusion) that is here attempted by the Lord. Wherefore in the words ‚do thou fight‚ the Lord issues here no new command (vidhi); He only refers to what is commonly known already.

na hy atra yuddha-kartavyatā vidhīyate, yuddhe pravṛtta eva hi asau śoka-moha-pratibaddhaḥ tūṣṇīm āste | ataḥ tasya pratibandhāpanayana-mātraṃ bhagavatā kriyate | tasmād yudhyasva iti anuvāda-mātram, na vidhiḥ ||2.18||

 

Rāmānuja

dehānāṃ tu vināśitvam eva svabhāva ity āha—
diha upacaye ity upacaya-rūpā ime dehā antavantaḥ vināśa-svabhāvāḥ | upacayātmākā hi ghaṭādayo’ntavanto dṛṣṭāḥ | nityasya śarīriṇaḥ karma-phala-bhogārthatayā bhūta-saṃghāta-rūpā dehāḥ puṇyaḥ puṇyena [bṛ.ā.u. 4.4.5] ity ādi-śāstrair uktāḥ karmāvasāna-vināśinaḥ |
ātmā tv avināśī | kutaḥ ? aprameyatvāt | na hy ātmā prameyatayā upalabhyate, api tu pramātṛtayā | tathā ca vakṣyate—etad yo vetti taṃ prāhuḥ kṣetrajña iti tad viduḥ [gītā 13.1] iti | na cānekopacayātmaka ātmopalabhyate | sarvatra dehe aham idaṃ jānāmīti dehasya cānyasya ca pramātṛtayaika-rūpeṇopalabdheḥ |
na ca dehāder iva pradeśa-bhede pramātur ākārabheda upalabhyate | ata eka-rūpatvena anupacayātmakatvāt pramātṛtvād vyāpakatvāc ca ātmā nityaḥ | dehas tu upacayātmakatvāt śarīriṇaḥ karma-phala-bhogārthatvād aneka-rūpatvād vyāpyatvāc ca vināśī |
tasmād dehasya vināśa-svabhāvatvād ātmano nitya-svabhāvatvāc ca ubhāv api na śoka-sthānam iti śastra-pātādi-paruṣa-sparśād avarjanīyān svagatān anya-gatāṃś ca dhairyeṇa soḍhvā amṛtatva-prāptaye anabhisaṃhita-phalaṃ yuddhākhyaṃ karmārabhasva

 

Śrīdhara

āgamāpāya-dharmakaṃ sandarśyati antavanta iti | anto vināśo vidyate yeṣāṃ te antavantaḥ | nityasya sarvadaika-rūpasya śarīriṇaḥ śarīravataḥ | ataevānāśino vināśa-rahitasya aprameyasyaparicchinnasyātmana ime sukha-duḥkhādi-dharmaka-dehā uktās tattva-darśibhiḥ | yasmād evam ātmano na vināśaḥ, na ca sukha-duḥkhādi-sambandhaḥ, tasmān mohajaṃ śoktaṃ tyaktvā yudhyasva | svadharmaṃ mā tyakṣīr ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

nanu sphuraṇa-rūpasya sataḥ katham avināśitvaṃ tasya deha-dharmatvād dehasya cānukṣaṇa-vināśād iti bhūta-caitanya-vādinas tān nirākurvann āsato vidyate bhāva ity etad vivṛṇoti antavanta iti | antavanto vināśina ime ‚parokṣā dehā upacitāpacita-rūpatvāc charīrāṇi | bahu-vacanāt sthūla-sūkṣma-kāraṇa-rūpā virāṭ-sūtrāvyākṛtākhyāḥ samaṣṭi-vyaṣṭy-ātmanaḥ sarve nityasyāvināśina eva śarīriṇa ādhyāsika-sambandhena śarīravataekasyātmanaḥ sva-prakāśa-sphuraṇa-rūpasya sambandhino dṛśyatvena bhogyatvena coktāḥ śrutibhir brahma-vādibhiś ca | tathā ca taittirīyake ‚nnamayādyānandamayānantān pañca kośān kalpayitvā tad-adhiṣṭhānam akalpitaṃ brahma pucchaṃ pratiṣṭhā [TaittU 2.5] iti darśitam | tatra pañcīkṛta-pañca-mahābhūta-tat-kāryātmako virāṇ-mūrta-rāśir anna-maya-kośaḥ sthūla-samaṣṭiḥ | tat-kāraṇī-bhūto ‚pañcīkṛta-pañca-mahā-bhūta-tat-kāryātmako hiraṇyagarbhaḥ sūtram amūrta-rāśiḥ sūkṣma-samaṣṭiḥ trayaṃ vā idaṃ nāma rūpaṃ karma [BAU 1.6.1] iti bṛhad-āraṇyakokta-try-annātmakaḥ sarva-karmātmakatvena kriyā-śakti-mātram ādāya prāṇa-maya-kośa uktaḥ | nāmātmakatvena jñāna-śakti-mātram ādāyamanomaya-kośa uktaḥ | rūpātmakatvena tad-ubhayāśrayatayā kartṛtvam ādāya vijñāna-maya-kośa uktaḥ | tataḥ prāṇa-maya-mano-maya-vijñāna-mayātmaika eva hiraṇyagarbhākhyo liṅga-śarīra-kośaḥ | tat-kāraṇībhūtas tu māyopahita-caitanyātmā sarva-saṃskāra-śeṣo ‚vyākṛtākhya ānanda-maya-kośaḥ | te ca sarva ekasyaivātmanaḥ śarīrāṇīty uktam | tasyaiṣa eva śārīra ātmā yaḥ pūrvasya [TaittU 2.3.4] iti | tasya prāṇa-mayasyaiṣa eva śarīre bhavaḥ śārīra ātmā yaḥ satya-jñānādi-lakṣaṇo guhā-nihitatvenoktaḥ pūrvasyānna-mayasya | evaṃ prāṇa-maya-mano-maya-vijñāna-mayānanda-mayeṣu yojyam |
athaveme sarve dehās trailokya-varti-sarva-prāṇi-sambandhina ekasyaivātmana uktā iti yojanā | tathā ca śrutiḥ –
eko devaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ
sarva-vyāpī sarva-bhūtāntarātmā |
karmādhyakṣaḥ sarva-bhūtādhivāsaḥ
sākṣī ceto kevalo nirguṇaś ca || [ŚvetU 6.11]
iti sarva-śarīra-sambandhinam ekam ātmānaṃ nityaṃ vibhuṃ darśayati |
nanu nityatvaṃ yāvat-kāla-sthāyitvaṃ tathā cāvidyādivat kālena saha nāśe ‚pi tad-upapannam ity ata āha anāśina iti | deśataḥ kālato vastutaś caparicchinasyāvidyādeḥ kalpitatvenānityatve ‚pi yāvat-kāla-sthāyi-svarūpam aupacārikaṃ nityatvaṃ vyavahriyate yāvad-vikāraṃ tu vibhāgo lokavat [Vs 2.3.7] iti nyāyāt | ātmanas tu pariccheda-traya-śūnyasyākalpitasya vināśa-hetv-abhāvān mukhyam eva kūṭastha-nityatvaṃ na tu pariṇāmi-nityatvaṃ yāvat-kāla-sthāyitvaṃ cety abhiprāyaḥ |
nanv etādṛśe dehini kiṃcit pramāṇam avaśyaṃ vācyam anyathā niṣpramāṇasya tasyālīkatvāpatteḥ śāstrārambha-vaiyarthyāpatteś ca | tathā ca vastu-paricchedo duṣpariharaḥ śāstra-yonitvāt [Vs 1.1.3] iti nyāyāc ca | ata āha aprameyasyeti | ekadhaivānudraṣṭavyam etad apramayaṃ dhruvam [BAU 4.7.2] apramayam aprameyam |
na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto ‚yam agniḥ | [KaṭhU 5.15]
tam eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti [ṃuṇḍU 2.2.10]
iti ca śruteḥ sva-prakāśa-caitanya-rūpa evātmātas tasya sarva-bhāsakasya svabhānārthaṃ na svabhāsyāpekṣā, kintu kalpitājñāna-tat-kārya-nivṛtty-arthaṃ kalpita-vṛtti-viśeṣāpekṣā | kalpitasyaiva kalpita-virodhitvāt | yakṣānurūpo baliḥ iti nyāyāt | tathā ca sarva-kalpita-nivartaka-vṛtti-viśeṣotpatty-arthaṃ śāstrārambhaḥ, tasya tattvam asy ādi-vākya-mātrādhīnatvāt | svataḥ sarvadābhāsamānatvāt sarva-kalpanādhiṣṭhānatvād dṛśyamātra-bhāsakatvāc ca na tasya tucchatvāpattiḥ | tathā caikam evādvitīyaṃ satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahmety ādi-śāstram eva sva-prameyānurodhena svasyāpi kalpitatvam āpādayati anyathā sva-prāmāṇyānupapatteḥ |
kalpitasya cākalpita-paricchedakatvaṃ nāstīti prāk-pratipāditam | ātmanaḥ svaprakāśatvaṃ ca yuktito ‚pi bhagavat-pūjyapādair upapāditam | tathā hi – yatra jijñāsoḥ saṃśaya-viparyaya-vyatireka-pramāṇānām anyatamam api nāsti tatra tad-virodhi jñānam iti sarvatra dṛṣṭam | anyathā tritayānyatamāpatteḥ | ātmani cāhaṃ vā nāhaṃ veti na kasyacit saṃśayaḥ | nāpi nāham iti viparyayo vyatirekaḥ pramā veti tat-svarūpa-pramā sarvadāstīti vācyaṃ tasya sarva-saṃśaya-viparyaya-dharmitvāt | dharmyaśe sarvam abhrāntaṃ prakāre tu viparyayaḥ iti nyāyāt | ata evoktam –
pramāṇam apramāṇaṃ ca pramābhāsas tathaiva ca |
kurvanty eva pramāṃ yatra tad-asambhāvanā kutaḥ || [Bṛhad-vāmanaP 1.4.874]
pramābhāsaḥ saṃśayaḥ | sva-prakāśe sad-rūpe dharmiṇi pramāṇāpramāṇayor viśeṣo nāstīty arthaḥ | ātmano ‚bhāsamānatve ca ghaṭa-jñānaṃ mayi jātaṃ na vety ādi-saṃśayaḥ syāt | na cāntara-padārthe viṣayasyaiva saṃśayādi-pratibandhakatva-svabhāvaḥ | bāhya-padārthe k ptena virodhi-jñānenaiva saṃśayādi-pratibandha-saṃbhava āntara-padārthe svabhāva-bheda-kalpanāyā anaucityāt | anyathā sarva-viplavāpatteḥ | ātma-mano-yoga-mātraṃ cātma-sākṣātkāre hetuḥ | yasya ca jñāna-mātre hetutvād ghaṭādi-bhāne ‚py ātma-bhānaṃ samūhālambana-nyāyena tārkikāṇāṃ pravareṇāpi durnivāraṃ | na ca cākṣuṣatva-māna-sattvādi-saṅkaraḥ | laukikatvālaukikatvavad aṃśa-bhedenopapatteḥ | saṅkarasyādoṣatvāc cākṣuṣatvāder jātitvānabhyupagamād vā | vyavasāyamātra evātmabhāna-sāmagryā vidyamānatvād anuvyavasāyo ‚py apāstaḥ | na ca vyavasāya-bhānārthaṃ sa tasya dīpavat sva-vyavahāre sajātīyānapekṣatvāt | na hi ghaṭa-taj-jñānayor iva vyavasāyānuvyavasāyayor api viṣayatva-viṣayitva-vyavasthāpakaṃ vaijātyam asti vyakti-bhedātirikta-vaidharmyānabhyupagamāt | viṣayatvāvacchedaka-rūpeṇaiva viṣayitvābhyupagame ghaṭa-taj-jñānayor api tad-bhāvāpattir aviśeṣāt |
nanu yathā ghaṭa-vyavahārārthaṃ ghaṭa-jñānam abhyupeyate tathā ghaṭa-jñāna-vyavahārārthaṃ ghaṭa-jñāna-viṣayaṃ jñānam abhyupeyaṃ vyavahārāsya vyavahartavya-jñāna-sādhyatvād iti cet | kānupapattir udbhāvitā devānāṃ-priyeṇa sva-prakāśa-vādinaḥ | nahi vyavahartavya-bhinnatvam api jñāna-viśeṣaṇaṃ vyavahāra-hetutāvacchedakaṃ gauravāt | tathā ceśvara-jñānavadyogi-jñānavat prameyam iti jñānavac ca svenaiva sva-vyavahāropapattau na jñānāntara-kalpanāvakāśaḥ | anuvyavasāyasyāpi ghaṭa-jñāna-vyavahāra-hetutvaṃ kiṃ ghaṭa-jñāna-jñānatvena kiṃ vā ghaṭa-jñānatvenaiveti vivecanīyam | ubhayasyāpi tatra sattvāt | tatra ghaṭa-vyavahāre ghaṭa-jñānatvenaiva hetutāyāḥ k ptatvāt tenaiva rūpeṇa ghata-jñāna-vyavahāre,pi hetutopapattau na ghaṭa-jñāna-jñānatvaṃ hetutāvacchedakaṃ gauravān mānābhāvāc ca | tathā ca nānuvyavasāya-siddhir ekasyaiva vyavasāyasya vayvasātari vyavaseye vyavasāye ca vyavahāra-janakatvopapatter iti tripuṭī-pratyakṣa-vādinaḥ prābhākarāḥ |
aupaniṣadāstu manyante sva-prakāśa-jñāna-rūpa evātmā na svaprakāśa-jñānāśrayaḥ kartṛ-karma-virodhena tad-bhānānupapatteḥ | jñāna-bhinnatve ghaṭādivaj-jaḍatvena kalpitatvāpatteś ca | svaprakāśa-jñāna-mātra-svarūpo ‚py ātmāvidyopahitaḥ san sākṣīty ucyate | vṛtti-mad-antaḥkaraṇopahitaḥ pramātety ucyate | tasya cakṣur-ādīni karaṇāni | sa cakṣur-ādi-dvārāntaḥ-karaṇa-pariṇāmena ghaṭādīn vyāpya tad-ākāro bhavati | tato ghaṭāvacchinna-caitanyaṃ pramātra-bhedāt svājñānaṃ nāśayad aparokṣaṃ bhavati | ghaṭaṃ ca svāvacchedakaṃ sva-tādātmyādhyāsād bhāsayati | antaḥ-karaṇa-pariṇāmaś ca vṛttyākhyo ’tisvacchaḥ svāvacchinnenaiva caitanyena bhāsyata ity antaḥ-karaṇa-tad-vṛtti-ghaṭānām aparokṣatā | tad etad ākāra-trayam ahaṃ jānāmi ghaṭam iti | bhāsaka-caitanyasyaika-rūpatve ‚pi ghaṭaṃ prati vṛtty-apekṣatvāt pramātṛtā | antaḥkaraṇa-tad-vṛttīḥ prati tu vṛtty-anapekṣatvāt sākṣiteti vivekaḥ | advaita-siddhau siddhānta-bindau ca vistaraḥ |
yasmād evaṃ prāg-ukta-nyāyena ntiyo vibhur asaṃsārī sarvadaika-rūpaś cātmā tasmāt tan-nāśa-śaṅkayā svadharme yuddhe prāk-pravṛttasya tava tasmād uparatir na yukteti yuddhābhyanujñayā bhagavān āha – tasmād yudhyasva bhārateti | arjunasya svadharme yuddhe pravṛttasya tata uparati-kāraṇaṃ śoka-mohau | tau ca vicāra-janitena vijñānena vādhitāv ity apavādāpavāda utsargasya sthitir iti nyāyena yudhyasvety anuvādo na vidhiḥ | yathā kartṛ-karmaṇoḥ kṛti [Pāṇ 2.3.65] ity utsargaḥ | ubhaya-prāptau karmaṇi [Pāṇ 2.3.66] ity apavādaḥ | akākārayoḥ strī-pratyayayoḥ prayoge neti vaktavyam iti tad-apavādaḥ | tathā ca mumukṣor brahmaṇor jijñāsety atrāpavādāpavāde punar utsarga-sthiteḥ kartṛ-karmaṇoḥ kṛtīty anenaiva ṣaṣṭhī | tathā ca karmaṇi ceti niṣedhā-prasārād brahma-jijñāseti karma-ṣaṣṭhī-samāsaḥ siddho bhavati | kaścit tv etasmād eva vidher mokṣe jñāna-karmaṇoḥ samuccaya iti pralapati | tac ca yudhyasvety ato mokṣasya jñāna-karma-samuccaya-sādhyatvāpratīteḥ | vistareṇa caitad agre bhagavad-gītā-vacana-virodhenaiva nirākariṣyāmaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ ity asyārthaṃ spaṣṭayati antavanta iti | śarīriṇo jīvasyāprameyasyāti-sūkṣmatvād durjñeyasya | tasmād yudhyasva iti śāstra-vihitasya svadharmasya tyāgo ‚nucita iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

antavanto vināśi-svabhāvāḥ, śarīriṇo jīvātmanaḥ | aprameyasyātisūkṣmatvād vijñāna-vijñātṛ-svarūpatvāc ca pramātum aśakyasyety arthaḥ | tathā cedṛśa-svabhāvatvāj jīva-tad-dehau na śoka-sthānam iti jīvātmano deho dharmānuṣṭānuṣṭhāna-dvārā tasya bhogāya mokṣāya ca pareśena sṛjyate | sa ca sa ca dharmeṇa bhavet tasmād yudhyasva bhārata

 
 

BhG 2.19

ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ yaś cainaṃ manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṃ hanti na hanyate

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) enam (this) hantāram (killer) vetti (he knows),
yaḥ ca (and he who) enam (this) hatam (killed) manyate (he thinks),
tau (they two) ubhau (both) na vijānītaḥ (they do not understand).
ayam (he) na hanti (he does not kill),
[ayam] (he) na hanyate (he is not killed).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
hantāram hantṛ 2n.1 m.killer (from: han – to strike, to beat, to kill);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
ca av.and;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
manyate man (to think) Praes. Ā 1v.1he thinks;
hatam hata (han – to strike, to beat, to kill) [PP] 2n.1 m.killed;
ubhau ubha sn. 1n.2 m.both;
tau tat sn. 1n.2 m.they two;
na av.not;
vijānītaḥ vi-jñā (to distinguish, to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.2they [two] understand;
na av.not;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
hanti han (to kill, to strike, to beat) Praes. P 1v.1he kills;
 na av.not;
hanyate han (to kill, to strike, to beat) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is killed;

 

textual variants


vetti → veda (he knows);
vijānīto → vijānītau / vijānīte (he understands);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The Self is unconcerned in action.
The Lord now quotes two Vedic verses to confirm the view that the Gita-5astra is intended to remove the cause of samsara, such as grief and delusion, but not to enjoin works. It is only a false notion of yours, says the Lord, that you think thus: „Bhishma and others will be killed by me in the battle; I will be their slayer.” – How?
śoka-mohādi-saṃsāra-kāraṇa-nivṛtty-arthaṃ gītā-śāstram, na pravartakam ity etasyārthasya sākṣi-bhūte ṛcau ānināya bhagavān | yat tu manyase yuddhe bhīṣmādayo mayā hanyante aham eva teṣāṃ hantā iti, eṣā buddhir mṛṣaiva te | kathaṃ?

Whoever looks upon Him as the slayer, and whoever looks upon Him as the slain,
both these know not aright. He slays not, nor is He slain.

ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ yaś cainaṃ manyate hatam |
ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṃ hanti na hanyate ||2.19||

He who understands the Self – of whom we are speaking – as the agent in the act of slaying, and he who regards Him as the sufferer in the act of slaying when the body is slain, neither of these two has understood the Self aright, for want of discrimination.

ya enaṃ prakṛtaṃ dehinaṃ vetti vijānāti hantāraṃ hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartāraṃ ya ca enam anyo manyate hataṃ deha-hananena hato ’ham iti hanana-kriyāyāḥ karma-bhūtam | tau ubhau na vijānītaḥ na jñātavantau avivekena ātmānam ahaṃ pratyaya-viṣayaṃ |

Those who think ‚I slay’ or ‚ I am slain ‚ when the body is slain, and thus identify the Self with the object of the consciousness of ‚I,’ the ego (aham), – they do not understand the real nature of the Self.

hantā ahaṃ, hato ’smy aham iti deha-hananena ātmānam yau vijānītaḥ tau ātma-svarūpānabhijñau ity arthaḥ |

Being immutable (avikriya), the Self is neither the agent nor the object of the action of slaying.

yasmāt na ayam atmā hanti na hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartā bhavati, na ca hanyate na ca karma bhavatīty arthaḥ, avikriyatvāt ||2.19||

 

Rāmānuja

ya enam ukta-svabhāvam ātmānaṃ pratihantāraṃ hanana-hetuṃ kam api manyate | yaś cainaṃ kenāpi hetunā hataṃ manyate | ubhāv tāv na vijānītaḥ | uktair hetubhir asya nityatvād evāyaṃ hanana-hetur na bhavati | ataeva cāyam ātmā na hanyate | hanti-dhātur apy ātma-karmakaḥ śarīr-viyoga-karaṇa-vācī | na hiṃsyāt sarvā bhūtāni, brāhmaṇo na hantavyaḥ [ka.saṃ. 8.2] ity ādīni api śāstrāṇi avihita-śarīra-viyoga-karaṇa-viṣayāṇi

 

Śrīdhara

tad evaṃ bhīṣmādi-mṛtyu-nimittaḥ śoko nivāritaḥ, yac cātmano hantṛtva-nimittaṃ duḥkham uktam etān na hantum icchāmi ity ādinā, tad api tavad eva nirnimittam ity āha ya enam iti | enam ātmānam | ātmano hanana-kriyāyāḥ karmatvaṃ kartṛtvam api nāstīty arthaḥ | tatra hetur nāyam iti

 

Madhusūdana

nanv evam aśocyān anvaśocacas tvam ity ādinā bhīṣmādi-bandhu-viccheda-nibandhane śoke ‚panīte ‚pi tad-vadha-kartṛtva-nibandhanasya pāpasya nāsti pratīkāraḥ | nahi yatra śoko nāsti tatra pāpaṃ nāstīti niyamaḥ | dveṣya-brāhmaṇa-vadhe pāpābhāva-prasaṅgāt | ato ‚haṃ kartā tvaṃ preraka iti dvayor api hiṃsā-nimitta-pātakāpatter ayuktam idaṃ vacanaṃ tasmād yudhyasva bhāratety āśaṅkya kāṭhaka-paṭhitaya rcā pariharati bhagavān ya enam iti |
enaṃ prakṛtaṃ dehinam adṛśyatvādi-guṇakaṃ yo hantāraṃ hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartāraṃ vetti aham asya hanteti vijānāti | yaś cānya enaṃ manyate hataṃ hanana-kriyāyāḥ karma-bhūtaṃ deha-hananena hato ‚ham iti vijānāti | tāv ubhau dehābhimānitvād enam avikāriṇam akāraka-svabhāvam ātmānaṃ na vijānīto na vivekena jānītaḥ śāstrāt | kasmāt yasmān nāyaṃ hanti na hanyate kartā karma ca na bahvatīty arthaḥ |
atra ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ hataṃ cety etāvati vaktavye padānām āvṛttir vākyālaṅkārārthā | athavā ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ tārkikādir ātmanaḥ kartṛtvābhyupagamāt | tathā yaś cainaṃ manyate hataṃ cārvākādir ātmano vināśitvābhyupagamāt | tāv ubhau na vijānīta iti yojyam | vādi-bheda-khyāpanāya pṛthag upanyāsaḥ | atiśūrātikātara-viṣayatayā vā pṛthag-upadeśaḥ | hantā cen manyate hantuṃ hataś cen manyate hatam [KaṭhU 1.2.19] iti pūrvārdhe śrautaḥ pāṭhaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

bho vayasya arjuna ! tvam ātmā | na hanteḥ kartā, nāpi hanteḥ karma ity āha ya iti | enaṃ jīvātmānaṃ hantāraṃ vetti bhīṣmādīn arjuno hantīti yo vettīty arthaḥ, hatam iti bhīṣmādibhir arjuno hanyate iti yo vetti, tāv ubhāv apy ajñāninau | ato ‚rjuno ‚yaṃ guru-janaṃ hantīty ajñāni-loka-gītād duryaśaḥ kā te bhītir iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

uktam avināśitvaṃ draḍhayati | enam ukta-svabhāvam ātmānaṃ jīvaṃ yo hantāraṃ khaḍgādinā hiṃsakaṃ vetti yaś cainaṃ tena hataṃ hiṃsitaṃ manyate tāv ubhau tat-svarūpaṃ na vijānītaḥ | atisūkṣmasya caitanyasya tasya chedādy-asambhavān nāyam ātmā hanti na hanyate | hanteḥ kartā karma ca bhavatīty arthaḥ | hanter deha-viyogārthatvān na tenātmanāṃ nāśo mantavyaḥ | śrutiś caivam āha – hantā cen manyate hantuṃ hataś cen manyate hatam [KaṭhU 1.2.19] ity ādinā | etena mā hiṃsyāt sarva-bhūtāni ity ādi-vākyaṃ deha-viyoga-paraṃ vyākhyātam | na cātrātmanaḥ kartṛtvaṃ prasiddham iti vācyam | deha-viyojane tat tasya sattvāt

 
 

BhG 2.20

na jāyate mriyate vā kadā-cin nāya bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato yaṃ purāṇo na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre

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syntax


ayam (he) kadā-cit (at any time) na jāyate (is not born),
[ayam] (or he) na mriyate (does not die),
(or) [ayam kadā-cit] (he at any time) bhūtvā (being) bhūyaḥ (again) na bhavitā (he will not become).
ayam (he) ajaḥ (unborn), nityaḥ (eternal), śāśvataḥ (constant), purāṇaḥ (ancient) [asti] (is).
śarīre hanyamāne [api] (even when the body is being killed) [saḥ] (he) na hanyate (is not killed).

 

grammar

na av.not;
jāyate jan (to be born) Praes. Ā 1v.1he is born;
mriyate mṛ (to die) Praes. Ā 1v.1he dies;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
kadā-cit av.whenever, at any time (from: kadā when? at what time?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
na av.not;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
bhūtvā bhū (to be) absol.after becoming;
bhavitā bhū (to be) Fut.p. P 1v.1he will become; or bhavitṛ 1n.1 m.one who exists;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
na av.not;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
ajaḥ a-ja 1n.1 m.unborn (from: jan – to be born; ja – suffix: born);
nityaḥ nitya 1n.1 m.continual, eternal, daily;
śāśvataḥ śāśvata 1n.1 m.eternal, constant, perpetual;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
purāṇaḥ purāṇa 1n.1 m.ancient, belonging to old times (from: pur – to precede);
na av.not;
hanyate han (to kill, to strike, to beat) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is killed;
hanyamāne hanyamāna (han – to strike, to beat, to kill) PPr 7n.1 m. loc.abs. when being killed;
śarīre śarīra 7n.1 n. loc.abs.in the body (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);

 

textual variants


bhavitā → ‘bhavitā (not becoming; one who will not exist);
vā na bhūyaḥ → vā kadā-cit / nāvabhūyaḥ (or whenever / not to become);
śarīre → atīte (in the dead);
 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The Self is immutable.
How is the Self immutable? – This is answered by the next verse:

katham avikriya ātmeti dvitīyo mantraḥ

He is not born, nor does He ever die;
after having been, He again ceases not to be; nor the reverse.
Unborn, eternal, unchangeable and primeval,
He is not slain when the body is slain.

na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin
nāyaṃ bhūtvābhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ
|
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato ’yaṃ purāṇo
na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre ||2.20||

He is not born; no such change of condition as birth takes place in the Self. Nor does He die: this denies the last change of condition called death. –

na jāyate notpadyate, jani-lakṣaṇā vastu-vikriyā na ātmano vidyate ity arthaḥ | tathā na mriyate vā | vā-śabdaḥ cārthe | na mriyate ca iti antyā vināśa-lakṣaṇā vikriyā pratiṣidhyate |

Ever’ should be construed with the denial of every change, thus: He is never born, never dies, and so on. –

kadācic chabdaḥ sarva-vikriyā-pratiṣedhaiḥ saṃbadhyate – na kadācit jāyate, na kadācit mriyate, ity evam |

For, the Self, having once existed, does not afterwards cease to be any more. In ordinary parlance he is said to die who, having once existed, afterwards ceases to be. Neither does the Self come into existence, like the body, having not existed before.

yasmāt ayam ātmā bhūtvā bhavana-kriyām anubhūya paścāt abhavitā abhāvaṃ gantā na bhūyaḥ punaḥ, tasmāt na mriyate | yo hi bhūtvā na bhavitā sa mriyata ity ucyate lokā |

Wherefore He is unborn. For, he is said to be born who, having not existed, comes into existence. Not so is the Self.

vā-śabdāt na-śabdāc ca ayam ātmā abhūtvā vā bhavitā dehavat na bhūyaḥ | tasmāt na jāyate | yo hi abhūtvā bhavitā sa jāyata ity ucyate | naivam ātmā | ato na jāyate |

Wherefore He is unborn. And because He does not die, He is eternal.

yasmād evaṃ tasmāt ajaḥ, yasmāt na mriyate tasmāt nityaś ca |

[Though, by the denial of the first and the last changes, all changes have been denied, yet it is thought necessary to .directly deny the intermediate changes, in the words ‚unchangeable,’ &c., so as to imply the absence of all such changes of condition as motion, though not specified here.]

yadyapi ādy-antayor vikriyayoḥ pratiṣedhe sarvā vikriyāḥ pratiṣiddhā bhavanti, tathāpi madhya-bhāvinīnāṃ vikriyāṇāṃ sva-śabdair eva tad-arthaiḥ pratiṣedhaḥ kartavyo ’nuktānām api yauvanādi-samasta-vikriyāṇāṃ pratiṣedho yathā syāt ity āha – śāśvata ity ādinā |

He is unchangeable: He is constant, not subject to the change of condition known as decline (apakshaya). Having no parts, He does not diminish in His own substance. As devoid of qualities, He does not diminish by loss of a quality.

śāśvata iti apakṣaya-lakṣaṇā vikriyā pratiṣidhyate | śaśvad-bhavaḥ śāśvataḥ | na apakṣīyate svarūpeṇa, niravayavatvāt | nāpi guṇa-kṣayeṇa apakṣayaḥ, nirguṇatvāt |

He is primeval, not subject to the change known as growth (vṛddhi) as opposed to decline. For, that which increases in size by the accretion of parts is said to grow and to be renewed. As devoid of parts, the Self was as fresh in the past (as He is now or will be in future; i. e. He is ever the same); He never grows.

apakṣaya-viparītāpi vṛddhi-lakṣaṇā vikriyā pratiṣidhyate – purāṇa iti | yo hi avayavāgamena upacīyate sa vardhate abhinava iti ca ucyate | ayaṃ tu ātmā niravayavatvāt purāpi nava eveti purāṇaḥ na vardhate ity arthaḥ |
And He is not slain when the body is slain: He is not transformed when the body is transformed. – To avoid tautology, slaying is interpreted to mean transformation: the Self is not subject to transformation. tathā na hanyate | hantiḥ atra vipariṇāmārthe draṣṭavyo ’punar uktatāyai | na vipariṇamyate ity arthaḥ | hanyamāne vipariṇamyamāne ’pi śarīre |

This verse teaches the absence in the Self of the six bhava-vikaras, – of the six vikāras or changes of condition to which all bhavas or beings in the world are subject.

asmin mantre ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārā laukika-vastu-vikriyā ātmani pratiṣidhyante | sarva-prakāra-vikriyā-rahita ātmā iti vākyārthaḥ |

The passage, on the whole, means that the Self is devoid of all sorts of change. Hence the words in the previous verse, ” both these know not aright.”

yasmād evaṃ tasmāt ubhau tau na vijānītaḥ iti pūrveṇa mantreṇa asya saṃbandhaḥ ||2.20||

 

Rāmānuja

uktaiḥ eva hetubhiḥ nityatvād apariṇāmitvād ātmano janma-maraṇādyaḥ sarva evācetana-deha-dharmā na santi, ity ucyate | tatra na jāyate mriyata iti vartamānatayā sarveṣu deheṣu sarvaiḥ anubhūyamāne janma-maraṇe kadācid apy ātmānaṃ na spṛśataḥ | nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavati vā na bhūyo’yaṃ kalpānte bhūtvā bhūyaḥ kalpānte ca na bhavitā iti na | keṣucit prajāpati-prabhṛti-deheṣv āgamenopalabhyamānaṃ kalpādau jananaṃ kalpānte ca maraṇam ātmānaṃ na spṛśati ity arthaḥ | ataḥ sarva-deha-gata ātmā ajaḥ | ataeva nityaḥ śāśvataḥ prakṛtivad viśada-satata-pariṇāmair api nānvīyate | ataḥ purāṇaḥ purātano’pi navaḥ | sarvadāpūrvavad anubhāvya ity arthaḥ | ataḥ śarīre hanyamāne’pi na hanyate’yam ātmā

 

Śrīdhara

na hanyata ity etad eva ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-śūnyatvena draḍhayati neti | na jāyata ity ādi | na jāyata iti janma-pratiṣedhaḥ | na mriyata iti vināśa-pratiṣedhaḥ | vā-śabdau cārthe | na cāyaṃ bhūtvā utpadya bhavitā bhavati astitvaṃ bhajate, kintu prāg eva svataḥ sad-rūpa iti janmāntarāstitva-lakṣaṇa-dvitīya-vikāra-pratiṣedhaḥ | tatra hetuḥ yasmād ajaḥ | yo hi na jāyate sa hi janmāntaram astitvaṃ bhajate, na tu yaḥ svayam evāsti sa bhūyo ‚pi anyad astitvaṃ bhajate ity arthaḥ | nityaḥ sarvdaika-rūpa iti vṛddhi-pratiṣedhaḥ | śāśvataḥ śaśvad-bhava iti apakṣaya-pratiṣedhaḥ | purāṇa iti vipariṇāma-pratiṣedhaḥ | purāpi nava eva na tu pariṇāmataḥ rūpāntaraṃ prāpya navo bhavatīty arthaḥ |
yad vā na bhavitety asyānuṣaṅgaṃ kṛtvā bhūyo ‚dhikaṃ yathā bhaviteti tathā na bhavatīti vṛddhi-pratiṣedhaḥ | ajo nitya iti cobhaya-vṛddhy-ādy-abhāve hetur iti na paunaruktyam | tad evaṃ jāyate asti vardhate vipariṇamate apakṣīyate naśyaty evaṃ yāskādibhir veda-vādibhir uktāḥ ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārā nirastāḥ | yad artham ete vikārā nirastās taṃ prastutaṃ vināśābhāvam upasaṃharati na hanyate hanyamāne śarīra iti

 

Madhusūdana

kasmād ayam ātmā hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartā karma ca na bhavati ? avikriyatvād ity āha dvitīyena mantreṇa | jāyate ‚sti vardhate vipariṇamate ‚pakṣīyate vinaśyatīti ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārā iti vārṣyāyaṇiḥ iti nairuktāḥ | tatrādy-antayor niṣedhaḥ kriyate na jāyate mriyate veti | vā-śabdaḥ samuccayārthaḥ | na jāyate na mriyate cety arthaḥ | kasmād ayam ātmā notpadyate ? yasmād ayam ātmā kadācit kasminn api kāle na bhūtvābhūtvā prāg bhūyaḥ punar api bhavitā na | yo hy abhūtvā bhavati sa utpatti-lakṣaṇāṃ vikriyām anubhavati | ayaṃ tu prāg api sattvādyato notpadyate ‚to ‚jaḥ | tathāyam ātmā bhūtvā prāk kadācid bhūyaḥ punar na bhavitā | na vā-śabdād vākya-vipari-vṛttiḥ | yo hi prāg-bhūtvottara-kāle na bhavati sa mṛt-lakṣaṇāṃ vikriyām anubhavati | ayaṃ tūttara-kāle ‚pi sattvādyato na miryate ‚to nityo vināśāyogya ity arthaḥ | atra na bhūtvety atra samāsābhāve ‚pi nānupapattir nānuyojeṣv ativat | bhagavatā pāṇininā mahā-vibhāṣādhikāre nañ-samāsa-pāṭhāt | yat tu kātyāyanenoktaṃ samāsa-nityatābhiprāyeṇa vā-vacanānarthakyaṃ tu svabhāva-siddhatvāt iti tad-bhagavat-pāṇiini-vacana-virodhād anādeyam | tad uktam ācārya-śavara-svāminā – asad-vādī hi kātyāyanaḥ iti |

atra na jāyate mriyate veti pratijñā | kadācin nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūya iti tad-upapādanam | ajo nitya iti tad-upasaṃhāra iti vibhāgaḥ | ādyantayor vikārayor niṣedhena madhyavarti-vikārāṇāṃ tad-vyāpyānāṃ niṣedhe jāte ‚pi gamanādi-vikārāṇām anuktānām apy upalakṣaṇāyāpakṣayaś ca vṛddhiś ca sva-śabdenaiva nirākriyete | tatra kūṭastha-nityatvād ātmano nirguṇatvāc ca na svarūpato guṇato vāpakṣayaḥ sambhavatīty uktaṃ śāśvata iti | śaśvat sarvadā bhavati nāpakṣīyate nāpacīyata ity arthaḥ | yadi nāpakṣīyate tarhi vardhatām iti nety āha purāṇa iti | purāpi nava eka-rūpo na tv adhunā nūtanāṃ kāñcid avasthām anubhavati | yo hi nūtanāṃ kāñcid upacayāvasthām anubhavati sa vardhata ity ucyate loke | ayaṃ tu sarvadaika-rūpatvān nāpacīyate nopacīyate cety arthaḥ | astitva-vipariṇāmau tu janma-vināśāntarbhūtatvāt pṛthaṅ na niṣiddhau | yasmād evaṃ sarva-vikāra-śūnya ātmā tasmāc charīre hanyamāne tat-sambaddho ‚pi kenāpy upāyena na hanyate na hantuṃ śakyata ity upasaṃhāraḥ

 

Viśvanātha

jīvātmano nityatvaṃ spaṣṭatayā sādhayati na jāyate miryate iti janma-maraṇayor vartamānatva-niṣedhaḥ | nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavitā iti tayor bhūtatva-bhaviṣyatva-niṣedhaḥ | ataeva aja iti kāla-traye ‚pi ajasya janmābhāvān nāsya prāg-abhāvaḥ | śāśvataḥ śaśvat sarva-kāla eva vartata iti nāsya kāla-traye ‚pi dhvaṃsaḥ | ataevāyaṃ nityaḥ | tarhi bahu-kāla-sthāyitvāj jarā-grasto ‚yam iti cen na | purāṇaḥ purāpi navaḥ prācīno ‚py ayaṃ navīna iveti ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārābhāvād iti bhāvaḥ | nanu śarīrasya maraṇād aupacārikaṃ tu maraṇam asyāstu ? tatrāha neti | śarīreṇa saha sambaddhābhāvāt na upacāraḥ

 

Baladeva

atha jāyate asti vardhate viparaṇamate apakṣīyate vinaśyati iti yāskādy-ukta-ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-rāhityena prāg-ukta-nityatvaṃ draḍhayati na jāyate iti | cārthe vā-śabdau | ayam ātmā jīvaḥ kadācid api kāle na jāyate na mriyate ceti janma-vināśayoḥ pratiṣedhaḥ | na cāyam ātmā bhūtvotpadya bhavitā bhaviṣyatīti janmāntarasyāstitvasya pratiṣedhaḥ | na bhūya iti ayam ātmā bhūyo ‚dhikaṃ yathā syāt tathā na bhavatīti buddheḥ pratiṣedhaḥ | kuto bhūyo na bhavatīty atra hetur ajo nitya iti | utpatti-vināśa-yogī khalu vṛkṣādir utpadya vṛddhiṃ gacchan naṣṭaḥ | ātmanas tu tad-ubhayābhāvāt na vṛddhir ity arthaḥ | śāśvata ity apakṣayasya pratiṣedhaḥ | śaśvat sarvadā bhavati nāpakṣīyate nāpakṣayaṃ bhajatīty arthaḥ | purāṇa iti vipariṇāmasya pratiṣedhaḥ | purāṇaṃ purāpi navo na tu kiṃcin nūtanaṃ rūpāntaram adhunā na labdha ity arthaḥ | tad evaṃ ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-śūnyatvād ātmā nityaḥ | yasmād īdṛśas tasmāc charīre hanyamāne ‚pi sa na hanyate | tathā cārjuno ‚yaṃ guru-hantety avijñoktyā duṣkīrter abibhyatā tvayā śāstrīyaṃ dharma-yuddhaṃ vidheyam

 
 

BhG 2.21

vedāvināśinaṃ nityaṃ ya enam ajam avyayam
kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṃ ghātayati hanti kam

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
yaḥ (which) puruṣaḥ (person) enam (this) nityam (eternal), ajam (unborn), avyayam (unchangeable), avināśinam (indestructible) veda (he knows),
saḥ (he) katham (how?) kam (whom?) ghātayati (he causes to kill), [] (or) kam (whom?) hanti (he kills)?

 

grammar

veda vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.1 (meaning Praes.) – he knows;
avināśinam avināśin 2n.1 n.indestructible (from: vi-naś – to destroy, to vanish, vināśin – perishable);
nityam nitya 2n.1 m. eternal (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
ajam a-ja 2n.1 m.unborn (from: jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 n.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
katham av.how?, in what manner?, w jaki sposób?, from where, how?; introduces a question or implies amazement;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
kaṁ kim 2n.1 m.whom?;
ghātayati han (to kill, to strike, to beat) Praes. caus. P 1v.1he causes to kill;
hanti han (to kill, to strike, to beat) Praes. P 1v.1 he kills;
kam kim sn. 2n.1 m.whom?;

 

textual variants


puruṣaḥ pārtha → puruṣa-vyāghra (O tiger among men);
kaṁ → kim (what?);
kaṁ ghātayati hanti kam → hanyate haṁti vā kathaṁ (in what way he is killed or kills?);
 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The enlightened man has to renounce works.
Having started (in 2.19) the proposition that the Self is neither the agent nor the object of the action of slaying, and having stated in the next verse the immutability of the Self as the reason for that statement, the Lord concludes the proposition as follows; –

ya enaṃ vetti hantāram ity anena mantreṇa hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartā karma ca na bhavati iti pratijñāya, na jāyate ity anena avikriyatvaṃ hetum uktvā pratijñātārtham upasaṃharati

Whoso knows Him as indestructible, eternal, unborn and inexhaustible, –
How, O son of Pritha, and whom, does such a man cause to slay, and whom does he slay?

vedāvināśinaṃ nityaṃ ya enam ajam avyayam |
kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṃ ghātayati hanti kam ||2.21||

He who knows the Self (described in the last verse) as indestructible, i.e., devoid of the final change called death, as eternal, i.e., devoid of change called transformation, as unborn and inexhaustible, i.e., devoid of birth and decline, –

veda vijānāti avināśinam antya-bhāva-vikāra-rahitaṃ nityaṃ vipariṇāma-rahitaṃ yo veda iti saṃbandhaḥ enaṃ pūrveṇa mantreṇokta-lakṣaṇam ajaṃ janma-rahitam avyayam apakṣaya-rahitaṃ |

how does an enlightened man of this description do the act of slaying, or how does he cause another to slay? He slays nobody at all, nor does he at all cause another to slay. – In both the places, denial is meant, since no question can have been asked.”

kathaṃ kena prakāreṇa sa vidvān puruṣo ’dhikṛtaḥ hanti hanana-kriyāṃ karoti, kathaṃ vā ghātayati hantāraṃ prayojayati | na kathaṃcit kaṃcit hanti, na kathaṃcit kaṃcit ghātayati iti ubhayatra ākṣepaḥ evārthaḥ praśnārthāsaṃbhavāt |

The reason f for the denial of slaying applying to all actions alike, what the Lord means to teach in this section appears to be the denial of all action whatsoever in the case of the enlightened; the denial, however, of the specific act of slaying being only meant as an example.

hetv-arthasya ca avikriyatvasya tulyatvāt viduṣaḥ sarva-karma-pratiṣedha eva prakaraṇārtho ’bhipreto bhagavatā | hantes tu ākṣepaḥ udāharaṇārthatvena kathitaḥ |

(Objection): – What special reason for the absence of action in the case of an enlightened man does the Lord see when denying actions in the wordshow does such a man slay?
(Answer): – The immutability of the Self has already been given as the reason for the absence of all actions.

viduṣaḥ kaṃ karmāsaṃbhave hetu-viśeṣaṃ paśyan karmāṇy ākṣipati bhagavān kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ iti | nanu ukta evātmano ’vikriyatvaṃ sarva-karmāsaṃbhava-kāraṇa-viśeṣaḥ |

(Objection): – True, it has been given; but that cannot be a sufficient reason, since the enlightened man is distinct from the immutable Self. We cannot indeed say that a man who has known an immovable pillar can have no action to do.

satyam uktaḥ | na tu sa kāraṇa-viśeṣaḥ, anyatvāt viduṣo ’vikriyād ātmanaḥ | na hi avikriyaṃ sthāṇuṃ viditavataḥ karma na saṃbhavati iti cet |

(Answer): – This objection does not apply. For, the enlightened man is identical with the Self. Enlightenment (vidvatta) does not pertain to the aggregate of the body, etc. Therefore, as the only other alternative, the enlightened man should be identical with the Self, who is not included in the aggregate and is immutable. No action being possible in the case of an enlightened man, it is but just to deny all action in the words „how does such a man slay?”

na, viduṣaḥ ātmatvāt na dehādi-saṃghātasya vidvattā | ataḥ pāriśeṣyāt asaṃhata ātmā vidvān avikriyaḥ iti tasya viduṣaḥ karmāsaṃbhavāt ākṣepo yuktaḥ kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ iti |

Now, for instance, the Self, while remaining immutable, is, by reason of His not being distinguished from intellectual states (buddhi-vṛttis), imagined, through ignorance, to be the percipient of objects, such as sound, perceived by the intellect and other means.

yathā buddhyādy-āhṛtasya śabdādy-arthasya avikriya eva san buddhi-vṛtty-aviveka-vijñānena avidyayā upalabdhā ātmā kalpyate |

Similarly, the Self is imagined to be enlightened, merely because of avidya associating Him with that intellectual perception – which is unreal – which takes the form of discrimination between the Self and the not-Self, while in reality the Self has undergone no change whatever.

evam eva ātmānātma-viveka-jñānena buddhi-vṛttyā vidyayā asatya-rūpayaiva paramārthato ’vikriya eva ātmā vidvān ucyate |

From this assertion of impossibility of action in the case of an enlightened man, the conclusion of the Lord is evident, that those acts which are enjoined by the scripture are intended for the unenlightened.

viduṣaḥ karmāsaṃbhava-vacanāt yāni karmāṇi śāstreṇa vidhīyante tāni aviduṣo vihitāni iti bhagavato niścayo ’vagamyate |

Works are meant for the unenlightened.
(Objection): – Even knowledge is intended for the unenlightened only, as it would be useless – like grinding the flour over again – to impart knowledge to those who already possess it. Wherefore, it is hard to explain the distinction that works are meant for the unenlightened, and not for the enlightened.

nanu vidyāpi aviduṣa eva vidhīyate, vidita-vidyasya piṣṭa-peṣaṇavat vidyā-vidhānānarthakyāt | tatra aviduṣaḥ karmāṇi vidhīyante na viduṣaḥ iti viśeṣo nopapadyate iti cet |

(Answer): – This objection does not apply. For, the distinction can be explained by the existence or non-existence of something to be performed in the two cases respectively. (To explain): There remains something for the unenlightened man to do, on understanding the meaning of the injunctions regarding the Agnihotra &c. He thinks that the Agnihotra and other sacrificial rites are to be performed, and that the many necessary accessories thereto should be acquired. He thinks further, „I am the agent, this is my duty.” Nothing, on the contrary, remains to be performed subsequent to the realization of the truth of such teachings as are contained in 2.20 etc., regarding the, real nature of the Self. No other conviction arises except that the Self is one and non-agent. Wherefore, the distinction referred to can be accounted for.

na, anuṣṭheyasya bhāvābhāva-viśeṣopapatteḥ | agnihotrādi-vidhy-artha-jñānottara-kālam agnihotrādi-karma aneka-sādhanopasaṃhāra-pūrvakam anuṣṭheyaṃ kartā aham, mama kartavyam ity evaṃ prakāra-vijñānavato ’viduṣaḥ yathā anuṣṭheyaṃ bhavati, na tu tathā na jāyate ity ādy ātma-svarupa-vidhy-artha-jñānottara-kāla-bhāvi kiṃcid anuṣṭheyaṃ bhavati | kintu nāhaṃ kartā, nāhaṃ bhoktā ity ādy ātmaikatvākartṛtvādi-viṣaya-jñānāt nānyad utpadyate iti eṣa viśeṣa upapadyate |

In the case of him who thinks that the Self is the doer of actions, there will necessarily arise the idea that he has this or that thing to do. A man who possesses this sort of knowledge is qualified for actions, and on him actions are enjoined. Such a man is unenlightened, for it is said that „both these know not aright” (2.19).

yaḥ punaḥ kartā aham iti vetti ātmānam, tasya mama idaṃ kartavyam iti avaśyaṃ bhāvinī buddhiḥ syāt | tad-apekṣayā so ’dhikriyate iti taṃ prati karmāṇi saṃbhavanti | sa ca avidvān ubhau tau na vijānītaḥ iti vacanāt |

In 2.21, the enlightened man is specified, and with reference to him actions are denied in the words „how does such a man slay?”

viśeṣitasya ca viduṣaḥ karmākṣepa-vacanāt kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ iti |

Therefore the enlightened man who has seen the immutable Self and the man who is eager for emancipation have only to renounce all works.

tasmāt viśeṣitasya avikriyātma-darśinaḥ viduṣaḥ mumukṣo ca sarva-karma-saṃnyāse eva adhikāraḥ |

Hence it is that Lord Narayaṇa distinguishes the enlightened Sankhyas from the unenlightened followers of works, and teaches to them respectively two distinct paths (3.3).

ata eva bhagavān nārāyaṇaḥ sāṃkhyān viduṣo ’viduṣa ca karmiṇaḥ pravibhajya dve niṣṭhe grāhayati – jñāna-yogena sāṃkhyānāṃ karma-yogena yoginām (BhG 3.3.) iti |

Accordingly, Vyasa said to his son, „Now there are two paths.” (MBh 12.233.6). In the same connection, Vyasa said that the path of works is the first, and that renunciation comes next. Our Lord will refer to this distinction again and again in this work. (vide 3.27, 28; 5.13, &c.)

tathā ca putrāya āha bhagavān vyāsaḥ – dvāv imāv atha panthānau (MBh 12.233.6) ity ādi | tathā ca kriyā-pathaś caiva purastāt paścāt saṃnyāsaś ca iti | etam eva vibhāgaṃ punaḥ punar darśayiṣyati bhagavān – atattvavit ahaṃkāra-vimūḍhātmā kartāham iti manyate, tattvavit tu, nāhaṃ karomi (BhG 3.27-28) iti | tathā ca sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasyāste (BhG 5.13) ityādi ||
Knowledge of the Immutable Self is possible.
(Objection): – In this connection some conceited pedants say: To no man can arise the conviction ‚I am the immutable Self, the One, the non-agent, devoid of the six changes, such as birth, to which all things in the world are subject; ‚ which conviction arising, renunciation of all works is enjoined.
tatra kecit paṇḍitaṃ-manyā vadanti – janmādi-ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikriyā-rahito ’vikriyo ’kartā eko ’ham ātmā iti na kasyacit jñānam utpadyate, yasmin sati sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ upadiśyate iti |
(Answer): – This objection does not apply here. For, in vain then would be the Scriptural teaching, such as „the Self is not born,” &c. (2.20). They (the objectors) may be asked why knowledge of the immutability, non-agency, unity, &c., of the Self cannot be produced by the Scripture in the same way as knowledge of the existence of dharma and a-dharma and of the doer passing through other births is produced by the teaching of the Scripture? tan na | na jāyate ityādi śāstropadeśānarthakya-prasaṅgāt | yathā ca śāstropadeśa-sāmarthyāt dharmādharmāstitva-vijñānaṃ kartuś ca dehāntara-saṃbandha-vijñānam utpadyate, tathā śāstrāt tasyaiva ātmano ’vikriyatvākartṛtvaikatvādi-vijñānaṃ kasmāt notpadyate iti praṣṭavyāḥ te |

(Opponent): – Because the Self is inaccessible to any of the senses.
(Answer): – Not so. For, the Scripture says „It can be seen by the mind alone.” (Bṛh-up. 4.4.19). The mind, refined by Śama and Dama – i. e., by the subjugation of the body, the mind and the senses – and equipped with the teachings of the Scripture and the

karaṇāgocaratvāt iti cet
na | manasaivānudraṣṭavyaṃ (Bṛh-up. 4.4.19) iti śruteḥ | śāstrācāryopadeśa-śama-damādi-saṃskṛtaṃ mana ātma-darśane karaṇam |

Teacher, constitutes the sense by which the Self may be seen. Thus, while the Scripture and inference (anumāna) teach the immutability of the Self, it is mere temerity to hold that no such knowledge can arise.

tathā ca tad adhigamāya anumāne āgame ca sati jñānaṃ notpadyata iti sāhasa-mātram etat | jñānaṃ ca utpadyamānaṃ tad-viparītam ajñānam avaśyaṃ bādhate ity abhyupagantavyam |

The enlightened should resort to Jñāna-Yoga.
It must be granted that the knowledge which thus arises necessarily dispels ignorance, its opposite. This ignorance has been already indicated in 2.19. It is there taught that the notion that the Self is the agent or the object of the action of slaying is a product of ignorance.

tac ca ajñānaṃ darśitaṃ hantā aham, hato ’smi iti ubhau tau na vijānīta iti | atra ca ātmanaḥ hanana-kriyāyāḥ kartṛtvaṃ karmatvaṃ hetu-kartṛtvaṃ ca ajñāna-kṛtaṃ darśitam |

That the agency, &c., of the Self is a product of ignorance holds good in the case of all actions alike, since the Self is immutable. It is only the agent, subject to variations of condition, that causes another person, who can be acted on by him, to do an action.

tac ca sarva-kriyāsv api samānaṃ kartṛtvādeḥ avidyā-kṛtatvam avikriyatvāt ātmanaḥ | vikriyāvān hi kartā ātmanaḥ karma-bhūtam anyaṃ prayojayati kuru iti |

This agency – direct and causative with respect to all actions alike – Lord Vasudeva denies in 2.21 in the case of an enlightened man, with a view to show that the enlightened man has nothing to do with any action whatsoever.

tad etat aviśeṣeṇa viduṣaḥ sarva-kriyāsu kartṛtvaṃ hetu-kartṛtvaṃ ca pratiṣedhati bhagavān vāsudevo viduṣaḥ karmādhikārābhāva-pradarśanārthaṃ vedāvināśinaṃ, kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ (BhG 2.21) ity ādinā |

(Question): – What, then, has he to do?
(Answer): – This has been already answered in 3.3, that the Sankhyas should resort to Jñāna-Yoga or devotion to knowledge. So also, the Lord will teach renunciation of all works in the words, „Renouncing all actions by thought, the self-controlled man rests happily in the nine-gated city, – in the body – neither acting nor causing to act” (5.13).

kva punaḥ viduṣo ’dhikāra iti etad uktaṃ pūrvam eva jñāna-yogena sāṃkhyānām (BhG 3.3.) iti | tathā ca sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaṃ vakṣyati sarva-karmāṇi manasā (BhG 5.13) ity ādinā ||

(Objection): – Here the wordthoughtimplies that there is no renunciation of the acts of speech and body.
(Answer): – No, for there is the qualification, ‚all actions.’

nanu manasā (BhG 5.13) iti vacanāt na vācikānāṃ kāyikānāṁ ca saṃnyāsaḥ iti cet, na |
sarva-karmāṇi (BhG 5.13) iti viśeṣitatvāt |

(Objection): – The renunciation of all mental acts only is meant.
(Answer): – No. Since all acts of speech and body are preceded by mental activity, they cannot exist when the mind is inactive.

mānasānām eva sarva-karmaṇām iti cet, na |
mano-vyāpāra-pūrvakatvād vāk-kāya-vyāpārāṇāṃ mano-vyāpārābhāve tad-anupapatteḥ |

(Objection): – Then, let him renounce all other acts of mind except such as are necessary for those acts of speech and body which are enjoined by the Scripture.
(Answer): – No, for, there is the qualification, „neither acting nor causing to act.”

śāstrīyāṇāṃ vāk-kāya-karmaṇāṃ kāraṇāni mānasāni karmāṇi varjayitvā anyāni sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasyed (BhG 5.13) iti cet,
na
| naiva kurvan na kārayan (BhG 5.13) iti viśeṣaṇāt |

(Objection): – Then, the renunciation of all actions, here taught by the Lord, may be meant for the dying man, not for the living man.
(Answer): – No; for, then, the qualification ‚rests in the nine-gated city – in the body‚ would have no meaning. No man who is dying can by giving up all activity be said to rest in the body.

sarva-karma-saṃnyāso ’yaṃ bhagavatā /bhagavata uktaḥ mariṣyato na jīvata iti cet,
na
| nava-dvāre pure dehī āste (BhG 5.13) iti viśeṣaṇānupapatteḥ | na hi sarva-karma-saṃnyāsena mṛtasya tad-dehe āsanaṃ saṃbhavati |
(Objection): – Let us then construe the passage thus: Neither acting nor causing another to act, he, the disembodied soul of the enlightened man, deposits (sam + nyas) all activity in the body (i.e., knows that all activity belongs to the body, not to the Sslf) and rests happily. Let us not, on the contrary, construe, as you ha\e done, ‚he rests in the body,’ &c. akurvato ’kārayata ca dehe saṃnyasya iti saṃbandho na dehe āste iti cet, na |

(Answer): – No. Everywhere (in the śruti and in the smriti) is emphatically asserted that the Self is immutable. Moreover, the act of resting presupposes a place to rest in, whereas the act of renunciation does not presuppose it. And the Sanskrit verb ‚sam + nyas’ means ‚to renounce,’ not ‚to deposit.’

sarvatra ātmano ’vikriyatvāvadhāraṇāt | āsana-kriyāyāś cādhikaraṇāpekṣatvāt | tad-anapekṣatvāc ca saṃnyāsasya | saṃpūrvas tu nyāsa-śabdo ’tra tyāgārthaḥ, na nikṣepārthaḥ |
Therefore, the Gita-Śastra teaches that he who has acquired a knowledge of the Self should resort to renunciation only, not to works. This we shall show here and there in the following sections, wherever they treat of the Self. tasmāt gītā-śāstre ātma-jñānavataḥ saṃnyāsa eva adhikāro na karmaṇīti tatra tatra upariṣṭāt ātma-jñāna-prakaraṇe darśayiṣyāmaḥ ||2.21||

 

Rāmānuja

evam avināśitvenājatvena vyayānarhatvena ca nityam enam ātmānaṃ yaḥ puruṣo veda, sa puruṣo deva-manuṣya-tiryak-sthāvara-śarīrāvasthiteṣu ātmasu kam apy ātmānaṃ kathaṃ ghātayati ? kaṃ vā kathaṃ hanti ? kathaṃ nāśayati ? kathaṃ vā tat-prayojako bhavatīty arthaḥ ? etān ātmano ghātayāmi hanmi ity anuśocanam ātma-svarūpa-yāthātmyājñāna-mūlam evety abhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

ataeva hantṛtvābhāvo ‚pi pūrvoktaḥ prasiddha ity āha vedāvināśinam ity ādi | nityaṃ vṛddhi-śūnyam | avyayam apakṣaya-śūnyam | ajam avināśinaṃ ca | yo veda sa puruṣaḥ kaṃ hanti | kathaṃ vā hanti ? evaṃ-bhūtasya vadhe sādhanābhāvāt | tathā svayaṃ prayojako bhūtvānyena kaṃ ghātayati ? kathaṃ vā ghātayati ? na kiñcid api | na kathañcid api ity arthaḥ | anena mayy api prayojakatvād doṣa-dṛṣṭiṃ mā kārṣīr ity uktaṃ bhavati

 

Madhusūdana

nāyaṃ hanti na hanyata iti pratijñāya na hanyata ity upapāditam idānīṃ na hantīty upapādayann upasaṃharati | na vinaṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yasya tam avināśinam antya-vikāra-rahitam | tatra hetuḥ – avyayaṃ na vidyate vyayo ‚vayavāpacayo guṇāpacayo vā yasya tam avyayam | avayavāpacayena guṇāpacayena vā vināśa-darśanāt tad-ubhaya-rahitasya na vināśaḥ sambhavatīty arthaḥ |
nanu janyatvena vināśitvam anumāsyāmahe nety āha – ajam iti | na jāyate ity ajam ādya-vikāra-rahitam | tatra hetuḥ – nityaṃ sarvadā vidyāmānaṃ, prāg-avidyamānasya hi janma dṛṣṭaṃ na tu sarvatā sata ity abhiprāyaḥ |
athavāvināśinam abādhyaṃ satyam iti yāvat | nityaṃ sarva-vyāpakam | tatra hetuḥ – ajam avyayaṃ | janma-vināśa-śūnyaṃ jāyamānasya vinaśyataś ca sarva-vyāpakatva-satyatvayor ayogāt |
evaṃ sarva-vikriyā-śūnyaṃ prakṛtam enaṃ dehinaṃ svam ātmānaṃ yo veda vijānāti śāstrācāryopadeśābhyāṃ sākṣātkaroti ahaṃ sarva-vikriyā-śūnyaḥ sarva-bhāsakaḥ sarva-dvaita-rahitaḥ paramānanda-bodha-rūpa iti sa evaṃ vidvān puruṣaḥ pūrṇa-rūpaḥ kaṃ hanti ? kathaṃ hanti ? kiṃ-śabda ākṣepe | na kam api hanti na katham api hantīty arthaḥ | tathā kaṃ ghātayati kathaṃ ghātayati kam api na ghātayati katham api na ghātayatīty arthaḥ | nahi sarva-vikāra-śūnyasyākartur hanana-kriyāyāṃ kartṛtvaṃ sambhavati | tathā ca śrutiḥ –
ātmānaṃ ced vijānīyād ayam asmīti pūruṣaḥ |
kim icchan kasya kāmāya śarīram anusaṃjvaret || [BAU 4.4.12]
iti śuddham ātmānaṃ viduṣas tad-ajñāna-nibandhanādhyāsa-nivṛttau tan-mūla-rāga-dveṣādy-abhāvāt-kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādy-abhāvaṃ darśayati |
ayam atrābhiprāyo bhagavataḥ | vastu-gatyā ko ‚pi nakaroti na kārayati ca kiṃcit sarva-vikriyā-śūnya-svabhāvatvāt paraṃ tu svapna ivāvidyayā kartṛtvādikam ātmany abhimanyate mūḍhaḥ | tad uktam ubhau tau na vijānītaḥ [Gītā 2.19] iti | śrutiś ca – dhyāyatīva lelāyatīva [BAU 4.3.7] ity ādiḥ | ataeva sarvāṇi śāstrāṇy avidvad-adhikārikāṇi | vidvāṃs tu samūlādhyāsa-bādhān nātmani kartṛtvādikam abhimanyate sthāṇu-svarūpaṃ vidvān iva coratvam | ato vikriyā-rahitatvād advitīyatvāc ca vidvān na karoti kārayati cety ucyate | tathā ca śrutiḥ — vidvān na bibheti kutaścana [TaittU 2.9.1] iti | arjuno hi svasmin kartṛtvaṃ bhagavati ca kārayitṛtvam adhyasya hiṃsā-nimittaṃ doṣam ubhayatrāpy āśaśaṅke | bhagavān api viditābhiprāyo hanti ghātayatīti tad-ubhayam ācikṣepa | ātmani kartṛtvaṃ mayi ca kārayitṛtvam āropya pratyavāya-śaṅkāṃ mā kārṣīr ity abhiprāyaḥ |
avikriyatva-pradarśanenātmanaḥ kartṛtva-pratiṣedhāt sarva-karmākṣepe bhagavad-abhiprete hantir upalakṣaṇārthaḥ puraḥ-sphūrtikatvāt | pratiṣedha-hetos tulyatvāt karmāntarābhyanujñānupapatteḥ | tathā ca vakṣyati tasya kāryaṃ na vidyata [Gītā 3.17] iti | ato ‚tra hanana-mātrākṣepeṇa karmāntaraṃ bhagavatābhyanujñāyata iti mūḍha-jana-jalpitam apāstam | tasmād yudhyasvety atra hananasya bhagavatābhyanujñānād vāstava-kartṛtvādy-abhāvasya karma-mātre samatvād iti dik

 

Viśvanātha

ata evambhūta-jñāne sati tvaṃ yudhyamāno ‚pi ahaṃ yuddhe prerayann api doṣa-bhājau naiva bhavāva ity āha vedeti | nityam iti kriyā-viśeṣaṇam | avināśinam iti, ajam iti, avyayam ity etair vināśa-janyā apekṣayā niṣiddhāḥ | sa puruṣo mal-lakṣaṇaḥ kaṃ ghātayati, kathaṃ vā ghātayati, sa puruṣas tval-lakṣaṇaḥ kaṃ hanti ? kathaṃ vā hanti ?

 

Baladeva

evaṃ tattva-jñānavān yo dharma-buddhyā yuddhe pravartate yaś ca pravartayati, tasya tasya ca ko ‚pi na doṣa-gandha ity āha vedeti | enaṃ prakṛtam ātmānam avināśinam ajam avyayam apakṣaya-śūnyaṃ ca yo veda śāstra-yuktibhyāṃ jānāti, sa puruṣo yuddhe pravṛtto ‚pi kaṃ hanti kathaṃ vā hanti ? tatra pravartayann api kaṃ ghātayati kathaṃ vā ghātayati ? kim ākṣepe – na kam api na katham apīty arthaḥ | ntiyam iti vedana-kriyā-viśeṣaṇam

 
 

BhG 2.22

vāsāṃsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya navāni gṛhṇāti naro parāṇi
tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāny anyāni saṃyāti navāni dehī

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syntax


yathā (as) naraḥ (a person) jīrṇāni (worn out) vāsāṁsi (garments) vihāya (after abandoning),
aparāṇi (others) navāni (new) gṛhṇāti (he takes),
tathā (so) dehī (the embodied one) jīrṇāni (worn out) śarīrāṇi (bodies) vihāya (after abandoning),
anyāni (others) navāni (new) [śarīrāṇi] (bodies) saṁyāti (he attains).

 

grammar

vāsāṁsi vāsas 2n.3 n.garments (from: vas – to put on, to wear);
jīrṇāni jīrṇa (jṝ – to grow old) [PP] 2n.3 n.which are old, worn out;
yathā av.as (correlative of tathā);
vihāya vi- (to abandon) absol.after abandoning;
navāni nava 2n.3 n.new, fresh ones (from: nu – to praise);
gṛhṇāti grah (to take) Praes. P 1v.1he takes;
naraḥ nara 1n.1 m.a man, a person (from: nṛ man, mankind);
aparāṇi apara 2n.3 n.other, later, inferior, different ones;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
śarīrāṇi śarīra 2n.3 n.bodies (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);
vihāya vi- (to abandon) absol.after abandoning;
jīrṇāni jīrṇa (jṝ – to grow old) [PP] 2n.3 n.which are old, worn out;
anyāni anya sn. 2n.3 n.others;
saṁyāti sam- (to meet, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he attains;
navāni nava 2n.3 n.new, fresh ones (from: nu – to praise);
dehī dehin 1n.1 m.the embodied one (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);

 

textual variants

gṛhṇāti → saṃyāti (he attains);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

How the Self is immutable.
To return to the immediate subject. It has been stated that the Self is indestructible. Like what is He indestructible? Here follows the answer:

prakṛtaṃ tu vakṣyāmaḥ | tatra ātmano ’vināśitvaṃ pratijñātam | tat kim iveti, ucyate

Just as a man casts off worn-out clothes
and puts on others which are new,
so the embodied (Self) casts off worn-out bodies
and enters others which are new.

vāsāṃsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya
navāni gṛhṇāti naro ’parāṇi
|
tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāni
anyāni saṃyāti navāni dehī ||2.22||

Just as, in this world, a man casts off the clothes that have been worn-out and puts on others which are new, in the same manner, like the man (of the world), the embodied Self abandons old bodies, and, without undergoing any change, enters others which are new.

vāsāṃsi vastrāṇi jīrṇāni durbalatāṃ gatāni yathā loke vihāya parityajya navāni abhinavāni gṛhṇāti upādatte naraḥ puruṣo ’parāṇi anyāni, tathā tadvad eva śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāni anyāni saṃyāti saṃgacchati navāni dehī ātmā puruṣavat avikriya evety arthaḥ ||2.22||

 

Rāmānuja

yadyapi nityānām ātmanāṃ śarīra-viśleṣa-mātraṃ kriyate, tathāpi ramaṇīya-bhoga-sādhaneṣu śarīreṣu naśyatsu tad-viyoga-rūpaṃ śoka-nimittam asty eva, iti ata āha vāsāṃsīti | dharma-yuddhe śarīraṃ tyajatāṃ tyakta-śarīrād adhikatara-kalyāṇa-śarīra-grahaṇaṃ śāstrād avagamyate iti | jīrṇāni vāsāṃsi vihāya navāni kalyāṇāni vāsāṃsi gṛhṇatām iva harṣa-nimittam evātropalabhyate

 

Śrīdhara

nanv ātmano ‚vināśe ‚pi tadīya-śarīra-nāśaṃ paryālocya śocāmīiti cet ? tatrāha vāsāṃsīti | karmaṇi bandhanānāṃ nūtanānāṃ dehānām avaśyambhāvitvāt na taj-jīrṇa-deha-nāśe śokāvakāśa ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

nanv evam ātmano vināśitvābhāve ‚pi dehānāṃ vināśitvād yuddhasya ca tan-nāśakatvāt kathaṃ bhīṣmādi-dehānām aneka-sukṛta-sādhanānāṃ mayā yuddhena vināśaḥ kārya ity āśaṅkāyā uttaram vāsāṃsīti |
jīrṇāni vihāya vastrāṇi navāni gṛhṇāti vikriyā-śūnya eva naro yathety etāvataiva virvāhe ‚parāṇīit viśeṣaṇam utkarṣātiśaya-khyāpanārtham | tena yathā nikṛṣṭāni vastrāṇi vihāyotkṛṣṭāni jano gṛhṇātīty aucityāyātam | tathā jīrṇāni vayasā tapasā ca kṛśāni bhīṣmādi-śarīrāṇi vihāyānyāni devādi-śarīrāṇi sarvotkṛṣṭāni ciropārjita-dharma-phala-bhogāya saṃyāti samyag-garbha-vāsādi-kleśa-vyatirekeṇa prāpnoti dehī prakṛṣṭa-dharmānuṣṭhātṛ-dehavān bhīṣmādir ity arthaḥ | anyan navataraṃ kalyāṇataraṃ rūpaṃ kurute pitryaṃ vā gandharvaṃ vā daivaṃ vā prājāpatyaṃ vā brāhmaṃ vā ity ādi śruteḥ |
etad uktaṃ bhavati bhīṣmādayo hi yāvaj jīvaṃ dharmānuṣṭhāna-kleśenaiva jarjara-śarīrā vartamāna-śarīra-pātam antareṇa tat-phala-bhogāyāsam arthā yadi dharma-yuddhena svarga-pratibandhakāni jarjarāṇi śarīrāṇi pātayitvā divya-deha-sampādanena svarga-bhoga-yogyāḥ kriyante tvayā tad-atyantam upakṛtvā eva te | duryodhanādīnām api svarga-bhoga-yogya-deha-sampādanān mahān upakāra eva | tathā cātyantam upakārake yuddhe ‚pakārakatva-bhramaṃ mā kārṣīr iti | aparāṇi anyāni saṃyātīti pada-traya-vaśād bhagavad-abhiprāya evam abhyūhitaḥ | anena dṛṣṭāntenāvikṛta-pratipādanam ātmanaḥ kriyata iti tu prācāṃ vyākhyānam atispaṣṭam

 

Viśvanātha

nanu madīya-yuddhād bhīṣma-saṃjñakaṃ śarīraṃ tu jīvātmā tyakṣyaty eva ity atas tvaṃ cāhaṃ ca tatra hetu bhavāva eva ity ata āha vāsāṃsīti | navīnaṃ vastraṃ paridhāpayituṃ jīrṇa-vastrasya tyajane kaścit kiṃ doṣo bhavatīti bhāvaḥ | tathā śarīrāṇīti bhīṣmo jīrṇa-śarīraṃ parityajya divyaṃ navyaṃ anyac charīraṃ prāpsyatīti kas tava vā mama vā doṣo bhavatīti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanu mā bhūd ātmanāṃ vināśo bhīṣmādi-saṃjñānāṃ tac-charīrāṇāṃ tat-sukha-sādhanānāṃ yuddhena vināśe tat-sukha-viccheda-hetuko doṣaḥ syād eva | anyathā prāyaścitta-śāstrāṇi nirviṣayāṇi syur iti cet tatrāha vāsāṃsīti | sthūla-jīrṇa-vāsas-tyāgena navīna-vāso-dhāraṇam iva vṛddha-nṛ-deha-tyāgena yuva-deva-deha-dhāraṇaṃ teṣām ātmanām atisukhakaram eva | tad ubhayaṃ ca yuddhenaiva kṣipraṃ bhaved ity upakārakāt tasmān mā viraṃsīr iti bhāvaḥ | saṃyātīti samyag-garbha-vāsādi-yātanāṃ vinaiva śīghram eva prāpnotīty arthaḥ | prāyaścitta-vākyāni tu yajña-yuddha-vadhād anyasmin vadhe neyāni

 
 

BhG 2.23

nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ
na cainaṃ kledayanty āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ

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syntax


śastrāṇi (weapons) enam (this) na chindanti (they do not cut),
pāvakaḥ (fire) enam (this) na dahati (it does not burn),
āpaḥ ca (and waters) enam (this) na kledayanti (they do not moisten),
mārutaḥ (wind) [enam] (this) na śoṣayati (it does not dry up).

 

grammar

na av.not;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
chindanti chid (to cut, to divide) Praes. P 1v.3they cut;
śastrāṇi śastra 1n.3 n.weapons which are handled (as opposed to weapon which is thrown – astra; from: śas – to cut, to kill);
na av.not;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
dahati dah (to burn) Praes. P 1v.1it burns;
pāvakaḥ pāvaka 1n.1 m.pure, fire (from: – to purify);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
kledayanti klid (to be wet) Praes. caus. P 1v.3they cause to be wet, moisten;
āpaḥ ap 1n.3 f.waters (declined always in plural);
na av.not;
śoṣayati śuṣ (to dry up) Praes. caus. P 1v.1it causes to dry up;
mārutaḥ māruta 1n.1 m.wind, belonging to Maruta (marut – wind-god);

 

textual variants

kledayanty → kleśayanty (they torment);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Why is the Self quite changeless? The Lord says:

kasmāt avikriya eveti, āha

Him, weapons cut not; Him, fire burns not,
and Him, water wets not; Him, wind dries not.

nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ |
na cainaṃ kledayanty āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ ||2.23||

Him, i. e., the embodied Self of whom we are speaking, weapons, such as swords, do not cut. As He has no parts, they can effect no division of Him into parts.

enaṃ prakṛtaṃ dehinaṃ na chindanti śastrāṇi, niravayavatvāt nāvayava-vibhāgaṃ kurvanti | śastrāṇi asy-ādīni |

So, fire does not burn Him: even fire cannot reduce Him to ashes.

tathā nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ, agnir api na bhasmīkaroti |

Neither does water wet Him; for, the power of water lies in disjoining the parts of a thing which is made up of parts, by wetting it; and this cannot take place in the partless Self.

tathā na cainaṃ kledayanti āpaḥ | apāṃ hi sāvayavasya vastuna ādrībhāva-karaṇena avayava-viśleṣāpādane sāmarthyam | tan na niravayave ātmani saṃbhavati |

So, wind destroys an object containing moisture, by drying it up; but even wind cannot dry up the Self.

tathā snehavat dravyaṃ sneha-śoṣaṇena nāśayati vāyuḥ | enaṃ tv ātmānaṃ na śoṣayati māruto ’pi ||2.23||

 

Rāmānuja

commentary under the verse BhG 2.24

 

Śrīdhara

kathaṃ hantīti anena uktaṃ vadha-sādhanābhāvaṃ darśayann avināśitvam ātmanaḥ sphuṭīkaroti nainam ity ādi | āpo kledayanti mṛdu-karaṇena śithilaṃ na kurvanti | māruto ‚py enaṃ na śoṣayati

 

Madhusūdana

commentary under the verse BhG 2.24

 

Viśvanātha

na ca yuddhe tvayā prayuktebhyaḥ śastrāstrebhyaḥ kāpy ātmano vyathā sambhaved ity āha nainam iti | śastrāṇi khaḍgādīni | pāvaka āgneyāstram api yuṣmad-ādi-prayuktam | āpaḥ pārjanyāstram api | māruto vāyavyāstram

 

Baladeva

nanu śastra-pātaiḥ śarīra-vināśe tad-antaḥ-sthasyātmano vināśaḥ syāt gṛha-dāhe tan-madhya-sthasyaiva jantor iti cet tatrāha nainam iti | śastrāṇi khaḍgādīni | pāvaka āgneyāstram | āpaḥ pārjanyāstram api | māruto vāyavyāstram | tathā ca tat-prayuktaiḥ śastrāstrair nātmanaḥ kācid vyatheti

 
 

BhG 2.24

acchedyo yam adāhyo yam akledyo śoṣya eva ca
nityaḥ sarvagataḥ sthāṇur acalo yaṃ sanātanaḥ

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syntax


ayam (he) acchedyaḥ (not to be cut) [asti] (is),
ayam (he) adāhyaḥ (not to be burnt) [asti] (is),
[ayam] (he) akledyaḥ (not to be moistened) [asti] (is),
[ayam] ca (and he) aśoṣyaḥ eva (indeed not to be dried up) [asti] (is).
ayam (he) nityaḥ (permanent), sarva-gataḥ (all-pervading), sthāṇuḥ (firm) acalaḥ (unmoving), sanātanaḥ (primeval) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

acchedyaḥ a-cchedya (chid – to cut, to divide) PF 1n.1 m.not to be cut;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
adāhyaḥ a-dāhya (dah – to burn) PF 1n.1 m.not to be burnt;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
akledyaḥ a-kledya (klid – to be wet) PF 1n.1 m.not to be moistened;
aśoṣyaḥ a-śoṣya (śuṣ – to dry up) PF 1n.1 m.not to be dried up;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
nityaḥ nitya 1n.1 m.continual, eternal;
sarvagataḥ sarva-gata 1n.1 m.; [TP]: sarvatra gata itigone everywhere, all-pervading (from: sarva – all, whole; gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone);
sthāṇuḥ sthāṇu 1n.1 m.firm, stationary (from: sthā – to stand);
acalaḥ a-cala 1n.1 m.unmoving (from: cal – to move, to shake, cala – moving, shaking);
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
sanātanaḥ sanātana 1n.1 m.eternal, primeval;

 

textual variants

sarvagataḥ  → satata-gaḥ / sarva-gata- / sarvatra-gaḥ (always moving / gone everywhere / going into everything);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Wherefore:

yata evaṃ tasmāt

He cannot be cut, nor burnt, nor wetted, nor dried up.
He is everlasting, all-pervading, stable, firm, and eternal.

acchedyo ’yam adāhyo ’yam akledyo ’śoṣya eva ca |
nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur acalo ’yaṃ sanātanaḥ ||2.24||

Because the mutually destructive objects – namely, swords and the like – cannot destroy the Self, therefore He is everlasting.

yasmāt anyonya-nāśa-hetu-bhūtāni enam ātmānaṃ nāśayituṃ notsahante asyādīni tasmāt nityaḥ |

Because everlasting, He is all-pervading. Because all-pervading, He is stable like a pillar. Because stable, the Self is firm. Wherefore He is eternal, not produced out of any cause, not new.

nityatvāt sarvagataḥ | sarva-gatatvāt sthāṇur iva, sthira ity etat | sthiratvāt acalo ’yam ātmā | ataḥ sanātanaś cirantanaḥ, na kāraṇāt kutaścin niṣpannaḥ, abhinava ity arthaḥ |

No charge of tautology can be brought against the verses (ii. 21-24) on the ground that in 2.20 the eternality and the immutability of the Self have been taught and that what has been said regarding the Self in these verses (ii. 21-24) adds nothing to what was taught in that one verse, – something being repeated verbatim, and something more being repeated in idea.

naiteṣāṃ ślokānāṃ paunaruktyaṃ codanīyam | yataḥ ekenaiva ślokān ātmanaḥ nityatvam avikriyatvaṃ coktaṃ na jāyate mriyate vā (BhG 2.20) ity ādinā | tatra yad eva ātma-viṣayaṃ kiṃcid ucyate, tad etasmāt ślokārthād nātiricyate | kiṃcic chabdataḥ punaruktam, kiṃcid arthataḥ iti |

Since the Self is a thing very difficult to understand, Lord Vāsudeva again and again introduces the subject and describes the same thing n other words, so that in some way or other the truth may be grasped by the intellect of the mortals (samsārins) and thus the cessation of their samsāra may be brought about.

durbodhatvāt ātma-vastunaḥ punaḥ punaḥ prasaṅgam āpādya śabdāntareṇa tad eva vastu nirūpayati bhagavān vāsudevaḥ kathaṃ nu nāma saṃsāriṇām asaṃsāritva-buddhi-gocaratām āpannaṃ sat avyaktaṃ tattvaṃ saṃsāra-nivṛttaye syāt iti ||2.24||

 

Rāmānuja

punar api avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṃ tatam [gītā 2.17] iti pūrvoktam avināśitvaṃ sukha-grahaṇāya vyajayan draḍhayati—nainam iti | śastrāgny-ambu-vāyavaḥ chedana-dahana-kledana-śoṣaṇāni ātmānaṃ prati kartuṃ na śaknuvanti | sarva-gatatvād ātmanaḥ sarva-tattva-vyāpaka-svabhāvatayā sarvebhyas tattvebhyaḥ sūkṣmatvād asya tair vyāpty-anarhatvād vyāpya-kartavyatvāc ca chedana-dahana-kledana-śoṣaṇānām | ata ātmā nityaḥ sthāṇuḥ acalo’yaṃ sanātanaḥ sthira-svabhāvo’prakampyaḥ purātanaś ca

 

Śrīdhara

tatra hetum āha acchedya ity ādinā sārdhena | niravayavatvād acchedyo ‚kledyaś ca | amūrtatvād adāhyaḥ | dravatvābhāvād aśoṣya iti bhāvaḥ | itaś ca chedādi-yogyo na bhavati | yato nityo ‚vināśī | sarva-gataḥ sthāṇuḥ sthira-svabhāvo rūpāntarāpatti-śūnyaḥ | acalaḥ pūrva-rūpāparityāgī | sanātano ‚nādiḥ

 

Madhusūdana

śastrādīnāṃ tan-nāśakatvāsāmarthye tasya taj-janita-nāśānarhatve hetum āha acchedya iti | yato ‚cchedyo ‚yam ato nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi | adāhyo ‚yaṃ yato ‚to nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ | yato ‚kledyo ‚yam ato nainaṃ kledayanty āpaḥ | yato ‚śoṣyo ‚yam ato nainaṃ śoṣayati māruta iti krameṇa yojanīyam | eva-kāraḥ pratyekaṃ sambadhyamāno ‚cchedyatvādy-avadhāraṇārthaḥ | caḥ samuccaye hetau vā | chedādy-anarhatve hetum āhottarārdhena |
nityo ‚yaṃ pūrvāpara-koṭi-rahito ‚to ‚nutpādyaḥ | asarvagatatve hy anityatvaṃ syāt | yāvad-vikāraṃ tu vibhāgaḥ iti nyāyāt parābhyupagata-paramāṇv-ādīnām anabhyupagamāt | ayaṃ tu sarva-gato vibhur ato nitya eva | etena prāpyatvaṃ parākṛtam | yadi cāyaṃ vikārī syāt tadā sarva-gato na syāt | ayaṃ tu sthāṇur avikārī | ataḥ sarva-gata eva | etena vikāryatvam apākṛtam | yadi cāyaṃ calaḥ kriyāvān syāt tadā vikārī syād ghaṭādivat | ayaṃ tv acalo ‚to na vikārī | etena saṃskāryatvaṃ nirākṛtam | pūrvāvasthā-parityāgenāvasthāntarāpattir vikriyā | avasthaikye ‚pi calana-mātraṃ kriyeti viśeṣaḥ | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt sanātano ‚yaṃ sarvadaika-rūpo na kasyā api kriyāyāḥ karmety arthaḥ | utpatty-āpti-vikṛti-saṃskṛty-anyatara-kriyā-phala-yoge hi karmatvaṃ syāt | ayaṃ tu nityatvān notpādyaḥ | anityasyaiva ghaṭāder utpādyatvāt | sarvagatatvān na prāpyaḥ paricchinnasyaiva paya-ādeḥ prāpyatvāt | sthāṇutvād avikāryaḥ | vikriyāvato ghṛtāder eva vikāryatvāt | acalatvād asaṃskāryaḥ sakriyasyaiva darpaṇādeḥ saṃskāryatvāt | tathā ca śrutayaḥ – ākāśavat sarva-gataś ca nityaḥ [ChāU 3.14.3], vṛkṣa iva stabdho divi tiṣṭhaty ekaḥ [ŚvetU 3.9], niṣkalaṃ niṣkriyaṃ śāntaṃ [ŚvetU 6.19], ity ādayaḥ | yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhan pṛthivyā antaro yo ‚psu tiṣṭhann adbhyo ‚ntaro yas tejasi tiṣṭhaṃs tejaso ‚ntaro yo vāyau tiṣṭan vāyor antaraḥ [BAU 3.7.3 ff] ity ādyā ca śrutiḥ sarvagatasya sarvāntaryāmitayā tad-aviṣayatvaṃ darśayati | yo hi śastrādau na tiṣṭhati taṃ śastrādayaś chindanti | ayaṃ tu śastrādīnāṃ sattā-sphūrti-pradatvena tat-prerakas tad-antaryāmī | ataḥ katham enaṃ śastrādīni sva-vyāpāra-viṣayī kuryur ity abhiprāyaḥ | atra yena sūryas tapati tejaseddhaḥ [Taitt. Br. 3.12.97] ity ādi śrutayo ‚nusandheyāḥ | saptamādhyāye ca prakaṭīkariṣyati śrī-bhagavān iti dik

 

Viśvanātha

tasmād ātmāyam evam ucyata ity āha acchedya iti | atra prakaraṇe jīvātmano nityatvasya śabdato ‚rthataś ca paunaruktyaṃ nirdhāraṇa-prayojakaṃ sandigdhadhīṣu jñeyam | yathā kalāv asmin dharmo ‚sti dharmo ‚stīti tri-caturdhā-prayogād dharmo ‚sty eveti niḥsaṃśayā pratītiḥ syād iti jñeyam | sarva-gataḥ svakarma-vaśād deva-manuṣya-tiryag-ādi-sarva-deha-gataḥ | sthāṇur acala iti paunaruktyaṃ sthairya-nirdhāraṇārtham | atisūkṣmatvād avyaktas tad api deha-vyāpi-caitanyatvād acintyo ‚tarkyaḥ | janmādi-ṣaḍ-vikārānarhatvād avikāryaḥ

 

Baladeva

chedādy-abhāvād eva tat-tan-nāmabhir ayam ākhyāyata ity āha acchedyo ‚yam iti | eva-kāraḥ sarvaiḥ sambadhyate | sarva-gataḥ sva-karma-hetukeṣu deva-mānavādiṣu paśu-pakṣy-ādiṣu ca sarveṣu śarīreṣu paryāyeṇa gataḥ prāpto ‚pīty arthaḥ | sthāṇuḥ sthira-svarūpaḥ | acalaḥ sthira-guṇakaḥ | avināśī vā are ‚yam ātmānucchitti-dharmā [Bau 4.5.14] iti śruter ity arthaḥ | na cānucchittir eva dharmo yasyeti vyākhyeyaṃ tasyārthasyāvināśīty anenaiva lābhāt | tasmād anucchittayo nityā dharmā yasya sa tathety evārthaḥ | sanātanaḥ śāśvataḥ paunarukta-doṣas tv agre parihariṣyate

 
 

BhG 2.25

avyakto yam acintyo yam avikāryo yam ucyate
tasmād evaṃ viditvainaṃ nānuśocitum arhasi

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syntax


ayam (he) avyaktaḥ (invisible) [asti] (is),
ayam (he) acintyaḥ (inconceivable) [asti] (is),
ayam (he) avikāryaḥ (unchangeable) ucyate (it is said).
tasmāt (therefore) enam evam (thus this) viditvā (after knowing),
[tvam] (you) śocitum (to lament) na arhasi (you should not).

 

grammar

avyaktaḥ a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 1n.1 m.unmanifested, invisible, unevolved;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
acintyaḥ a-cintya (cint – to think, to consider) PF 1n.1 m.not to be thought about, inconceivable;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
avikāryaḥ a-vikārya (vi-kṛ to transform) PF 1n.1 m.not to be transformed, unchangeable;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
evam av.thus;
viditvā vid (to know, to understand) absol.after knowing;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
na av.not;
anuśocitum anu-śuc (to lament) [inf.] – to lament;
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1you deserve;

 

textual variants


tasmād evaṁ → tasmād enaṁ (therefore this);
viditvainaṁ → viciṁtyainaṁ / viditveha (after thinking of this / after knowing here);
 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

No room for grief.
Moreover:

kiṃ ca

He, it is said, is unmanifest, unthinkable and unchangeable.
Wherefore, knowing Him to be such, thou hadst better grieve not.

avyakto ’yam acintyo ’yam avikāryo ’yam ucyate |
tasmād evaṃ viditvainaṃ nānuśocitum arhasi ||2.25||

As the Self is inaccessible to any of the senses, He is not manifest.

avyaktaḥ sarva-karaṇāviṣayatvāt na vyajyata iti avyakto ’yam ātmā |

Wherefore, He is unthinkable. For, that alone which is perceived by the senses becomes an object of thought.

ata eva acintyo ’yam | yad dhi indriya-gocaras tac cintā-viṣayatvam āpadyate | ayaṃ tv ātmā anindriya-gocaratvāt acintyaḥ |

Verily, the Self is unthinkable, because He is inaccessible to the senses. He is unchangeable. The Self is quite unlike milk, which, mixed with butter-milk, can be made to change its form. He is changeless, also because He has no parts; for, whatever has no parts is never found to undergo change. Because the Self is changeless, He is unchangeable.

ata eva avikāryaḥ, yathā kṣīraṃ dadhy-ātañcanādinā vikāri na tathā ayam ātmā | niravayavatvāc cāvikriyaḥ | na hi niravayavaṃ kiṃcit vikriyātmakaṃ dṛṣṭām | avikriyatvāt avikāryo ’yam ātmā ucyate |

Therefore, thus understanding the Self, thou hadst better not grieve, nor think that thou art their slayer and that they are slain by thee.

tasmāt evaṃ yathokta-prakāreṇa enam ātmānaṃ viditvā tvaṃ na anuśocitum arhasi hantāham eṣām, mayaite hanyanta iti ||2.25||

 

Rāmānuja

chedanādi-yogyāni vastūni yaiḥ pramāṇair vyajyante, tair ayam ātmā na vyajyata ity avyaktaḥ | ataś chedyādi-vijātīyaḥ | acintyaś ca sarva-vastu-vijātīyatvena tat-tat-svabhāva-yuktatayā cintayitum api nārhaḥ | ataś cāvikāryaḥ vikārānarhaḥ | tasmād ukta-lakṣaṇam enam ātmānaṃ viditvā tat-kṛte nānuśocitum arhasi

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca avyakta iti | avyaktaś cakṣur-ādy-aviṣayaḥ | acintyo manaso ‚py aviṣayaḥ | avikāryaḥ karmendriyāṇām apy agocara ity arthaḥ | ucyata iti nityatvādibhiyuktoktiṃ pramāṇayati | upasaṃharati tasmād evam ity ādi | tad evam ātmano janma-vināśābhāvān na śokaḥ kārya ity uktam

 

Madhusūdana

chedyatvādi-grāhaka-pramāṇa-bhāvād api tad-abhāva ity āha – avyakto ‚yam ity-ādy-ardhena | yo hīndriya-gocaro bhavati sa pratyakṣatvād vyakta ity ucyate | ayaṃ tu rūpādi-hīnatvān na tathā | ato na pratyakṣaṃ tatra cchedyatvādi-grāhakam ity arthaḥ |
pratyakṣābhāve ‚py anumānaṃ syād ity ata āha acintyo ‚yaṃ cintyo ‚numeyas tad-vilakṣaṇo ‚yam | kvacit pratyakṣo hi vahny-ādir gṛhīta-vyāptikasya dhūmāder darśanāt kvacid anumeyo bhavati | apratyakṣe tu vyāpti-grahaṇāsambhavān nānumeyatvam iti bhāvaḥ | apratyakṣasyāpīndriyādeḥ sāmānyato dṛṣṭānumāna-viṣayatvaṃ dṛṣṭam ata āha avikāryo ‚yaṃ yad vikriyāvac cakṣur-ādikaṃ tat-svakāryānyathānupapattyā kalpyamānam arthāpatteḥ sāmānyatodṛṣṭānumānasya ca viṣayo bhavati | ayaṃ tu na vikāryo na vikriyāvān ato nārthāpatteḥ sāmānyato-dṛṣṭasya vā viṣaya ity arthaḥ | laukika-śabdasyāpi pratyakṣādi-pūrvakatvāt tan-niṣedhenaiva niṣedhaḥ |
nanu vedenaiva tatra ccehdyatvādi grahīṣyata ity ata āha – ucyate vedena sopakaraṇenācchedyāvyaktādi-rūpa evāyam ucyate tātparyeṇa pratipādyate | ato na vedasya tat-pratipādikasyāpi cchedyatvādi-pratipādakatvam ity arthaḥ |
atra nainaṃ chindanti [Gītā 2.23] ity atra śastrādīnāṃ tan-nāśaka-sāmarthyābhāva uktaḥ | acchedyo ‚yam ity ādau tasya cchedādi-karmatvāyogyatvam uktam | avyakto ‚yam ity atra tac-chedādi-grāhaka-mānābhāva ukta ity apaunaruktyaṃ draṣṭavyam | vedāvināśinam ity ādīnāṃ tu ślokānām arthataḥ śabdataś ca paunaruktyaṃ bhāṣya-kṛdbhiḥ parihṛtam | durbodhatvād ātma-vastunaḥ punaḥ punaḥ prasaṅgam āpādya śabdāntareṇa tad eva vastu nirūpayati bhagavān vāsudevaḥ kathaṃ nu nāma saṃsāriṇām buddhi-gocaratām āpannaṃ tattvaṃ saṃsāra-nivṛttaye syāt iti [Śaṅkara-bhāṣya 2.24] iti vadadbhiḥ |
evaṃ pūrvokta-yuktibhir ātmano nityatve nirvikāratve ca siddhe tava śoko nopapanna ity upasaṃharati tasmād ity ardhena | etādṛśātma-svarūpa-vedanasya śoka-kāraṇa-nivartakatvāt tasmin sati śoko nocitaḥ kāraṇa-bhāve kāryābhāvasyāvaśyakatvāt | tenātmānam aviditvā yad anvaśocas tad yuktam eva | ātmānaṃ viditvā tu nānuśocitum arhasīty abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

commentary under the verse BhG 2.26

 

Baladeva

avyaktaḥ pratyaṅ cakṣur-ādy-agrāhyaḥ | acintyas tarkāgocaraḥ śruti-mātra-gamyaḥ | jñāna-svarūpo jñātety ādikaṃ śrutyaiva pratīyate | avikāryaḥ ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikārānarhaḥ | atra avināśi tu tad viddhi ity ādibhir ātma-tattvam upadiśan hariḥ śabdato ‚rthataś ca yat punaḥ punar avocat tasya durbodhasya saubodhyārtham evety adoṣaḥ | nirdhāraṇārthaṃ vā | ayaṃ dharmaṃ vettīty uktau tad vedanaṃ niścitaṃ yathā syāt tadvat | evam evāgre vakṣyati āścaryavat paśyati kaścit ity ādinā

 
 

BhG 2.26

atha cainaṃ nitya-jātaṃ nityaṃ manyase mṛtam
tathāpi tvaṃ mahābāho nainaṃ śocitum arhasi

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he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
atha ca (and moreover) enaṁ (this) nitya-jātam (always born) vā nityam (or always) mṛtam (dead) manyase (you think),
tathā api (even then) tvam (you) enam (this) śocitum (to lament) na arhasi (you should not).

 

grammar

atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
ca av.and;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
nitya-jātam nitya-jāta 2n.1 m.always born (from: nitya – continual, eternal; jan – to be born, jāta [PP] – born);
nityam av.constantly, eternally (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
av.or;
manyase man (to think) Praes. Ā 2v.1you think;
mṛtam mṛta (mṛ – to die) [PP] 2n.1 m.dead;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
mahā-bāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
na av.not;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
śocitum śuc (to lament) [inf.] – to lament;
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1 you deserve;

 

textual variants

cainaṃ → vainaṃ (or this);
nainaṁ → naivaṁ (certainly not);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Grating that the Self is not everlasting, the Lord proceeds:

ātmano ’nityatvam abhyupagamya idam ucyate

But even if thou thinkest of Him as ever being born and ever dying,
even then, O mighty armed, thou oughtst not to grieve thus.

atha cainaṃ nityajātaṃ nityaṃ vā manyase mṛtam |
tathāpi tvaṃ mahābāho naivaṃ śocitum arhasi ||2.26||

Granting that the Self – of whom we are speaking – is, according to the popular view, again and again born whenever a body comes into existence, and again and again dead whenever the body dies, –

atha ca iti abhyupagamārthaḥ | enaṃ prakṛtam ātmānaṃ nitya-jātaṃ loka-prasiddhyā praty aneka-śarīrotpatti jāto jāta iti manyase | tathā prati-tat-tad-vināśaṃ nityaṃ vā manyase mṛtaṃ mṛto mṛta iti |

even if the Self were so, as you think, O mighty-armed, you ought not to grieve thus; for, death is inevitable to what is born; and birth is inevitable to what is dead.

tathāpi tathābhāve ’py ātmani tvaṃ mahābāho, na evaṃ śocitum arhasi, janmavato nāśo nāśavato janma cety etāv avaśyaṃbhāvināv iti ||2.26||

 

Rāmānuja

atha nitya-jātaṃ nitya-mṛtaṃ deham evainam ātmānaṃ manuṣe, na dehātiriktam ukta-lakṣaṇaṃ tathāpy evam atimātraṃ śocituṃ nārhasi | pariṇāma-svabhāvasya dehasyotpatti-vināśayor avarjanīyatvāt

 

Śrīdhara

idānīṃ dehena saha ātmano janma tad-vināśena ca vināśam aṅgīkṛtyāpi śoko na kārya ity āha atha cainam ity ādi | atha ca yadyapy enam ātmānam nityajātaṃ nityaṃ vā manyase mṛtam tathāpi tvaṃ mahābāho naivaṃ śocitum arhasi

 

Madhusūdana

evam ātmano nirvikāratvenāśocyatvam uktam idānīṃ vikāravattvam abhyupetyāpi śloka-dvayenāśocyatvaṃ pratipādayati bhagavān | tatrātmā jñāna-svarūpaḥ pratikṣaṇa-vināśīti saugatāḥ | deha evātmā sa ca sthiro ‚py anukṣaṇa-pariṇāmī jāyate naśyati ceti pratyakṣa-siddham evaitad iti lokāyatikāḥ | dehātirikto ‚pi dehena sahaiva jāyate naśyati cety anye | sargādya-kāla evākāśavaj jāyate deha-bhede ‚py anuvartamāna evākalpa-sthāyī naśyati pralaya ity apare | nitya evātmā jāyate mriyate ceti tārkikāḥ | tathā hi – pretya-bhāvo janma | sa cāpūrva-dehendriyādi-sambandhaḥ | evaṃ maraṇam api pūrva-dehendriyādi-vicchedaḥ | idaṃ cobhayaṃ dharmādharma-nimittatvāt tad-ādhārasya nityasyaiva mukhyam | anityasya tu kṛta-hānya-kṛtābhyāgama-prasaṅgena dharmādharmādhāratvānupapatter na janma-maraṇe mukhye iti vadanti | ntiyasyām evety anye | tatrānityatva-pakṣe ‚pi śocyatvam ātmano niṣedhati atha cainam iti |
atheti pakṣāntare | co ‚py arthe | yadi durbodhatvād ātma-vastuno ‚sakṛc-chravaṇe ‚py avadhāraṇā-sāmarthyān mad-ukta-pakṣānaṅgīkāreṇa pakṣāntaram abhyupaiṣi | tatrāpy anityatva-pakṣam evāśritya yady enam ātmānaṃ nityaṃ jātaṃ nityaṃ mṛtaṃ vā manyase | vā-śabdaś cārthe | kṣaṇikatva-pakṣe nityaṃ pratikṣaṇaṃ pakṣāntare āvaśyakatvān nityaṃ niyataṃ jāto ‚yaṃ mṛto ‚yam iti laukika-pratyaya-vaśena yadi kalpayasi tathāpi he mahābāho ! puruṣa-dhaureyeti sopahāsaṃ kumatābhyupagamāt | tvayy etādṛśī kudṛṣṭir na sambhavatīti sānukampaṃ vā | evaṃ aha bata mahat pāpaṃ kartuṃ vyavasitā vayam [Gītā 1.45] ity ādi yathā śocasi evaṃ prakāram anuśokaṃ kartuṃ svayam api tvaṃ tādṛśa eva san nārhasi yogyo na bhavasi | kṣaṇikatva-pakṣe dehātma-vāda-pakṣe dehena saha janma-vināśa-pakṣe ca janmāntarābhāvena pāpa-bhayāsambhavāt pāpa-bhayenaiva khalu tvam anuśocasi | tac caitādṛśe darśane na sambhavati bandhu-vināśa-darśitvābhāvād ity adhikaṃ | pakṣāntare dṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimittaṃ śokam abhyanujñātum evaṃ-kāraḥ | dṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimitta-śoka-sambhave ‚py adṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimittaḥ śokaḥ sarvathā nocita ity arthaḥ prathama-ślokasya

 

Viśvanātha

tad evaṃ śāstrīya-tattva-dṛṣṭyā tvām ahaṃ prabodhayan | vyāvahārahika-tattva-dṛṣṭyāpi prabodhayāmi avadhehīty āha atheti | nitya-jātaṃ dehe jāte saty enaṃ nityaṃ niyataṃ jātaṃ manyase | tathā deha eva mṛte mṛtaṃ nityaṃ niyataṃ manyase | mahā-bāho iti parākramavataḥ kṣatriyasya tava tad api yuddham avaśyakaṃ svadharmaḥ | yad uktaṃ –
kṣatriyāṇām ayaṃ dharmaḥ prajāpati-vinirmitaḥ |
bhrātāpi bhrātaraṃ hanyād yena ghorataras tataḥ || iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

evaṃ svoktasya jīvātmano ‚śocyatvam uktvā paroktasyāpi tasya tad ucyate para-mata-jñānāya | tad-abhijñaḥ khalu śiṣyas tad-avakarais tan nirasya vijayī san sva-mate sthairyam āsīt | tathā hi manuṣyatvādi-viśiṣṭe bhūmy-ādi-bhūta-catuṣṭaye tāmbūla-rāgavat mada-śaktivac ca caitanyam utpadyate | tādṛśas tac-catuṣṭaya-bhūto deha evātmā | sa ca sthiro ‚pi pratikṣaṇa-pariṇāmād utpatti-vināśa-yogīti loka-pratyakṣa-siddham iti lokāyatikā manyante | dehād bhinno vijñāna-svarūpo ‚py ātmā pratikṣaṇa-vināśīti vaibhāṣikādayo bauddhā vadanti | tad etad ubhaya-mate ‚py ātmanaḥ śocyatvaṃ pratiṣedhati | atheti pakṣāntare | co ‚py-arthe | tvaṃ cen mad-ukta-jīvātma-yāthātmyāvagāhanāsamartho lokāyatikādi-pakṣam ālambase, tatra dehātma-pakṣe enaṃ deha-lakṣaṇam ātmānaṃ nityaṃ vā mṛtaṃ manyase | vā-śabdaś cārthe | tathāpi tvam enaṃ aho bata mahat pāpaṃ ity ādi-vacanaiḥ śocituṃ nārhasi | pariṇāma-svabhāvasya tasya tasya cātmano janma-vināśayor anivāryatvāj janmāntarābhāvena pāpa-bhayāsambhavāc ca | he mahābāho iti sopahāsaṃ sambodhanaṃ kṣatriya-varyasya vaidikasya ca te nedṛśaṃ kumataṃ dhāryam iti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.27

jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca
tasmād aparihārye rthe na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi

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jātasya hi (surely of one who is born) mṛtyuḥ (death) dhruvaḥ (certain) [asti] (is), mṛtasya ca (and of one who is dead) janma (birth) dhruvam (certain) [asti] (is).
tasmāt (therefore) aparihārye arthe (when the matter is unavoidable) tvam (you) śocitum (to lament) na arhasi (you should not).

 

grammar

jātasya jāta (jan – to be born) [PP] 6n.1 m.of one who is born;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
dhruvaḥ dhruva 1n.1 m.certain, fixed (from: dhṛ – to hold or dhru – to be firm);
mṛtyuḥ mṛtyu 1n.1 m.death (from: mṛ – to die);
dhruvam dhruva 1n.1 n.certain, fixed (from: dhṛ – to hold or dhru – to be firm);
janma janman 1n.1 n.birth (from: jan – to be born);
mṛtasya mṛta (mṛ – to die) [PP] 6n.1 m.of one who is dead;
ca av.and;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
aparihārye a-parihārya (pari-hṛ to take round, to leave, to be avoided) PF 7n.1 m. loc.abs.in an unavoidable;
arthe artha 7n.1 m. loc.abs.in a matter (from: arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request);
na av.not;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
śocitum śuc (to lament) [inf.] – to lament;
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1you deserve;

 

textual variants


jātasya hi → jātasyaiva (just for the one who is born);
dhruvo → dhruvaṁ (certainly av.);
aparihārye ‚rthe → aparihāryarthe (whe the matter is unavoidable);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Accordingly:

tathā ca sati

To that which is born, death is indeed certain; and to that which is dead, birth is certain.
Therefore, about the unavoidable thing, thou oughtst not to grieve.

jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca |
tasmād aparihārye’rthe na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi ||2.27||

To that which has had birth, death happens without failure, and birth is sure to happen to that which is dead. Since birth and death are unavoidable, therefore you ought not to grieve regarding such an unavoidable thing. If death is natural to that which has had birth, and if birth is natural to that which has had death, the thing is unavoidable. Regarding such an unavoidable thing you ought not to grieve.

jātasya hi labdha-janmanaḥ dhruvo ’vyabhicārī mṛtyur maraṇaṃ dhruva janma mṛtasya ca | tasmād aparihāryo ’yaṃ janma-maraṇa-lakṣaṇo ’rthaḥ | tasminn aparihārye ’rthe na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi ||2.27||

 

Rāmānuja

utpannasya vināśo dhruvo’varjanīyopalabhyate | tathā vinaṣṭasyāpi janmāvarjanīyam | katham idam upalabhyate vinaṣṭasyotpattir iti | sata evotpatty-upalabdheḥ, asataś cānupalabdheḥ | utpatti-vināśādayaḥ sato dravyasyāvasthā-viśeṣāḥ | tantu-prabhṛtīni dravyāṇi santy eva | satyam | ucyate— racanā-viśeṣa-yuktāni paṭādīny ucyante | asat-kārya-vādināpy etāvad evopalabhyate | na hi tatra tantu-saṃsthāna-viśeṣātirekeṇa dravyāntaraṃ pratīyate | kāraka-vyāpāra-nāmāntara-bhajana-vyavahāra-viśeṣāṇām etāvatā evopapatteḥ, na ca dravyāntara-kalpanā yuktā | ata utpatti-vināśādayaḥ sato dravyasyāvasthā-viśeṣāḥ |
utpatty-ākhyām avasthām upayātasya dravyasya tad-virodhy-avasthāntara-prāptir vināśa ity ucyate | mṛd-dravyasya piṇḍatva-ghaṭatva-kapālatva-cūrṇatvādivat pariṇāmi-dravyasya pariṇāma-paramparā avarjanīyā | tatra pūrvāvasthasya dravyasyottarāvasthā-prāptir vināśaḥ | saiva tad-avasthasya cotpattiḥ | evam utpatti-vināśākhya-pariṇāma-paramparā pariṇāmitno dravyasyāparihāryeti na tatra śocitum arhasi

 

Śrīdhara

kuta iti ? ata āha jātasyety-ādi | hi yasmāj jātasya svārambhaka-karma-kṣaye mṛtyur dhruvo niścitaḥ | mṛtasya ca tad-deha-kṛtena karmaṇā janmāpi dhruvam eva | tasmād evam aparihārye ‚rthe avaśyambhāvini janma-maraṇa-lakṣaṇe ‚rthe tvaṃ vidvān śocitum nārhasi yogyo na bhavasi

 

Madhusūdana

nanv ātmana ābhūta-saṃplava-sthāyitva-pakṣe ca dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-duḥkha-sambhavāt tad-bhayena śocāmīty ata āha dvitīya-ślokena jātasya hīti | hi yasmāj jātasya sva-kṛta-dharmādharmādi-vaśāl labdha-śarīrendriyādi-sambandhasya sthirasyātmano dhruva āvaśyako mṛtyus tac-charīrādi-vicchedas tad-ārambhaka-karma-kṣaya-nimittaḥ saṃyogasya viyogāvasānatvāt | tathā dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca prāg-deha-kṛta-karma-phalopabhogārthaṃ sānuśayasyaiva prastutatvān na jīvan-mukte vyabhicāraḥ | tasmād evam aparihārye parihartum aśakye ‚smin janma-maraṇa-lakṣaṇe ‚rthe viṣaye tvam evaṃ vidvān na śocitum arhasi | tathā ca vakṣyati ṛte ‚pi tvāṃ na bhaviṣyanti sarve [Gītā 11.32] iti | yadi hi tvayā yuddhe ‚nāhanyamānā ete jīveyur eva tadā yuddhāya śokas tavocitaḥ syāt | ete tu karma-kṣayāt svayam eva mriyanta iti tat-parihārāsamarthasya tava dṛṣṭ-duḥkha-nimittaḥ śoko nocita iti bhāvaḥ |
evam adṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nimitte ‚pi śoke tasmād aparihārye ‚rthe ity evottaram | yuddhākhyaṃ hi karma kṣatriyasya niyatam agnihotrādivat | tac ca yudha samprahāre ity asmād dhātor niṣpannaṃ śatru-prāṇa-viyogānukūla-śastra-prahāra-rūpaṃ vihitatvāgnīṣomīyādi-siṃhāvan na pratyavāya-janakam | tathā ca gautamaḥ smarati na doṣo hiṃsāyām āhave ‚nyatra vyaśvāsārathyanuyudha-kṛtāñjali-prakīrṇa-keśa-parāṅmukhopaviṣṭa-sthala-vṛkṣārūḍha-dūta-go-brāhmaṇa-vādibhyaḥ iti | brāhmaṇa-grahaṇaṃcātrāyoddhṛ-brāhmaṇa-viṣayaṃ gavādi-prāya-pāṭhād iti sthitam | etac ca sarvaṃ svadharmam api cāvekṣyety atra spaṣṭīkariṣyati | tathā ca yuddha-lakṣaṇe ‚rthe ‚gnihotrādivad vihitatvād aparihārye parihartum aśakye tad-akaraṇe pratyavāya-prasaṅgāt tvam adṛṣṭa-duḥkha-bhayena śocituṃ nārahasīti pūrvavat |
yadi tu yuddhākhyaṃ karma kāmyam eva –
ya āhaveṣu yudhyante bhūmy-artham aparāṅmukhāḥ |
akūṭair āyudhair yānti te svargaṃ yogino yathā || [Yajñ. 13.324]
iti yājñavalkya-vacanāt | hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṃ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm [Gītā 2.37] iti bhagavad-vacanāc ca | tadāpi prārabdhasya kāmyasyāpi avaśya-parisamāpanīyatvena nitya-tulyatvāt tvayā ca yuddhasya prārabdhatvād aparihāryatvaṃ tyulyam eva |
athavātma-nityatva-pakṣa eva śloka-dvayam arjunasya paramāstikasya veda-bāhya-matābhyupagamāsambhavāt | akṣara-yojanā tu nityaś cāsau dehendriyādi-sambandha-vaśāj jātaś ceti nitya-jātas tam enam ātmānaṃ nityam api santaṃ jātaṃ cen manyase tathā nityam api santaṃ mṛtaṃ cen manyase tathāpi tvaṃ nānuśocitum arhasīti hetum āha jātasya hīty ādinā | nityasya jātatvaṃ mṛtatvaṃ ca prāg-vyākhyātam | spaṣṭam anyat | bhāṣyam apy asmin pakṣe yojanīyam

 

Viśvanātha

hi yasmāt tasya svārambhaka-karma-kṣaye mṛtyur dhruvo niścitaḥ | mṛtasya ca tad-deha-kṛtena karmaṇā janmāpi dhruvam eva | aparihārye ‚rthe iti mṛtyur janma ca parihartum a]cakyam eva ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

atha śarīrātirikto nitya ātmā | tasyāpūrva-śarīrendriya-yogo janma | pūrva-śarīrendriya-viyogas tu maraṇaṃ tad-ubhayaṃ ca dharmādharma-hetukatvāt tad-āśrayasya nityasyātmano mukhyaṃ, tad-atiriktasya śarīrasya tu gauṇam | tasyānityasya kṛta-hānya-kṛtābhyāgama-prasaṅgena tad-āśrayatvānupapatter iti tārkikā manyante | tat-pakṣe ‚py ātmanaḥ śocyatvaṃ pariharati jātasyeti | hir hetau | jātasya sva-karma-vaśāt prāpta-śarīrādi-yogasya nityasyāpy ātmanas tad-ārambhaka-karma-kṣaya-hetuko mṛtyur dhruvo niścitaḥ | mṛtasya tac-charīra-kṛta-karma-hetukaṃ janma ca dhruvaṃ syāt | tasmād evam aparihārye parihartum aśakye janma-maraṇātmake ‚rthe tvaṃ vidvān śocituṃ nārhasi | tvayi yuddhān nivṛtte ‚py ete svārambhake karmaṇi kṣīṇe sati mariṣyanty eva | tava tu svadharmād vicyutir bhāvinīti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.28

avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyakta-madhyāni bhārata
avyakta-nidhanāny eva tatra kā paridevanā

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
avyaktādīni (whose beginning is unmanifest) bhūtāni (creatures) [santi] (they are),
vyakta-madhyāni (whose middle is manifest) [bhūtāni] (creatures) [santi] (they are),
avyakta-nidhanāni eva (certainly those whose end is unmanifest) [bhūtāni] (creatures) [santi] (they are).
[ata eva] (hence) tatra (in this) (what?) paridevanā (lamentation).

 

grammar

avyaktādīni a-vyakta-ādi 1n.3 n.; BV: yeṣām ādir avyakto ‘sti tāni – whose beginning is unmanifest (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible, [PP] vyakta – visible, manifest; ādi – beginning, origin);
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
vyakta-madhyāni vyakta-madhya 1n.3 n.; BV: yeṣāṁ madhyaṁ vyaktam asti tāni – whose middle is manifest (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible, [PP] vyakta – visible, manifest; madhya – middle);
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
avyakta-nidhanāni a-vyakta-nidhana 1n.3 n.; BV: yeṣāṁ nidhanam avyaktam asti tāni – whose end is unmanifest (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible, [PP] vyakta – visible, manifest; nidhana – end, death);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tatra av.in that, therein (from: tat – indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
kim sn. 1n.1 f.what?
paridevanā pari-devanā 1n.1 f.lamentation, sorrow;

 

textual variants


paridevanā → parivedanā (consideration);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Neither is it proper to grieve regarding beings which are mere combinations of (material) causes and effects; for,

kārya-karaṇa-saṃghātātmakāny api bhūtāny uddiśya śoko na yuktaḥ kartum, yataḥ

Beings have their beginning unseen, their middle seen, and their end unseen again.
Why any lamentation regarding them?

avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyakta-madhyāni bhārata |
avyakta-nidhanāny eva tatra kā paridevanā ||2.28||

The origin – prior to manifestation – of beings such as sons and friends, who are mere combinations of material elements correlated as causes and effects, is non-perception (avyakta).

avyaktādīny avyaktam adarśanam anupalabdhiḥ ādir yeṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ putra-mitrādi-kārya-karaṇa-saṃghātātmakānāṃ tāni avyaktadīni bhūtāni prāg-utpatteḥ |

And having come into existence, their middle state – previous to death – is perceived. Again their end is non-perception: after death, they become unperceived again.

utpannāni ca prāṅ-maraṇāt vyakta-madhyāni | avyakta-nidhanāny eva punar avyaktam adarśanaṃ nidhanaṃ maraṇaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni avyakta-nidhanāni | maraṇād ūrdhvam apy avyaktatām eva pratipadyante ity arthaḥ |

Thus it is said:
He has come from non -perception (the unseen) and has gone back to non-perception (the unseen). He is not thine, nor thou his. What is this vain lamentation for?” (MBh 2-13)

tathā coktaṃ
adarśanād āpatitaḥ punaś cādarśanaṃ gataḥ |
nāsau tava na tasya tvaṃ vṛthā kā paridevanā || (MBh 11.2.8) iti |

About these mere illusions – first unseen, then seen, and again unseen – what occasion is there for any lamentation?

tatra kā paridevanā ko vā pralāpo ’dṛṣṭa-dṛṣṭa-pranaṣṭa-bhrānti-bhūteṣu bhūteṣv ity arthaḥ ||2.28||

 

Rāmānuja

sato dravyasya pūrvāvasthā-virodhy-avasthāntara-prāpti-darśanena yo’pīyān śokaḥ | so’pi manuṣyādi-bhūteṣu na sambhavatīty āha avyaktādīnīti | manuṣyādi-bhūtāni santy eva dravyāṇy anupalabdha-pūrvāvasthāny upalabdha-manuṣyatvādi-madhyamāvasthāny anupalabdhottarāvasthāni sveṣu svabhāveṣu vartanta iti na tatra paridevanā-nimittim asti

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca dehānāṃ svabhāvaṃ paryālocya tad-upādhike ātmano janma-maraṇe śoko na kārya iti | ata āha avyaktādīnīty ādi | avyaktaṃ pradhānam | tad eva ādir utpatteḥ pūrva-rūpaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni avyaktādīni | bhūtāni śarīrāṇi | kāraṇātmanāpi sthitānām eva utpatteḥ | tathā vyaktam abhivyaktaṃ madhyaṃ janma-maraṇāntarālaṃ sthiti-lakṣaṇaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni vyakta-madhyāni | avyakte nidhanaṃ layo yeṣāṃ tānīmāny evaṃ-bhūtāny eva | tatra teṣu kā paridevanā ? kaḥ śoka-nimitto vilāpaḥ ? pratibuddhasya svapna-dṛṣṭa-vastuṣv iva śoko na yujyata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

tad evaṃ sarva-prakāreṇātmano ‚śocyatvam upapāditam athedānīm ātmano ‚śocyatve ‚pi bhūta-saṅghātātmakāni śarīrāṇy uddiśya śocāmīty arjunāśaṅkām apanudati bhagavān avyaktādīnīti | ādau janmanaḥ prāg-avyaktāni anupalabdhāni bhūtāni pṛthivyādi-bhūta-mayāni śarīrāṇi madhye janmānantaraṃ maraṇāt prāg-vyaktāni upalabdhāni santi | nidhane punar avyaktāny eva bhavanti | yathā svapnendrajālādau pratibhāsa-mātra-jīvanāni śukti-rūpyādivan na tu jñānāt prāg ūrdhvaṃ vā sthitāni dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭy-abhyupagamāt | tathā ca – ādāv ante ca yan nāsti vartamāne ‚pi tat tathā [ṃā. Kā. 2.6] iti nyāyena madhye ‚pi na santy evaitāni | nāsato vidyate bhāvaḥ [Gītā 2.16] iti prāg-ukteś ca |
evaṃ sati tatra teṣu mithyā-bhūteṣv atyanta-tuccheṣu bhūteṣu kā paridevanā ko vā duḥkha-pralāpo na ko ‚py ucita ity arthaḥ | na hi svapne vividhān bandhūn upalabhya pratibuddhas tad-vicchedena śocati pṛthag-jano ‚pi etad evoktaṃ purāṇe adarśanād āpatitaḥ punaś cādarśanaṃ gataḥ bhūta-saṅgha iti śeṣaḥ | tathā ca śarīrāṇy apy uddiśya śoko nocita iti bhāvaḥ |
ākāśādi-mahā-bhūtābhiprāyeṇa vā śloko yojyaḥ | avyaktam avyākṛtam avidyopahita-caitanyam ādiḥ prāg avasthā yeṣāṃ tāni tathā vyaktaṃ nāma-rūpābhyām evāvidyakābhyāṃ prakaṭībhūtaṃ na tu svena paramārtha-sadātmanā madhyaṃ sthity-avasthā yeṣāṃ tādṛśāni bhūtāni ākāśādīni avyakta-nidhanāny evāvyakte sva-kāraṇe mṛd iva ghaṭādīnāṃ nidhanaṃ pralayo yeṣāṃ teṣu bhūteṣu kā paridevaneti pūrvavat | tathā ca śrutiḥ – tad dhedaṃ tarhy avyākṛtam āsīt tan-nāma-rūpābhyām eva vyākriyata [BAU 1.4.7] ity ādir avyaktopādānatāṃ sarvasya prapañcasya darśayati | laya-sthānatvaṃ tu tasyārtha-siddhaṃ kāraṇa eva kārya-layasya darśanāt | granthāntare tu vistaraḥ | tathā cājñāna-kalpitatvena tucchāny ākāśādi-bhūtāny apy uddiśya śoko nocitaś cet tat-kāryāṇy uddiśya nocita iti kim u vaktavyam iti bhāvaḥ |
athavā sarvadā teṣām avyakta-rūpeṇa vidyamānatvād vicchedābhāvena tan-nimittaḥ pralāpo nocita ity arthaḥ | bhāratety anena sambodhayan śuddha-vaṃśodbhavatvena śāstrīyam arthaṃ pratipattum arho ‚si kim iti na pratipadyasa iti sūcayati

 

Viśvanātha

tad evaṃ na jāyate na mriyate ity-ādinā, deha-pakṣe ca jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyuḥ ity anena śoka-viṣayaṃ nirākṛtya idānīm ubhaya-pakṣe ‚pi nirākaroti avyakteti | bhūtāni deva-manuṣya-tiryag-ādīni | avyaktāni na vyaktaṃ vyaktir ādau janma-pūrva-kāle yeṣāṃ, kintu tadānīm api liṅga-dehaḥ sthūla-dehaś ca svārambhaka-pṛthivy-ādi-sattvāt kāraṇātmanā vartamāno ‚spaṣṭam āsīd evety arthaḥ | vyaktaṃ vyaktir madhye yeṣāṃ tāni | na vyakti nidhanād anantaraṃ yeṣāṃ tāni | mahā-pralaye ‚pi karma-mātrādīnāṃ sattvāt sūkṣma-rūpeṇa bhūtāni santy eva | tasmāt sarva-bhūtāni ādy-antarayor avyaktāni madhye vyaktānīty arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ śrutibhiḥ – sthira-cara-jātayaḥ syur ajayottha-nimitta-yujaḥ iti | kā paridevanā kaḥ śoka-nimittaḥ vilāpaḥ ? tathā coktaṃ nāradena –
yan manyase dhruvaṃ lokam adhruvaṃ vā na cobhayam |
sarvathā na hi śocyās te snehād anyatra mohajāt || [BhP 1.13.44] iti

 

Baladeva

atha dehātma-pakṣe ātmātirikta-deha-pakṣe ca deha-vināśa-hetuka-śoko na yuktas tad-ārambhakāṇāṃ bhūta-mātrāṇām avināśād ity āha avyaktādīnīti | avyaktaṃ nāma-rūpa-virahāt sūkṣmaṃ pradhānam ādi ādi-rūpaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni avyakta-nidhanāni | avyakte tādṛśi pradhāne nidhanaṃ nāma-rūpa-vimardana-lakṣaṇo nāśo yeṣāṃ tāni | mṛd-ādike sad-rūpe dravye kambu-grīvādy-avasthā-yoge ghaṭasyotpattis tad-virodhi-kapālādy-avasthā-yogas tu tasya vināśaḥ kathyate | tad-dravyaṃ sarvadā sthāyīti | evam evāha bhagavān parāśaraḥ – mahī ghaṭatvaṃ ghaṭataḥ kapālikā cūrṇa-rajas tato ‚ṇuḥ [ViP 2.12.42] iti | evaṃ śarīrāṇy ādy-antayor nāma-rūpāyogād avyaktimanti | madhye tu tad-yogād vyaktimanti | tad-ārambhakāni bhūtāni tu sarvadā santīti teṣu vastutaḥ satsu kā paridevanā kaḥ śoka-nimitta-vilāpa ity arthaḥ | dehānya-nityātma-pakṣe tu vāsāṃsi ity ādikaṃ na vismartavyam | yat tv ādy-antayor asattvān madhye ‚pi bhūtāny asanty evātaḥ svāpnika-rathāśvādi-prakhyāni mṛṣā-bhūtāny eva tena tad-viyoga-hetukaḥ śokaḥ pratibuddhasya na dṛṣṭa iti dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭim abhyupaityāhus tan mandaṃ tad-abhyupagame vaidikāsatkāryavādāpatteḥ | tad evaṃ mata-dvaye ‚pi deha-vināśa-hetukaḥ śoko nāstīti siddham

 
 

BhG 2.29

āścarya-vat paśyati kaś-cid enam āścarya-vad vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ
āścarya-vac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti śrutvāpy enaṃ veda na caiva kaś-cit

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kaś-cit (someone) enam (him) āścarya-vat (as amazing) paśyati (he sees).
tathā ca (and so) anyaḥ eva (the other also) [enam] (him) āścaryavat (as amazing) vadati (he speaks).
anyaḥ ca (and the other) enam (him) āścaryavat (as amazing) śṛṇoti (he hears).
kaścit ca eva (and still the other) śrutvā api (even after hearing) enam (him) na veda (he does not know).

 

grammar

āścarya-vat av.as amazing (from: ā-car – to approach, āścarya – curious, marvellous, amazing, astonishing; -vat – suffix: as, like);
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
kaś-cid kim-cit sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.him;
āścarya-vat av.as amazing (from: ā-car – to approach, āścarya – curious, marvellous, amazing, astonishing; -vat – suffix: as, like);
vadati vad (to speak) Praes. P 1v.1he speaks;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
āścarya-vat av.as amazing (from: ā-car – to approach, āścarya – curious, marvellous, amazing, astonishing; -vat – suffix: as, like);
ca av.and;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.him;
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
śṛṇoti śru (to hear, to listen) Praes. P 1v.1he hears;
śrutvā śru (to hear, to listen) absol.after hearing;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.him;
veda vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.1 (meaning Praes.) – he knows;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kaś-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);

 

textual variants


tathaiva cānyaḥ → tathainam anyaḥ / tathaivam anyaḥ (thus him the other / thus indeed the other);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The Self just spoken of is very difficult to realise. Why am I to blame you alone while the cause, viz., illusion, is common to all? One may ask: how is it that the Self is difficult to realise? The Lord says:

durvijñeyo ’yaṃ prakṛta ātmā | kiṃ tvām evaikam upālabhe sādhāraṇe bhrānti-nimitte | kathaṃ durvijñeyo ’yam ātmā ity ata āha

One sees Him as a wonder;
and so also another speaks of Him as a wonder;
and as a wonder another hears of Him;
and though hearing, none understands Him at all.

āścaryavat paśyati kaścid enam
āścaryavad vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ
|
āścaryavac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti
śrutvāpy enaṃ veda na caiva kaścit ||2.29||

One sees the Self as a wonder, as a thing unseen, as something strange, as seen all on a sudden.

āścaryavat āścaryam adṛṣṭa-pūrvam adbhutam akasmād dṛśyamānaṃ tena tulyam āścaryavat āścaryam iva enam ātmānaṃ paśyati kaścit |

And so, another speaks of Him as a wonder; and another hears of Him as a wonder. Though seeing Him, hearing and speaking of Him, none realises Him at all.

āścaryavad enaṃ vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ | āścaryavac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti | śrutvā dṛṣṭvā uktvāpi enam ātmānaṃ veda na caiva kaścit |

Or (as otherwise interpreted): He that sees the Self is something like a wonder. He that speaks and he that hears of Him is only one among many thousands. Thus the Self is hard to understand.

athavā yo ’yam ātmānaṃ paśyati sa āścarya-tulyaḥ, yo vadati ya ca śṛṇoti so ’neka-sahasreṣu kaścid eva bhavati | ato durbodha ātmā ity abhiprāyaḥ ||2.29||

 

Rāmānuja

evaṃ śarīrātma-vāde’pi nāsti śoka-nimittam ity uktvā śarīrātirikta āścarya-svarūpa ātmani draṣṭā vaktā śrotā śravaṇāyattātma-niścayaś ca durlabha ity āha—āścaryavad iti | evam ukta-svabhāvaṃ svetara-samasta-vastu-visajātīyatayā āścaryavad avasthitam ananteṣu jantuṣu mahatā tapasā kṣīṇa-pāpopacita-puṇyaḥ kaścit paśyati | tathā-vidhaḥ kaścit parasmai vadati | evaṃ kaścid eva śṛṇoti | śrutvāpy enaṃ yathāvad avasthitaṃ tattvato na kaścid veda | ca-kārād draṣṭṛ-vaktṛ-śrotṛṣv api tattvato darśanaṃ tattvato vacanaṃ tattvataḥ śravaṇaṃ durlabham ity uktaṃ bhavati

 

Śrīdhara

kutas tarhi vidvāṃso ‚pi loke śocanti ? ātmā-jñānād eva ity āśayenātmano durvijñeyatvam āha āścaryavad ityādi | kaścid enam ātmānaṃ śāstrācāryopadeśābhyāṃ paśyann āścaryavat paśyati | sarva-gatasya nitya-jñānānada-svabhāvasyātmanaḥ alaukikatvād aindrajālikavad ghaṭamānaṃ paśyann iva vismayena paśyati asambhāvanābhibhūtatvāt | tathā āścaryavad anyo vadati ca | śṛṇoti cānyaḥ | kaścit punaḥ viparīta-bhāvanābhibhūtaḥ śrutvāpi naiva veda | ca-śabdād uktvāpi na dṛṣṭvāpi na samyag vedeti draṣṭavyam

 

Madhusūdana

nanu vidvāṃso ‚pi bahavaḥ śocanti tat kiṃ mām eva punaḥ punar evam upālabhase | anyac ca vaktur eva hi taj jāḍyaṃ śrotā yatra na budhyate iti nyāyāt tvad-vacanārthāpartipattiś ca tavāpy anyeṣām iva svāśaya-doṣād iti nokta-doṣa-dvayam ity abhipretyātmano durvijñeyatām āha āścaryavad iti |
enaṃ prakṛtaṃ dehinam āścaryeṇādbhutena tulyatayā vartamānam āvidyaka-nānā-vidha-viruddha-dharmavattayā satanm apy asantam iva sva-prakāśa-caitanya-rūpam api jaḍam ivānanda-ghanam api duḥkhitam iva nirvikāram api savikāram iva nityam anityam iva prakāśamānam apy aprakāśamānam iva brahmābhinnam api tad-bhinnam iva muktam api baddham ivādvitīyam api sa-dvitīyam iva sambhāvita-vicitrānekākāra-pratīti-viṣayaṃ paśyati śāstrācāryopadeśābhyām āvidyaka-sarva-dvaita-niṣedhena paramātma-svarūpa-mātrākārāyāṃ vedānta-mahā-vākya-janyāyāṃ sarva-sukṛta-phala-bhūtāyām antaḥkaraṇa-vṛttau pratiphalitaṃ samādhi-paripākena sākṣātkaroti kaścic chama-damādi-sādhana-sampanna-carama-śarīraḥ kaścid eva na tu sarvaḥ | tathā kaścid enaṃ yat paśyati tad āścaryavad iti kriyā-viśeṣaṇam | ātma-darśanam apy āścaryavad eva yat svarūpato mithyā-bhūtam api satyasya vyañjakam āvidyakam apy avidyāyā vighātakam avidyām upaghnat tat-kāryatayā svātmānam apy upahantīti | tathā yaḥ kaścid enaṃ paśyati sa āścaryavad iti kartṛ-viśeṣaṇam | yato ‚sau nivṛttāvidyātat-kāryo ‚pi prārabdha-karma-prābalyāt tadvān iva vyaharati sarvadā samādhi-niṣṭho ‚pi vyuttiṣṭhati vyutthito ‚pi punaḥ samādhim anubhavatīti prārabdha-karma-vaicitryād vicitra-caritraḥ prāpta-duṣprāpa-jñānatvāt sakala-loka-spṛhaṇīyo ‚ta āścaryavad eva bhavati | tad etat trayam apy āścaryam ātmā taj jñānaṃ taj-jñātā ceti parama-durvijñeyam ātmānaṃ tvaṃ katham anāyāsena jānīyā ity abhiprāyaḥ |
īvam upadeṣṭur abhāvād apy ātmā durvijñeyaḥ | yo hy ātmānaṃ jānāti sa eva tam anyasmai dhruvaṃ brūyāt | ajñasyopadeṣṭṛtvāsambhavāt, jānaṃs tu samāhita-cittaḥ prāyeṇa kathaṃ bravītu | vyutthita-citto ‚pi pareṇa jñātum aśakyaḥ | yathā kathaṃcij jñāto ‚pi lābha-pūjā-khyāty-ādi-prayojanānapekṣatvāc ca bravīty eva | kathaṃcit kāruṇya-mātreṇa bruvaṃs tu parameśvaravad atyanta-durlabha evety āha āścaryavad vadati tathaiva cānya iti | yathājānāti tathaiva vadati | enam ity anukarṣaṇārthaś ca-kāraḥ | sa cānyaḥ sarvājña-jana-vilakṣaṇaḥ | na tu yaḥ paśyati tato ‚nya iti vyāghātāt | atrāpi karmaṇi kriyāyāṃ kartari cāścaryavad iti yojyam | tatra karmaṇaḥ kartuś ca prāg āścaryavattvaṃ vyākhyātaṃ kriyāyās tu vyākhyāyate | sarva-śabdāvācyasya śuddhasyātmano yad vacanaṃ tad āścaryavat | tathā ca śrutiḥ – yato vāco nivartante aprāpya manasā saha iti | kenāpi śabdenāvācyasya śuddhasyātmano viśiṣṭa-śaktena padena jahad-ajahat-svārtha-lakṣaṇāyā kalpita-sambandhena lakṣyatāvacchedakam antareṇaiva pratipādanaṃ tad api nirvikalpa-sākṣātkāra-rūpam atyāścaryam ity arthaḥ |
athavā vinā śaktiṃ vinā lakṣaṇāṃ vinā sambandhāntaraṃ suṣuptotthāpaka-vākya-vat tattvam asyādi-vākyena yadātmatattva-pratipādanaṃ tad āścaryavat | śabda-śakter acintyatvāt | na ca vinā sambandhaṃ bodhanen ‚tiprasaṅgaḥ lakṣaṇā-pakṣe ‚pi tulyatvāt | śakya-sambandhasyāneka-sādhāraṇatvāt | tātparya-viśeṣān niyama iti cet, na | tasyāpi sarvān praty aviśeṣāt | kaścid eva tātparya-viśeṣam avadhārayati na sarva iti cet | hanta tarhi puruṣa-gata eva kaścid viśeṣo nirdoṣatva-rūpo niyāmakaḥ | na cāsmin pakṣe ‚pi na daṇḍa-vāritaḥ | tathā ca yādṛśasya śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇasya tātparyānusandhāna-puraḥ-saraṃ lakṣaṇayā vākyārtha-bodho bhavadbhir aṅgī kriyate tādṛśasyaiva kevalaḥ śabda-viśeṣo ‚khaṇḍa-sākṣātkāraṃ vināpi sambandhena janayatīti kim anupapannam | etasmin pakṣe śabda-vṛtty-aviṣayatvād yato vāco nivartanta iti sutarām upapannam | ayaṃ ca bhagavad-abhiprāyo vārtika-kāraiḥ prapañcitaḥ –
durbalatvād avidyāyā ātmatvād bodha-rūpiṇaḥ |
śabda-śakter acitnyatvād vidmas taṃ moha-hānataḥ ||
agṛhītvaiva sambandham abhidhānābhidheyayoḥ |
hitvā nidrāṃ prabudhyante suṣupter bodhitāḥ paraiḥ ||
jāgradvan na yataḥ śabdaṃ suṣupte vetti kaścana |
dhvaste ‚to jñānato ‚jñāne brahmāsmīti bhavet phalam ||
avidyā-ghātinaḥ śabdādyāhaṃ brahmeti dhīr bhavet |
naśyaty avidyayā sārdhaṃ hatvā rogam ivauṣadham || [Bṛhat.Vā 1.4.860-863]
ity ādinā granthena |
tad evaṃ vacana-viṣayasya vaktur vacana-kriyāyāś cātyāścarya-rūpatvād ātmano durvijñānatvam uktvā śrotur durmilatvād api tad āha āścaryavac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti śrtuvā ‚py enaṃ vedeti | anyo draṣṭur vaktuśc a muktād vilakṣaṇo mumukṣur vaktāraṃ brahma-vidaṃ vidhivad upasṛtyainaṃ śṛṇoti śravaṇākhya-vicāra-viṣayī karoti vedānta-vākya-tātparya-niścayenāvadhārayatīti yāvat | śrutvā cainaṃ manana-nididhyāsana-paripākād vedāpi sākṣātkaroty api āścaryavat | tathā cāścaryavat paśyati kaścid enam iti vyākhyātam | atrāpi kartur āścarya-rūpatvam aneka-janmānuṣṭhita-sukṛta-kṣālita-mano-malatayātidurlabhatvāt | tathā ca vakṣyati –
manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaś cid yatati siddhaye |
yatatām api siddhānāṃ kaś cin māṃ vetti tattvataḥ || [Gītā 7.3] iti |
śravaṇāyāpi bahubhir yo na labhyaḥ
śṛṇvanto ‚pi bahavo yaṃ na vidyuḥ |
āścaryo vaktā kuśalo ‚sya labdhā
āścaryo jñātā kuśalānuśiṣṭaḥ || [KaṭhU 1.2.7] iti śruteś ca |
evaṃ śravaṇa-śrotavyayor āścaryatvaṃ prāgvad vyākhyeyam |
nanu yaḥ śravaṇa-mananādikaṃ karoti sa ātmānaṃ vedeti kim āścaryam ata āha – na caiva kaścid iti | ca-kāraḥ kriyā-karma-padayor anuṣaṅgārthaḥ | kaścid enaṃ naiva veda śravaṇādikaṃ kurvann api | tad akurvaṃs tu na vedeti kim u vaktavyam | aihikam aprastuta-pratibandhe tad-darśanāt [Vs. 3.4.51] iti nyāyāt | uktaṃ ca vārtika-kāraiḥ –
kutas taj-jñānam iti cet tad dhi bandha-parikṣayāt |
asāv api ca bhūtau vā bhāvī vā vartate ‚thavā || [Bṛh. Vā. Sa. 294] iti |
śravaṇādi kurvatām api pratibandha-parikṣayād eva jñānaṃ jāyate | anyathā tu na | sa ca pratibandha-parikṣayaḥ kasyacid bhūta eva | yathā hiraṇyagarbhasya | kasyacid bhāvī | yathā vāsudevasya | kasyacid vartate | yathā śvetaketoḥ | tathā ca pratibandha-kṣaya-syātidurlabhatvāt | jñānam utpadyate puṃsāṃ kṣayāt pāpasya karmaṇaḥ iti smṛteś ca durvijñeyo ‚yam ātmeti nirgalito ‚rthaḥ |
yadi tu śrutvāpy enaṃ veda na caiva kaścid ity eva vyākhyāyeta tadā āścaryo jñātā kuśalānuśiṣṭaḥ [KaṭhU 1.2.7] iti śrutyaika-vākyatā na syāt | yatatām api siddhānāṃ kaś cin māṃ vetti tattvataḥ [Gītā 7.3] iti bhagavad-vacana-virodhaś ceti vidvadbhir avinayaḥ kṣantavyaḥ | athavā na caiva kaścid ity asya sarvatra sambandhaḥ kaścid enaṃ na paśyati na vadati na śṛṇoti śrutvāpi na vedeti pañca prakārā uktāḥ kaścit paśyaty eva na vadati kaścit paśyati na vadati ca kaścit tad-vacanaṃ śṛṇoti ca tad-arthaṃ jānāti ca kaścic chrutvāpi na jānāti na kaścit tu sarva-bahirbhūta iti | avidvat-pakṣe tu asambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanābhibhūtatvād āścarya-tulyatvaṃ darśana-vadana-śravaṇeṣv iti nigada-vyākhyātaḥ ślokaḥ | caturtha-pāde tu dṛṣṭvoktvā śrutvāpīti yojanā

 

Viśvanātha

nanu kim idam āścaryaṃ brūṣe | kiṃ caitad apy āścaryam | yad eva prabodhyamānasyāpy aviveko nāpayātīti tatra satyam evem eva ity āha āścaryavad iti | enam ātmānaṃ dehaṃ ca tad-ubhaya-rūpaṃ sarva-lokam

 

Baladeva

nanu sarvajñena tvayā bahūpadiśyamāno ‚py ahaṃ śoka-nivārakam ātma-yāthātmyaṃ na budhye kim etad iti cet tatrāha āścaryavad iti | vijñānāndobhaya-svarūpatve ‚pi tad-bhedāpratiyoginaṃ vijñāna-svarūpatve ‚pi vijñātṛtayā santaṃ paramāṇutve ‚pi vyāpta-bṛhat-kāyaṃ nānā-kāya-sambandhe ‚pi tat-tad-vikārair aspṛṣṭam evam ādi bahu-viruddha-dharmatayāścaryavad adbhuta-sādṛśyena sthitam enaṃ mad-upadiṣṭaṃ jīvaṃ kaścid eva svadharmānuṣṭhānena satya-tapo-japādinā ca vimṛṣṭa-hṛd-guru-prasāda-labdha-tādṛśa-jñānaḥ paśyati yāthātmyenānubhavati | āścaryavad iti kriyā-viśeṣaṇaṃ vā kartṛ-viśeṣaṇaṃ veti vyākhyātāraḥ kaścid enam yat paśyati tad āścaryavat | yaḥ kaścit paśyati so ‚py āścaryavad ity arthaḥ | evam agre ‚pi | śrutvāpy enam iti kaścit samyag amṛṣṭa-hṛd ity arthaḥ | tathā ca duradhigamaṃ jīvātmayāthātmyam | śrutir apy evam āha –
śravaṇāyāpi bahubhir yo na labhyaḥ
śṛṇvanto ‚pi bahavo yaṃ na vidyuḥ |
āścaryo vaktā kuśalo ‚sya labdhā
āścaryo jñātā kuśalānuśiṣṭa || [KaṭhU 1.2.7] iti

 
 

BhG 2.30

dehī nityam avadhyo yaṃ dehe sarvasya bhārata
tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi

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he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
sarvasya (of all) dehe (in the body) ayam (he) dehī (the embodied one) nityam (always) avadhyaḥ (not to be killed) [asti] (is).
tasmāt (therefore) tvam (you) sarvāṇi (all) bhūtāni (creatures) śocitum (to lament) na arhasi (you should not).

 

grammar

dehī dehin 1n.1 m.the embodied one (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);
nityam av.constantly, eternally (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
avadhyaḥ a-vadhya (han – to kill) PF 1n.1 m.not to be killed (from: vadhya – to be killed);
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
sarvasya sarva sn. 6n.1 m.of all, of everyone;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
sarvāṇi sarva sn. 2n.3 n.all;
bhūtāni bhūta 2n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
na av.not;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
śocitum śuc (to lament) [inf.] – to lament;
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1you deserve;

 

textual variants

na tvaṃ śocitum → nānuśocitum / nātra śocitum (not to lament / here not to lament);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Now the Lord concludes the subject of this section thus:

athedānīṃ prakaraṇārtham upasaṃharan brūte

He, the embodied (Self) in every one’s body,
can never be killed, O descendant of Bharata.
Wherefore thou oughtst not to grieve about any creature.

dehī nityam avadhyo ’yaṃ dehe sarvasya bhārata |
tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi ||2.30||

Though the body of any creature whatever is killed, the Self cannot be killed;

dehī śarīrī nityaṃ sarvadā sarvāvasthāsu avadhyaḥ niravayavatvān nityatvāc ca | tatra avadhyo ’yaṃ dehe śarīre sarvasya sarva-gatatvāt sthāvarādiṣu sthito ’pi |

wherefore, you ought not to grieve regarding any creature whatever, Bhishma or anybody else.

sarvasya prāṇi-jātasya dehe vadhyamāne ’py ayaṃ dehī na vadhyo yasmāt, tasmād bhīṣmādīni sarvāṇi bhūtāni uddiśya na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi ||2.30||

 

Rāmānuja

sarvasya devādi-dehino dehe vadhyamāne’py ayaṃ dehī nityam avadhya iti mantavyaḥ | tasmāt sarvāṇi devādi-sthāvarantāni bhūtāni viṣamākārāṇy apy uktena svabhāvena svarūpataḥ samānāni nityāni ca | deha-gataṃ tu vaiṣamyam anityatvaṃ ca | tato devādīni sarvāṇi bhūtāny uddiśya na śocitum arhasi na kevalaṃ bhīṣmādīn prati

 

Śrīdhara

tad evam avadhyatvam ātmanaḥ saṅkṣepenopadiśan aśocyatvam upasaṃharati dehīty ādi | spaṣṭo ‚rthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

idānīṃ sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇa-bhrama-nivṛtti-sādhanam uktam upasaṃharati dehīti | sarvasya prāṇi-jātasya dehe vadhyamāne ‚py ayaṃ dehī liṅga-dehopādhir ātmā vadhyo na bhavatīti nityaṃ niyataṃ yasmāt tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni sthūlāni sūkṣmāṇi ca bhīṣmādi-bhāvāpannāny uddiśya tvaṃ na śocitum arhasi | sthūla-dehasyāśocyatvam aparihāryatvāt | liṅga-dehasyāśocyatvam ātmavad evāvadhyatvād iti na sthūla-dehasya liṅga-dehasyātmano vā śocyatvaṃ yuktam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

tarhi niścitya brūhi kim ahaṃ kuryāṃ kiṃ vā na kuryām iti | tatra śokaṃ mā kuru yuddhaṃ tu kurv ity āha dehīti dvābhyām

 

Baladeva

tad evaṃ duradhigamaṃ jīva-yāthātmyaṃ samāsenopadiśann aśocyatvam upasaṃharati dehīti | sarvasya jīva-gaṇasya dehe hanyamāne ‚py ayaṃ dehī jīvo nityam avadhyo yasmāt tasmāt tvaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtāni bhīṣmādi-bhāvāpannāni śocituṃ nārhasi | ātmanāṃ nityatvād aśocyatvaṃ tad-dehānāṃ tv avaśya-vināśatvāt tattvam ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.31

sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasi
dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate

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api ca (and also) sva-dharmam (own duties) avekṣya (after considering) vikampitum (to shake) na arhasi (you should not).
kṣatriyasya (of the warrior) dharmyāt (than the lawful) yuddhāt hi (indeed than the fight) anyat (other) śreyaḥ (benefit) na vidyate (there is not).

 

grammar

sva-dharmam sva-dharma 2n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya dharmam itiown duties (from: sva – own; dhṛ – to hold);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
avekṣya ava-īkṣ (to look at, to behold, to consider) absol.after considering;
na av.not;
vikampitum vi-kamp (to shake, to become changed) [inf.] – to shake;
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1you deserve;
dharmyāt dharmya 5n.1 m.than the lawful (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
yuddhāt yuddha 5n.1 n.than a fight (from: yudh – to fight);
śreyaḥ śreyas 2n.1 n.better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
anyat anya sn. 1n.1 n.other;
kṣatriyasya kṣatriya 6n.1 m.of the warrior (from: kṣi – to own, to reign or kṣi – to destroy);
na av.not;
vidyate vid (to be, to exist) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is;

 

textual variants


vikampitum → tvaṃ kampitum / prakampitum (you to shake / to shake);
dharmyād dhi → dharmād dhi (indeed than the duty);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

A warrior should fight.
Here (in 2.30) it has been shown that from the standpoint of absolute truth there is no occasion for grief and attachment. Not only from the standpoint of absolute truth, but also,

iha paramārtha-tattvāpekṣāyāṃ śoko moho vā na saṃbhavatīty uktam | na kevalaṃ paramārtha-tattvāpekṣāyām eva, kiṃtu

Having regard to thine own duty also, thou oughtst not to waver.
For, to a Kshatriya, there is nothing more wholesome than a lawful battle.

sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasi |
dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo’nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate ||2.31||

Having regard also to the fact that fighting is a Kshatriya’s duty, you ought not to swerve from that duty, which is natural to a Kshatriya, – from that which is natural to you (i.e., becoming the caste and the order to which you belong).

svadharmam api svo dharmaḥ kṣatriyasya yuddhaṃ tam api avekṣya tvaṃ na vikampituṃ pracalituṃ nārhasi kṣatriyasya svābhāvikād dharmād ātma-svābhāvyād ity abhiprāyaḥ |

This fighting is a supreme duty, not opposed to Law, since it is conducive, through conquest of dominion, to the interests of Law and popular well-being; and to a Kshatriya nothing else is more wholesome than such a lawful battle.

tac ca yuddhaṃ pṛthivī-jaya-dvāreṇa dharmārthaṃ prajā-rakṣaṇārthaṃ ceti dharmād anapetaṃ paraṃ dharmyam | tasmād dharmyād yuddhāc chreyo ’nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate hi yasmāt ||2.31||

 

Rāmānuja

api cedaṃ prārabdhaṃ yuddhaṃ prāṇi-māraṇam api agnīṣomīyādivat svadharmam avekṣya na vikampitum arhasi dharmyāt nyāyataḥ pravṛttāt yuddhād anyan na hi kṣatriyasya śreyo vidyate |
śauryaṃ tejo dhṛti-dākṣyaṃ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam |
dānam īśvara-bhāvaś ca kṣātraṃ karma svabhāvajam || [gītā 18.43] iti hi vakṣyate |
agnīṣomīyādiṣu ca na hiṃsā paśoḥ | nihīna-taracchāgādi-deha-parityāga-pūrvaka-kalyāṇa-deha-svargādi-prāpakatva-śruteḥ saṃjñapanasya |
na vā u vetan mriyase na riṣyasi
devāṃ ideṣi pathibhiḥ sugebhiḥ |
yatra yatanti sukṛto nāpi duṣkṛtas
tatra tvā devaḥ savitā dadhātu [yajurveda 4.6.9.43] iti hi śrūyate |
iha ca yuddhe mṛtānāṃ kalyāṇatara-dehādi-prāptir uktā vāsāṃsi jīrṇāni [gītā 2.22] ity ādinā | ataś cikitsaka-śalyādi-karma āturasyevāsya rakṣaṇam evāgnīṣomīyādiṣu saṃjñapanam

 

Śrīdhara

yac coktam arjunena vepathuś ca śarīre me ity ādi tad apy ayuktam ity āha svadharmam apīti | ātmano nāśābhāvād eva etesāṃ hanane ‚pi vikampituṃ nārhasi | kiṃ ca svadharmam apy avekṣya vikampitum nārhasi iti sambandhaḥ | yac coktaṃ – na ca śreyo ‚nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhava iti tatrāha dharmyād iti | dharmād anapetān nyāyād yuddhād anyat

 

Madhusūdana

tad evaṃ sthūla-sūkṣma-śarīra-dvaya-tat-kāraṇāvidyākhyopādhi-trayāvivekena mithyābhūtasyāpi saṃsārasya satyatvātma-dharmatvādi-pratibhāsa-rūpaṃ sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇam arjunasya bhramaṃ nirākartum upādhi-traya-vivekenātma-svarūpam abhihitavān | samprati yuddhākhye sva-dharme hiṃsādi-bāhulyenādharmatva-pratibhāsa-rūpam arjunasyaiva karuṇādi-doṣa-nibandhanam asādhāraṇaṃ bhramaṃ nirākartuṃ hiṃsādimattve ‚pi yuddhasya sva-dharmatvenādharmatvābhāvaṃ bodhayati bhagavān svadharmam apīti |
na kevalaṃ paramārtha-tattvam evāvekṣya kiṃ tu svadharmam api kṣatriya-dharmam api yuddhāparāṅmukhatva-rūpam avekṣya śāstrataḥ paryālocya vikampituṃ vicalituṃ dharmād adharmatva-bhrāntyā nivartituṃ nārhasi | tatraivaṃ sati yadyapy ete na paśyanti ity ādinā narake niyataṃ vāso bhavati ity antena yuddhasya pāpa-hetutvaṃ tvayā yad uktaṃ kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye ity ādinā ca guru-vadha-brahma-vadhādy-akaraṇaṃ yad abhihitaṃ tat sarvaṃ dharma-śāstra-paryālocanād evoktam | kasmāt ? hi yasmād dharmyād aparāṅmukhatva-dharmād anapetād yuddhād anyat kṣatriyasya śreyaḥ śreyaḥ-sādhanaṃ na vidyate | yuddham eva hi pṛthivī-jaya-dvāreṇa prajā-rakṣaṇa-brāhmaṇa-śuśrūṣādi-kṣātra-dharma-nirvāhakam iti tad eva kṣatriyasya praśastataram ity abhiprāyaḥ | tathā coktaṃ parāśareṇa –
kṣatriyo hi prajā rakṣan śastra-pāṇiḥ pradaṇḍayan |
nirjitya para-sainyādi kṣitiṃ dharmeṇa pālayet || [Parāśara-smṛti 1.58] iti ||31||
manunāpi –
samottamādhamai rājā tv āhūtaḥ pālayan prajāḥ |
na nivarteta saṃgrāmāt kṣātraṃ dharmam anusmaran ||
saṃgrāmeṣv anivartitvaṃ prajānāṃ caiva pālanam |
śuśrūṣā brāhmaṇānāṃ ca rājñāṃ śreyaskaraṃ param || [Manu 7.88-9] ity ādinā |
rāja-śabdaś ca kṣatriya-jāti-mātra-vācīti sthitam eveṣṭhy-adhikaraṇe | tena bhūmi-pālasyaivāyaṃ dharma iti na bhramitavyam | udāhṛta-vacane ‚pi kṣatriyo hīti kṣāttraṃ dharmam iti ca spaṣṭaṃ liṅgam | tasmāt kṣatriyasya yuddhaṃ praśasto dharma iti sādhu bhagavato ‚bhihitam | apaśavo ‚nye go-aśvebhyaḥ paśavo go-aśvāḥ itivat praśaṃsā-lakṣaṇayā yuddhād anyac-chreyaḥ-sādhanaṃ na vidyata ity uktam iti na doṣaḥ | etena yuddhāt praśastataraṃ kiṃcid anuṣṭhātuṃ tato nivṛttir uciteti nirastam | na ca śreyo ‚nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave ity etad api

 

Viśvanātha

ātmano nāśābhāvād eva vadhād vikampituṃ bhetuṃ nārhasi | svadharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasīti sambandhaḥ

 

Baladeva

evaṃ paramātma-jñānopayogitvād ādau jīvātma-jñānaṃ sarvān prati taulyenopadiśya sa-niṣṭhān prati niṣkāmatayānuṣṭhitāni karmāṇi hṛd-viśuddhi-sahakṛtām ātma-jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ niṣpādayantīti vadiṣyan tasyāṃ pratītim utpādayituṃ sakāmatayānuṣṭhitānāṃ karmaṇāṃ kāmya-phala-pradatvam āha dvābhyām svadharmam apīti |
yuddhaṃ khalu kṣatriyasya nityatam agnihotrādivad vihitam | tac ca śatru-prāṇa-vihaṃsana-rūpam agniṣṭomādi-paśu-hiṃsanavan na pratyavāya-nimittam | ubhayatra hiṃseyam upakṛti-rūpaiva | hīnayor deha-lokayos tyāgena divyayos tayor lobhāt | āha caivaṃ smṛtiḥ –
āhaveṣu mitho ‚nyonyaṃ jighāṃsanto mahīkṣitaḥ |
yudhyamānāḥ paraṃ śaktyā svargaṃ yānty aparāṅmukhāḥ || [Manu 7.90]
yajñeṣu paśavo brahman hanyante satataṃ dvijaiḥ |
saṃskṛtāḥ kila mantraiś ca te ‚pi svargam avāpnuvan || [?] ity ādyā |
evaṃ nija-dharmam avekṣya vikampituṃ dharmāt pracalituṃ nārhasi | yuktaṃ na ca śreyo ‚nupaśyāmīty ādinā narake nityataṃ vāso bhavatīyt antyena yuddhasya pāpa-hetutvaṃ tvayoktam | tac cājñānād evety āha dharmyād iti | yuddham eva bhūmi-jaya-dvārā prajā-pālana-guru-vipra-saṃsevanādi-kṣātra-dharma-nirvāhīti | evam āha bhagavān parāśaraḥ –
kṣatriyo hi prajā rakṣan śastra-pāṇiḥ pradaṇḍayan |
nirjitya para-sainyādi kṣitiṃ dharmeṇa pālayet || [Parāśara-smṛti 1.58] iti

 
 

BhG 2.32

yadṛcchayā copapannaṃ svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam
sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha labhante yuddham īdṛśam

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
sukhinaḥ ca (and happy men) kṣatriyāḥ (warriors) yadṛcchayā (by chance) upapannam (attained), apāvṛtam (opened) svarga-dvāram (door to heaven), īdṛśam (like this) yuddham (a fight) labhante (they obtain).

 

grammar

yad-ṛcchayā av.by chance (from: yad-ṛcchā – accident, chance 3n.1 f.);
ca av.and;
upapannam upa-panna (upa-pad – to approach, to exist, to be suitable, to attain) [PP] 2n.1 n.attained;
svarga-dvāram svarga-dvāra 2n.1 n.; [TP]: svargasya dvāram itidoor to heaven (from: sūr – to hurt, to be firm, sūra – the sun, a wise man, svar – heaven, svar-ga – leading to heaven, heaven; dvṛ – to obstruct, to cover, dvāra – gate, entrance, passage);
apāvṛtam apā-vṛta (apa-ā-vṛ – to uncover) [PP] 2n.1 n.opened, uncovered;
sukhinaḥ sukhin 1n.3 m.happy men (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth; or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
kṣatriyāḥ kṣatriya 1n.3 m.the warriors (from: kṣi – to own, to reign or kṣi – to destroy);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
labhante labh (to obtain) Praes. Ā 1v.3they obtain;
yuddham yuddha 2n.1 n.a fight (from: yudh – to fight);
īdṛśam īdṛśa 2n.1 n.of this kind, like this;

 

textual variants


copapannaṃ → copanataṃ (and having led close);
sukhinaḥ → sukṛtāt (because of the virtues);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

And why also should the battle be fought? The Lord says: kutaś ca tat yuddhaṃ kartavyam iti, ucyate

Happy Kshatriyas, O son of Pritha, find such a battle as this,
come of itself, an open door to heaven.

yadṛcchayā copapannaṃ svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam |
sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha labhante yuddham īdṛśam ||2.32||

Are not those Kshatriyas happy who find a battle like this presenting itself unsought, an open door to heaven?

yadṛcchayā ca aprārthitatayā upapannam āgataṃ svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam udghāṭitaṃ ya etad īdṛśaṃ yuddhaṃ labhante kṣatriyāḥ he pārtha, kiṃ na sukhinas te ||2.32||

 

Rāmānuja

ayatnopanatam idaṃ niratiśaya-sukhopāya-bhūtaṃ nirvighnam īdṛśaṃ yuddhaṃ sukhinaḥ puṇyavantaḥ kṣatriyā labhante

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca mahati śreyasi svayam evopāgate sati kuto vikampasa iti | ata āha yadṛcchayeti | yadṛcchayā aprārthitam eva upapannaṃ prāptam īdṛśaṃ yuddham labhante | yato nirāvaraṇaṃ svarga-dvāram evaitat | yad vā ya evaṃvidhaṃ yuddhaṃ labhante ta eva sukhina ity arthaḥ | etena svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava iti yad uktaṃ tan nirastaṃ bhavati

 

Madhusūdana

nanu yuddhasya kartavyatve ‚pi na bhīṣma-droṇādibhir gurubhiḥ saha tat kartum ucitam atigarhitatvād ity āśaṅkyāha yadṛcchayeti | yadṛcchayā sva-prayatna-vyatirekeṇa | co ‚vadhāraṇe | aprārthanayaivopasthitam īdṛśaṃ bhīṣma-droṇādi-vīra-puruṣa-pratiyogikaṃ kīrti-rājya-lābha-dṛṣṭa-phala-sādhanaṃ yuddhaṃ ye kṣatriyāḥ pratiyogitvena labhante te sukhinaḥ sukha-bhāja eva | jaye satyenāyāsenaiva yaśaso rājyasya ca lābhāt | parājaye cātiśīghram eva svargasya lābhād ity āha svarga-dvāram apāvṛtam iti | apratibaddhaṃ svarga-sādhanaṃ yuddham avyavadhānenaiva svarga-janakaṃ jyotiṣṭhomādikaṃ tu ciratareṇa deha-pātasya pratibandhābhāvasya cāpekṣaṇād ity arthaḥ | svarga-dvāram ity anena śyenādivat pratyavāya-śaṅkā parihṛtā | śyenādayo hi vihitā api phala-doṣeṇa duṣṭāḥ | tat-phalasya śatru-vadhasya na hiṃsyāt sarvā bhūtāni, brāhmaṇaṃ na hanyāt ity ādi-śāstra-niṣiddhasya pratyavāya-janakatvāt phale vidhy-abhāvāc ca na vidhi-spṛṣṭe niṣedhānavakāśaḥ iti nyāyāvatāraḥ | yuddhasya hi phalaṃ svargaḥ sa ca na niṣiddhaḥ | tathā ca manuḥ —
āhaveṣu mitho ‚nyonyaṃ jighāṃsanto mahīkṣitaḥ |
yudhyamānāḥ paraṃ śaktyā svargaṃ yānty aparāṅmukhāḥ || [Manu 7.90] iti |
yuddhaṃ tu agnīṣomīyādy-ālambha-vadha-vihitatvān na niṣedhena spraṣṭuṃ śakyate ṣoḍaśi-grahaṇādivat | grahaṇāgrahayos tulya-balatayā vikalpavat sāmānya-śāstrasya viśeṣa-śāstreṇa saṅkoca-sambhavāt | tathā ca vidhi-spṛṣṭe niṣedhānavakāśaḥ iti nyāyād yuddhaṃ na pratyavāya-janakaṃ nāpi bhīṣma-droṇādi-guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadha-nimitto doṣaḥ | teṣām ātatāyitvāt | tad uktaṃ manunā –
guruṃ vā bāla-vṛddhau vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā bahu-śrutam |
ātatāyinam āyāntaṃ hanyād evāvicārayan ||
ātatāyinam āyāntam api vedānta-pāragam |
jighāṃsantaṃ jighāṃsīyān na tena brahmahā bhavet ||
nātatāyi-vadho doṣo hantur bhavati kaścana || [Manu 8.350-351] ity ādi |
nanu –
smṛtyor virodhe nyāyas tu balavān vyavahārataḥ |
artha-śāstrāt tu balavad dharma-śāstram iti sthitiḥ || [Yājñavalkya 2.21]
iti yājñavalkya-vacanād ātatāyi-brāhmaṇa-vadhe ‚pi pratyavāyo ‚sty eva | brāhmaṇaṃ na hanyāt iti hi dṛṣṭa-prayojanānapekṣatvād dharma-śāstraṃ, jighāṃsantaṃ jighāṃsīyān na tena brahmahā bhavet iti ca sva-jīvanārthatvād artha-śāstram |
atrocyate brahmaṇe brāhmaṇam ālabheta itivad yuddha-vidhāyakam api dharma-śāstram eva sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā ity atra dṛṣṭa-prayojanānapekṣatvasya vakṣyamāṇatvāt | yājñavalkya-vacanaṃ tu dṛṣṭa-prayojanoddeśyaka-kūṭa-yuddhādi-kṛta-vadha-viṣayam ity adoṣaḥ | mitākṣarākāras tu dharmārtha-sannipāte ‚rtha-grāhiṇa etad eveti dvādaśa-vārṣika-prāyaścittasyaitac-chabda-parāmṛṣṭasyāpastambena vidhānān mitra-labdhyādy-artha-śāstrānusāreṇa catuṣpād vyavahāre śatror api jaye dharma-śāstrātikramo na kartavya ity etat paraṃ vacanam etad ity āha | bhavatv evaṃ na no hāniḥ | tad evaṃ yuddha-karaṇe sukhokteḥ svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava ity arjunoktam apākṛtam

 

Viśvanātha

kiṃ ca, jetṛbhyaḥ sakāśād api nyāya-yuddhe mṛtānām adhikaṃ sukham ato bhīṣmādīn hatvā tān pratyuta svato ‚pi adhika-sukhinaḥ kuru ity āha yadṛcchayeti | svarga-sādhanaṃ karma-yogam akṛtvāpīty arthaḥ | apāvṛtam apagatāvaraṇam

 

Baladeva

kiṃ cāyatnād āgate ‚smin mahati śreyasi na yuktas te kampa ity āha yadṛcchayeti | co ‚vadhāraṇe | yatnaṃ vinaiva copapannam īdṛśaṃ bhīṣmādibhir mahā-vīraiḥ saha yuddhaṃ sukhinaḥ sabhāgyāḥ kṣatriyā labhante | vijaye satya-śrameṇa kīrti-rājyayor mṛtyau sati śīghram eva svargasya ca prāpter ity arthaḥ | etad vyañjayan viśinaṣṭi – svarga-dvāram upāvṛtam iti | apratiruddha-svarga-sādhanam ity arthaḥ | jyotiṣṭomādikaṃ ciratareṇa svargopalambhakam iti tato ‚syātiśayaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.33

atha cet tvam imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃgrāmaṃ na kariṣyasi
tataḥ sva-dharmaṃ kīrtiṃ ca hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi

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atha (moreover) cet (if) tvam (you) imam (this) dharmyam (lawful) saṁgrāmam (battle) na kariṣyasi (you will not do),
tataḥ (then) sva-dharmam (own duties) kīrtim ca (and fame) hitvā (after abandoning),
pāpam (sin) avāpsyasi (you will obtain).

 

grammar

atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
cet av.if;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
imam idam sn. 2n.1 m.this;
dharmyam dharmya 2n.1 m.lawful, righteous (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law);
saṁgrāmam saṁ-grāma 2n.1 m.assembly of people, army, battle;
na av.not;
kariṣyasi kṛ (to do) Fut. P 2v.1you will do;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
sva-dharmam sva-dharma 2n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya dharmam itiown duties (from: sva – own; dhṛ – to hold);
 kīrtim kīrti 2n.1 f.fame, glory (from: kīrt – to praise, to glorify);
ca av.and;
hitvā (to leave, to abandon) absol.after abandoning;
pāpam pāpa 1n.1 n.evil, sin;
avāpsyasi ava-āp (to obtain) Fut. P 2v.1you will obtain;

 

textual variants


tvam imaṃ dharmyaṃ → tvam imaṃ dharmaṃ / tvam dharmyaṃ imaṃ (you this law / you lawful this);
sva-dharmaṁ → su-dharmaṁ / sva-dharmyam (right law / own lawful);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Though found to be your duty,

etaṃ kartavyatā-prāptam api

Now if thou wouldst not fight this lawful battle, then,
having abandoned thine own duty and fame, thou shalt incur sin.

atha cet tvam imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃgrāmaṃ na kariṣyasi |
tataḥ sva-dharmaṃ kīrtiṃ ca hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi ||2.33||

If, on the other hand, you will not fight this battle which is enjoined on you as a duty, and which is not opposed to Law, you will, by neglecting this battle, have abandoned your duty and lost the fame that you acquired by your encounter with such persons as Mahadeva. Thus you will only incur sin.

atha cet tvam imaṃ dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetaṃ vihitaṃ saṃgrāmaṃ yuddhaṃ na kariṣyasi cet, tataḥ tad-akaraṇāt svadharmaṃ kīrtiṃ ca mahā-devādi-samāgama-nimittāṃ hitvā kevalaṃ pāpam avāpsyasi ||2.33||

 

Rāmānuja

atha kṣatriyasya svadharma-bhūtam imam ārabdhaṃ saṃgrāmaṃ mohād ajñānāt na kariṣyasi cet tataḥ prārabdhasya-dharmasyākaraṇāt svadharma-phalaṃ niratiśaya-sukhaṃ vijayena niratiśayāṃ kīrtiṃ ca hitvā pāpaṃ niratiśayam avāpsyasi

 

Śrīdhara

viparyaye doṣam āha atha ced iti

 

Madhusūdana

nanu nāhaṃ yuddha-phala-kāmaḥ | na kāṅkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇa, api trailokya-rājyasya ity uktatvāt tat kathaṃ mayā kartavyam ity āśaṅkyākaraṇe doṣam āha atha ced iti | atheti pakṣāntare | imaṃ bhīṣma-droṇādi-vīra-puruṣa-pratiyogikaṃ dharmyaṃ hiṃsādi-doṣaṇāduṣṭaṃ satāṃ dharmād anapetām iti vā | sa ca manunā darśitaḥ –
na kūṭair āyudhair hanyād yudhyamāno raṇe ripūn |
na karṇibhir nāpi digdhair nāgni-jvalita-tejanaiḥ ||
na ca hanyāt sthalārūḍhaṃ na klībaṃ na kṛtāñjalim |
na mukta-keśaṃ nāsīnaṃ na tavāsmīti vādinam ||
na suptaṃ na visaṃnāhaṃ na nagnaṃ na nirāyudham |
nāyudhyamānaṃ paśyantaṃ na pareṇa samāgatam ||
nāyudha-vyasana-prāptaṃ nārtaṃ nātiparikṣataṃ |
na bhītaṃ na parāvṛttaṃ satāṃ dharmam anusmaran || [Manu 7.91-94] iti |
satāṃ dharmam ullaṅghya yudhyamāno hi pāpīyān syāt | tvaṃ tu parair āhūto ‚pi sad-dharmopetam api saṅgrāmaṃ yuddhaṃ na kariṣyasi dharmato lokato vā bhītaḥ parāvṛtto bhaviṣyasi cet tato nirjitya para-sainyāni kṣitiṃ dharmeṇa pālayet [Parāśara-smṛti 1.58] ity ādi-śāstra-vihitasya yuddhasyākaraṇāt svadharmaṃ hitvānanuṣṭhāya kīrtiṃ ca mahādevādi-samāgama-nimittāṃ hitvā na nivarteta saṅgrāmāt ity ādi-śāstra-niṣiddha-saṅgrāma-nivṛttyā ca raṇa-janyaṃ pāpam eva kevalam avāpsyasi na tu dharmaṃ kīrtiṃ cety abhiprāyaḥ |
athavā ‚neka-janmārjitaṃ dharmaṃ tyaktvā rāja-kṛtaṃ pāpam evāvāpsyasīty arthaḥ | yasmāt tvāṃ parāvṛttam ete duṣṭā avaśyaṃ haniṣyanti ataḥ parāvṛtta-hataḥ saṃś ciropārjita-nija-sukṛta-parityāgena paropārjita-duṣkṛta-mātra-bhāṅ mā bhūr ity abhiprāyaḥ | tathā ca manuḥ –
yas tu bhītaḥ parāvṛttaḥ saṅgrāme hanyate paraiḥ |
bhartur yad duṣkṛtaṃ kiṃcit tat sarvaṃ pratipadyate ||
yac cāsya sukṛtaṃ kiṃcid amutrārtham upārjitam |
bhartā tat sarvam ādatte parāvṛtta-hatasya tu || [Manu 7.95-96] iti |
yājñavalkyo ‚pi rājā sukṛtam ādatte hatānāṃ vipalāyinām iti | tena yad uktam – pāpam evāśrayed asmān hatvaitān ātatāyinaḥ [Gītā 1.36], etān na hantum icchāmi ghanto ‚pi madhusūdana [Gītā 1.35] iti tan nirākṛtaṃ bhavati

 

Viśvanātha

vipakṣe doṣam āha atheti caturbhiḥ

 

Baladeva

vipakṣe doṣān darśayati athety ādibhiḥ | svasya tava dharmyaṃ yuddha-lakṣaṇaṃ kīrtiṃ ca rudra-santoṣaṇa-nivāta-kavacādi-vadha-labdhāṃ hitvā pāpaṃ na nivarteta saṅgrāmād ity ādi smṛti-pratiṣiddhaṃ sva-dharma-tyāga-lakṣaṇaṃ prāpsyasi

 
 

BhG 2.34

akīrtiṃ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti te vyayām
saṃbhāvitasya cākīrtir maraṇād atiricyate

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bhūtāni ca (and people) te (your) avyayām (imperishable) akīrtim api (even infamy) kathayiṣyanti (they will tell).
sambhāvitasya ca (and of one who is honoured) akīrtiḥ (infamy) maraṇāt (than death) atiricyate (it is superior).

 

grammar

akīrtim a-kīrti 2n.1 f.infamy, disgrace (from: kīrt – to praise, to glorify);
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.creatures, people (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
kathayiṣyanti kath (to tell, to narrate) Fut. P 1v.3they will tell;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
avyayām a-vyayā 2n.1 f.imperishable, unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
saṁbhāvitasya saṁ-bhāvita 6n.1 m.of one who is honoured (from: sam-bhū to come together, to be born, to be adequate, [PP] caus. sam-bhāvita – honoured, considered, adequate);
ca av.and;
akīrtiḥ a-kīrti 1n.1 f.infamy, disgrace (from: kīrt – to praise, to glorify);
maraṇāt maraṇa 5n.1 n. than death (from: mṛ to die);
atiricyate ati-ric (to surpass, to predominate) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is superior;

 

textual variants


te vyayām → te vyayām (your perishable);
cākīrtir → sākīrtir (this infamy);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Not only will you have given up your duty and fame, but also,

na kevalaṃ svadharma-kīrti-parityāgaḥ

People, too, will recount thy everlasting infamy;
and, to one who has been esteemed, infamy is more than death.

akīrtiṃ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti te ’vyayām |
saṃbhāvitasya cākīrtir maraṇād atiricyate ||2.34||

People, too, will recount your infamy, which will survive you long. To him who has been esteemed as a hero and as a righteous man and as one possessing other such noble qualities, death is preferable to infamy.

akīrtiṃ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti te tava avyayāṃ dīrgha-kālām | dharmātmā śūra ity evam ādibhiḥ guṇaiḥ saṃbhāvitasya ca akīrtiḥ maraṇāt atiricyate | saṃbhāvitasya ca akīrteḥ varaṃ maraṇam ity arthaḥ ||2.34||

 

Rāmānuja

na kevalaṃ niratiśaya-sukha-kīrti-hāni-mātram | api tu pārtho yuddhe prārabdhe palāyita ity avyayāṃ sarva-deśa-kāla-vyāpinīm akīrtiṃ ca samarthāni asamarthāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti tataḥ kim iti cet, śaurya-vīrya-parākramādibhiḥ sarva-saṃbhāvitasya tad iva paryāyajā hi akīrtir maraṇād atiricyate | evaṃ-vidhāyā akīrteḥ maraṇam eva tava śreya ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca akīrtim ity ādi | avyayām śāśvatīm | saṃbhāvitasya bahu-matasya | atiricyate adhikatarā bhavati

 

Madhusūdana

evaṃ kīrti-dharmayor iṣṭayor aprāptir aniṣṭasya ca pāpasya prāptir yuddha-parityāge darśitā | tatra pāpākhyam aniṣṭaṃ vyavadhānena duḥkha-phaladam āmutrikatvāt | śiṣṭa-garhā-lakṣaṇaṃ tv aniṣṭam āsanna-phaladam atyasahyam ity āha akīrtim iti | bhūtāni devarṣi-manuṣyādīni te tavāvyayāṃ dīrgha-kālam akīrtiṃ na dharmātmāyaṃ na śūro ‚yam ity evaṃ-rūpāṃ kathayiṣyanty anyonyaṃ kathā-prasaṅge | kīrti-dharma-nāśa-samuccayārthau nipātau | na kevalaṃ kīrti-dharmau hitvā pāpaṃ prāpsyasi api tu akīrtiṃ ca prāpsyasi | na kevalaṃ tvam eva tāṃ prāpsyasi api tu bhūtāny api kathayiṣyantīti vā nipātayor arthaḥ |
nanu yuddhe sva-maraṇa-sandehāt tat-parihārārtham akīrtir api soḍhavyā ātma-rakṣaṇasyātyantāpekṣitatvāt | tathā coktaṃ śānti-parvaṇi-
sāmnā dānena bhedena samastair atha vā pṛthak |
vijetuṃ prayatetārīn na yuddhena kadā cana ||
anityo vijayo yasmād dṛśyate yudhyamānayoḥ |
parājayaś ca saṃgrāme tasmād yuddhaṃ vivarjayet ||
trayāṇām apy upāyānāṃ pūrvoktānām asaṃbhave |
tathā yudhyeta saṃpanno vijayeta ripūn yathā || [ManuS 7.198-200]
evam eva manunāpy uktam |
tathā ca maraṇa-bhītasya kim akīrti-duḥkham iti śaṅkām apanudati sambhāvitasya dharmātmā śūra ity evam ādibhir ananya-labhyair guṇair bahumatasya janasyākīrtir maraṇād apy atiricyate ‚dhikā bhavati | co hetau | evaṃ yasmād ato ‚kīrter maraṇam eva varaṃ nyūnatvāt | tvam apy atirsambhāvito ‚si mahādevādi-samāgamena | ato nākīrti-duḥkhaṃ soḍhuṃ śakṣyasīty abhiprāyaḥ | udāhṛta-vacanaṃ tv artha-śāstratvāt na nivarteta saṅgrāmāt [Manu 7.88] ity ādi-dharma-śāstrād durbalam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

avyayām anaśvarām | saṃbhāvitasyātipratiṣṭhitasya

 

Baladeva

na kevalaṃ svadharmasya kīrteś ca kṣati-mātram | yuddhe samārabdhe ‚rjunaḥ palāyata ity avyayāṃ śāśvatīm akīrtiṃ ca tava bhūtāni sarve lokāḥ kathayiṣyanti | nanu maraṇād bhītena mayā akīrtiḥ soḍhavyeti cet tatrāha sambhāvitasyātipratiṣṭhitasya | atiricyate adhikā bhavati | tathā ca tādṛśākīṛter maraṇam eva varam iti

 
 

BhG 2.35

bhayād raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyante tvāṃ mahā-rathāḥ
yeṣāṃ ca tvaṃ bahu-mato bhūtvā yāsyasi lāghavam

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mahā-rathāḥ (great warriors) tvām (of you) bhayāt (out of fear) raṇāt (from the battle) uparatam (as desisted) maṁsyante (they will think).
yeṣām ca (and for whom) tvam (you) bahu-mataḥ (highly esteemed) bhūtvā (after being), [teṣām] (among them) lāghavam (insignificance) yāsyasi (you will attain).

 

grammar

bhayāt bhaya 5n.1 n.out of fear (from: bhī – to scare);
raṇāt raṇa 5n.1 m.from the battle (from: raṇ – to rejoice, raṇa – delight, fight, battle);
uparatam upa-rata (upa-ram – to desist) [PP] 2n.1 m.desisted, withdrawn;
maṁsyante man (to think) Fut. Ā 1v.3they will think;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1of you;
mahā-rathāḥ mahā-ratha 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ rathā mahāntaḥ santi tethose who have great chariots (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ratha – chariot);
yeṣām yat sn. 6n.3 m.of whom;
ca av.and;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
bahu-mataḥ bahu-mata 1n.1 m.bahu mata itihighly esteemed (from: bahu av. – much, great; man – to think, [PP] mata – regarded, esteemed);
bhūtvā bhū (to be) absol.after being;
yāsyasi (to go, to attain) Fut. P 2v.1you will attain;
lāghavam lāghava 2n.1 n.lightness, insignificance (from: laghu – light, small);

 

textual variants


maṃsyante → manyaṃte (they think);
tvāṁ → tvā (you);
yeṣāṁ → eṣāṁ / keṣāṁ (of those / of whom?);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Moreover,

kiṃ ca

The great car-warriors will think thou hast withdrawn from the battle through fear;
and, having been (hitherto) highly esteemed by them, thou wilt incur their contempt.

bhayād raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyante tvāṃ mahārathāḥ |
yeṣāṃ ca tvaṃ bahumato bhūtvā yāsyasi lāghavam ||2.35||

Duryodhana and others – warriors fighting in great carswill think that you have withdrawn from the battle through fear of Kama and others, but not through compassion. – Who are they that will think so? – The very persons, Duryodhana and others, by whom you have been esteemed as possessed of many noble qualities. Having been thus esteemed, you will again grow very small (in their estimation).

bhayāt karṇādibhyaḥ raṇāt yuddhāt uparataṃ nivṛttaṃ maṃsyante cintayiṣyanti na kṛpayeti tvāṃ mahārathāḥ duryodhana-prabhṛtayaḥ | yeṣāṃ ca tvaṃ duryodhanādīnāṃ bahu-mato bahubhir guṇair yuktaḥ ity evaṃ mataḥ bahumato bhūtvā punar yāsyasi lāghavaṃ laghu-bhāvam ||2.35||

 

Rāmānuja

bandhu-snehāt kāruṇyāc ca yuddhān nivṛttasya śūrasya mamākīrtiḥ katham āgāmiṣyatity atrāha—bhayād iti | yeṣāṃ karṇa-duryodhanādīnāṃ mahārathānām itaḥ pūrvaṃ tvaṃ śūre vairī iti bahumato bhūtvā idānīṃ yuddhe samupasthite nivṛttavyāpārtayā lāghavaṃ sugrahatāṃ yāsyasi | te mahārthāḥ tvāṃ bhayād yuddhād upartaṃ maṃsyante | śūraṇāṃ hi viriṇāṃ śatrubhayād ṛte bandhusnehādinā yuddhād upartiḥ nopapadyate

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca bhayād iti | yeṣāṃ bahu-guṇatvena tvaṃ pūrvaṃ sammato ‚bhūs ta eva bhayāt saṃgrāmān nivṛttaṃ tvāṃ manyeran | tataś ca pūrvaṃ bahumato bhūtvā lāghavam laghutāṃ yāsyasi

 

Madhusūdana

komentarz wspólny przy wersecie BhG 2.36

 

Viśvanātha

yeṣāṃ tvaṃ bahu-mato ‚smac-chatrur arjunas tu mahāśūra iti bahu-saṃmāna-viṣayo bhūtvā samprati yuddhād uparame sati lāghavaṃ yāsyasi te duryodhanādayo mahārathās tvāṃ bhayād eva raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyanta ity anvayaḥ | kṣatriyāṇāṃ hi bhayaṃ vinā yuddhoparati-hetur bandhu-snehādiko nopapadyata iti matveti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanu kula-kṣaya-doṣāt kāruṇyāc ca vinivṛttasya mama katham akīrtiḥ syād iti cet tatrāha bhayād iti | mahārathā duryodhanādayas tvāṃ karṇādi-bhayān na tu bandhu-kāruṇyād raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyante | na hi śūrasya śatru-bhayaṃ vinā bandhu-snehena yuddhād uparatir ity arthaḥ | itaḥ pūrvaṃ yeṣāṃ tvaṃ bahumataḥ śūro vairīti bahu-guṇavattayā saṃmato ‚bhūr idānīṃ yuddhe samupasthite kātaro ‚yaṃ vinivṛtta ity evaṃ tat-kṛtaṃ lāghavaṃ duḥsahaṃ yāsyasi

 
 

BhG 2.36

avācya-vādāṃś ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ
nindantas tava sāmarthyaṃ tato duḥkha-taraṃ nu kim

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tava (your) ahitāḥ (enemies) tava (your) sāmarthyam (ability) nindantaḥ (who are criticizing),
bahūn ca (and many) avācya-vādān (bad words) vadiṣyanti (they will speak).
nu (indeed) tataḥ (than that) duḥkha-taram (more painful) kim (what)?

 

grammar

avācya-vādān avācya-vāda 2n.3 m.; [TP]: avācyān vādān itiwords not to be spoken (from: vac – to speak; PF vacya – to be spoken; vad – to speak, vāda – speech, dispute, doctrine);
ca av.and;
bahūn bahu 2n.3 m.many;
vadiṣyanti vad (to speak) Fut. P 1v.3they will speak;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
ahitāḥ a-hita 1n.3 m.enemies (from: dhā – to put, [PP] hita – set, beneficial, friendly);
nindantaḥ nindant (nind – to criticize) PPr 1n.3 m.who are criticizing;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1 m.your;
sāmarthyam sāmarthya 2n.1 n.ability, eficacy, strength (from: sam-arth – to make ready, samartha – suitable, capable, competent);
tataḥ av.than that (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
duḥkha-taram duḥkha-tara 1n.1 n.more painful (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness; -tara – comparative);
nu av.now, just, indeed (emphasis);
kim kim sn. 2n.1 n.what?

 

textual variants


avācya-vādāṃś → avācya-vācāṃś (niestosowne słowa);
nindantas → viṁdaṁtas (znajdujący);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Moreover,

kiṃ ca

Thy enemies, too, scorning thy power, will talk many abusive words.
What is more painful than that?

avācya-vādāṃś ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ |
nindantas tava sāmarthyaṃ tato duḥkhataraṃ nu kim ||2.36||

There is no pain more unbearable than that of scorn thus incurred.

avācya-vādān avaktavya-vādāṃś ca bahūn aneka-prakārān vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ śatravaḥ nindantaḥ kutsayantaḥ tava tvadīyaṃ sāmarthyaṃ nivāta-kavacādi-yuddha-nimittam | tatas tasmāt nindā-prāpter duḥkhāt duḥkhataraṃ nu kiṃ | tataḥ kaṣṭataraṃ duḥkhaṃ nāstīty arthaḥ ||2.36||

 

Rāmānuja

kiṃ ca—avācya iti | śūrāṇām asmākaṃ sannidhau katham ayaṃ pārthaḥ kṣaṇam api sthātuṃ śaknuyād asmat-saṃnidhānād anyatra hi asya sāmarthyam iti tava sāmarthyaṃ nindantaḥ śūraṇām agre avācya-vādan ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tava śatravo dhārtaraṣṭrāḥ | tato’dhikataraṃ duḥkhaṃ kiṃ tava? evaṃ-vidhāvācya-śravaṇāt maraṇam eva śreyaḥ, iti tvam eva manyase

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ ca avācya-vādān iti | avācyān vādān vacanānarhān śabdān tava ahitāḥ tvac-chatravo vadiṣyanti

 

Madhusūdana

nanu bhīṣmādayo mahārathā na bahu manyantāṃ duryodhanādayas tu śatravo bahu maṃsyante māṃ yuddha-nivṛttyā tad-upakāritvād ity ata āha avācyeti | tavāsādhāraṇaṃ yat sāmarthyaṃ loka-prasiddhaṃ tan nindantas tava śatravo duryodhanādayo ‚vācyān vādān vacanān arhān ṣaṇḍha-tilādi-rūpān eva śabdān bahūn aneka-prakārān vadiṣyanti na tu bahu maṃsyanta ity abhiprāyaḥ | athavā tava sāmarthyaṃ stuti-yogyatvaṃ tava nindanto ‚hitā avācya-vādān vadiṣyantīty anvayaḥ |
nanu bhīṣma-droṇādi-vadha-prayuktaṃ kaṣṭataraṃ duḥkham asahamāno yuddhān nivṛttaḥ śatru-kṛta-sāmarthya-nindanādi-duḥkhaṃ soḍhuṃ śakṣyāmīty ata āha tatas tasmān nindā-prāpti-duḥkhāt kiṃ tu duḥkhataraṃ tato ‚dhikaṃ kim api duḥkhaṃ nāstīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

avācya-vādān | klība ity ādi kaṭūktīḥ

 

Baladeva

kiṃ cāvācyeti | ahitāḥ śatravo dhārtarāṣṭrās tava sāmarthyaṃ pūrva-siddhaṃ parākramaṃ nindantaḥ bahūn avācya-vādān śaṇḍhatilādi-śabdān vadiṣyanti | tata evaṃvidhāvācya-vāda-śravaṇād atiśāyitaṃ kiṃ duḥkham asti | itthaṃ caite ṣaḍbhir yuddha-vairāgyasyāsvargatvam akīrti-karatvaṃ coktaṃ darśitam

 
 

BhG 2.37

hatoprāpsyasi svargaṃ jitvābhokṣyase mahīm
tasmād uttiṣṭha kaunteya yuddhāya kṛta-niścayaḥ

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he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
[tvam yuddhe] (you in battle) hataḥ vā (or killed) svargam (heaven) prāpsyasi (you will obtain).
[śatrūn] (enemies) jitvā vā (or after conquering) mahīm (the earth) bhokṣyase (you will enjoy).
tasmāt (therefore) yuddhāya (for the fight) kṛta-niścayaḥ (determined) uttiṣṭha (stand up).

 

grammar

hataḥ hata (han – to kill) [PP] 1n.1 m.killed;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
prāpsyasi pra-āp (to obtain) Fut. P 2v.1you will obtain;
svargam svarga 2n.1 m.heaven (from: sūr – to hurt, to be firm, sūra – the sun, a wise man, svar – heaven, svar-ga – leading to heaven);
jitvā ji (to conquer) absol.after conquering;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
bhokṣyase bhuj (to eat, to enjoy) Fut. 2v.1you will enjoy;
mahīm mahī 2n.1 f.the earth, the powerful;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
uttiṣṭha ut-sthā (to stand up) Imperat. P 2v.1stand up;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
yuddhāya yuddha 4n.1 n.for the fght (from: yudh – to fight);
kṛta-niścayaḥ kṛta-niścaya 1n.1 m.; BV: yena niścayaḥ kṛto ‘sti saḥby whom a decision is made, determined (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; niś-ci – to ascertain, to determine, niś-caya – certainty, fixed opinion);

 

textual variants


prāpsyasi →prāpsyase (you will obtain);
mahīm → bhuvam (space);
kṛta-niścayaḥ → kṛta-niścayam (certainty);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Now, when you fight with Karṇa and others,

yuddhe punaḥ kriyamāṇe karṇādibhiḥ

Killed, thou wilt reach heaven; victorious, thou wilt enjoy the earth.
Wherefore, O son of Kunti, arise, resolved to fight.

hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṃ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm |
tasmād uttiṣṭha kaunteya yuddhāya kṛta-niścayaḥ ||2.37||

Victorious: that is, having defeated Karṇa and other heroes. In either case you will have an advantage only. Wherefore rise, with the resolution „I will conquer the enemy or die.”

hato vā prāpsyasi svargam, hataḥ san svargaṃ prāpsyasi | jitvā vā karṇādīn śūrān bhokṣyase mahīm | ubhayathāpi tava lābha evety abhiprāyaḥ | yata evaṃ tasmāt uttiṣṭha kaunteya yuddhāya kṛta-niścayo jeṣyāmi śatrūn, mariṣyāmi vā iti niścayaṃ kṛtvety arthaḥ ||2.37||

 

Rāmānuja

ataḥ śūrasyātmanā pareṣāṃ hananam ātmano vā parair hananam ubhayam api śreyase bhavati ity āha—hato vā iti | dharma-yuddhe parair hataś cet tata eva parama-niḥśreyasaṃ prāpsyasi | parān vā hatvā akaṇṭakaṃ rajyaṃ bhokṣyase | anabhisaṃhita-phalasya yuddhākhyasya dharmasya parama-niḥśreyasopāyatvāt, tac ca parama-niḥśreyasaṃ prāpsyasi | tasmād yuddhāyodyogaḥ parama-puruṣārtha-lakṣaṇa-mokṣa-sādhanam iti niścitya tad-artham uttiṣṭha | kuntī-putrasya tavaitad eva yuktam ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

yad uktaṃ na caitad vidmaḥ [Gītā 2.6] iti tatrāha hato vety ādi | pakṣa-dvaye ‚pi tava lābha evety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

nanu tarhi yuddhe gurv-ādi-vadha-vaśān madhyastha-kṛtā nindā tato nivṛttau tu śatru-kṛtā nindety ubhayataḥ pāśā rajjur ity āśaṅkya jaye parājaye ca lābha-dhrauvyād yuddhārtham evotthānam āvaśyakam ity āha hato veti | spaṣṭaṃ pūrvārdham | yasmād ubhayathāpi te lābhas tasmāj jeṣyāmi śatrūn mariṣyāmi veti kṛta-niścayaḥ san yuddhāyottiṣṭha | nayatara-phala-sandehe ‚pi yuddha-kartavyatāyā niścitatvāt | etena na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyaḥ [Gītā 2.6] ity ādi parihṛtam

 

Viśvanātha

nanu yuddhe mama jaya eva bhāvīty api nāsti niścayaḥ | tataś ca kathaṃ yuddhe pravartitavyam ity ata āha hata iti

 

Baladeva

nanu yuddhe vijaya eva me syād iti niścayābhāvāt tato ‚haṃ nivṛtto ‚smīti cet tatrāha hato veti | pakṣa-dvaye ‚pi te lābha eveti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.38

sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau
tato yuddhāya yujyasva naivaṃ pāpam avāpsyasi

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tataḥ (then) [tvam] (you) sukha-duḥkhe (pleasure and distress), lābhālābhau (gain and loss), jayājayau [ca] (and victory and defeat) same (both the same) kṛtvā (after doing),
yuddhāya (for the fight) yujyasva (be engaged).
evam (thus) pāpam (sin) na avāpsyasi (you will not obtain).

 

grammar

sukha-duḥkhe sukha-duḥkha 2n.2 n.; DV: sukhaṁ ca duḥkhaṁ cetipleasure and distress (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not; or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā);
same sama sn. 2n.2 n.both the same, equal;
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
lābhālābhau lābha-a-lābha 2n.2 m.; DV: lābhaṁ ca alābhaṁ cetigain and loss (from: labh – to obtain, to gain; lābha – gain, profit);
jayājayau jaya-a-jaya 2n.2 m.; DV: jayaṁ ca ajayaṁ cetivictory and defeat (from: ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
yuddhāya yuddha 4n.1 n.for the fight (from: yudh – to fight);
yujyasva yuj (to yoke, to join, to engage) Imperat. pass. 2v.1join, engage;
na av.not;
evam av.thus;
pāpam pāpa 2n.1 n. evil, sin;
avāpsyasi ava-āp (to obtain) Fut. P 2v.1you will obtain;

 

textual variants


yujyasva → yudhyasva (you must fight);
naivaṁ → nainaṁ (not that);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Now listen to the advice I offer to you, while you fight the battle regarding it as a duty:

tatra yuddhaṃ svadharma ity evaṃ yudhyamānasyopadeśam imaṃ sṛṇu

Then, treating alike pleasure and pain, gain and loss, success and defeat,
prepare for the battle, and thus wilt thou not incur sin.

sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau |
tato yuddhāya yujyasva naivaṃ pāpam avāpsyasi ||2.38||

Treating alike pleasure and pain: i.e., without liking the one and disliking the other. Thus fighting, you will not incur sin. [This injunction as to fighting is only incidental.]

sukha-duḥkhe same tulye kṛtvā, rāga-dveṣāv apy akṛtvety etat | tathā lābhālābhau jayājayau ca samau kṛtvā tato yuddhāya yujyasva ghaṭāsva | na evaṃ yuddhaṃ kurvan pāpam avāpsyasi | ity eṣa upadeśaḥ prāsaṅgikaḥ ||2.38||

 

Rāmānuja

mumukṣor yuddhānuṣṭhana-prakāram āha—sukha iti | evaṃ dehātiriktam aspṛṣṭa-samasta-deha-svabhāvaṃ nityam ātmānaṃ jñātvā yuddhe cāvarjanīya-śastra-pātādi-nimitta-sukha-duḥkhārtha-lābhālābha-jaya-parajayeṣu avikṛta-buddhiḥ svargādi-phalābhisandhi-rahitaḥ kevala-kārya-buddhyā yuddham ārabhasva | evaṃ kurvāṇo na pāpam avāpsyasi pāpaṃ duḥkha-rūpaṃ saṃsāraṃ nāvāpsyasi | saṃsāra-bandhān mokṣyase ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

yad apy uktaṃ pāpam evāśrayed asmān [Gītā 1.36] iti tatrāha sukha-duḥkhe ity ādi | sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā | tathā tayoḥ kāraṇa-bhūtau lābhālābhāv api | tayor api kāraṇa-bhūtāu jayājayāv api samau kṛtvā | eteṣāṃ samatve kāraṇaṃ harṣa-viṣāda-rāhityam | yujyasva sannadho bhava | sukhādy-abhilāsaṃ hitvā svadharma-buddhyā yudhyamānaḥ pāpaṃ na prāpsyasīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

nanv evaṃ svargam uddiśya yuddha-karaṇe tasya nityatva-vyāghātaḥ | rājyam uddiśya yuddha-karaṇe tv artha-śāstratvād dharma-śāstrāpekṣayā daurbalyaṃ syāt | tataś ca kāmyasyākaraṇe kutaḥ pāpaṃ dṛṣṭārthasya guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadhasya kuto dharmatvaṃ, tathā cātha ced iti ślokārtho vyāhata iti cet tatrāha sukha-duḥkhe iti |
samatā-karaṇaṃ rāga-dveṣa-rāhityam | sukhe tat-kāraṇe lābhe tat-kāraṇe lābhe tat-kāraṇe jaye ca rāgam akṛtvā, evaṃ duḥkhe tad-dhetāv alābhe tad-dhetāv ajaye ca dveṣam akṛtvā tato yuddhāya yujyasva sannadhau bhava | evaṃ sukha-kāmanāṃ duḥkha-nivṛtti-kāmanāṃ vā vihāya svadharma-buddhyā yudhyamāno guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadha-nimittaṃ nitya-karmākaraṇa-nimittaṃ ca pāpaṃ na prāpsyasi | yas tu phala-kāmanayā karoti sa guru-brāhmaṇādi-vadha-nimittaṃ pāpaṃ prāpnoti yo vā na karoti sa nitya-karmākaraṇa-nimittam | ataḥ phala-kāmanām antareṇa kurvann ubhaya-vidham api pāpaṃ na prāpnotīti prāg eva vyākhyāto ‚bhiprāyaḥ | hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṃ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm [Gītā 2.37] iti svānuṣaṅgika-phala-kathanam iti na doṣaḥ | tathā ca āpastambaḥ smarati – tad yathāmre phalārthe nimitte chāyā-gandhāvanūtpadyete evaṃ dharmaṃ caryamāṇam arthā anūtpadyante no ced anūtpadyante na dharma-hānir bhavati iti | ato yuddha-śāstrasyārtha-śāstratvābhāvāt pāpam evāśrayed asmān [Gītā 1.36] ity ādi nirākṛtaṃ bhavati

 

Viśvanātha

tasmāt tava sarvathā yuddham eva dharmas tad api yad imaṃ pāpa-kāraṇam āśaṅkase, tarhi mattaḥ pāpānutpatti-prakāraṃ śikṣitvā yudhyasvety āha sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā | tad-dhetur lābhālābhau rājya-lābha-rāja-cyūtī api | tad-dhetur jayājayāv api samau kṛtvā vivekena tulyau vibhāvety arthaḥ | tataś caivaṃ-bhūta-sāmya-lakṣaṇe jñānavatas tava pāpaṃ naiva bhavet | yad vakṣyate lipyate na sa pāpena padma-patram ivāmbhasā [Gītā 5.10] iti

 

Baladeva

nanu atha cet tvam ity ādi-padyārtho vyāhṛtaḥ | rājyādy-uddeśena kṛtasya yuddhasya guru-viprādi-vināśa-hetutvena pāpotpādakatvād iti cen mumukṣu-vartmanā yuddhamānasya tava tad-vināśa-hetukaṃ pāpaṃ na syād ity āha sukheti | sāmya-karaṇam iha tatra tatra nirvikāratvaṃ bodhyam | sukhe tad-dhetau jaye ca rāgam akṛtvā duḥkhe tad-dhetāv alābhe tad-dhetau parājaye ca dveṣam akṛtvā tatra tatra nirvikāra-cittaḥ san tato yuddhāya yujyasva | kevala-svadharma-dhiyā yoddhum udyukto bhavety arthaḥ | evaṃ mumukṣu-rītyā yoddhā tvaṃ pāpaṃ tad-vināśa-hetukaṃ nāvāpsyasi | phalecchuḥ san yo yudhyate sa tat-pāpaṃ vindati | vijñānārthī tu purātanam ananta-pāpam apanudatīty arthaḥ |
nanu phala-rāgaṃ vinā duṣkare yuddha-dānādau kathaṃ pravṛttir iti ced anantātmānanda-rāgaṃ tatra pravartakaṃ gṛhāṇa rājyādy-anurāgam iva bhṛgu-pāte

 
 

BhG 2.39

eṣā te bhihitā sāṃkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu
buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha karma-bandhaṃ prahāsyasi

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
sāṁkhye (in sāṁkhya) eṣā (this) buddhiḥ (intelligence) te (to you) abhihitā (is described).
yoge tu (but in yoga) imām (of this [intelligence]) śṛṇu (you must listen).
yayā (by which) buddhyā (by intelligence) yuktaḥ (endowed with) [san] (being) karma-bandham (bondage of action) prahāsyasi (you will abandon).

 

grammar

eṣā etat sn. 1n.1 f.this;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
abhihitā abhihitā (abhi-dhā to name, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 f.named, spoken;
sāṁkhye sāṁkhya 7n.1 n.in sāṁkhya (from: sam-khyā – to count, sāmkhya – relating to number, rational, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
yoge yoga 7n.1 m.in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
 tu av.but, then, or, and;
imām idam sn. 2n.1 f.this;
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
buddhyā buddhi 3n.1 f.with intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with;
yayā yat sn. 3n.1 f.that by which;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
karma-bandham karma-bandha 2n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇo bandham itibondage of action (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; bandh – to bind, to fetter, bandha – bondage, fetters);
prahāsyasi pra- (to leave, to abandon) Fut. P 2v.1you will abandon;

 

textual variants

yayā → yathā (as);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Yoga.
Worldly considerations have been adduced (2.31 – 38) to dispel grief and attachment; but they do not form the main subject of teaching. On the other hand, it is the realization of the Supreme Reality that forms the main subject of this portion (2.12, &c.) of the discourse; and this, which has been treated of already (2.20 et seq.), is concluded in 2.39 with a view to exhibit the division of the whole subject of the śastra.

śoka-mohāpanayanāya laukiko nyāyaḥ svadharmam api cāvekṣya (BhG 2.31) ity ādyaiḥ lokair uktaḥ, na tu tātparyeṇa | paramārtha-darśanam iha prakṛtam | tac coktam upasaṃhriyate – eṣā te ’bhihitā iti śāstra-viṣaya-vibhāga-pradarśanāya |

For, by making such a division of the whole subject of the śastra as has been shewn here, that portion of the work which will treat of the two paths later on (3.3) will proceed the more smoothly; and the hearers also will understand it the more easily for this division of the whole subject. Hence says the Lord:

iha hi pradarśite punaḥ śāstra-viṣaya-vibhāge upariṣṭāt jñāna-yogena sāṃkhyānāṃ karma-yogena yoginām (BhG 3.3) iti niṣṭhā-dvaya-viṣayaṃ śāstraṃ sukhaṃ pravartiṣyate, śrotāraś ca viṣaya-vibhāgena sukhaṃ grahīṣyanti ity ata āha

This, which has been taught to thee, is wisdom concerning Sankhya.
Now, listen to wisdom concerning Yoga,
which possessing thou shalt cast off the bond of action.

eṣā te ’bhihitā sāṃkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu |
buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha karmabandhaṃ prahāsyasi ||2.39||

This, which has been taught to you, constitutes wisdom (buddhi) concerning Sankhya or the true nature of the Absolute Reality, – that wisdom by which may be brought about the cessation of the evil which is the cause of saṁsara, – of grief, attachment, and the like.

eṣā te tubhyam abhihitā uktā sāṃkhye paramārtha-vastu-viveka-viṣaye buddhir jñānaṃ sākṣāt śoka-mohādi-saṃsāra-hetu-doṣa-nivṛtti-kāraṇam |

Now, listen to the teaching (which follows presently) concerning Yoga, which is the means of attaining wisdom concerning Sankhya: this Yoga, which constitutes the worship of Īśvara, consists in practising samādhi or in performing works without attachment, after killing all pairs of opposites (such as heat and cold).

yoge tu tat-prāpty-upāye niḥsaṅgatayā dvandva-prahāṇa-pūrvakam īśvarārādhanārthe karma-yoge karmānuṣṭhāne samādhi-yoge cemām anantaram evocyamānāṃ buddhiṃ śṛṇu |

Now He extols the wisdom concerning Yoga, in order to create an interest in it. – When possessed of wisdom concerning Yoga, O son of Pritha, you will cast off the bond of action (karma), of dharma and a-dharma, of virtue and sin, of merit and demerit, this severance of the bond being effected only on attaining to a knowledge of the Self through Divine Grace (Īśvara-prasāda).

tāṃ ca buddhiṃ stauti prarocanārthaṃ – buddhyā yayā yoga-viṣayayā yuktaḥ, he pārtha, karma-bandhaṃ karmaiva dharmādharmākhyo bandhaḥ karma-bandhas taṃ prahāsyasi īśvara-prasāda-nimitta-jñāna-prāpter ity abhiprāyaḥ ||2.39||

 

Rāmānuja

evam ātma-yāthātmya-jñānam upadiśya tat-pūrvakaṃ mokṣa-sādhana-bhūtaṃ karma-yogaṃ vaktum ārabhate—eṣā iti | saṃkhyā buddhiḥ | buddhyāvadhāraṇīyam ātma-tattvaṃ sāṃkhyam | jñātavye ātma-tattve taj-jñānāya yā buddhiḥ abhidheyā na tv evāham [gītā 2.12] ity ārabhya tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni [gītā 2.30] ity antena, sā eṣā abhihitā |
ātma-jñāna-pūrvaka-mokṣa-sādhana-bhūta-karmānuṣṭhāne yo buddhi-yogo vaktavyaḥ, sa iha yoga-śabdenocyate | dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma buddhi-yogāt [gītā 2.49] iti hi vakṣyate | tatra yoge yā buddhiḥ vaktavyā tām imām abhidhīyamānāṃ śṛṇu, yayā buddhyā yuktaḥ karma-bandhaṃ prahāsyasi | karmaṇā bandhaḥ karma-bandhaḥ, saṃsāra-bandha ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

upadiṣṭaṃ jñāna-yogam upasaṃharaṃs tat-sādhanaṃ karma-yogaṃ prastauti eṣety ādi | samyak khyāyate prakāśyate vastu-tattvam anayeti saṅkhyā samyak jñānam | tasyāṃ prakāśamānam ātma-tattvaṃ sāṅkhyam | tasmin karaṇīyā buddhir eṣā tavābhihitā | evam abhihitāyām api tava ced ātma-tattvam aparokṣaṃ na bhavati tarhy antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvārā ātma-tattvāparokṣārthaṃ karma-yoga tv imāṃ buddhiṃ śṛṇu | yayā buddhyā yuktaḥ parameśvarārpita-karma-yogena śuddhāntaḥkaraṇaḥ san tat-prasāda-labdhāparokṣa-jñānena karmātmakaṃ bandhaṃ prakarṣeṇa hāsyasi tyakṣyasi

 

Madhusūdana

nanu bhavatu svadharma-buddhyā yudhyamānasya pāpābhāvaḥ, tathāpi na māṃ prati yuddha-kartavyatopadeśas tavocitaḥ | ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ [Gītā 2.19] ity ādinā kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṃ ghātayati hanti kam [Gītā 2.21] ity antena viduṣaḥ sarva-karma-pratikṣepāt | na hy akartr-bhoktṛ-śuddha-svarūpo ‚ham asmi yuddhaṃ kṛtvā tat-phalaṃ bhokṣya iti ca jñānaṃ sambhavati virodhāt | jñāna-karmaṇoḥ samuccayāsambhavāt prakāśa-tamasor iva | ayaṃ cārjunābhiprāyo jyāyasī ced ity atra vyakto bhaviṣyati | tasmād ekam eva māṃ prati jñānasya karmaṇaś copadeśo nopapadyata iti cet, na | vidvad-avidvad-avasthā-bhedena jñāna-karmopadeśopapatter ity āha bhagavān eṣeti |
eṣā na tv evāham ity ādy-eka-viṃśati-ślokais te tubhyam abhihitā sāṅkhye samyak khyāyate sarvopādhi-śūnyatayā pratipādyate paramātma-tattvam anayeti saṅkhyopaniṣat tayaiva tāparya-parisamāptyā pratipādyate yaḥ sa sāṅkhya aupaniṣadaḥ puruṣa ity arthaḥ | tasmin buddhis tan-mātra-viṣayaṃ jñānaṃ sarvānartha-nivṛtti-kāraṇaṃ tvāṃ prati mayoktaṃ naitādṛśa-jñānavataḥ kvacid api karmocyate | tasya kāryaṃ na vidyata iti vakṣyamāṇatvāt |
yadi punar evaṃ mayokte ‚pi tavaiṣā buddhir nodeti citta-doṣāt, tadā tad-apanayenātma-tattva-sākṣātkārāya karma-yoga eva tvayānuṣṭheyaḥ | tasmin yoge karma-yoge tu karaṇīyām imāṃ sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā ity atroktāṃ phalābhisandhi-tyāga-lakṣaṇāṃ buddhiṃ vistareṇa mayā vakṣyamāṇāṃ śṛṇu | tu-śabdaḥ pūrva-buddher yoga-viṣayatva-vyatireka-sūcanārthaḥ | tathā ca śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ prati jñānopadeśo ‚śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ prati karmopadeśa iti kutaḥ samuccaya-śaṅkayā virodhāvakāśa ity abhiprāyaḥ |
yoga-viṣayāṃ buddhiṃ phala-kathanena stauti – yathā vyavasāyātmikayā buddhyā karmasu yuktas tvaṃ karma-nimittaṃ bandha-nāśāyāśuddhi-lakṣaṇaṃ jñāna-pratibandhaṃ prakarṣeṇa punaḥ pratibandhānutpatti-rūpeṇa hāsyasi tyakṣyasi | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ – karma-nimitto jñāna-pratibandhaḥ karmaṇaiva dharmākhyenāpanetuṃ śakyate dharmeṇa pāpam apanudati [Mahānā 13.6] iti śruteḥ | śravaṇādi-lakṣaṇo vicāras tu karmātmaka-pratibandha-rahitasyāsambhāvanādi-pratibandhaṃ dṛṣṭa-dvāreṇāpanayatīti na karma-bandha-nirākaraṇāyopadeṣṭuṃ śakyate | ato ‚tyanta-malināntaḥ-karaṇatvād bahir aṅga-sādhanaṃ karmaiva tvayānuṣṭheyaṃ, nādhunā śravaṇādi-yogyatāpi tava jātā | dūre tu jñāna-yogyateti | tathā ca vakṣyati – karmaṇy evādhikāras te [Gītā 2.47] iti | etena sāṅkhya-buddher antaraṅga-sādhanaṃ śravaṇādi vihāya bahiraṅga-sādhanaṃ karmaiva bhagavatā kim ity arjunāyopadiśyata iti nirastam | karma-bandhaṃ saṃsāram īśvara-prasāda-nimitta-jñāna-prāptyā prahāsyasīti prācāṃ vyākhyāne tv adhyāhāra-doṣaḥ karma-pada-vaiyarthyaṃ ca parihartavyam

 

Viśvanātha

upadiṣṭaṃ jñāna-yogam upasaṃharati eṣeti | samyak khyāyate prakāśyate vastu-tattvam aneneti sāṅkhyaṃ samyak jñānam | tasmin karaṇīyā buddhir eṣa kathitā | adhunā yoge bhakti-yoge imāṃ vakṣyamāṇāṃ buddhiṃ karaṇīyāṃ śṛṇu, yayā bhakti-viṣayiṇyā buddhyā yuktaḥ sahitaḥ | karma-bandhaṃ saṃsāram

 

Baladeva

uktaṃ jñāna-yogam upasaṃharan tad-upāyaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogaṃ vaktum ārabhate eṣeti | saṅkhyopaniṣat samyak khyāyate nirūpyate tattvam anayā iti nirukteḥ | tayā pratipādyam ātma-yāthātmyaṃ sāṅkhyam | śaiṣikān tasmin kartavyaiṣā buddhis tavābhihitā | ne tv evāhaṃ ity ādinā tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni ity antena | sā cet tava citta-tad-doṣān nābhyudeti tarhi yoge tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasā nāśakena ity ādi śruty-uktāntargata-jñāne niṣkāma-karma-yoge kartavyām imāṃ vakṣyamāṇāṃ buddhiṃ śṛṇu | phaloktyā tāṃ stauti yayeti | karmāṇi kurvāṇas tvaṃ bhagavad-ājñayā mahā-prayāsāni karmāṇi kurvaṃs tat-tad-uddeśa-mahimnā tvad-antar-abhyuditayātma-jñāna-niṣṭhayā saṃsāraṃ tariṣyasīti | paśu-putra-rājyādi-phalakaṃ karma sa-kāmaṃ jñāna-phalakaṃ tu tan-niṣkāmam iti śāstre ‚smin paribhāṣyate

 
 

BhG 2.40

nehābhikrama-nāśo sti pratyavāyo na vidyate
svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt

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syntax

iha (here) [yoge] (in yoga) abhikrama-nāśaḥ (the loss of endeavour) na asti (there is not),
pratyavāyaḥ (diminution) na vidyate (there is not).
asya (of this) dharmasya (of dharma) sv-alpam api (even very little) mahataḥ (from great) bhayāt (from fear) trāyate (it protects).

 

grammar

na av.not;
iha av.here (in yoga);
abhikrama-nāśaḥ abhi-krama-nāśa 1n.1 m.; [TP]: abhikramasya karmaṇo nāśaḥ iti the loss of undertaken activities (from: abhi-kram – to go near, to attack, to undertake, abhikrama – approach, undertaking; naś – to disappear, to be lost, nāśa – destruction, loss);
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
pratyavāyaḥ pratyavāya 1n.1 m.diminution, reversal, opposite, offence, sin (from: prati-ava-i – to go down again, to reverse);
na av.not;
vidyate vid (to be, to exist) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is;
svalpam sv-alpa 1n.1 n.very little;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
asya idam sn. 6n.1 m.of this;
dharmasya dharma 6n.1 m.of the law, of dharma (from: dhṛ – to hold);
trāyate trai (to protect) Praes. Ā 1v.1it protects;
mahataḥ mahant 5n.1 m.from great (mah – to magnify);
bhayāt bhaya 5n.1 n.from fear (from: bhī – to scare);

 

textual variants


nehābhikrama-nāśo → nehātikrama-nāśo (not here the loss in overcoming);
vidyate → dṛśyate (is seen);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Yoga, a safe course.
Moreover,

kiṃ cānyat

There is no loss of effort here, there is no harm.
Even a little of this devotion delivers one from great fear.

nehābhikrama-nāśo ’sti pratyavāyo na vidyate |
svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt ||2.40||

Unlike agriculture, nothing that is attempted here – in this path to moksha, in this devotion by works – is entirely lost. That is, there is no uncertainty regarding the result of any effort in the path of Yoga.

neha mokṣa-mārge karma-yoge abhikrama-nāśo ’bhikramaṇam abhikramaḥ prārambhas tasya nāśo nāsti yathā kṛṣyādeḥ | yoga-viṣaye prārambhasya na anaikāntika-phalatvam ity arthaḥ |

Neither is there any chance of harm resulting from it, as it may sometimes result from medical treatment. – What is the result? – Anything done, however little it be, in this Path of Yoga, saves one from great fear, from the fear of saṁsāra, of birth and death.

kiṃ ca pi cikitsāvat pratyavāyo vidyate bhavati | kiṃ tu svalpam api asya dharmasya yoga-dharmasya anuṣṭhitaṃ trāyate rakṣati mahataḥ bhayāt saṃsāra-bhayāt janma-maraṇādi-lakṣaṇāt ||2.40||

 

Rāmānuja

vakṣyamāṇa-buddhi-yuktasya karmaṇo māhātmyam āha—neha iti | iha karma-yoge nābhikrama-nāśo’sti | abhikrama ārambhaḥ | nāśaḥ phala-sādhana-bhāva-nāśaḥ | ārabdhasyāsamāptasya vicchinnasyāpi na niṣphalatvam | ārabdhasya vicchede pratyavāyo’pi na vidyate | asya karma-yogākhyasya sva-dharmasya svalpāṃśo’pi mahato bhayāt saṃsāra-bhayāt trāyate | ayam arthaḥ—pārtha naiveha nāmutra vināśas tasya vidyate [gītā 6.40] ity uttaratra prapañcayiṣyate | anyāni hi laukikāni vaidikāni ca sādhanāni vicchinnāni na hi phala-prasavāya bhavanti pratyavāyāya ca bhavanti

 

Śrīdhara

nanu kṛṣyādivat karmaṇāṃ kadācid vighna-bāhulyena phale vyabhicārāt mantrādy-aṅga-vaiguṇyena ca pratyavāya-sambhavaāt kutaḥ karma-yogena karma-bandha-prahāṇam | tatrāha nehety ādi | iha niṣkāma-karma-yoge abhikramasya prārambhasya nāśo niṣphalatvaṃ nāsti | pratyavāyaś ca na vidyate | īśvaroddeśenaiva vighna-vaiguṇyādy-asambhavāt | kiṃ cāsya dharmasya īśvarārādhanārtha-karma-yogasya svalpam apy upakrama-mātram api kṛtaṃ mahato bhayāt saṃsāra-lakṣaṇāt trāyate rakṣati | na tu kāmya-karmavat kiñcid aṅga-vaikguṇyādinā naiṣphalyam asyety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

nanu tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena [BAU 4.4.22] iti śrutyā vividiṣāṃ jñānaṃ coddiśya saṃyoga-pṛthaktva-nyāyena sarva-karmaṇāṃ viniyogāt tatra cāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddher dvāratvān māṃ prati karmānuṣṭhānaṃ vidhīyate | tatra tad yatheha karma-jito lokaḥ kṣīyata evam evāmutra puṇya-jito lokaḥ kṣīyate [Chā 8.1.6] iti śruti-bodhitasya phala-nāśasya sambhāvāj jñānaṃ vividiṣāṃ coddiśya kriyamāṇasya yajñādeḥ kāmyatvāt sarvāṅgopasaṃhāreṇānuṣṭheyasya yat kiṃcid aṅgāsampattāv api vaiguṇyāpatter yajñenety ādi-vākya-vihitānāṃ ca sarveṣāṃ karmaṇām ekena puruṣāyuṣa-paryavasāne ‚pi kartum aśakyatvāt kutaḥ karma-bandhaṃ prahāsyasīti-phalaṃ pratyāśety ata āha bhagavān neheti |
abhikramyate karmaṇā prārabhyate yat phalaṃ so ‚bhikramas tasya nāśas tad yathehety ādinā pratipādita iha niṣkāma-karma-yoge nāsti | etat-phalasya śuddheḥ pāpa-kṣaya-rūpatvena loka-śabda-vācya-bhogyatvābhāvena ca kṣayāsambhavāt | vedana-paryantāyā eva vividiṣāyāḥ karma-phalatvād vedanasya cāvyavadhānenājñāna-nivṛtti-phala-janakasya phalam ajanayitvā nāśāsambhavād iha phala-nāśo nāstīti sādhūktam | tad uktaṃ –
tad yatheheti yā nindā sā phale na tu karmaṇi |
phalecchāṃ tu parityajya kṛtaṃ karma viśuddhi-kṛt || iti |
tathā pratyavāyo ‚ṅga-vaiguṇya-nibandhanaṃ vaiguṇyam iha na vidyate tam iti vākyena nityānām evopātta-durita-kṣaya-dvāreṇa vividiṣāyāṃ viniyogāt | tatra ca sarvāṅgopasaṃhāra-niyamābhāvāt | kāmyānām api saṃyoga-pṛthaktva-nyāyena viniyoga iti pakṣe ‚pi phalābhisandhi-rahitatvena teṣāṃ nitya-tulyatvāt | nahi kāmya-nityāgnihotrayoḥ svataḥ kaścid viśeṣo ‚sti | phalābhisandhi-tad-abhāṣābhyām eva tu kāmyatva-nityatva-vyapadeśaḥ | idaṃ ca pakṣa-dvayam uktaṃ vārtike –
vedānuvacanādīnām aikātmya-jñāna-janmane |
tam etam iti vākyena nityānāṃ vakṣyate vidhiḥ ||
yad vā vividiṣārthatvaṃ kāmyānām api karmaṇām |
tam etam iti vākyena saṃyogasya pṛthaktvataḥ || iti |
tathā ca phalābhisandhinā kriyamāṇa eva karmaṇi sarvāṅgopa-saṃhāra-niyamāt tad-vilakṣaṇe śuddhy-arthe karmaṇi pratinidhyādinā samāpti-sambhavān nāṅga-vaiguṇya-nimittaḥ pratyavāyo ‚stīty arthaḥ | tathāsya śuddhy-arthasya dharmasya tam etam ity ādi-vākya-vihitasya madhye svalpam api saṅkhyayetikartavyatayā vā yathā-śakti-bhagavad-ārādhanārthaṃ kiṃcid apy anuṣṭhitaṃ san mahataḥ saṃsāra-bhayāt trāyate bhagavat-prasāda-sampādanenānuṣṭhātāraṃ rakṣati |
sarva-pāpa-prasakto ‚pi dhyāyan nimiṣam acyutam |
bhūyas tapasvī bhavati paṅki-pāvana-pāvanaḥ || ity ādi smṛteḥ |
tam etam iti vākye samuccaya-vidhāyakābhāvāc cāśuddhi-tāratamyād evānuṣṭhāna-tāratamyopapatter yuktam uktaṃ karma-bandhaṃ prahāsyasi

 

Viśvanātha

atra yogo dvividhaḥ śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhakti-rūpaḥ, śrī-bhagavad-arpita-niṣkāma-karma-rūpaś ca | tatra karmaṇy evādhikāraḥ ity ataḥ prāg bhakti-yoga eva nirūpyate | nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna ity ukter bhakter eve triguṇātītatvāt tayaiva puruṣo nistraiguṇyo bhavatīty ekādaśa-skandhe prasiddheḥ | jñāna-karmaṇos tu sāttvikatva-rājasatvābhyāṃ nistraiguṇyatvānupapatter bhagavad-arpita-lakṣaṇā bhaktis tu karmaṇo vaiphalyābhāva-mātraṃ pratipādayati, na tu svasya bhakti-vyapadeśaṃ prādhānyābhāvād eva | yadi ca bhagavad-arpitaṃ karmāpi bhaktir eveti mataṃ, tadā karma kiṃ syāt ? yad-bhagavad-anarpita-karma, tad eva karmeti cen, na |
naiṣkarmyam apy acyuta-bhāva-varjitaṃ
na śobhate jñānam alaṃ nirañjanam |
kutaḥ punaḥ śaśvad abhadram īśvare
na cārpitaṃ karma yad apy akāraṇam || [BhP 1.5.12]
iti nāradoktyā tasya vaiyarthya-pratipādanāt | tasmād atra bhagvac-caraṇa-mādhurya-prāpti-sādhanībhūtā kevala-śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-lakṣaṇaiva bhaktir nirūpyate, yathā niṣkāma-karma-yoga ‚pi nirūpayitavyaḥ | ubhāv apy etau buddhi-yoga-śabda-vācyau jñeyau – dadāmi buddhi-yogaṃ taṃ yena mām upayānti te [10.10], dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma buddhi-yogād dhanañjaya [2.49] iti cokteḥ |
atha nirguṇa-śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhakti-yogasya māhātmyam āha neheti | iha bhakti-yoge ‚bhikrame ārambha-mātre kṛte ‚py asya bhaktiyogasya nāśo nāsti | tataḥ pratyavāyaś ca na syāt | yathā karma-yoge ārambhaṃ kṛtvā karmānuṣṭhitavataḥ karma-nāśa-pratyavāyau syātām iti bhāvaḥ |
nanu tarhi tasya bhakty-anuṣṭhātu-kāmasya samucita-bhakty-akaraṇāt bhakti-phalaṃ tu naiva syāt | tatrāha svalpam iti | asya dharmasya svalpam apy ārambha-samaye yā kiñcin-mātrī bhaktir abhūt | sāpīty arthaḥ | mahato bhayāt saṃsārāt trāyata eva | yan-nāma sakṛc-chravaṇāt pukkaśo ‚pi vimucyate saṃsārād ity [BhP 6.16.44] ādi-śravaṇāt | ajāmilādau tathā darśanāc ca |
na hy aṅgopakrame dhvaṃso
mad-dharmasyoddhavāṇv api |
mayā vyavasitaḥ samyaṅ
nirguṇatvād anāśiṣaḥ || [BhP 11.29.20]
iti bhagavato vākyena sahāsya-vākyasyaikārtham eva dṛśyate | kintu tatra nirguṇatvān na hi guṇātītaṃ vastu kadācid dhvastaṃ bhavatīti hetur upanyastaḥ | sa cehāpi draṣṭavyaḥ | na ca niṣkāma-karmaṇo ‚pi bhagavad-arpaṇa-mahimnā nirguṇatvam eveti vācyam – mad-arpaṇaṃ niṣphalaṃ vā sāttvikaṃ nija-karma tat [BhP 11.25.23]

 

Baladeva

vakṣyamāṇayā buddhyā yuktaṃ karma-yogaṃ stauti neheti | iha tam etam ity ādi vākyokteḥ niṣkāma-karma-yoge ‚bhikramasyārambhasya phalotpādakatva-nāśo nāsti | ārambhasyāsamāptasya vaiphalyaṃ na bhavatīty arthaḥ | mantrādy-aṅga-vaikalye ca pratyavāyo na vidyate | ātmoddeśa-mahimnā oṃ tat sat iti bhagavan-nāmnā ca tasya vināśāt | iha bhagavad-arpitasya niṣāma-karma-lakṣaṇa-dharmasya kiñcid apy anuṣṭhitaṃ san mahato bhayāt saṃsārāt trāyate anuṣṭhātāraṃ rakṣati | vakṣyati caivaṃ pārtha naiveha nāmutra [Gītā 6.40] ity ādinā | kāmya-karmāṇi sarvāṅgopasaṃhāreṇānuṣṭhitāny ukta-phalāya kalpante | mantrādy-aṅga-vaikalye tu pratyavāyaṃ janayantīti | niṣkāma-karmāṇi tu yathā-śakty-anuṣṭhitāni jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ janayanty evokta-hetutaḥ pratyavāyaṃ noptādayantīti

 
 

BhG 2.41

vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana
bahu-śākhā hy anantāś ca buddhayo vyavasāyinām

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syntax


he kuru-nandana (O delight of the Kurus!),
iha (here) vyavasāyātmikā (resolute) buddhiḥ (intelligence) ekā (one) [asti] (is).
[kiṁtu] (but) avyavasāyinām (of those who are irresolute) buddhayaḥ hi (indeed the thoughts) anantāḥ (infinitive) bahu-śākhāḥ ca (many-branched) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

vyavasāyātmikā vyavasāya-ātmikā 1n.1 f.resolute, whose essence is determination (from: vi-ava-so – to settle down, to determine, vyavasāya – strenuous effort, determination, resolve; ātmaka – in compounds: being of this nature, f. ātmikā);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
ekā ekā sn. 1n.1 f.one;
iha av.here (in yoga);
kuru-nandana kuru-nandana 8n.1 m.; [TP]: kurūṇāṁ nandanetiO delight of the Kurus (from: kuru – Kuru, the Kurus – the descendants of Kuru; nand – to delight, nandana – delight, gladness);
bahu-śākhāḥ bahu-śākhā 1n.3 f.; BV: yāsāṁ bahvaḥ śākhāḥ santi tāḥ which has many branches (from: bahu – many, great; śākhā – branch, part, division);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
anantāḥ an-antā 1n.3 f.without end, infinitive (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
ca av.and;
buddhayaḥ buddhi 1n.3 f.intelligences, thoughts, understandings, knowledges, ideas, opinions (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
avyavasāyinām avyavasāyin 6n.3 m.of those who are irresolute (from: vi-ava-so – to settle down, to determine, vyavasāya – strenuous effort, determination, resolve);

 

textual variants


vyavasāyātmikā → vyavasāyātmakā / vyavasāyātikā (whose essence is certainty);
ekeha → ekaiva (one indeed);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Wisdom is one.
The wisdom concerning Sankhya and Yoga thus far described is of the following nature:

yeyaṃ sāṃkhye buddhir uktā yoge ca, vakṣyamāṇa-lakṣaṇā sā

Here, O son of Kuru, there is one thought of a resolute nature.
Many-branched and endless are the thoughts of the irresolute.

vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana |
bahu-śākhā hy anantāś ca buddhayo ’vyavasāyinām ||2.41||

Here, O son of Kuru, in this path to Bliss, there is only one thought of a resolute nature, and it is subversive of all other many-branched thoughts opposed to it, – that thought having sprung from the right source of knowledge.

vyavasāyātmikā niścaya-svabhāvā ekā eva buddhir itara-viparīta-buddhi-śākhā-bhedasya bādhikā, samyak-pramāṇa-janitatvāt, iha śreyo-mārge | he kurunandana |

Those other thoughts which are opposed to it are various. By acting up to these many-branched thoughts, saṁsāra becomes endless and ever-spreading. But when, owing to discrimination produced by the right source of knowledge these thoughts of endless variety cease, saṁsāra also ceases.

yāḥ punar itarā viparīta-buddhayaḥ, yāsāṃ śākhā-bheda-pracāra-vaśāt ananto ’pāro ’nuparataḥ saṃsāro nitya-pratato vistīrṇo bhavati, pramāṇa-janita-viveka-buddhi-nimitta-vaśāc ca uparatāsv ananta-bheda-buddhiṣu saṃsāro ’py uparamate |

Owing to variety in each of their branches, the thoughts of the irresolute – of those who are not possessed of the discrimination produced by the right source of knowledge – are endless.

tā buddhayo bahu-śākhāḥ bahvyaḥ śākhāḥ yāsāṃ tāḥ bahu-śākhāḥ, bahu-bhedā ity etat | pratiśākhā-bhedena hy anantā ca buddhayaḥ | keṣāṃ ? avyavasāyināṃ pramāṇa-janita-viveka-buddhi-rahitānām ity arthaḥ ||2.41||

 

Rāmānuja

kāmya-karma-viṣayāyā buddheḥ mokṣa-sādhana-bhūta-karma-viṣayāṃ buddhiṃ viśinaṣṭi—vyavasāyātmika iti | iha śāstrīye sarvasmin karmaṇi vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekā | mumukṣuṇā anuṣṭheye karmaṇi buddhir vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ | vyavasāyo niścayaḥ, sā hi buddhiḥ ātma-yāthātmya-niścaya-pūrvikā | kāmya-karma-viṣayā tu buddhir avyavasāyātmikā | tatra hi kāmādhikāre dehād atiriktātmastitva-mātram apekṣitam, nātma-svarūpa-yāthātmya-niścayaḥ | svarūpa-yāthātmyāniścaye’pi svargādi-phalārthitva-tat-sādhanānuṣṭhāna-tat-phalānubhavānāṃ saṃbhavād avirodhāc ca | seyaṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhir eka-phala-sādhana-viṣayatayaikā | ekasmai mokṣākhya-phalāya hi mumukṣoḥ sarvāṇi karmāṇi vidhīyante | ataḥ śāstrārthasya ekatvāt sarva-karma-viṣayā buddhir ekā eva | yathaika-phala-sādhanatayā āgneyādīnāṃ ṣaṇṇāṃ setikartavyatākānām eka-śāstrārthatayā tad-viṣayā buddhir ekā, tadvad ity arthaḥ |
avyavasāyināṃ tu svarga-putra-paśv-annādi-phala-sādhana-karmādhikṛtānāṃ buddhayaḥ phalānantyād anantāḥ | tatrāpi bahu-śākhāḥ | ekasmai phalāya codite’pi darśa-pūrṇamāsādau karmaṇi āyur aśāste suprajastvam āśāste ity ādy avagatāvāntara-phala-bhedena bahu-śākhātvaṃ ca vidyate | ato’vyavasāyināṃ buddhayo’nantā bahu-śākhāś ca |
etad uktaṃ bhavati—nityeṣu naimittikeṣu karmasu pradhāna-phalāni avāntara-phalāni ca yāni śrūyamāṇāni tāni sarvāṇi parityajya mokṣaika-phalatayā sarvāṇi karmāṇi eka-śāstrārthatayā anuṣṭheyāni | kāmyāni ca sva-varṇāśramocitāni tat-tat-phalāni parityajya mokṣa-phala-sādhanatayā nitya-naimittikair ekīkṛtya yathā-balam anuṣṭheyānīti

 

Śrīdhara

kuta ity apekṣāyām ubhayor vaiṣamyam āha vyavasāyātmiketi | iha īśvarārādhana-lakṣaṇe karma-yoge vyavasāyātmikā parameśvara-bhaktyaiva dhruvaṃ tariṣyāmīti niścayātmikā ekaiva ekaniṣṭhaiva buddhir bhavati | avyavasāyināṃ tu īśvarārādhana-bahirmukhānāṃ kāmināṃ kāmānām ānantyāt anantāḥ | tatrāpi hi karma-phala-guṇa-phalatvādi-prakāra-bhedād bahu-śākhāś ca buddhayo bhavanti | īśvarārādhanārthaṃ hi nityaṃ naimittikaṃ ca karma kiñcid aṅga-vaiguṇye ‚pi na naśyati | yathā śaknuyāt tathā kuryād iti hi tad vidhīyate | na ca vaiguṇyam api | īśvaroddeśenaiva vaiguṇyopaśamāt | na tu tathā kāmyaṃ karma | ato mahad vaiṣamyam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

etad-upapādanāya tam etam iti vākya-vihitānām ekārthatvam āha vyavasāyātmiketi | he kurunandaneha śreyo-mārge tam etam iti vākye vā vyavasāyātmikātma-tattva-niścayātmikā buddhir ekaiva caturṇām āśramāṇāṃ sādhyā vivakṣitā vedānuvacanena ity ādau tṛtīyā-vibhaktyā pratyekaṃ nirapekṣa-sādhanatva-bodhanāt | bhinnārthatve hi samuccayaḥ syāt | ekārthatve ‚pi darśa-pūrṇamāsābhyām itivad dvandva-samāsena yad agnaye ca prajāpataye cetivac ca-śabdena na tathātra kiṃcit pramāṇam astīty arthaḥ | sāṅkhya-viṣayā yoga-viṣayā ca buddhir eka-phalatvād ekā vyavasāyātmikā sarva-viparīta-buddhīnāṃ bādhikā nirdoṣa-veda-vākya-samutthatvād itarās tv avyavasāyināṃ buddhayo bādhyā ity artha iti bhāṣya-kṛtaḥ | anye tu parameśvarārādhanenaiva saṃsāraṃ tariṣyāmīti niścayātmikaika-niṣṭhaiva buddhir iha karma-yoge bhavatīty artham āhuḥ | sarvathāpi tu jñāna-kāṇḍānusāreṇa svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt ity upapannam | karma-kāṇḍe punar bahu-śākhā aneka-bhedāḥ kāmānām aneka-bhedatvāt | anantāś ca karma-phala-guṇa-phalādi-prakāropaśākhā-bhedāt, buddhayo bhavanty avyavasāyināṃ tat-tat-phala-kāmānām | buddhīnām ānantya-prasiddhi-dyotanārtho hi-śabdaḥ | ataḥ kāmya-karmāpekṣayā mahad-vailakṣaṇya-śuddhy-artha-karmaṇām ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

kiṃ ca sarvābhyo ‚pi buddhibhyo bhakti-yoga-viṣayiṇy eva buddhir uktṛṣṭety āha vyavasāyeti | iha bhakti-yoge vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekaiva | mama śrīmad-gurūpadiṣṭaṃ bhagavat-kīrtana-smaraṇa-caraṇa-paricarṇādikam etad eva mama sādhanam etad eva mama sādhyam etad eva mama jīvātuḥ sādhana-sādhya-daśayos tyaktum aśakyam etad eva me kāmyam etad eva me kāryam etad anyan na me kāryaṃ nāpy abhilaṣaṇīyaṃ svapne ‚pīty atra sukham astu duḥkhaṃ vāstu saṃsāro naśyatu vā na naśyatu | tatra mama kāpi na kṣatir ity evaṃ niścayātmikā buddhir akaitava-bhaktāv eva sambhavet | tad uktaṃ – tato bhajeta māṃ bhaktyā śraddhālur dṛḍha-niścayaḥ [BhP 11.20.28] iti |
tato ‚nyatra naiva buddhir ekety āha bahv iti | bahavaḥ śākhā yāsāṃ tāḥ | tathā hi karma-yoge kāmānām ānantyād buddhayo ‚nantāḥ | tathaiva jñāna-yoge prathamam antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhy-arthaṃ niṣkāma-karmaṇi buddhis tatas tasmin śuddhe sati karma-saṃnyāse buddhiḥ | tadā jñāne buddhiḥ | jñāna-vaiphalyābhāvārthaṃ bhaktau buddhiḥ jñānaṃ ca mayi saṃnyaset iti bhagavad-ukter jñāna-saṃnyāse ca bhaktau buddhir iti buddhayo ‚nantāḥ | karma-jñāna-bhaktīnām avaśyānuṣṭheyatvāt tat-tac-chākhā apy anantāḥ

 

Baladeva

kāmya-karma-viṣayaka-buddhito niṣkāma-karma-viṣayaka-buddher vaiśiṣṭyam āha vyavasāyeti | he kurunandana iha vaidikeṣu sarveṣu karmasu vyavasāyātmikā bhagavad-arcana-rūpair niṣkāma-karmabhir viśuddha-citto viṣorṇādivat tad-antargatena jñānenātma-yāthātmyam aham anubhaviṣyāmīti niścaya-rūpā buddhir ekā ekav-viṣayatvāt | ekasmai tad-anubhavāya teṣāṃ vihitatvād iti yāvat | avyavasāyinām kāmya-karmānuṣṭhātṝṇāṃ tu buddhayo hy anantāḥ | paśv-anna-putra-svargādy-ananta-kāma-viṣayatvāt | tatrāpi bahu-śākhāḥ | eka-phalake ‚pi darśa-paurṇamāsādāv āyuḥ suprajastādy-avāntarāneka-phalāśaṃsā-śravaṇāt | atra hi dehātiriktātma-jñāna-mātram apekṣate na tūktātma-yāthātmyaṃ tan niścaye kāmya-karmasu pravṛtter asambhavāt

 
 

BhG 2.42-44

yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ vācaṃ pravadanty avipaścitaḥ
veda-vāda-ratāḥ pārtha nānyad astīti vādinaḥ

kāmātmānaḥ svarga-parā janma-karma-phala-pradām
kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṃ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ
prati

bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṃ tayāpahṛta-cetasām
vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
[ye] (those who) avipaścitaḥ (unwise) veda-vāda-ratāḥ (who delight in the words of the Vedas) „anyat (other) na asti” iti (there is not) vādinaḥ (those who declare).
[te] (those) kāmātmānaḥ (whose nature is desire) svarga-parāḥ (who consider heaven the supreme goal), yām (that which) imām (this) janma-karma-phala-pradām (giving birth and the results of action) kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulām (abounding ith peculiar rites) bhogaiśvarya-gatim (the goal of luxuries and power) prati (towards) puṣpitām (flowery) vācam (speech) pravadanti (they declare).
tayā (by that) [puṣpitayā vācā] (by flowery speech) apahṛta-cetasām (of those whose minds are attracted) bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānām (of those who are attached to luxury and power) vyavasāyātmikā (resolute) buddhiḥ (intelligence) samādhau (in concentration) na vidhīyate (it is not made).

 

grammar

yām yat sn. 2n.1 f.that which;
imām idam sn. 2n.1 f.this;
puṣpitām puṣpitā 2n.1 f.flowery (from: puṣ – to flourish, puṣpa – flower);
vācam  vāk 2n.1 f.speech (from: vac – to speak);
pravadanti pra-vad (to speak, to declare) Praes. P 1v.3they declare;
avipaścitaḥ a-vipaścit 1n.3 m.who are unwise (from: vip – excited, inspired; cit – piled up or cit – thought, heart; vipaścit – wise, learned);
veda-vāda-ratāḥ veda-vāda-rataḥ 1n.3 m.; [TP]: vedānāṁ vāde ratā itiwho have delight in the words of the Vedas (from: vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas; vad – to speak, vāda – speech, dispute, doctrine; ram – to delight, [PP] rata – delighted);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
na av.not;
anyat anya sn. 1n.1 n.other;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
vādinaḥ vādin 1n.3 m.those who declare (from: vad – to speak, to declare)

*******

kāmātmānaḥ kāma-ātman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā kāmo ‘sti tethose who are full of desires (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; ātman – self);
svarga-parāḥ svarga-para 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ svargaḥ paro ‘sti tethose for whom heaven is most important (from: sūr – to hurt, to be firm, sūra – the sun, a wise man, svar – heaven, svar-ga – leading to heaven, heaven; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
janma-karma-phala-pradām janma-karma-phala-pradā 2n.1 f.janmāni ca karmaṇāṁ phalāni ca pradātāram giving birth and the results of action (from: jan – to be born, janman – birth; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; pra-da – suffix: giver = pradātṛ);
kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṁ kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulā 2n.1 f.; BV: yasyāḥ kriyā-viśeṣāṇāṁ bahulo ‘sti tāṁ abounding with peculiar rites (from: kṛ – to do, kriyā – act, work, especially religious one; śiṣ – to leave, viśeṣa – distinction, peculiarity; bahula – abundant, numerous);
bhogaiśvarya-gatiṁ bhoga-aiśvarya-gati 2n.1 f.; [TP]: bhogasya caiśvaryasya ca gatim itithe refuge for luxuries and power (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoga – enjoyment, luxuries, wealth; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord, aiśvarya – supremacy, dominion, power; gam – to go, gati – moving, passage, means, refuge, goal);
prati av.towards, against;

*******

bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānām bhoga-aiśvarya-prasakta 6n.3 m.; [TP]: bhoga aiśvarye ca prasaktānām itiof those who are attached to luxury and power (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoga – enjoyment, luxuries, wealth; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord, aiśvarya – supremacy, dominion, power; pra-sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, [PP] prasakta – attached, adhering to, engaged in);
tayā tat sn. 3n.1 f.by that;
apahṛta-cetasām apahṛta-cetas 6n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ ceto ‘pahṛtam asti teṣāmof those whose minds are stolen (from: apa-hṛ to carry away, [PP] apahṛta – carried away, stolen; cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
vyavasāyātmikā vyavasāya-ātmikā 1n.1 f.of fixed nature, resolute (from: vi-ava-so – to settle down, to determine, vyavasāya – strenuous effort, determination, resolve; ātmaka – in compounds: being of this nature, f. ātmikā);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
samādhau samādhi 7n.1 m.in union, in concentration, in harmony (from: sam-ā-dhā – to put, to fix, to compose, to concentrate);
na av.not;
vidhīyate vi-dhā (to bestow, to arrange, to make) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is made;

 

textual variants


avipaścitaḥ → vipaścitaḥ (those who are wise);
veda-vāda-ratāḥ → veda-vāda-parāḥ (those who consider the speech of the Vedas the supreme);
janma-karma-phala-pradām → janma-karma-phalepsavaḥ / janma-karma-phala-pradāḥ (desiring to attain the birth and the results of action / giving the birth and the results of action);
kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṁ → kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulā / kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulo (doing numerous peculiar rites);
bhogaiśvarya-gatiṁ → bhogaiśvarya-gatīḥ / bhogaiśvarya-gatiḥ (those who obtain luxuries and power as a result);
tayāpahṛta-cetasām → tathāpahṛta-cetasām / tayāpahata-cetasām / tayā ca hṛta-cetasām / tayāpakṛta-cetasām (thus of stolen minds / of minds hit by that / and of mind stolen by that / of minds made wrong by that);
vyavasāyātmikā → vyavasāyātmakā (of fixed nature);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Na wisdom possible for the worIdIy-minded.
As regards those who have no conviction of a resolute nature,

yeṣāṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhir nāsti te

No conviction of a resolute nature is formed in the mind of those
who are attached to pleasures and power,
and whose minds are drawn away by that flowery speech which the unwise –
enamoured of Vedic utterances, declaring there is nothing else,
full of desire, having svarga as their goal –
utter, (a speech) which promises birth as the reward of actions
and which abounds in specific acts for the attainment of pleasure and power,
O son of Pritha.

yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ vācaṃ pravadanty avipaścitaḥ |
veda-vāda-ratāḥ pārtha nānyad astīti vādinaḥ ||2.42||

They are unwise; they are wanting in discrimination. They are enamoured of the Vedic passages composed of many a praise (to gods) and unfolding various ends and means.

yām imāṃ vakṣyamāṇāṃ puṣpitāṃ puṣpita iva vṛkṣaḥ śobhamānāṃ śrūyamāṇa-ramaṇīyāṃ vācaṃ vākya-lakṣaṇāṃ pravadanti | ke ? avipaścito ’medhaso ’vivekina ity arthaḥ | veda-vāda-ratāḥ bahvy-artha-vāda-phala-sādhana-prakāśakeṣu veda-vākyeṣu ratāḥ |

They say that there is nothing else besides works which are the means of attaining svarga, cattle, and other such objects of desire.

he pārtha, na anyat svarga-prāpty-ādi-phala-sādhanebhyaḥ karmabhyo ’sti ity evaṃ vādinaḥ vadana-śīlāḥ ||2.42||

No conviction of a resolute nature is formed in the mind of those
who are attached to pleasures and power,
and whose minds are drawn away by that flowery speech which the unwise –
enamoured of Vedic utterances, declaring there is nothing else,
full of desire, having svarga as their goal –

utter, (a speech) which promises birth as the reward of actions
and which abounds in specific acts for the attainment of pleasure and power,
O son of Pritha.

te ca

kāmātmānaḥ svarga-parā janma-karma-phala-pradām |
kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṃ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati ||2.43||

They are full of desires and are ever in pursuit of them. Their chief and final goal is svarga. They talk words, fine like a flowery tree, very pleasant to hear.

kāmātmānaḥ kāma-svabhāvāḥ, kāma-parā ity arthaḥ | svarga-parāḥ svargaḥ paraḥ puruṣārthaḥ yeṣāṃ te svarga-parāḥ svarga-pradhānāḥ | janma-karma-phala-pradāṃ karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ karma-phalaṃ janmaiva karma-phalaṃ janma-karma-phalaṃ tat pradadātīti janma-karma-phala-pradā, tāṃ vācam pravadanti ity anuṣajyate |

Their speech holds out births as the reward of works, and treats of specific acts wherewith to secure svarga, cattle, progeny and the like, and wherewith to attain pleasures and power. Thus talking these foolish people wander in the saṁsara.

kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṃ kriyāṇāṃ viśeṣāḥ kriyā-viśeṣāḥ te bahulā yasyāṃ vāci tāṃ svarga-paśu-putrādy-arthāḥ yayā vācā bāhulyena prakāśyante |

They regard pleasure and power as necessary; they are in love with them and have identified themselves with them.

bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati bhogaś ca aiśvaryaṃ ca bhogaiśvarye, tayor gatiḥ prāptiḥ bhogaiśvarya-gatiḥ, tāṃ prati sādhana-bhūtāḥ ye kriyā-viśeṣāḥ tad-bahulāṃ tāṃ vācaṃ pravadantaḥ mūḍhāḥ saṃsāre parivartante ity abhiprāyaḥ ||2.43||

No conviction of a resolute nature is formed in the mind of those
who are attached to pleasures and power,
and whose minds are drawn away by that flowery speech which the unwise –
enamoured of Vedic utterances, declaring there is nothing else,
full of desire, having svarga as their goal –
utter, (a speech) which promises birth as the reward of actions
and which abounds in specific acts for the attainment of pleasure and power,
O son of Pritha.

teṣāṃ ca

bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṃ tayāpahṛta-cetasām |
vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate ||44||

Their intelligence and wisdom are blinded (as it were) by this speech abounding in specific acts. In their mind – samādhi, the buddhi, the antah-karana, in which are gathered together all objects of enjoyment for the purusha, the individual soul – no conviction of a resolute nature, no wisdom concerning Sankhya or Yoga will arise. bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṃ bhogaḥ kartavyaḥ caiśvaryaṃ ca iti bhogaiśvaryayor eva praṇayavatāṃ tad-ātma-bhūtānām | tayā kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulayā vācā apahṛta-cetasām ācchādita-viveka-prajñānāṃ vyavasāyātmikā sāṃkhye yoge vā buddhiḥ samādhau samādhīyate asmin puruṣopabhogāya sarvam iti samādhiḥ antaḥ-karaṇaṃ buddhiḥ tasmin samādhau, na vidhīyate na bhavati ity arthaḥ ||2.44||

 

Rāmānuja

atha kāmya-karmādhikṛtān nindati—yām imām iti | yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ puṣpa-mātra-phalām āpāta-ramaṇīyāṃ vācam avipaścito’lpajñā bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati vartamānāṃ pravadanti | veda-vāda-ratāḥ vedeṣu ye svargādi-phala-vādās teṣu saktāḥ, nānyad astiti vādinaḥ tat-saṅgātirekeṇa svargāder adhikaṃ phalaṃ nānyad asti iti vadantaḥ | kāmātmānaḥ kāma-pravaṇa-manasaḥ svarga-paraḥ svarga-parāyaṇāḥ svargādi-phalāvasāne punar-janma-karmākhya-phala-pradaṃ kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṃ tattva-jñānarhitatayā kriyāviśeṣapracuraṃ teṣāṃ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati vartamānāṃ yām imāṃ vācaṃ ye pravadanti iti sambandhaḥ
teṣāṃ bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṃ tayā vācā bhogaiśvarya-viṣayayā apahṛtātma-jñānānāṃ yathoditā vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau manasi na vidhīyate, notpadyate | samādhīyate’smin ātma-jñānam iti samādhir manaḥ | teṣāṃ manasy ātma-yāthātmya-niścaya-jñāna-pūrvaka-mokṣa-sādhana-bhūta-karma-viṣayā buddhiḥ kadācid api notpadyate ity arthaḥ | ataḥ kāmyeṣu karmasu mumukṣuṇā na saṅgaḥ kartavyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

nanu kāmino ‚pi kaṣṭān kāmān vihāya vyavasāyātmikām eva buddhiṃ kim iti na kurvanti | tatrāha yām imām ity ādi | yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ viṣa-latāvad āpāta-ramaṇīyāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ paramārtha-phala-parām eva vadanti vācaṃ svargādi-phala-śrutim | teṣāṃ tayā vācā ‚pahṛta-cetasāṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate iti tṛtīyenānvayaḥ | kim iti tathā vadanti | yato ‚vipaścito mūḍhāḥ | tatra hetuḥ veda-vāda-ratā iti | vede ye vādā artha-vādāḥ | akṣayyaṃ ha vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati | tathā, apāṃ somam amṛtā ambhūma ity ādyāḥ | teṣv eva ratāḥ prītāḥ | ataevātaḥparam anyad īśvara-tattvaṃ prāpyaṃ nāstīti-vadana-śīlāḥ
ataeva kāmātmāna iti | kāmātmānaḥ kāmākulita-cittāḥ | ataḥ svarga eva paraḥ puruṣārtho yeṣāṃ te | janma ca tatra karmāṇi ca tat-phalāni ca pradadātīti tathā | tāṃ bhogaiśvaryayor gatiṃ prāptiṃ prati sādhana-bhūtā ye kriyā-viśeṣās te bahulā yasyāṃ tāṃ pravadantīty anuṣaṅgaḥ

tataś ca bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānām ity ādi | bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānām abhiniviṣṭānāṃ tayā puṣpitayā vācāpahṛtam ākṛṣṭaṃ ceto yeṣām teṣām | samādhiś cittaikāgryam | parameśvarābhimukhatvam iti yāvat | tasmin niścayātmikā buddhis tu na vidhīyate | karma-kartari prayogaḥ | sā notpadyata iti bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

avyavasayinām api vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ kuto na bhavati pramāṇasya tulyatvād ity āśaṅkya pratibandhaka-sad-bhāvān na bhavatīty āha yām imām iti tribhiḥ | kuta evam ata āha bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulām amṛta-pānorvaśī-vihāra-pārijāta-parimalādi-nibandhano yo bhogas tat-kāraṇaṃ ca yad aiśvaryaṃ devādi-svāmitvaṃ tayor gatiṃ prāptiṃ prati sādhana-bhūtā ye kriyā-viśeṣā agnihotra-darśa-pūrṇamāsa-jyotiṣṭomādayas tair bahulāṃ vistṛtām atibāhulyena bhogaiśvarya-sādhana-kriyā-kalāpa-pratipādikām iti yāvat | karma-kāṇḍasya hi jñāna-kāṇḍāpekṣayā sarvatrātivistṛtatvaṃ prasiddham | etādṛśīṃ karma-kāṇḍa-lakṣaṇāṃ vācaṃ pravadanti prakṛṣṭāṃ paramārtha-svargādi-phalām abhyupagacchanti |
ke ye ‚vipaścito vicāra-janya-tātparya-parijñāna-śūnyāḥ | ataeva veda-vāda-ratā vede ye santi vādā artha-vādāḥ akṣayyaṃ ha vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati ity evam ādayas teṣv eva ratā vedārtha-satyatvenaivam evaitad iti mithyā-viśvāsena santuṣṭāḥ | he pārtha ! ataeva nānyad astīti-vādinaḥ karma-kāṇḍāpekṣayā nāsty anyaj jñāna-kāṇḍaṃ sarvasyāpi vedasya kārya-paratvāt | karma-phalāpekṣayā ca nāsty anyan niratiśayaṃ jñāna-phalam iti vadana-śīlā mahatā prabandhena jñāna-kāṇḍa-viruddhārtha-bhāṣiṇa ity arthaḥ | kuto mokṣa-dveṣiṇyas te ? yataḥ kāmātmānaḥ kāmyamāna-viṣaya-śatākula-cittatvena kāma-mayāḥ | evaṃ sati mokṣam api kuto na kāmayante ? yataḥ svarga-parāḥ svarga evorvaśy-ādy-apetatvena para utkṛṣṭo yeṣāṃ te tathā | svargātiriktaḥ puruṣārtho nāstīti bhrāmyanto viveka-vairāgyābhāvān mokṣa-kathām api soḍhum akṣamā iti yāvat |
teṣāṃ ca pūrvokta-bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānāṃ kṣayitvādi-doṣādarśanena niviṣṭāntaḥ-karaṇānāṃ tayā kriyā-viśeṣa-bhulayā vācāpahṛtam ācchāditaṃ ceto viveka-jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ tathā-bhūtānām artha-vādāḥ stuty-arthās tātparya-viṣaye pramāṇāntarābādhite vedasya prāmāṇyam iti suprasiddham api jñātum aśaktānāṃ samādhāv antaḥ-karaṇe vayavasāyātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate na bhavatīty arthaḥ | samādhi-viṣayā vyavasāyātmikā buddhis teṣāṃ na bhavatīti vā adhikaraṇe viṣaye vā sapatamyās tulyatvāt | vidhīyata iti karma-kartari la-kāraḥ | samādhīyate ‚smin sarvam iti vyutpattyā samādhir antaḥ-karaṇaṃ vā paramātmā veti nāprasiddhārtha-kalpanam | ahaṃ brahmety avasthānaṃ samādhis tan-nimittaṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhir noptadyata iti vyākhyāne tu rūḍhir evādṛtā |
ayaṃ bhāvaḥ — yadyapi kāmyāny agnihotrādīni śuddhy-arthebhyo na viśiṣyante tathāpi phalābhisandhi-doṣān nāśaya-śuddhiṃ sampādayanti | bhogānuguṇā tu śuddhir na jñānopayoginī | etad eva darśayituṃ bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānām iti punar upāttam | phalābhisandhim antareṇa tu kṛtāni jñānopayoginīṃ śuddhim ādadhatīti siddhaṃ vipaścid-avipaścitoḥ phala-vailakṣaṇyam | vistareṇa caitad agre pratipādayiṣyate

 

Viśvanātha

tasmād avyavasāyinaḥ sakāma-karmiṇas tv atimandā ity āha yām imām iti | puṣpitāṃ vācaṃ puṣpitāṃ viphalatām ivāpātato ramaṇīyam | pravadanti prakarṣeṇa sarvataḥ prakṛṣṭā iyam eva veda-vāg iti ye vadanti, teṣāṃ tayā vācā apahṛta-cetasāṃ ca vyavasāyātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate iti tṛtīyenānvayaḥ | teṣu tasyā asambhavāt sā teṣu nopadiśyata ity arthaḥ | kim iti te tathā vadanti, yato ‚vipaścito mūrkhāḥ | tatra hetuḥ vedeṣu ye ‚rtha-vādāḥ – akṣayyaṃ vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati, apāṃ somam amṛtā ambhūma ity ādyāḥ | anyad īśvara-tattvaṃ nāstīti prajalpinas te kīdṛśīṃ vācaṃ pravadanti | janma-karma-phala-pradāyinīṃ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṃ prati ye kriyā-viśeṣās tān bahu yathā syāt tathā lāti dadāti pratipādayatīti tām

tataś ca bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānām tayā puṣpitayā vācā apahṛtam ākṛṣṭaṃ ceto yeṣām te | tathā teṣām samādhiś cittaikāgryam parameśvaraikonmukhatvaṃ tasmin niścayātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate | karma-kartari prayogaḥ | sā notpadyata iti bhāvaḥ iti svāmi-vacanaiḥ

 

Baladeva

nanv eṣāṃ vyavasāyātmikā buddhir bhavet śrutes taulyād iti cec citta-doṣān na bhaved ity āha yām iti tribhiḥ | avipaścito ‚lpa-jñāḥ yām imāṃ jyotiṣṭomena svarga-kāmo yajetety ādikāṃ vācaṃ pravadanti iyam eva prakṛṣṭā vedavāg iti kalpayanti | tayā vācāpahṛta-cetasāṃ teṣāṃ samādhau manasi vyavasāyātmikā buddhir na vidhīyate nābhyudeti ity anuṣaṅgaḥ | kīdṛśīṃ vācam ity āha puṣpitām iti || kusumita-viṣa-latāvad āpāta-manojñāṃ niṣphalām ity arthaḥ | evaṃ kutas te vadanti tatrāha vedeti | vedeṣu ye vādāḥ apāṃ somam amṛtā ambhūma, akṣayyaṃ ha vai cāturmāsya-yājinaḥ sukṛtaṃ bhavati ity ādayo ‚rthavādās teṣv eva ratāḥ vedasya satya-bhāṣitvād evam evaitad iti pratītimantaḥ | ataeva nānyad iti karma-phalāt svargād anyat jīvāṃśi-paramārtha-jñānaṃ labhyaṃ mokṣa-lakṣaṇaṃ niratiśayaṃ nitya-sukhaṃ nāsti | tat-pratipādikānāṃ vedānta-vācāṃ karmāṅga-kartṛ-devatād ekatayā tac-cheṣatvād iti vadana-śīlā ity arthaḥ
citta-doṣam āha kāmātmānaḥ vaiṣayika-sukha-vāsanā-grasta-cittāḥ | evaṃ cet tādṛśaṃ mokṣaṃ kuto necchanti tatrāha svargeti | svarga eva sudhā devāṅganādy-upetatvena paraḥ śreṣṭho yeṣāṃ te | tādṛg-vāsanā-grastatvāt teṣāṃ nānyad bhāṣata ity arthaḥ | janma karmeti janma ca dehendriya-sambandha-laksaṇaṃ, tatra karma ca tat-tad-varṇāśrama-vihitaṃ, phalaṃ ca vināśi-paśv-anna-svargādi | tāni prakarṣeṇāvicchedena dadāti tāṃ bhogaiśvaryayor gatiṃ prāptiṃ prati ye kriyā-viśeṣā jyotiṣṭpmādayas te bahulāḥ pracurā yatra tāṃ vācaṃ vadantīti pūrveṇānvayaḥ | bhogaḥ sudhā-pāna-devāṅganādiḥ, aiśvaryaṃ ca devādi-svāmitvaṃ tayor gatim ity arthaḥ
baladevaḥ : bhogeti teṣāṃ pūrvoktayor bhogaiśvaryayoḥ prasaktānāṃ kṣayitva-doṣāsphūrtyā tayor abhiniviṣṭānāṃ tayā puṣpitayā vācāpahṛtam viluptaṃ ceto viveka-jñānaṃ yeṣām tādṛśānāṃ samādhāv iti yo ‚yam | samyag ādhīyate ‚sminn ātma-tattva-yāthātmyam iti nirukteḥ samādhir manas tasminn ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.45

traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna
nirdvaṃdvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-kṣema ātmavān

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna),
vedāḥ (the Vedas) trai-guṇya-viṣayāḥ (whose subject is the three guṇas) [santi] (they are).
[tvam tu] (but you) nis-trai-guṇyaḥ (without relation to the three guṇas), nir-dvandvaḥ (without opposites), nitya-sattva-sthaḥ (who always stays in sattva), nir-yoga-kṣemaḥ (without [desire for] gain and comfort), ātmavān (composed) bhava (be).

 

grammar

traiguṇya-viṣayāḥ traiguṇya-viṣaya 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām trayāṇāṁ guṇānāṁ viṣayo ‘sti tewhose subject is the three guṇas (from: tri – three; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread, traiguṇya – from: tri-guṇa – related to the three qualities; viṣ – to be active, to perform; viṣa – active, poison, viṣaya – sphere, territory, scope, sense object, subject);
vedāḥ veda 1n.3 m.the Vedas (vid – to know, to understand);
nistraiguṇyaḥ nistraiguṇya 1n.1 m.without relation to the three guṇas (from: nis – out of, away from, without – mostly as prefix; tri – three; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread, traiguṇya – from: tri-guṇa – related to the three qualities);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1be;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
nirdvaṁdvaḥ nirdvaṁdva 1n.1 m.without opposites (from: nis – out of, away from, without – mostly as prefix; dva – two, dvaṁdva – two-two, pair of opposites);
nitya-sattva-sthaḥ nitya-sattva-stha 1n.1 m.yo nityaṁ sattve tiṣṭhati saḥone who always stays in sattva (from: nitya – continual, eternal; as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
niryoga-kṣemaḥ niryoga-kṣema 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya yogaḥ ca kṣemaḥ ca nāsti saḥone who is without [desire for] gain and comfort (from: nis – out of, away from, without – mostly as prefix; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; kṣema – safety, peace, comfortable state);
ātmavān ātmavant 1n.1 m.having the self, composed (from: ātman – self; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);

 

textual variants


traiguṇya-viṣayā → traiguṇyo viṣayā / traiguṇa-viṣayā / tri-guṇya-viṣayā (whose scope is the state of three guṇas / whose scope is the three guṇas);
nistraiguṇyo → nistraiguṇye (in the state of lack of relation to the three guṇas);
nirdvaṁdvo → nirdvaṁdve (in the lack of opposites);
niryoga-kṣema → niryogaḥ kṣema (without gain, comfort);
ātmavān → ātmanaḥ (of the self);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Advice to the Yogin.
The Lord now speaks of the result accruing to those lustful persons who are thus wanting in discrimination:

ya evaṃ viveka-buddhi-rahitāḥ teṣāṃ kāmātmanāṃ yat phalaṃ tad āha

The Vedas treat of the triad of the gunas.
Be, O Arjuna, free from the triad of the guṇas, free from pairs,
free from acquisition and preservation,
ever remaining in the Sattva (Goodness), and self-possessed.

traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna |
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-kṣema ātmavān ||2.45||

The Vedas treat of the triad of the guṇas; saṁsara is their subject. You, on the other hand, had better be free from the triad of the guṇas, i.e., be without desires.

traiguṇya-viṣayāḥ traiguṇyaṃ saṃsāro viṣayaḥ prakāśayitavyaḥ yeṣāṃ te vedāḥ traiguṇya-viṣayāḥ | tvaṃ tu nistraiguṇyo bhava arjuna, niṣkāmo bhava ity arthaḥ |

Be free from pairs (dvandvas), from all mutually opposed objects which are the causes of pleasure and pain. Take your stand ever in the Sattva: practise purity.

nirdvandvaḥ sukha-duḥkha-hetū sa-pratipakṣau padārthau dvandva-śabda-vācyau | tataḥ nirgataḥ nirdvandvo bhava | nitya-sattva-sthaḥ sadā sattva-guṇāśrito bhava |

To him who is anxious to acquire what has not been acquired and to preserve what has been already acquired, practice of virtue is impossible; wherefore be not anxious about new acquisitions or about the preservation of the old ones.

tathā niryoga-kṣemo ’nupāttasya upādānaṃ yogaḥ, upāttasya rakṣaṇaṃ kṣemaḥ, yoga-kṣema-pradhānasya śreyasi pravṛttir duṣkarā ity ataḥ niryoga-kṣemo bhava |

Be also self-possessed: be guarded. This is the advice you have to follow when engaged in the performance of duty.

ātmavān apramattaś ca bhava | eṣa tava upadeśaḥ sva-dharmam anutiṣṭhataḥ ||2.45||

 

Rāmānuja

evam atyantālpa-phalāni punar-janma-prasavāni karmāṇi mātā-pitṛ-sahasrebhyo’pi vatsalatartayā ātmopajīvane pravṛttā vedaḥ kimarthaṃ vadanti ? kathaṃ vā vedoditāni tyājyatayā ucyante iti atra āha—traiguṇya iti | trayo guṇāḥ triguṇyaṃ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsi | sattva-rajs-tamaḥ-pracurāḥ puruṣāḥ traiguṇya-śabdenocyante | tad-viṣayā vedaḥ | tamaḥ-pracurāṇāṃ rajaḥ-pracurāṇāṃ sattva-pracurāṇāṃ ca vatsalataratayaiva hitam avabodhayanti vedaḥ | yady eṣāṃ sva-guṇānuguṇyena svargādi-sādhanam eva hitaṃ nāvabodhayanti, tadaiva te rajas-tamaḥ-pracuratayā sāttvika-phala-mokṣa-vimukhāḥ svāpekṣita-phala-sādhanam ajānantaḥ kāma-prāvaṇya-vivaśā anupāyeṣu upāya-bhrāntyā praviṣṭāḥ praṇaṣṭā bhaveyuḥ |
atas traiguṇya-viṣayā vedaḥ | tvaṃ tu nistraiguṇyo bhava | idānīṃ sattva-pracuras tvaṃ tad eva vardhaya | nānyonya-saṃkīrṇa-guṇa-traya-pracuro bhava | na tat prācuryaṃ vardhaya ity arthaḥ | nirdvandvaḥ nirgata-sakala-sāṃsārika-svabhāvaḥ | nitya-sattva-sthaḥ guṇa-dvaya-rahita-nitya-pravṛddha-sattva-stho bhava | katham iti cet, niryoga-kṣema ātma-svarūpa-tat-prāpty-upāya-bahir-bhūtānām arthānāṃ yogaṃ prāptānāṃ ca kṣemaṃ paripālanaṃ parityajya ātmavān bhava | ātma-svarūpānveṣaṇa-paro bhava | aprāptasya prāptir yogaḥ | prāptasya parirakṣaṇaṃ kṣemaḥ | evaṃ vartamānasya te rajas-tamaḥ pracuratā naśyati sattvaṃ ca vardhate

 

Śrīdhara

nanu svargādikaṃ paramaṃ phalaṃ yadi na bhavati, tarhi kim iti vedas tat-sādhanatayā karmāṇi vidhīyante | tatrāha traiguṇya-viṣayā iti | triguṇātmakāḥ sakāmā ye ‚dhikāriṇas tad-viṣayās teṣāṃ karma-phala-sambandha-pratipādakā vedāḥ | tvaṃ tu nistraiguṇyo niṣkāmo bhava | tatropāyam āha – nirdvandvaḥ | sukha-duḥkha-śītoṣṇādi-yugalāni dvandvāni | tad-rahito bhava | tāni sahasvety arthaḥ | katham iti | ata āha nitya-sattva-sthaḥ san | dhryam avalambyety arthaḥ | tathā niryoga-kṣemaḥ | aprāpta-svīkāro yogaḥ, prāpta-pālanaṃ kṣemaḥ | tad-rahitaḥ | ātmavān apramattaḥ | nahi dvandvākulasya yoga-kṣema-vyāpṛtasya ca pramādinas traiguṇyātikramaḥ sambhavatīti

 

Madhusūdana

nanu sakāmānāṃ mā bhūd āśaya-doṣād vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ | niṣkāmānāṃ tu vyavasāyātmaka-buddhyā karma kurvatāṃ karma-svābhāvyāt svargādi-phala-prāptau jñāna-pratibandhaḥ samāna ity āśaṅkyāha traiguṇyeti | trayāṇāṃ guṇānāṃ karma traiguṇyaṃ kāma-mūlaḥ saṃsāraḥ | sa eva prakāśatvena viṣayo yeṣāṃ tādṛśā vedāḥ karma-kāṇḍātmakā yo yat-phala-kāmas tasyaiva tat-phalaṃ bodhayantīty arthaḥ | na hi saarvebhyaḥ kāmebhyo darśa-pūrṇamāsāv iti viniyoge ‚pi sakṛd-anuṣṭhānāt sarva-phala-prāptir bhavati tat-tat-kāmanāvirahāt | yat-phala-kāmanayānutiṣṭhati tad eva phalaṃ tasmin prayoga iti sthitaṃ yogasiddhy-adhikaraṇe | yasmād evaṃ kāmā-virahe phala-virahas tasmāt tvaṃ nistraiguṇyo niṣkāmo bhava | he arjuna ! etena karma-svābhāvyāt saṃsāro nirastaḥ |
nanu śītoṣṇādi-dvandva-pratīkārāya vastrādy-apekṣaṇāt kuto niṣkāmatvam ata āha nirdvandvaḥ | sarvatra bhaveti sambadhyate | mātrā-sparśās tv ity ukta-nyāyena śītoṣṇādi-dvandva-sahiṣṇur bhava | tasmiṃs tiṣṭhatīti tathā | rajas-tamobhyām abhibhūta-sattvo hi śītoṣṇādi-pīḍayā mariṣyāmīti manvāno dharmād vimukho bhavati | tvaṃ tu rajas tamasī abhibhūya sattva-mātrālambano bhava |
nanu śītoṣṇādi-sahane ‚pi kṣut-pipāsādi-pratīkārārthaṃ kiṃcid anupāttam upādeyam upāttaṃ ca rakṣaṇīyam iti tad-arthaṃ yatne kriyamāṇe kutaḥ sattva-sthatvam ity ata āha niryoga-kṣemaḥ | alabdha-lābho yogaḥ, labdha-parirakṣaṇaṃ kṣemas, tad-rahito bhava | citta-vikṣepa-kāri-parigraha-rahito bhavety arthaḥ | na caivaṃ cintā kartavyā katham evaṃ sati jīviṣyāmīti | yataḥ sarvāntaryāmī parameśvara eva tava yoga-kṣemādi nirvāhayiṣyatīty āha ātmavān | ātmā paramātmā dhyeyatvena yoga-kṣemādi-nirvāhakatvena ca vartate yasya sa ātmavān | sarva-kāmanā-parityāgena parameśvaram ārādhayato mama sa eva deha-yātrā-mātram apekṣitaṃ sampādayiṣyatīti niścitya niścinto bhavety arthaḥ | ātmavān apramatto bhaveti vā

 

Viśvanātha

tvaṃ tu catur-varga-sādhanebhyo virajya kevalaṃ bhakti-yogam evāśrayasvety āha traiguṇyeti | traiguṇyās triguṇātmikāḥ karma-jñānādyāḥ prakāśyatvena viṣayā yeṣāṃ te traiguṇya-viṣayā vedāḥ svārthe ṣyañ, etac ca bhūmnā vyapadeśā bhavanti iti nyāyenoktam | kintu bhaktir evainaṃ nayati iti | yasya deve parā bhaktir yathā deve tathā gurau ity ādi śrutayaḥ | pañcarātrādi-smṛtayaś ca gītopaniṣad-gopāla-tāpanyādy-upaniṣadaś ca nirguṇāṃ bhaktim api viṣayīkurvanty eva vedoktatvābhāve bhakter aprāmāṇyam eva syāt | tataś ca vedoktā ye triguṇamayā jñāna-karma-vidhayas tebhya eva nirgato bhava tān na kuru | ye tu vedoktā bhakti-vidhayas tāṃs tu sarvathaivānutiṣṭha | tad-anuṣṭhāne –
śruti-smṛti-purāṇādi-pāñcarātra-vidhiṃ vinā |
aikāntikī harer bhaktir utpātāyaiva kalpyate ||
iti doṣo durvāra eva | tena sa-guṇānāṃ guṇātītānām api, vedānā-viṣayās traiguṇyā nistraiguṇyāś ca | tatra tvaṃ tu nistraiguṇyo bhava | nirguṇayā mad-bhaktyaiva triguṇātmakebhyas tebhyo niṣkrānto bhava | tata eva nirdvandvo guṇamaya-mānāpamānādi-rahitaḥ | ataeva nityaiḥ sattvaiḥ prāṇibhir mad-bhaktair eva saha tiṣṭhatīti tathā saḥ | nityaṃ sattva-guṇastho bhaveti vyākhyāyāṃ nistraiguṇyo bhaeti vyākhyāyāṃ virodhaḥ syāt | alabdha-lābho yogaḥ, labdhasya rakṣaṇaṃ kṣemas tad-rahitaḥ | mad-bhakti-rasāsvāda-vaśād eva tayor ananusandhānāt | yoga-kṣemaṃ vahāmy aham it bhakta-vatsalena mayaiva tad-bhāra-vahanāt | ātmavān mad-datta-buddhi-yuktaḥ | atra nistraiguṇya-traiguṇyayor vivecanam | yad uktam ekādaśe –
mad-arpaṇaṃ niṣphalaṃ vā sāttvikaṃ nija-karma yat |
rājasaṃ phala-saṅkalpaṃ hiṃsā-prāyādi tāmasam || [BhP 11.25.23]
niṣphalaṃ veti naimittikaṃ nija-karma-phalākāṅkṣyā-rahitam ity arthaḥ |
kaivalyaṃ sāttvikaṃ jñānaṃ rajo vaikalpikaṃ tu yat |
prākṛtaṃ tāmasaṃ jñānaṃ man-niṣṭhaṃ nirguṇaṃ smṛtam ||
vanaṃ tu sāttviko vāso grāmo rājasa ucyate |
tāmasaṃ dyuta-sadanaṃ man-niketaṃ tu nirguṇam ||
sāttvikaḥ kārako ‚saṅgī rāgāndho rājasaḥ smṛtaḥ |
tāmasaḥ smṛti-vibhraṣṭo nirguṇo mad-apāśrayaḥ ||
sāttvikyādhyātmikī śraddhā karma-śraddhā tu rājasī |
tāmasy adharme yā śraddhā mat-sevāyāṃ tu nirguṇā ||
pathyaṃ pūtam anāyastam āhāryaṃ sāttvikaṃ smṛtam |
rājasaṃ cendriya-preṣṭhaṃ tāmasaṃ cārtidāśuci ||
sāttvikaṃ sukham ātmotthaṃ viṣayotthaṃ tu rājasam |
tāmasaṃ moha-dainyotthaṃ nirguṇaṃ mad-apāśrayam || [BhP 11.25.24-29] iti |
ity antena granthena traiguṇya-vastūny api bhaktyā svasmin kathañcit sthitasya traiguṇyasya nirjayo ‚py uktas tad-anantaram eva | yathā –
dravyaṃ deśas tathā kālo jñānaṃ karma ca kārakaḥ |
śraddhāvasthā-kṛtir niṣṭhā traiguṇyaḥ sarva eva hi ||
sarve guṇamayā bhāvāḥ puruṣāvyakta-dhiṣṭhitāḥ |
dṛṣṭaṃ śrutam anudhyātaṃ buddhyā vā puruṣarṣabha ||
etāḥ saṃsṛtayaḥ puṃso guṇa-karma-nibandhanāḥ |
yeneme nirjitāḥ saumya guṇājīvena cittajāḥ |
bhakti-yogena man-niṣṭho mad-bhāvāya prapadyate || [BhP 11.25.30-32]
tasmād bhaktyaiva nirguṇayā traiguṇyajayo nānyathā | atrāpy agre kathaṃ caitāṃs trīn guṇān ativartate iti praśne vakṣyate —
māṃ ca yo ‚vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate |
sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate || [Gītā 14.26]
śrī-svāmi-caraṇānāṃ vyākhyā ca – ca-kāro ‚trāvadhāraṇārthaḥ | mām eva parameśvaram avyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate ity eṣā |
nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna nirdvandvo nityasattvastho niryogakṣema ātmavān

 

Baladeva

nanu phalanairapekṣyeṇa karmāṇi kurvāṇān api tāni sva-phalair yojayeyus tat svābhāvyāt tataḥ kathaṃ tad-buddheḥ sambhava iti cet tatrāha traiguṇyeti | trayāṇāṃ guṇānāṃ karma traiguṇyam | guṇa-vacana-brāhmaṇādibhyaḥ karmaṇi ca iti sūtrāt [Pāṇ 5.1.124] ṣyañ-sakāmatvam ity arthaḥ | tad-viṣayā vedāḥ karma-kāṇḍāni tvaṃ tu tac-chiro-bhūta-vedānta-niṣṭho nistraiguṇyo niṣkāmo bhava |
ayam arthaḥ – pitṛ-koṭi-vatsalo hi vedo ‚nādi-bhagavad-vimukhān māyā-guṇair nibaddhāṃs tad-guṇa-sṛṣṭa-sāttvikādi-sukha-saktān prati tat-kāmān anurudhya phalāni prakāśayan svasmiṃs tān viśrambhayati | tad-viśrambheṇa tat-pariśīlinas te tan-mūrdha-bhūtopanisat-pratīta-yāthātmya-niścayena tāṃ buddhiṃ yāntīti na cākāmitāny api tāny āpateyuḥ kāmitānām eva teṣāṃ phalatva-śravaṇāt | na ca sarveṣāṃ vedānāṃ traiguṇya-viṣayatvaṃ nistraiguṇyatāyā aprāmāṇikatvāpatteḥ |
nanu śītoṣṇādi-nivāraṇāya mātrāsparśās tu kaunteyety ādi vimarśena dvandva-saho bhava | tatra hetur nityeti | nityaṃ yat sattvam apariṇāmitvaṃ jīva-niṣṭhaṃ tat-sthas tad-vibhāvyety arthaḥ | tata eva niryogakṣemaḥ | alabdha-lābho yogaḥ labdhasya parirakṣaṇaṃ kṣemaṃ tad-rahito bhavety arthaḥ |
nanu kṣut-pipāse tathāpi vādhike iti cet tatrāha ātmavān iti | ātmā viśvambharaḥ paramātmā sa yasya dhyeyatayāsti tādṛśo bhavety arthaḥ | sa te deha-yātrāṃ sampādayed ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.46

yāvān artha udapāne sarvataḥ saṃplutodake
tāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vijānataḥ

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syntax


udapāne (in a well) yāvān (as much) arthaḥ (value) [siddhaḥ bhavati] (is gained),
sarvataḥ (from all sides) saṁplutodake (in inundating water) tāvān (that much) [arthaḥ siddhaḥ bhavati] (value is gained).
[tadvat] (similarly) sarveṣu (in all) vedeṣu (in the Vedas) [yāvān arthaḥ siddhaḥ bhavati] (as much value is gained),
[tavan arthaḥ] (that much value) vijānataḥ (of one who understands) brāhmaṇasya (of a brāhmaṇa) [siddhaḥ bhavati] (is gained).

 

grammar

yāvān yāvat 1n.1 m.as much, to which extent (correlative of: tāvat);
arthaḥ artha 1n.1 m.purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth (from: arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request);
udapāne uda-pāna 7n.1 n.in a well, in a pond (from: uda – in compounds: water = udaka; pāna – drinking, drinking vessel);
sarvataḥ av. from all sides, everywhere, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
saṁplutodake saṁpluta-udaka 7n.1 n.in an overflowing water, in a big lake (from: sam-plu – to inundate, [PP] saṁpluta – flooded over, filled with, flowed together; udaka – water);
tāvān tāvat 1n.1 m.that much, to that extent;
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 m.in all;
vedeṣu veda 7n.3 m.in the Vedas (vid – to know, to understand);
brāhmaṇasya brāhmaṇa 6n.1 m.of a brāhmaṇa (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas);
vijānataḥ vijānant (vi-jñā – to understand) PPr 6n.1 m.of one who understands;

 

textual variants


udapāne → udak-pāne (in a drink flowing north or upwards);
vedeṣu → bhuteṣu (in creatures);
brāhmaṇasya → brāhmaṇyasya (suitable for a brāhmaṇa, collection of brahmaṇas);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Karma-Yoga.
(Question): – If all those endless advantages which are said to result from the Vedic rituals are not to be sought after, to what end are they to be performed and dedicated to the Īśvara?
(Answer): – Listen to what follows:

sarveṣu vedokteṣu karmasu yāny uktāny anantāni phalāni tāni nāpekṣyante cet, kim arthaṃ tāni īśvarāyety anuṣṭhīyante ity ucyate | śṛṇu

What utility there is in a reservoir (as compared) with an all-spreading flood of water,
the same (utility) there is in all Vedas for an enlightened Brāhmana.

yāvān artha udapāne sarvataḥ saṃplutodake |
tāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vijānataḥ ||2.46||

Whatever utility – of bathing, drinking, and the like – Is served by a well, a tank, and many other small reservoirs of water &c., all that utility is only as much as the utility which is served by an all-spreading flood of water; that is, the former utility is comprehended in the latter

yathā loke kūpa-taḍāgādy-anekasmin udapāne paricchinnodake yāvān yāvat-parimāṇaḥ snāna-pānādir arthaḥ phalaṃ prayojanaṃ sa sarvo ’rthaḥ sarvataḥ saṃplutodake ’pi yo ’rthaḥ tāvān eva saṃpadyate, tatra antarbhavatīty arthaḥ |

So also, whatever utility there is in all the Vedic ritual, all that is. comprehended in the utility of the right knowledge possessed by a Brāhmaṇa who has renounced the world and has completely realized the truth concerning the Absolute Reality; this knowledge corresponding to the all-spreading flood of water.

evaṃ tāvān tāvat-parimāṇa eva saṃpadyate sarveṣu vedeṣu vedokteṣu karmasu yo ’rthaḥ yat karma-phalaṃ so ’rthaḥ brāhmaṇasya saṃnyāsinaḥ paramārtha-tattvaṃ vijānataḥ yo ’rthaḥ yat vijñāna-phalaṃ sarvataḥ saṃplutodaka-sthānīyaṃ tasmin tāvān eva saṃpadyate tatraivāntarbhavatīty arthaḥ |

The śruti says: – „Whatever good thing is done by people, all that is possessed by him who knows what he (Raikva) knew.” (Chanḍ-up. 4.1.4).

yathā kṛtāya vijitāyādhareyāḥ saṃyanty evam enaṃ sarvaṃ tad abhisameti yat kiṃcit prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti | yas tad veda yat sa veda (Chanḍ-up. 4.1.4) iti śruteḥ |

The same thing will also be said here (4.33).

sarvaṃ karmākhilam (BhG 4.33) iti ca vakṣyati |

Wherefore! , for a man who is qualified for works it is necessary to perform works (which stand in the place of wells and tanks) before he becomes fit for the path of knowledge.

tasmāt prāk jñāna-niṣṭhādhikāra-prāpteḥ karmaṇy adhikṛtena kūpa-taḍāgādy-artha-sthānīyam api karma kartavyam ||2.46||

 

Rāmānuja

na ca vedoditaṃ sarvaṃ sarvasyopādeyam | yathā sarvārtha-parikalpite sarvataḥ saṃplutodake udapāne pipāsor yāvān arthaḥ yāvad eva prayojanaṃ pānīyam tāvad eva tenopādīyate, na sarvam | evam sarveṣu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vijānataḥ vaidikasya mumukṣor yad eva mokṣa-sādhanaṃ tad evopādeyam, nānyat

 

Śrīdhara

nanu vedokta-nānā-phala-tyāgena niṣāmatayeśvarārādhana-viṣayā vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ kubuddhir evety āśaḍkyāha yāvān iti | udakaṃ pīyate yasmiṃs tad udapānaṃ vāpī-kūpa-taḍāg-ādi | tasmin svalpodaka ekatra kṛtsnārthasyāsambhavāt tatra tatra paribhramaṇena vibhāgaśo yāvān snāna-pānādir arthaḥ prayojanaṃ bhavati tāvān sarvo ‚py arthaḥ sarvataḥ saṃplutodake mahā-hrade ekatraiva yathā bhavati | evaṃ yāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu tat-tat-karma-phala-rūpo ‚rthas tāvān sarvo ‚pi vijānato vyavasāyātmikā-buddhi-yuktasya brāhmaṇasya brahma-niṣṭhasya bhavaty eva | brahmānande kṣudānandānām antarbhāvāt | etasyaivānandasyānyāni bhūtāni mātrām upajīvanti iti śruteḥ | tasmād iyam eva subuddhir ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

na caivaṃ śaṅkanīyaṃ sarva-kāmanā-parityāgena karma kurvann ahaṃ tais taiḥ karma-janitair ānandair vañcitaḥ syām iti | yasmāt yāvān iti | udapāne kṣudra-jalāśaye | jātāv eka-vacanam | yāvān artho yāvat-snāna-pānādi-prayojanaṃ bhavati sarvataḥ saṃplutodake mahati jalāśaye tāvān artho bhavaty eva | yathā hi parvata-nirjharāḥ sarvataḥ sravantaḥ kvacid upatyakāyām ekatra milanti tatra pratyekaṃ jāyamānam udaka-prayojanaṃ samudite sutarāṃ bhavati sarveṣāṃ nirjharāṇām ekatraiva kāsāre ‚ntarbhāvāt | evaṃ sarveṣu vedeṣu vedokteṣu kāmya-karmasu yāvān artho hairaṇyagarbhānanda-paryantas tāvān vijānato brahma-tattvaṃ sākṣāt-kṛtavato brāhmaṇasya brahma-bubhūṣor bhavaty eva | kṣudānandānām brahmānandāṃśatvāt tatra kṣudrānandānām antarbhāvāt | etasyaivānandasyānyāni bhūtāni mātrām upajīvanti iti śruteḥ | ekasyāpy ānandasyāvidyā-kalpita-tat-tad-upādhi-paricchedam ādāyāṃśāṃśivad vyapadeśa ākāśasyeva ghaṭādy-avaccheda-kalpanayā |
tathā ca niṣkāma-karmabhiḥ śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇasya tavātma-jñānodaye para-brahmānanda-prāptiḥ syāt tathaiva ca sarvānanda-prāptau na kṣudrānanda-prāpti-nibandhana-vaiyagryāvakāśaḥ | ataḥ paramānanda-prāpakāya tattva-jñānāya niṣkāma-karmāṇi kurv ity abhiprāyaḥ | atra yathā tathā bhavatīti-pada-trayādhyāhāro yāvāṃs tāvān iti pada-dvayānuṣaṅgaś ca dārṣṭāntike draṣṭavyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

hanta kiṃ vaktavyaṃ niṣkāmasya nirguṇasya bhaktiyogasya māhātmyaṃ yasyaivārambhaṇa-mātre ‚pi nāśa-pratyavāyau na staḥ | svalpa-mātreṇāpi kṛtārthatety ekādaśe ‚py uddhavāyāpi vakṣyate –
na hy aṅgopakrame dhvaṃso
mad-dharmasyoddhavāṇv api |
mayā vyavasitaḥ samyaṅ
nirguṇatvād anāśiṣaḥ || iti | [BhP 11.29.20]
kintu sa-kāmo bhakti-yogo ‚pi vyavasāyātmika-buddhi-śabdenocyate | iti dṛṣṭāntena sādhayati yāvān iti | udapāna iti jātyaika-vacanam udapāneṣu kūpeṣu | yāvān artha iti kaścit kūpaḥ śauca-karmārthakaḥ, kaścid dānta-dhāvanārthakaḥ, kaścid vastra-dhāvanādy-arthakaḥ, kaścit keśādi-mārjanārthakaḥ, kaścit snānārthakaḥ, kaścit pānārthaka ity evaṃ sarvataḥ sarveṣudapāneṣu yāvān artho yāvanti prayojanānīty arthaḥ tasmin ekasminn eva śaucādi-karma-siddheḥ | kiṃ ca, tat-tat-kūpeṣu pṛthak pṛthak paribhramaṇa-śrameṇa, sarovare tu taṃ vinaiva | tathā kūpeṣu virasa-jalena sarovare tu surama-jalenaivety api viśeṣo draṣṭavyaḥ | evaṃ sarveṣu vedeṣu tat-tad-devatārādhanena yāvanto ‚rthās tāvanta ekasya bhagavad-ārādhanena vijānato vijñasya brāhmaṇasyeti brahma vedaṃ bettīti brahmaṇas tasya vijānato vedajñatve ‚pi veda-tātparyaṃ bhaktiṃ viśeṣato jānataḥ | yathā dvitīya-skandhe –
brahma-varcasa-kāmas tu yajeta brahmaṇaḥ patim |
indram indriya-kāmas tu prajā-kāmaḥ prajāpatim || [BhP 2.3.2]
daivīṃ māyāṃ tu śrī-kāmaḥ ity ādy-uktyā,
akāmaḥ sarva-kāmo vā mokṣa-kāma udāra-dhīḥ |
tīvreṇa bhakti-yogena yajeta puruṣaṃ param || [BhP 2.3.10]
iti meghādy-amiśrasya saura-kiraṇasya tīvratvam iva bhaktiyogasya jñāna-karmādy-amiśratvaṃ tīvratvaṃ jñeyam | atra bahubhyo bahu-kāma-siddhir iti sarvathā bahu-buddhitvam eva | ekasmād bhagavata eva sarva-kāma-siddhir ity aṃśenaika-buddhitvād eka-buddhitvam eva viṣaya-sādguṇyāj jñeyam

 

Baladeva

mami sarvān vedān adhīyānasya bahu-kāla-vyayād bahu-vikṣepa-sambhavāc ca kathaṃ tad-buddher abhudayas tatrāha yāvān iti | sarvataḥ samplutodaketi | vistīrṇe udapāne jalāśaye snānādy-arthino yāvān snāna-pānādir arthaḥ prayojanaṃ tāvān eva sa tena tasmāt sampadyate | evaṃ sarveṣu sopaniṣatsu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vedādhyāyino vijānata ātma-yāthātmya-jñānaṃ labdhu-kāmasya yāvān taj-jñāna-siddhi-lakṣaṇo ‚rthaḥ syāt tāvān eva tena tebhyaḥ sampādyate ity arthaḥ | tathā ca sva-śākhayaiva sopaniṣadācireṇaiva tat siddhau tad buddhir abhudiyād eveti | iha dārṣṭāntike ‚pi yāvāṃs tāvān iti pada-dvayam anuṣañjanīyam

 
 

BhG 2.47

karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana
karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te saṅgo stv akarmaṇi

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syntax


karmaṇi eva (just in activity) te (your) adhikāraḥ (privilege) [astu] (it should be),
kadācana (at any time) phaleṣu (in results) [adhikāraḥ] (privilege) [astu] (it should not be!),
[tvaṁ] (you) karma-phala-hetuḥ (the cause of the fruitive work) mā bhūḥ (do not be!),
akarmaṇi (in inactivity) te (your) saṅgaḥ (attachment) mā astu (it should not be!).

 

grammar

karmaṇi karman 7n.1 n.in activity (from: kṛ – to do);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
adhikāraḥ adhikāra 1n.1 m.authority, right, privilege (from: adhi-kṛ – to place at the head, to appoint);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1 your (shortened form of: tava);
av.not! (very strong negation mostly used with aorist deprived of  prefix ‘a-’);
phaleṣu phala 7n.3 n.in fruits, in results (from: phal – to ripen);
kadā-cana av.whenever, at any time (from: kadā – when? at what time? -cana – indefinitive particle);
av.not! (very strong negation; mostly used with aorist deprived of  prefix ‘a-’);
karma-phala-hetuḥ karma-phala-hetu 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya karmaṇaḥ phalānāṁ hetur asti saḥwhose work is a cause of results (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; hetu – cause, motive, reason);
bhūḥ bhū (to be) Aor. P 2v.1 – used with particle loses prefix ‘a-’ and makes the imperative: do not be!
av.not! (very strong negation; mostly used with aorist deprived of  prefix ‘a-’);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1 your (shortened form of: tava);
saṅgaḥ saṅga 1n.1m. – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
astu as (to be) Imperat. P 1v.1it should be;
akarmaṇi a-karman 7n.1 n.in inactivity (from: kṛ – to do);

 

textual variants

karmaṇy evādhikāras te → karmaṇy astv adhikāras te (in activity is your privilege);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

And as for you,

tava ca

Thy concern is with action alone, never with results.
Let not the fruit of action be thy motive, nor let thy attachment be for inaction.

karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana |
mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te saṅgo’stv akarmaṇi ||47||

You are qualified for works alone, not for the path of knowledge. And then, while doing works, let there be no desire for the results of works under any circumstances whatever.

karmaṇy evādhikāro na jñāna-niṣṭhāyāṃ te tava | tatra ca karma kurvataḥ mā phaleṣu adhikāro ’stu, karma-phala-tṛṣṇā mā bhūt kadācana kasyāṃcid apy avasthāyām ity arthaḥ |

If you should have a thirst for the results of works, you will have to reap those fruits. Therefore let not your motive be the fruits of your action. When a person performs works thirsting for the results of those works, then he will be subject to rebirth as the result of action.

yadā karma-phale tṛṣṇā te syāt tadā karma-phala-prāpter hetuḥ syāḥ, evaṃ mā karma-phala-hetuḥ bhūḥ | yadā hi karma-phala-tṛṣṇā-prayuktaḥ karmaṇi pravartate tadā karma-phalasyaiva janmano hetur bhavet |

Neither may you be attached to inaction, thinking „Of what avail are these painful works if their fruits should not be desired?”

yadi karma-phalaṃ neṣyate, kiṃ karmaṇā duḥkha-rūpeṇa ? iti mā te tava saṅgo ’stv akarmaṇi akaraṇe prītir mā bhūt ||2.47||

 

Rāmānuja

ataḥ sattva-sthasya mumukṣor etāvad evopādeyam ity āha—karmaṇi iti | nitye naimittike kāmye ca kenacit phala-viśeṣeṇa saṃbandhitayā śrūyamāṇe karmaṇi nitya-sattva-sthasya mumukṣos te karma-mātre adhikāraḥ | tat-saṃbandhitayā avagateṣu phaleṣu na kadācid api adhikāraḥ | saphalasya bandha-rūpatvāt phala-rahitasya kevalasya mad-ārādhana-rūpasya mokṣa-hetutvāc ca |
mā ca karma-phalayor hetur bhūḥ | tvayā anuṣṭhīyamāne’pi karmaṇi nitya-sattva-sthasya mumukṣos tavākartṛtvam api anusandheyam | phalasyāpi kṣun-nivṛtty-ādeḥ na tvaṃ hetur ity anusandheyam | tad ubhayaṃ guṇeṣu vā sarveśvare mayi vā anusandheyam ity uttaratra vakṣyate | evam anusandhāya karma kuru | akarmaṇi ananuṣṭhāne na yotsyāmi iti yat tvayā abhihitaṃ na tatra te saṅgo’stu | uktena prakāreṇa yuddhādi-karmaṇy eva saṅgo’stu ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

tarhi sarvāṇi karma-phalāni parameśvarārādhanād eva bhaviṣyantīty abhisandhāya pravarteta | kiṃ karmaṇā ity āśaṅkya tad vārayann āha karmaṇy eveti | te tava tattva-jñānārthinaḥ karmaṇy evādhikāraḥ | tat-phaleṣu adhikāraḥ kāmo māstu | nanu karmaṇi kṛti tat-phalaṃ syād eva bhojane kṛte tṛptivat | ity āśaṅkyāha meti | mā karma-phala-hetur bhūḥ | karma-phalaṃ pravṛtti-hetur yasya sa tathābhūto mā bhūḥ | kāmyamānasyaiva svargāder niyojya-viśeṣaṇatvena phalatvād akāmitaṃ phalaṃ na syād iti bhāvaḥ | ataeva phalaṃ bandhakaṃ bhaviṣyatīti bhayād akarmaṇi karmākaraṇe ‚pi tava saṅgo niṣṭhā māstu

 

Madhusūdana

nanu niṣkāma-karmabhir ātma-jñānaṃ sampādya parānanda-prāptiḥ kriyate ced ātma-jñānam eva tarhi sampādyaṃ kiṃ bahvāyāsaiḥ karmabhir bahiraṅga-sādhana-bhūtair ity āśaṅkyāha karmaṇy eveti | te tavāśuddhāntaḥkaraṇasya tāttvika-jñānotpatty-ayogyasya karmaṇy evāntaḥkaraṇa-śodhake ‚dhikāro mayedaṃ kartavyam iti bodho ‚stu na jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpaṃ vedānta-vākya-vicārādau | karma ca kurvatas tava tat-phaleṣu svargādiṣu kadācana kasyāṃcid apy avasthāyāṃ karmānuṣṭhānāt prāg ūrdhvaṃ tat-kāle vādhikāro mayedaṃ bhoktavyam iti bodho māstu |
nanu mayedaṃ bhoktavyam iti buddhy-abhāve ‚pi karma sva-sāmārthyād eva phalaṃ janayiṣyatīti cen nety āha mā karma-phala-hetur bhūḥ | phala-kāmanayā hi karma kurvan phalasya heteur utpādako bhavati | tvaṃ tu niṣkāmaḥ san karma-phala-hetur mā bhūḥ | na hi niṣkāmena bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā kṛtaṃ karma phalāya kalpata ity uktam | phalābhāve kiṃ karmaṇety ata āha – mā te saṅgo ‚stv akarmaṇi | yadi phalaṃ neṣyate kiṃ karmaṇā duḥkha-rūpeṇety akaraṇe tava prītir mā bhūt

 

Viśvanātha

evam ekam evārjunaṃ sva-priya-sakhaṃ lakṣīkṛtya jñāna-bhakti-karma-yogān ācikhyāsur bhagavān jñāna-bhakti-yogau procya tayor arjunasyānadhikāraḥ vimṛśya niṣkāma-karma-yogam āha karmaṇīti | mā phaleṣv iti – phalākāṅkṣiṇo ‚py atyanta-śuddha-cittā bhavanti | tvaṃ tu prāyaḥ śuddha-citta iti mayā jñātvaivocyasa iti bhāvaḥ |
nanu karmaṇi kṛte phalam avaśyaṃ bhaviṣyaty eveti | tatrāha mā karma-phala-hetur bhūḥ phala-kāmanayā hi karma kurvan phalasya hetur utpādako bhavati | tvaṃ tu tādṛśo mā bhūr ity āśīr mayā dīyata ity arthaḥ | akarmaṇi sva-dharmākaraṇe vikarmaṇi pāpe vā saṅgas tava māstu, kintu dveṣa evāstv iti punar apy āśīr dīyata iti | atrāgrimādhyāye vyāmiśreṇaiva vākyena buddhiṃ mohayasīva me ity arjunokti-darśanād atrādhyāye pūrvottara-vākyānām avatārikābhir nātīva saṅgatir vidhitsiteti jñeyam | kintu tva-ājñāyāṃ sārathy-ādau yathāhaṃ tiṣṭhāmi, tathā tvam api mad-ājñāyāṃ tiṣṭheti kṛṣṇārjunayor mano ‚nulāpo ‚yam atra draṣṭavyaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanu karmabhir jñāna-siddhir iṣyate cet tarhi tasya śamādīny evāntaraṅgatvād anuṣṭheyāni santu kiṃ bahu prayāsais tair iti cet tatrāha – karmaṇy eveti | jātāv eka-vacanam | te tava sva-dharme ‚pi yuddhe ‚dharma-buddher aśuddha-cittasya tāvat karmasv eva yuddhādiṣv adhikāro ‚stu mayaitāni bhoktavyānīti tat phaleṣu bandhakeṣu tavādhikāro māstu mayaitāni bhoktavyānīti |
nanu phalecchā-virahe ‚pi tāni sva-phaair yojayeyur iti cet tatrāha mā karmeti | karma-phalānāṃ hetur utpādakas tvaṃ mābhūḥ kāmanayā kṛtāni tāni sva-phalair yojayanti kāmitānām eva phalānāṃ niyojya-viśeṣaṇatvena phalatvāmnātāt | ataeva bandhakāni phalāni āpatiṣyantīti bhayād akarmaṇi karmākaraṇe tava saṅgaḥ prītir māstu kintu vidveṣa evāstv ity arthaḥ | niṣkāmatayānuṣṭhitāni karmāṇi yaṣṭidhānyavad antar eva jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ niṣpādayiṣyanti | śamādīni tu tat-pṛṣṭha-lagnāny eva syur iti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.48

yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā dhanaṃjaya
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā samatvaṃ yoga ucyate

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syntax


he dhanaṁjaya (O winner of wealth!),
[tvam] (you) yoga-sthaḥ (who stays in yoga) saṅgaṁ (attachment) tyaktvā (after abandoning),
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ (in success and failure) samaḥ (equal) bhūtvā (being),
karmāṇi (activities) kuru (do).
[etat] (that) samatvaṁ (equal disposition) yogaḥ (yoga) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

yoga-sthaḥ yoga-stha 1n.1 m.yo yoge tiṣṭhati saḥwho stays in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; sthā – to stand, -stha – suffix: being in);
kuru kṛ (to do) Imperat P 2v.1do;
karmāṇi karman 2n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
saṅgam        saṅga 2n.1m. – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.O winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥ – one who wins wealth; dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ siddhy-asiddhi 7n.2 f.; DV: siddhyāṁ ca asiddhyāṁ ca itiin success and failure (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect, siddhi – success, perfection);
samaḥ sama sn. 1n.1 m.the same, equal, equivalent;
bhūtvā bhū (to be) absol.after becoming;
samatvam samatva abst. 1n.1 n. equality, tranquility (sama – the same, equal, equivalent);
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


samatvaṁ → samarthaṁ (suitability, capability);

→ verse, not found in critical edition, after verse 2.48:
yasya sarve samārambhā nirāśīr-bandhanās tv iha
tyāge yasya hutaṁ sarvaṁ sa tyāgī sa ca buddhimān

But whose all undertakings in this world are devoid of desires and bonds,
whose every oblation [is offered] in austerity, that one is an ascetic and a wise man.

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

If a man should not perform works urged by a desire for their results, how then are they to be performed? The reply follows:

yadi karma-phala-prayuktena na kartavyaṃ karma, kathaṃ tarhi kartavyam iti | ucyate

Steadfast in devotion do thy works, O Dhanaṁjaya,
casting off attachment, being the same in success and failure.
Evenness is called Yoga.

yogasthaḥ kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā dhanaṃjaya |
siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā samatvaṃ yoga ucyate ||2.48||

Steadfast in devotion (Yoga) perform works merely for God’s sake, casting off even such attachment as this, „May God be pleased,”

yoga-sthaḥ san kuru karmāṇi kevalam īśvarārtham | tatrāpīśvaro me tuṣyatu iti saṅgaṃ tyaktvā dhanaṃjaya |

and being equanimous in success and failure. Success (siddhi) consists in the attainment of knowledge (jñāna) as the result of mind (Sattva) attaining purity when works are done by one without longing for their fruits; and failure results from the opposite course.

phala-tṛṣṇā-śūnyena kriyamāṇe karmaṇi sattva-śuddhijā jñāna-prāpti-lakṣaṇā siddhiḥ, tad-viparyayajā asiddhiḥ, tayoḥ siddhy-asiddhyor api samaḥ tulyo bhūtvā kuru karmāṇi |

What is that devotion (Yoga) to which Arjuna has been exhorted to resort in performing works? The reply is this: – Evenness of mind in success and failure is called devotion (Yoga).

ko ’sau yogo yatra-sthaḥ kuru ity uktaṃ idam eva tat – siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatvaṃ yoga ucyate ||2.48||

 

Rāmānuja

etad eva spaṣṭīkaroti—yogasthaḥ iti | rājya-bandhu-prabhṛtiṣu saṅgaṃ tyaktvā yuddhādīni karmāṇi yogasthaḥ kuru | tad-antarbhūta-vijayādi-siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā kuru | tad idaṃ siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatvam, yogastha ity atra yoga-śabdenocyate | yogaḥ siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatva-rūpaṃ citta-samādhānam

 

Śrīdhara

kiṃ tarhi ? yoga-stha iti | yogaḥ parameśvaraikaparatā | tatra sthitaḥ karmāṇi kuru | tathā saṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarāśrayeṇaiva kuru | tat-phalasya jñānasyāpi siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā kevalam īśvarāśrayeṇaiva kuru | yata evaṃbhūtaṃ samatvam eva yoga ucyate sadbhiḥ citta-samādhāna-rūpatvāt

 

Madhusūdana

pūrvoktam eva vivṛṇoti yoga-stha iti | he dhanañjaya tvaṃ yogasthaḥ san saṅgaṃ phalābhilāṣaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ ca tyaktvā karmāṇi kuru | atra bahu-vacanāt karmaṇy evādhikāras ta ity atra jātāv eka-vacanam | saṅga-tyāgopāyam āha siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā phala-siddhau harṣaṃ phalāsiddhau ca viṣādaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārādhana-buddhyā karmāṇi kurv iti |
nanu yoga-śabdena prāk-karmoktam | atra tu yoga-sthaḥ karmāṇi kurv ity ucyate | ataḥ katham etad boddhyṃ śakyam ity ata āha samatvaṃ yoga ucyate | yad etat siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatvam idam eva yoga-stha ity atra yoga-śabdenocyate na tu karmeti na ko ‚pi virodha ity arthaḥ | atra pūrvārdhasyottarārdhena vyākhyānaṃ kriyata ity apaunaruktyam iti bhāṣyakārīyaḥ panthāḥ | sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā ity atra jayājaya-sāmyena yuddha-mātra-kartavyatā prakṛtatvād uktā | iha tu dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-sarva-phala-parityāgena sarva-karma-kartavyateti viśeṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

niṣkāma-karmaṇaḥ prakāraṃ śikṣayati yoga-stha iti | tena jayājayayos tulya-buddhiḥ san saṅgrāmam eva sva-dharmaṃ kurv iti bhāvaḥ | ayaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yoga eva jñāna-yogatvena pariṇamatīti | jñāna-yogo ‚py evaṃ pūrvottara-granthārtha-tātparyato jñeyaḥ

 

Baladeva

pūrvoktaṃ viśadayati yoga-stha iti | tvaṃ saṅgaṃ phalābhilāṣaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ ca tyaktvā yogasthaḥ san karmāṇi kuru yuddhādīni | ādyena māyā-nimajjanam eva | dvitīyena tu svātantrya-lakṣaṇa-pareśa-dharma-cauryam | tena tan-māyā-vyākopaḥ | atas tayoḥ parityāga iti bhāvaḥ | yogastha-padaṃ vivṛṇoti — siddhy-asiddhyor iti | tad-anuṣaṅga-phalānāṃ jayādīnāṃ siddhāv asiddhau ca samo bhūtvā rāga-dveṣa-rahitaḥ san kuru | idam eva samatvaṃ mayā yoga-stha ity atra yoga-śabdenoktaṃ citta-samādhi-rūpatvāt

 
 

BhG 2.49

dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma buddhi-yogād dhanaṃjaya
buddhau śaraṇam anviccha kṛpaṇāḥ phala-hetavaḥ

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syntax


he dhanaṁjaya (O winner of wealth!),
hi (indeed) buddhi-yogāt (than yoga evolved from intelligence) karma (activity) dūreṇa (by far) avaram (inferior) [asti] (is),
[tasmāt] (therefore) [tvam] (you) buddhau (in intelligence) śaraṇam (shelter) anviccha (seek),
phala-hetavaḥ (who are the cause of the results) [narāḥ] (people) kṛpaṇāḥ (pitiable) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

dūreṇa av.by far (from: dūra – distant, far, great);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
avaram avara 1n.1 n.low, mean, younger, inferior (from: ava – down or from: vṛ – to choose, to like, vara – chosen, the best, most excellent);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity and its result (from: kṛ – to do);
buddhi-yogād buddhi-yoga 5n.1 m.; [TP]: buddhyā kṛtād yogād itithan yoga evolved from intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.O winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥ – one who wins wealth; dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
buddhau buddhi 7n.1 f.in intelligence, in thought, in understanding, in knowledge, in an idea (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
śaraṇam śaraṇa 2n.1 n.shelter, refuge, protection (from: śri – to turn towards, to lean on, to rest on, to resort);
anviccha anu-iṣ (to desire, to seek) Imperat. P 2v.1seek, desire;
kṛpaṇāḥ kṛpaṇa 1n.3 m.who are pitiable, miserable, poor (from: kṛp – to lament, to pity, to long for; kṛpā – grief, pity, compassion, tenderness);
phala-hetavaḥ phala-hetu 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ phalānāṁ hetur asti te who are the cause of the results (from: phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; hetu – cause, motive, reason);

 

textual variants


hy avaraṁ → hy aparaṁ (indeed inferior);
anviccha → anvicchan (seeking, desiring);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

In comparison with action thus performed in the service of the Isvara with evenness of mind,

yat punaḥ samatva-buddhi-yuktam īśvarārādhanārthaṃ karmoktam, etasmāt karmaṇaḥ

Verily action is far inferior to devotion in wisdom (buddhi-yoga), O Dhanaṁjaya.
In wisdom (buddhi) seek thou shelter.
Wretched are they whose motive is the fruit.

dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma buddhi-yogād dhanaṃjaya |
buddhau śaraṇam anviccha kṛpaṇāḥ phala-hetavaḥ ||2.49||

Action done by a seeker of its reward is far inferior to devotion in wisdom, i.e., to action performed with evenness of mind; for, the former is the cause of birth and death,

dūreṇa ativiprakarṣeṇa atyantam eva hy avaram adhamaṃ nikṛṣṭaṃ karma phalārthinā kriyamāṇaṃ buddhi-yogāt samatva-buddhi-yuktāt karmaṇaḥ, janma-maraṇādi-hetutvāt |

O Dhanaṁjaya. Wherefore, seek shelter in the wisdom of Yoga, or rather in the wisdom of Sankhya, which latter arises when Yoga attains maturity. That is, seek refuge in the knowledge of the Supreme Reality.

he dhanaṃjaya, yata evaṃ tataḥ yoga-viṣayāyāṃ buddhau tat-paripāka-jāyāṃ vā sāṃkhya-buddhau śaraṇam āśrayam abhaya-prāpti-kāraṇam anviccha prārthayasva, paramārtha-jñāna-śaraṇo bhavety arthaḥ |
For, wretched are they who resort to inferior action, who are incited to action by thirst for its fruit. The śruti says: „O Gargi, wretched is he who departs from this world without knowing the Akshara, the Imperishable.” (Bṛh-up. 3.8.10) yato ’varaṃ karma kurvāṇāḥ kṛpaṇāḥ dīnāḥ phala-hetavaḥ phala-tṛṣṇā-prayuktāḥ santaḥ, yo vā etad akṣaraṃ gārgy aviditvāsmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇaḥ (Bṛh-up. 3.8.10) iti śruteḥ ||2.49||

 

Rāmānuja

kim artham idam asakṛd ucyate? ity ata āha—dūreṇa iti | yo’yaṃ pradhāna-phala-tyāga-viṣayo’vāntara-phala-siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatva-viṣayaś ca buddhi-yogaḥ | tad-yuktāt karmaṇaḥ itarat-karma dūreṇāvaram | mahad etad dvayor utkarṣāpakarṣa-rūpaṃ vairūpyam | ukta-buddhi-yoga-yuktaṃ karma nikhilaṃ sāṃsārikaṃ duḥkhaṃ vinivartya parama-puruṣārtha-lakṣaṇaṃ ca mokṣaṃ prāpayati | itarad aparimita-duḥkha-rūpaṃ saṃsāram iti ataḥ karmaṇi kriyamāṇe uktāyāṃ buddhau śaraṇam anviccha | śaraṇaṃ vāsa-sthānam | tasyām eva buddhau vartasva ity arthaḥ | kṛpaṇāḥ phala-hetavaḥ phala-saṅgādinā karma kurvāṇāḥ kṛpaṇāḥ saṃsāriṇo bhaveyuḥ

 

Śrīdhara

kāmyaṃ tu karmātinikṛṣṭam ity āha dūreṇeti | buddhyā vyavasāyātmikayā kṛtaḥ karma-yogo buddhi-yogo buddhi-sādhana-bhūto vā, tasmāt sakāśād anyat sādhana-bhūtaṃ kāmyaṃ karma dūreṇa avaraṃ atyantam apakṛṣṭaṃ hi | yasmād evaṃ tasmād buddhau jñāne śaraṇam āśrayaṃ karma-yogam anviccha anutiṣṭha | yad vā buddhau śaraṇaṃ trātāram īśvaram āśrayety arthaḥ | phalahetur astu sakāmā narāḥ kṛpaṇā dīnāḥ yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śruteḥ

 

Madhusūdana

nanu kiṃ karmānuṣṭhānam eva puruṣārtho yena niṣphalam eva sadā kartavyam ity ucyate prayojanam anuddiśya na mando ‚pi pravartate iti nyāyāt | tad varaṃ phala-kāmanayaiva karmānuṣṭhānam iti cen nety āha dūreṇeti | buddhi-yogād ātma-buddhi-sādhana-bhūtān niṣkāma-karma-yogād dūreṇātiviprakarṣeṇāvaram adhamaṃ karma phalābhisandhinā kriyamāṇaṃ janma-maraṇa-hetu-bhūtam | athavā paramātma-buddhi-yogād dūreṇāvaraṃ sarvam api karma yasmād, he dhanañjaya, tasmād buddhau paramātma-buddhau sarvānartha-nivartikāyāṃ śaraṇaṃ pratibandhaka-pāpa-kṣayeṇa rakṣakaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam anviccha kartum iccha | ye tu phala-hetavaḥ phala-kāmā avaraṃ karma kurvanti te kṛpaṇāḥ sarvadā janma-maraṇādi-ghaṭī-yantra-bhramaṇena para-vaśā atyanta-dīnā ity arthaḥ | yo vā etad akṣaram gārgy aviditvā asmāl lokāt praiti sa kṛpaṇa [BAU 3.8.10] iti śruteḥ | tathā ca tvam api kṛpaṇo mā bhūḥ kintu sarvānartha-nivartakātma-jñānotpādakaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam evānutiṣṭhety abhiprāyaḥ | yathā hi kṛpaṇā janā atiduḥkhena dhanam arjayanto yat kiṃcid dṛṣṭa-sukha-mātra-lobhena dānādi-janitaṃ mahat sukham anubhavituṃ na śaknuvantīty ātmānam eva vañcayanti tathā mahatā duḥkhena karmāṇi kurvāṇāḥ kṣudra-phala-mātra-lobhena paramānandā-nubhavena vañcitā ity aho daurbhāgyaṃ mauḍhyaṃ ca teṣām iti kṛpaṇa-padena dhvanitam

 

Viśvanātha

sakāma-karma nindati dūreṇeti | avaram atinikṛṣṭaṃ kāmyaṃ karma | buddhi-yogāt parameśvarārpita-niṣāma-karma-yogāt | buddhau niṣkāma-karmaṇy eva buddhi-yogo niṣkāma-karma-yogaḥ

 

Baladeva

atha kāmya-karmaṇo nikṛṣṭatvam āha dūreṇeti | buddhi-yogād avaraṃ karma dūreṇa, he dhanañjaya, ātma-yāthātmya-buddhi-sādhana-bhūtān niṣkāma-karma-yogāt dūreṇātiviprakarṣeṇāvaram atyapakṛṣṭaṃ janma-maraṇādy-anartha-nimittaṃ kāmyaṃ karmety arthaḥ | hi yasmād evam atas tvaṃ buddhau tad-yāthātmya-jñāne śaraṇam āśrayaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam anviccha kuru | ye tu phala-hetavaḥ phala-kāmā avara-karma-kāriṇas te kṛpaṇās tat-phala-janma-karmādi-pravāha-paravaśā dīnā ity arthaḥ | tathā ca tvaṃ kṛpaṇo mābhūr iti iha kṛpaṇāḥ khalu kaṣṭopārjita-vittādṛṣṭa-sukha-lava-lubdhā vittāni dātum asamarthā mahatā dāna-sukhena vañcitās tathā kaṣṭānuṣṭhita-karmāṇas tuccha-tat-phala-lubdhā mahatātma-sukhena vañcitā bhavantīti vyajyate

 
 

BhG 2.50

buddhi-yukto jahātīha ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte
tasmād yogāya yujyasva yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam

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iha (here) buddhi-yuktaḥ (engaged by intelligence) sukṛta-duṣkṛte (good and bad deeds) ubhe (both) jahāti (he abandons).
tasmāt (therefore) yogāya (for yoga) yujyasva (be ready).
[yat] (what) karmasu (in activities) kauśalam (skilfulness) [asti] (is),
[tat] (this) yogaḥ (yoga) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

buddhi-yuktaḥ buddhi-yukta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: buddhyā yukta itiengaged by intelligence / endowed with intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi –– intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
jahāti (to leave, to abandon) Praes. P 1v.1he abandons;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
ubhe ubha sn. 2n.2 n.both;
sukṛta-duṣkṛte sukṛta-duṣkṛta 2n.2 n.; DV: sukṛtaṁ ca duṣkṛtaṁ cetigood and bad deeds (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; su-kṛta – well done, merit, benefit, virtue, fortune; duṣ-kṛta – wrongly done, evil action, sin);
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
yogāya yoga 4n.1 m.for yoking, for yoga (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
yujyasva yuj (to yoke, to join, to engage) Imperat. pass. 2v.1be joined, be yoked (with dative – be ready for);
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
karmasu karman 7n.3 n.in activities (from: kṛ – to do);
kauśalam kauśala 1n.1 n.skilfulness, expertise, well-being (from: kuśala – right, good, skilful);

 

textual variants


buddhi-yukto → buddhyā yukto (yoked by intelligence);
jahātīha → jahātīme (he abandons these two);
yogaḥ karmasu → yoga-karmasu (in the activities of yoga);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The merit of Wisdom.
Now, learn as to what result he attains who performs his own duty with evenness of mind:

samatva-buddhi-yuktaḥ san svadharmam anutiṣṭhan yat phalaṃ prāpnoti tac chṛṇu

He who is endued with wisdom casts off here both good deeds and bad deeds.
Wherefore apply thyself to devotion. In regard to actions devotion is a power.

buddhi-yukto jahātīha ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte |
tasmād yogāya yujyasva yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam ||2.50||

The man that has evenness of mind casts off in this world both merit and sin (sukṛta and duṣkṛta, puṇya and pāpa) through attaining mental purity and knowledge. Wherefore apply yourself to devotion with equanimity.

buddhi-yuktaḥ karma-samatva-viṣayayā buddhyā yukto buddhi-yuktaḥ saḥ jahāti parityajati iha asmin loke ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte puṇya-pāpe sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa yataḥ, tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yogāya yujyasva ghaṭāsva |

For devotion is a power, – devotion being the equanimity of mind in success and failure on the part of him who is engaged in the performance of his own duties, his mind resting on the Īśvara all the while.

yogo hi karmasu kauśalaṃ sva-dharmākhyeṣu karmasu vartamānasya yā siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatva-buddhir īśvarārpita-cetastayā tat kauśalaṃ kuśala-bhāvaḥ |

It is indeed a power, because works which are of a binding nature lose that nature when done with evenness of mind. Wherefore be equanimous.

tad dhi kauśalaṃ yad bandhana-svabhāvāny api karmāṇi samatva-buddhyā svabhāvān nivartante | tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yukto bhava tvam ||2.50||

 

Rāmānuja

buddhi-yoga-yuktaḥ tu karma kurvāṇa ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte anādi-kāla-sañcite’nante bandha-hetu-bhūte jahāti | tasmād uktāya buddhi-yogāya yujyasva | yogaḥ karmasu kauśalaṃ karmasu kriyamāṇeṣv ayaṃ buddhi-yogaḥ kauśalam, atisāmarthyam | atisāmarthya-sādhyaḥ ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

buddhi-yoga-yuktas tu śreṣṭha ity āha buddhi-yukta iti | sukṛtaṃ svargādi-prāpakaṃ duṣkṛtaṃ nirayādi-prāpakam | te ubhe ihaiva janmani parameśvara-prasādena tyajati | tasmād yogāya tad-arthāya karma-yogāya yujyasva ghaṭasva | yogo hi karmasu kauśalam | sva-dharmākhyeṣu karmasu vartamānasya yā siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samatva-buddhir īśvarārpita-cetastayā tat kauśalaṃ kuśala-bhāvaḥ | tad dhi kauśalaṃ yad bandha-svabhāvāny api karmāṇi samatva-buddhyā svabhāvān nivartante | tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yukto bhava tvam

 

Madhusūdana

evaṃ buddhi-yogābhāve doṣam uktvā tad-bhāve guṇam āha buddhīti | iha karmasu buddhi-yuktaḥ samatva-buddhyā yukto jahāti parityajati ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte puṇya-pāpe sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yogāya tvaṃ yujyasva ghaṭasvodyukto bhava | yasmād īdṛśaḥ samatva-buddhi-yoga īśvarārpita-cetasaḥ karmasu pravartamānasya kauśalaṃ kuśala-bhāvo yad-bandha-hetūnām api karmaṇāṃ tad-abhāvo mokṣa-paryavasāyitvaṃ ca tan mahat kauśalam |
samatva-buddhi-yuktaḥ karma-yogaḥ karmātmāpi san duṣṭa-karma-kṣayaṃ karotīti mahā-kuśalaḥ | tvaṃ tu na kuśalo yataś cetano ‚pi san sajātīya-duṣṭa-kṣayaṃ na karoṣīti vyatireko ‚tra dhvanitaḥ | athavā iha samatva-buddhi-yukte karmaṇi kṛte sati sattva-śuddhi-dvāreṇa buddhi-yuktaḥ paramātma-sākṣātkāravān sañjahāty ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte | tasmāt samatva-buddhi-yuktāya karma-yogāya yujyasva | yasmāt karmasu madhye samatva-buddhi-yuktaḥ karma-yogaḥ kauśalaṃ kuśalo duṣṭa-karma-nivāraṇa-catura ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

yogāyokta-lakṣaṇāya yujyasva ghaṭasva | yataḥ karmasu sakāma-niṣkāmeṣu madhye yoga evodāsīnatvena karma-karaṇam eva | kauśalaṃ naipuṇyam ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

uktasya buddhi-yogasya prabhāvam āha buddhīti | iha karmasu yo buddhi-yuktaḥ pradhāna-phala-tyāga-viṣayānuṣaṅga-phala-siddhy-asiddhi-samatva-viṣayayā ca buddhyā yuktas tāni karoti, sa ubhe anādi-kāla-sañcite jñāna-pratibandhake sukṛta-duṣkṛte jahāti vināśayatīty arthaḥ | tasmād uktāya buddhi-yogāya yujyasva ghaṭasva | yasmāt karma-yogas tādṛśa-buddhi-sambandhaḥ | kauśalam cāturyaṃ bandhakānām eva buddhi-samparkād viśodhita-viṣa-pārada-nyāyena mocakatvena pariṇāmāt

 
 

BhG 2.51

karma-jaṃ buddhi-yuktā hi phalaṃ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ
janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ padaṃ gacchanty anāmayam

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buddhi-yuktāḥ hi (indeed yoked by intelligence) karma-jaṁ (born from activity) phalaṁ (fruit) tyaktvā (after abandoning),
[ataḥ eva] (then) manīṣiṇaḥ (wise men) [bhūtvā] (being) janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ (liberated from the bondage of birth) anāmayaṁ (to a free from disease) padaṁ (to the abode) gacchanti (they go).

 

grammar

karma-jam karma-ja 2n.1 n.born from activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
buddhi-yuktāḥ buddhi-yukta 1n.3 m.; [TP]: buddhyā yukta itiyoked by intelligence / endowed with intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
phalam phala 2n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
manīṣiṇaḥ manīṣin 1n.3 m.who are thoughtful, wise (from: man – to think, to believe);
janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ janma-bandha-vinirmukta 1n.3 m.; [TP]: ye janmanām bandhād vinirmuktās tewho are liberated from the bondage of birth (from: jan – to be born, janman – birth; bandh – to bind, to fetter, bandha – bondage, fetters; vi-nir-muc – to liberate, to release, [PP] mukta – liberated);
padam pada 2n.1 n.step, pace, footmark, site, part, portion, word (from: pad – to fall, to go, to apply to);
gacchanti gam (to go) Praes. P 1v.3 they go;
anāmayam an-āmaya 2n.3 n.free from disease, harmless (āmaya – sickness);

 

textual variants


buddhi-yuktā hi → buddhi-yuktātmā (whose self is yoked by intelligence);
janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ → karma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ (liberated from the bondage of action);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

Results of Karma-Yoga.

yasmāt

For, men of wisdom cast off the fruit of action;
possessed of knowledge (and) released from the bond of birth,
they go to the place where there is no evil.

karmajaṃ buddhi-yuktā hi phalaṃ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ |
janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ padaṃ gacchanty anāmayam ||2.51||

For, men of wisdom, possessing evenness of mind, cast off the fruit of works, i.e., escape from good and bad births. They then attain knowledge. While still alive, they are released from the bond of birth, and attain the supreme abode of Vishnu – the state of moksha or liberation – which is free from all turmoils.

karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā iti vyavahitena sambandhaḥ | iṣṭāniṣṭa-deha-prāptiḥ karmajaṃ phalaṃ karmabhyo jātaṃ buddhi-yuktāḥ samatva-buddhi-yuktāḥ santaḥ hi yasmāt phalaṃ tyaktvā parityajya manīṣiṇaḥ jñānino bhūtvā, janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ janmaiva bandhaḥ janma-bandhaḥ tena vinirmuktāḥ jīvanta eva janma-bandhāt vinirmuktāḥ santaḥ, padaṃ paramaṃ viṣṇoḥ mokṣākhyaṃ gacchanti anāmayaṃ sarvopadrava-rahitam ity arthaḥ |

Or, the wisdom (buddhi) referred to in the three verses (2.49 – 51) may be the Sankhya-(not the Yoga-) wisdom, the knowledge of the Absolute Reality, (corresponding to the wide-spread expanse of water), which arises when the mind is purified by Karma-Yoga; for, it is said in 2.50 that wisdom directly brings about the destruction of good and bad deeds.

athavā buddhi-yogād dhanaṃjaya (BhG 2.49) ity ārabhya paramārtha-darśana-lakṣaṇaiva sarvataḥ saṃplutodaka-sthānīyā karma-yogaja-sattva-śuddha-janitā buddhir darśitā, sākṣāt sukṛta-duṣkṛta-prahāṇādi-hetutva-śravaṇāt ||2.51||

 

Rāmānuja

buddhi-yoga-yuktāḥ karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā karma kurvantaḥ, tasmād janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ anāmayaṃ padaṃ gacchanti | hi prasiddham etat sarvāsu upaniṣatsu ity arthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara

karmaṇāṃ mokṣa-sādhanatva-prakāram āha karma-jam iti | karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārādhanārthaṃ karma kurvāṇo manīṣiṇo jñānino bhūtvā janma-rūpeṇa bandhena vinirmuktāḥ santo ‚nāmayaṃ sarvopadrava-rahitaṃ viṣṇoḥ padaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ gacchanti

 

Madhusūdana

nanu duṣkṛta-hānam apekṣitaṃ na tu sukṛta-hānaṃ puruṣārtha-bhraṃśāpatter ity āśaṅkya tuccha-phala-tyāgena parama-puruṣārtha-prāptiṃ phalam āha karma-jam iti | samatva-buddhi-yuktā hi yasmāt karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā kevalam īśvarārādhanārthaṃ karmāṇi kurvāṇāḥ sattva-śuddhi-dvāreṇa manīṣiṇas tat tvam asi ity ādi-vākya-janyātma-manīṣāvanto bhavanti | tādṛśāś ca santo janmātmakena bandhena vinirmuktā viśeṣeṇātyantikatva-lakṣaṇena niravaśeṣaṃ muktāḥ padaṃ padanīyam ātma-tattvam ānanda-rūpaṃ brahmānāmayam avidyā-tat-kāryātmaka-roga-rahitābhayaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ puruṣārthaṃ gacchanty abhedena prāpnuvantīty arthaḥ |
yasmād evaṃ phala-kāmanāṃ tyaktvā samatva-buddhyā karmāṇy anutiṣṭhantas taiḥ kṛtāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhayas tat tvam asy ādi-pramāṇotpannātma-tattva-jñāna-tat-kāryāḥ santaḥ sakalānartha-nivṛtti-paramānanda-prāpti-rūpaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ gacchanti tasmāt tvam api yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṃ brūhi tan me [Gītā 2.7] ity ukteḥ śreyo jijñāsur evaṃvidhaṃ karma-yogam anutiṣṭheti bhagavato ‚bhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

commentary under the verse BhG 2.52

 

Baladeva

karmajam iti | buddhi-yuktās tādṛśa-buddhimantaḥ karmajaṃ phalaṃ tyaktvā karmāṇy anutiṣṭhanto manīṣiṇaḥ karmāntargatātma-yāthātmya-prajñāvanto bhūtvā janma-bandhena vinirmuktāḥ santo ‚nāmayaṃ kleśa-śūnyaṃ padaṃ vaikuṇṭhaṃ gacchantīti | tasmāt tvam api śreyo jijñāsur evaṃ vidhāni karmāṇi kurv iti bhāvaḥ | svātma-jñānasya paramātma-jñāna-hetutvāt tasyāpi tat-pada-gati-hetutvaṃ yuktam

 
 

BhG 2.52

yadā te moha-kalilaṃ buddhir vyatitariṣyati
tadā gantāsi nirvedaṃ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca

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yadā (when) te (your) buddhiḥ (intelligence) moha-kalilaṁ (thicket fo bewilderment) vyatitariṣyati (it will cross),
tadā (then) śrotavyasya (of what is to be heard) śrutasya ca (and of what is heard) nirvedaṁ (indifference) gantāsi (you will go).

 

grammar

yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
moha-kalilam moha-kalila 2n.1 n.; [TP]: mohasya kalilam itithicket of bewilderment (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, moha – perplexity, loss of consciousness, bewilderment, error; kal – to carry, to do, kalila – full of, covered, thicket, confusion);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f. intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
vyatitariṣyati vi-ati-tṝ (to cross over) Fut. P 1v.1it will cross;
tadā av.at that time, then;
gantāsi gam (to go) Fut.p. P 2v.1you will go;
nirvedam nir-veda 2n.1 m.indifference, disgust (from: nir-vid – to get rid of, be disgusted with;
or veda – the Vedas, nir-vedainfidel, not having the Vedas);
śrotavyasya śrotavya (śru – to hear, to listen) PF. 6n.1 n.of what is to be heard;
śrutasya śruta (śru – to hear, to listen) [PP]. 6n.1 n.of what is heard;
ca av.and;

 

textual variants

vyatitariṣyati → vyavatariṣyati / vyvatariṣyasi / vyatitariṣyate / vyavakariṣyati (it will cross / you will cross / it will cross / it will scatter);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

When is that conviction attained which (it is said) arises as soon as the mind is purified by Karma-Yoga or devotion through works? The answer follows:

yogānuṣṭhāna-janita-sattva-śuddhajā buddhiḥ kadā prāpsyate ity ucyate

When thy mind shall cross beyond the mire of delusion,
then wilt thou attain to a disgust of what is yet to be heard
and what has been heard.

yadā te moha-kalilaṃ buddhir vyatitariṣyati |
tadā gantāsi nirvedaṃ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca ||2.52||

When your intuition (buddhi) shall cross beyond the mire of delusion, by which the sense of discrimination between the Self and the not-Self is confounded and the mind (antah-karaṇa) is turned towards the objects of the senses – i. e., when your reason attains purity –

yadā yasmin kāle te tava moha-kalilaṃ mohātmakam aviveka-rūpaṃ kāluṣyaṃ yena ātmānātma-viveka-bodhaṃ kaluṣīkṛtya viṣayaṃ praty antaḥ-karaṇaṃ pravartate, tat tava buddhiḥ vyatitariṣyati vyatikramiṣyati, atiśuddha-bhāvam āpatsyate ity arthaḥ |

then will you attain to a disgust of what is yet to be heard and what has already been heard: they will appear to you to be of no use.

tadā tasmin kāle gantāsi prāpsyasi nirvedaṃ vairāgyaṃ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca, tadā śrotavyaṃ śrutaṃ ca te niṣphalaṃ pratibhātīty abhiprāyaḥ ||2.52||

 

Rāmānuja

ukta-prakāreṇa karmaṇi vartamānasya tayā vṛttyā nirdhūta-kalmaṣasya ye buddhir yadā moha-kalilam atyalpa-phala-saṅga-hetu-bhūtaṃ moha-rūpaṃ kaluṣaṃ vyatitariṣyati | tadāsmatta itaḥ pūrvaṃ tyājyatayā śrutasya phalāder itaḥ paścāt śrotavyasya ca kṛte svayam eva nirvedaṃ gantāsi gamiṣyasi

 

Śrīdhara

kadāhaṃ tat padaṃ prāpsyāmi ity apekṣāyām āha yadeti dvābhyām | moho dehādiṣu ātma-buddhiḥ | tad eva kalilaṃ gahanam | kalilaṃ gahanaṃ vidur ity abhidhāna-koṣa-smṛteḥ | tataś cāyam arthaḥ | evaṃ parameśvarārādhane kriyamāṇe yadā tat-prasādena tava buddhir dehābhimāna-lakṣaṇaṃ moha-mayaṃ gahanaṃ durgaṃ viśeṣeṇātitariṣyati tadā śrotavyasya śrutasya cārthasya nirvedaṃ vairāgyaṃ gantāsi prāpsyasi | tayor anupādeyatvena jijñāsām na kariṣyasīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana

evaṃ karmāṇy anutiṣṭhataḥ kadā me sattva-śuddhiḥ syād ity ata āha yadeti | na hy etāvatā kālena sattva-śuddhir bhavatīti kāla-niyamo ‚sti | kintu yadā yasmin kāle te tava buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ moha-kalilaṃ vyatitariṣyati avivekātmakaṃ kāluṣam aham idaṃ mamedaṃ ity ādy-ajñāna-vilasitam atigahanam vyatikramiṣyati rajas-tamo-malam apahāya śuddha-bhāvam āpatsyata iti yāvat | tadā tasmin kāle śrotavyasya śrutasya ca karma-phalasya nirvedaṃ vaitṛṣṇyaṃ gantāsi prāptāsi | parīkṣya lokān karma-citān brāhmaṇo nirvedam āyāt [MuṇḍU 1.2.12] iti śruteḥ | nirvedena phalenāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhiṃ jñāsyasīty abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

evaṃ parameśvarārpita-niṣkāma-karmābhyāsāt tava yogo bhaviṣyatīty āha yadeti | tava buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ moha-kalilaṃ moha-rūpaṃ gahanaṃ viśeṣato ‚tiśayena tariṣyati, tadā śrotavyasya śrotavyeṣv artheṣu śrutasya śruteṣv apy artheṣu nirvedaṃ prāpsyasi asambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanayor naṣṭatvāt kiṃ me śāstropadeśa-vākya-śravaṇena | sāmprataṃ me sādhaneṣv eva pratikṣaṇam abhyāsaḥ sarvathocita iti maṃsyasa iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanu niṣkāmāṇi karmāṇi kurvato me kadātma-viṣayā manīṣābhyudiyād iti cet tatrāha yadeti | yadā te buddhir antaḥkaraṇaṃ moha-kalilaṃ tuccha-phalābhilāṣa-hetum ajñāna-gahanaṃ vyatitariṣyati parityakṣyatīty arthaḥ, tadā pūrvaṃ śrutasyānantaraṃ śrotavyasya ca tasya tuccha-phalasya sambandhinaṃ nirvedaṃ gantāsi gamiṣyasi | parīkṣya lokān karma-citān brāhmaṇo nirvedaṃ āyāt iti śravaṇāt | nirvedena phalena tad-viṣayāṃ tāṃ pariceṣyati iti nāsty atra kāla-niyama ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 2.53

śruti-vipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā
samādhāv acalā buddhis tadā yogam avāpsyasi

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yadā (when) te (your) śruti-vipratipannā (perplexed by the Vedas) buddhiḥ (intelligence), samādhau (in concentration) niścalā (firm) acalā (motionless) [satī] (being) sthāsyati (it will stay),
tadā (then) yogam (yoga) avāpsyasi (you will obtain).

 

grammar

śruti-viprati-pannā śruti-vi-prati-panna 1n.1 f.; [TP]: yā śrutibhir / śrutiṣu vipratipannā tāwhich is perplexed by the Vedas or regarding the Vedas (from: śru – to hear, to listen, śruti – hearing, the Vedas; vi-prati-pad – to go in opposite directions, to waver, to be perplexed, [PP] vipratipanna – uncertain, perplexed);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
sthāsyati sthā (to stand) Fut. P 1v.1it will stay;
niścalā niś-cala 1n.1 f.motionless, invariable, firm (from: cal – to move, to shake, cala – moving, shaking);
samādhau samādhi 7n.1 m.in union, in concentration, in harmony (from: sam-ā-dhā – to put, to fix, to compose, to concentrate);
acalā a-cala 1n.1 f.motionless (from: cal – to move, to shake, cala – moving, shaking);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
tadā av.at that time, then;
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, yoga (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
avāpsyasi ava-āp (to obtain) Fut. P 2v.1 – you will obtain;

 

textual variants


yadā → yathā (as);
niścalā → niścitā / niṣphalā / niścalaṁ (certain / without fruit / motionless [yoga]);
avāpsyasi → avāpsyati (it will obain);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

You may now ask: „When shall I attain the true Yoga or conviction of the Supreme Truth, by crossing beyond the mire of delusion and obtaining wisdom by discrimination of the Self?” Listen:

moha-kalilātyaya-dvāreṇa labdhātma-vivekaja-prajñaḥ kadā karma-yogajaṃ phalaṃ paramārtha-yogam avāpsyāmīti cet, tat sṛṇu

When thy mind, perplexed by what thou hast heard,
shall stand firm and steady in the Self, then wilt thou attain Yoga.

ruti-vipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā |
samādhāv acalā buddhis tadā yogam avāpsyasyi ||2.53||

When your intuition (buddhi = antaḥ-karaṇa) which has been perplexed by what you have heard about the multifarious ends and means in all their relations – concerning the life of activity and the life of retirement – shall stand firm, without distraction (vikshepa = viparyaya) and doubt (vikalpa = samsaya), in the Self (Samadhi, i.e., the objective point of your meditation),

śruti-vipratipannā aneka-sādhya-sādhana-saṃbandha-prakāśana-śrutibhiḥ śravaṇaiḥ pravṛtti-nivṛtti-lakṣaṇaiḥ vipratipannā nānā-pratipannā vikṣiptā satī te tava buddhir yadā yasmin kāle sthāsyati sthirībhūtā bhaviṣyati niścalā vikṣepa-calana-varjitā satī samādhau, samādhīyate cittam asminn iti samādhir ātmā, tasmin ātmani ity etat | acalā tatrāpi vikalpa-varjitā ity etat | buddhir antaḥkaraṇam |

then you will attain Yoga, samadhi, i.e., the knowledge which arises from discrimination.

tadā tasmin kāle yogam avāpsyasi viveka-prajñāṃ samādhiṃ prāpsyasi ||2.53||

 

Rāmānuja

yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu [gītā 2.39] ity ādinā uktasya ātma-yāthātmya-jñāna-pūrvakasya buddhi-viśeṣa-saṃskṛta-karmānuṣṭhānasya lakṣaṇa-bhūtaṃ yogākhyaṃ phalam āha—śruti iti | śrutiḥ śravaṇam | asmattaḥ śravaṇena viśeṣataḥ pratipannā sakaletara-visajātīya-nitya-niratiśaya-sūkṣma-tattva-viṣayā svayam acalā eka-rūpā buddhiḥ asaṅga-karmānuṣṭhānena vimalīkṛte manasi yadā niścalā sthāsyati tada yogam ātmāvalokanam avāpsyasi | etad uktaṃ bhavati—śāstra-janyātma-jñāna-pūrvaka-karma-yogaḥ sthita-prajñatākhya-jñāna-niṣṭhām āpādyati, jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpā sthita-prajñatā tu yogākhyam ātmāvalokanaṃ sādhayati iti

 

Śrīdhara

tataś ca śrutīti | śrutibhir nānā-laukika-vaidikārtha-śravaṇair vipratipannā | itaḥ pūrvaṃ vikṣiptā satī tava buddhir yadā samādhau sthāsyati | samādhīyate cittam asminn iti samādhiḥ parameśvaraḥ | tasmin niścalā viṣayair antarair anākṛṣṭā | ataevācalā | abhyāsa-pāṭavena tatraiva sthirā ca satī yogaṃ yoga-phalaṃ tattva-jñānam avāpsyasi

 

Madhusūdana

antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhyaivaṃ jāta-nirvedasya kadā jñāna-prāptir ity apekṣāyām āha śrutīti | te tava buddhiḥ śrutibhir nānā-vidha-phala-śravaṇair avicārita-tātparyair vipratipannā ‚neka-vidha-saṃśaya-viparyāsavattvena vikṣiptā prāk | yadā yasmin kāle śuddhija-viveka-janitena doṣa-darśanena taṃ vikṣepaṃ parityajya samādhau parmātmani niścalā jāgrat-svapna-darśana-lakṣaṇa-vikṣepa-rahitācalā suṣupti-mūrcchā-stabdhībhāvādi-rūpa-laya-lakṣaṇa-calana-rahitā satī sthāsyati laya-vikṣepa-lakṣaṇau doṣau parityajya samāhitā bhaviṣyatīti yāvat | athavā niścalāsambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanā-rahitācalā dīrgha-kālādara-nairantarya-satkāra-sevanair vijātīya-pratyayādūṣitā satī nirvāta-pradīpavad ātmani sthāsyatīti yojanā | tadā tasmin kāle yogaṃ jīva-paramātmaikya-lakṣaṇaṃ tat-tvam-asīty ādi-vākya-janyam akhaṇḍa-sākṣātkāraṃ sarva-yoga-phalam avāpsyasi | tadā punaḥ sādhyāntarābhāvāt kṛta-kṛtyaḥ sthita-prajño bhaviṣyasīty abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha

tataś ca śrutiṣu nānā-laukika-vaidikārtha-śravaṇeṣu vipratipannā asammatā viraketit yāvat | tatra hetuḥ niścalā teṣu teṣv artheṣu calituṃ vimukhībhūtety arthaḥ | kintu samādhau ṣaṣṭhe ‚dhyāye vakṣyamāṇa-lakṣaṇe ‚calā sthairyavatī | tadā yogam aparokṣānubhava-prāptyā, jīvan-mukta ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva

nanu karma-phala-nirviṇṇatayā karmānuṣṭhānena labdha-hṛd-viśuddher abhyuditātma-jñānasya me kadātma-sākṣāt-kṛtir iti cet tatrāha śrutīti | śrutyā karmaṇāṃ jñāna-garbhatāṃ prabodhayantyā tam etam ity ādikayā vipratipannā viśeṣeṇa saṃsiddhā te buddhir acalā asambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanābhyāṃ virahitā yadā samādhau manasi nirvāta-dīpa-śikheva niścalā sthāsyati tadā yogam ātmānubhava-lakṣaṇam avāpsyasi | ayam arthaḥ phalābhilāṣa-śūnyatayānuṣṭhitāni karmāṇi sthita-prajñatā-rūpāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṃ sādhayanti | jñāna-niṣṭhā-rūpā sthita-prajñatā tv ātmānubhavam iti

 
 

BhG 2.54

arjuna uvāca
sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhi-sthasya keśava
sthita-dhīḥ kiṃ prabhāṣeta kim āsīta vrajeta kim

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arjuna (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he keśava (O Keśava!),
sthita-prajñasya (of one who has firm wisdom) samādhi-sthasya (of one situated in concentration) kā bhāṣā (what is the description?).
sthita-dhīḥ (one who has a steady thought) kim prabhāṣeta (how he would speak?),
kim āsīta (how he would sit?),
kim vrajeta (how he would walk?).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
sthita-prajñasya sthita-prajña 6n.1 m.; BV: yasya prajñā sthitāsti tasyaof one whose wisdom is firm (from: sthā – to stand, [PP] sthita – standing, situated, firm; pra-jñā – to know, to understand, to discern, prajñā – discrimination, wisdom, judgement);
kim sn. 1n.1 f.what?
bhāṣā bhāṣā 1n.1 f.spech, language, description, definition (from: bhāṣ – to speak);
samādhi-sthasya samādhi-stha 6n.1 m.yaḥ samādhau tiṣṭhati tasyaof one situated in concentration (from: sam-ā-dhā – to put, to fix, to compose, to concentrate, samādhi – union, concentration, harmony; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
keśava keśa-va 8n.1 m.who has [beautiful] hair (from: keśa – hair; -va = -vant – owner);
or ka-īśa-vathe lord of Brahmā and Śiva(from: ka – Brahmā; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord, Śiva; -va = -vant – owner);
sthita-dhīḥ sthita-dhī 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya dhīḥ sthitāsti saḥwho has a steady thought (from: sthā – to stand, [PP] sthita – standing, situated, firm; dhī – to think, to reflect, dhī – thought, intelligence);
kim av.whether? how? why? wherefrom? (from: kim – what?);
prabhāṣeta pra-bhāṣ (to speak) Pot. Ā 1v.1he would speak;
kim av.whether? how? why? wherefrom? (from: kim – what?);
āsīta ās (to sit, to exist) Pot. Ā 1v.1he would sit;
vrajeta vraj (to go, to walk) Pot. Ā 1v.1he would walk;
kim av.whether? how? why? wherefrom? (from: kim – what?);

 

textual variants


sthita-prajñasya → sthira-prajñasya (of one whose wisdom is fixed);
sthitadhīḥ → sthiradhīḥ (who has a fixed thought);
prabhāṣeta → vibhāṣeta (he would speak);
vrajeta → vrajec ca (and he would walk);
kim āsīta vrajeta kim → samāseta vrajeta kāṁ (he would sit together, he would walk, what);

 
 

Śāṃkara

The key:
an excerpt from the commented verse
quotes from the scriptures
starting polemic

The characteristic attributes of a perfect Sage. Having found an occasion for interrogation, Arjuna asks with a desire to know the characteristic marks of one who has attained wisdom in steady contemplation (samādhi-prajña):

praśna-bījaṃ pratilabhya arjuna uvāca labdha-samādhi-prajñasya lakṣaṇa-bubhutsayā

Arjuna said:
What, O Keśava! , is the description of one of steady knowledge,
who is constant in con temptation?
How doe