atha caturtho ‘dhyāyaḥ – jñāna-yogaḥ

Now the fourth chapter: “The Yoga of Knowledge”

BhG 4.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
imaṃ vivasvate yogaṃ proktavān aham avyayam
vivasvān manave prāha manur ikṣvākave bravīt

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śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
aham (I) imam (this) avyayam (unchangeable) yogam (yoga) vivasvate (to Vivasvant) proktavān (the one who declared), vivasvān (Vivasvant) manave (to Manu) prāha (he spoke),
manuḥ (Manu) ikṣvākave (to Ikṣvāku) abravīt (he spoke).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
imam idam sn. 2n.1 m.this;
vivasvate vi-vasvant 4n.1 m.to one who illuminates, who has rays, to the Sun (from: vi-vas – to shine forth; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
proktavān proktavant (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 m.one who declared;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 n.unchangeable, imperishable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
vivasvān vi-vasvant 1n.1 m.one who illuminates, who has rays, the Sun (from: vi-vas – to shine forth; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
manave manu 4n.1 m.to Manu, to one thinking, to a person (from: man – to think);
prāha pra-ah (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
manuḥ manu 1n.1 m.Manu, one thinking, a person (from: man – to think);
ikṣvākave ikṣvāku 4n.1 m.to Ikṣvāku, the first ruler of the Sun dynasty, the descendants of Ikṣvāku ruling in Ayodhyā (from: ikṣu – sugar cane);
abravīt brū (to speak) [Imperf.] P 1v.1he spoke;

 

textual variants


imaṁ → evam (thus);
vivasvate → vivasvato (of Vivasvant);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yo’yaṃ yogo’dhyāya-dvayenokto jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaḥ sa sannyāsaḥ karma-yogopāyaḥ | yasmin vedārthaḥ parisamāptaḥ pravṛtti-lakṣaṇo nivṛtti-lakṣaṇaś ca gītāsu ca sarvāsv ayam eva yogo vivakṣito bhagavatā | ataeva parisamāptaḥ pravṛttiṃ vedārthaṃ manvānas taṃ vaṃśa-kathanena stauti śrī-bhagavān |

imam adhyāya-dvayenoktaṃ yogaṃ vivasvate ādityāya sargādau proktavān aham | jagat-paripālayitṝṇāṃ kṣatriyāṇāṃ balādhānāya | tena yoga-balena yuktāḥ samarthā bhavanti brahma parirakṣituṃ, brahma-kṣatre paripālite jagat paripālayitum alam | avyayam avyaya-phalatvāt | na hy asya samyag darśana-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇasya mokṣākhyaṃ phalaṃ vyeti | sa ca vivasvān manave prāha | manur ikṣvākave sva-putrāyādirājāyābravīt

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 4.3

 

Śrīdhara


āvirbhāva-tirobhāvāv āviṣkartuṃ svayaṃ hariḥ |
tattvaṃ pada-vivekārthaṃ karma-yogaṃ praśaṃsati ||

evaṃ tāvad adhyāya-dvayena karma-yogopāyaka-jñāna-yogo mokṣa-sādhanatvenoktaḥ | tad evaṃ brahmārpaṇādi-guṇa-vidhānena tattvaṃ padārtha-vivekādinā ca prapañciṣyan prathamaṃ tāvat parasparāprāptatvena stuvan bhagavān uvāca imam iti tribhiḥ | avyaya-phalatvād avyayam | imaṃ yogaṃ purāham vivasvata ādityāya kathitavān | sa ca sva-putrāya manave śrāddha-devāya | sa ca manuḥ sva-putrāyekṣvākave ‚bravīt

 

Madhusūdana


yadyapi pūrvam upeyatvena jñāna-yogas tad-upāyatvena ca karma-yoga iti dvau yogau kathitau tathāpi ekaṃ sāṅkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca paśyati sa paśyati [Gītā 5.6] ity anayā diśā sādhya-sādhanayoḥ phalaikyād aikyam upacarya sādhana-bhūtaṃ karma-yogaṃ sādhya-bhūtaṃ ca jñāna-yogam aneka-vidha-guṇa-vidhānāya stauti vaṃśa-kathanena bhagavān |

imam adhyāya-dvayenoktaṃ yogaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaṃ karma-niṣṭhopāya-labhyaṃ vivasvate sarva-kṣatriya-vaṃśa-bīja-bhūtāyādityāya proktavān prakarṣeṇa sarva-sandehocchedādi-rūpeṇoktavān ahaṃ bhagavān vāsudevaḥ sarva-jagat-paripālakaḥ sargādi-kāle rājñāṃ balādhānena tad-adhīnaṃ sarvaṃ jagat pālayitum | katham anena balādhānam iti viśeṣeṇena darśayati — avyayam avyaya-veda-mūlatvād avyaya-phalatvāc ca na vyeti sva-phalād ity avyayam avyabhicāri-phalam | tathā caitādṛśena balādhānaṃ śakyam iti bhāvaḥ |

sa ca mama śiṣyo vivasvān manave vaivasvatāya sva-putrāya prāha | sa ca manur ikṣvākave sva-putrāyādi-rājāyābravīt | yadyapi prati manvantaraṃ svāyambhuvādi-sādhāraṇo ‚yaṃ bhāgavad-updeśas tathāpi sāmpratika-vaivasvata-manvantarābhi-prāyeṇādityam ārabhya sampradāyo gaṇitaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


turye svāvirbhāva-hetor nityatvaṃ janma-karmaṇoḥ |
svasyoktiṃ brahma-yajñādi-jñānotkarṣa-prapañcam ||

adhyāya-dvayenoktaṃ niṣkāma-karma-sādhyaṃ jñāna-yogaṃ stauti imam iti

 

Baladeva


turye svābhivyakti-hetuṃ sva-līlā-
nityatvaṃ sat-karmasu jñāna-yogam |
jñānasyāpi prāy yan-māhātmyam uccaiḥ
prākhyad devo devakīnandano ‚sau ||

pūrvādhyāyābhyām uktaṃ jñāna-yogaṃ karma-yogaṃ caika-phalatvād ekīkṛtya tad-vaṃśaṃ kīrtayan stauti imam iti | imaṃ tvāṃ sūryāyāhaṃ proktavān | avyayaṃ nityaṃ vedārtahtvān naveyeti sva-phalādityavyabhicāri-phalatvāc ca | sa ca mac-chiṣyo vivasvān sva-putrāya manave vaivasvatāya prāha | sa ca manur ikṣvākave sva-putrāyābravīt

 
 

BhG 4.2

evaṃ paraṃ-parā-prāptam imaṃ rāja-rṣayo viduḥ
sa kāleneha mahatā yogo naṣṭaḥ paraṃtapa

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he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!),
evam (thus) rāja-rṣayaḥ (kingly sages) imam (this) paraṁ-parā-prāptam (obtained through the succession) [yogam] (yoga) viduḥ (they got to know).
iha (here) saḥ yogaḥ (this yoga) mahatā kālena (by the influence of the powerful time) naṣṭaḥ (lost) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

evam av.thus;
paraṁ-parā-prāptam paraṁ-parā-prāpta 2n.1 m.; [TP]: paraṁ-parayā prāptam itiobtained through the succession (from: para – distant, beyond, out, earlier,other; paraṁ-parā – one following the other, succession, tradition; pra-āp – to obtain, to reach, prāpta [PP] – obtained);
imam idam sn. 2n.1 m.this;
rāja-rṣayaḥ rāja-rṣi 1n.3 m.; [TP]: rājñām ṛṣaya itithe sages among the kings (from: raj – to reign, rājan – king; ṛṣ – to flow, to move quickly, or dṛś – to see; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
or KD: rājānaś cāsav ṛṣayaś ca they are kings and sages;
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
kālena kāla 3n.1 m.by the time;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
mahatā mahant 3n.1 m.by the great (from: mah – to magnify);
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
naṣṭaḥ naṣṭa (naś – to disappear, to be lost, to perish) [PP] 1n.1 m.perished, lost;
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);

 

textual variants


paraṁ-parā-prāptam → paraṁ-parākhyātam / paras-parā-prāptam (known through the tradition / obtained among themselves);
imaṁ → idaṁ (this);
kāleneha → kālenaiva / tu kālena (indeedby the time / but by the time);

 
 

Śāṃkara


evaṃ kṣatriya-paramparā-prāptam imaṃ rājarṣayo rājānaś ca te ṛṣayaś ca rājarṣayo vidur imaṃ yogam | sa yogaḥ kāleneha mahatā dīrgheṇa naṣṭo vicchinna-sampradāyaḥ saṃvṛtto he parantapa ! ātmano vipakṣa-bhūtāḥ para ucyante tān śaurya-tejo-gabhastibhir bhānur iva tāpayatīti parantapaḥ śatru-tāpana ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 4.3

 

Śrīdhara


evam iti | evaṃ rājānaś ca te ṛṣayaś ceti | anye ‚pi rājarṣayo nimi-pramukhāḥ | sva-pitrādibhir ikṣvāku-pramukhaiḥ protkam imaṃ yogam vidur jānanti sma | adyatanānām ajñāne kāraṇam āha he parantapa śatru-pātana ! sa yogaḥ kāla-vaśād iha loke naṣṭo vicchinnaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evam ādityam ārabhya guru-śiṣya-paramparayā prāptam imaṃ yogaṃ rājānaś ca ta ṛṣayaś ceti rājarṣayaḥ prabhutve sati sūkṣmārtha-nirīkṣaṇa-kṣamā nimi-pramukhāḥ sva-pitrādi-proktaṃ viduḥ | tasmād anādi-veda-mūlatvenānanta-phalatvenānādi-guru-śiṣya-paramparā-prāptatvena ca kṛtrimatva-śaṅkānāspadatvān mahā-prabhāvo ‚yaṃ yoga iti śraddhātiśayāya stūyate |

sa evaṃ mahā-prayojano ‚pi yogaḥ kālena mahatā dīrgheṇa dharma-hrāsa-kareṇehedānīm āvayor vyavahāra-kāle dvāparānte durbalān ajitendriyān anadhikāriṇaḥ prāpya kāma-krodhādibhir abhibhūyamāno naṣṭo vicchinna-sampradāyo jātaḥ | taṃ vinā puruṣārthāprāpter aho daurbhāgyaṃ lokasyeti śocati bhagavān | he parantapa ! paraṃ kāma-krodhādi-rūpaṃ śatru-gaṇaṃ śauryeṇa balavatā vivekena tapasā ca bhānur iva tāpayatīti parantapaḥ śatru-tāpano jitendriya ity arthaḥ | urvaśy-upekṣaṇādy-adbhuta-karma-darśanāt | tasmāt tvaṃ jitendriyatvād atrādhikārīti sūcayati

 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 4.3

 

Baladeva


evaṃ vivasvantam ārabhya guru-śiṣya-paramparayā prāptam iimaṃ yogaṃ rājarṣayaḥ sva-pitrādibhir ikṣvāku-prabhṛtibhir upadiṣṭaṃ viduḥ | iha loke naṣṭo vicchinna-sampradāyaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.3

sa evāyaṃ mayā te dya yogaḥ proktaḥ purātanaḥ
bhakto si me sakhā ceti rahasyaṃ hy etad uttamam

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[tvam] (you) me (my) bhaktaḥ (devotee) sakhā ca (and friend) asi iti (you are).
ayam saḥ eva (that indeed) purātanaḥ (ancient) yogaḥ (yoga) adya (today) mayā (by me) te (to you) proktaḥ (spoken).
etat hi (this indeed) uttamam (the greatest) rahasyam (secret) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.that;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.this;
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
a-dya av.today, now (from: div – to shine, dyu – day, heaven);
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
proktaḥ prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 m.spoken;
purātanaḥ purā-tana 1n.1 m.belonging to the past, ancient (from: pur – to precede, av. purā – formerly)
bhaktaḥ bhakta (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) [PP] 1n.1 m.distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
sakhā sakhi 1n.1 m.friend, companion (from: sac – to be associated or united with);
ca av.and;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
rahasyam rahasya 1n.1 n.a secret (from: rah – to separate, to leave, rahas – loneliness, secret);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
uttamam uttama 1n.1 n.uppermost, highest, most elevated (superlative of: ud – upwards, above);

 

textual variants


sa evāyaṁ sa eva ca (and he indeed);
purātanaḥ → sanātanaḥ (ancient);
ceti → cāsi (and you are);
rahasyaṁ hy etad → rahasyaṁ caitad / rahasyam etad / rahasyaṁ hy etam (and this secret / this secret / indeed this secret);

 
 

Śāṃkara


durlabhān ajitendriyān prāpya naṣṭaṃ yogam imam upalabhya lokaṃ cāpuruṣārtha-sambandhinaṃ—

sa evāyaṃ mayā te tubhyam adya idānīṃ yogaḥ proktaḥ purātanaḥ | bhakto’si me sakhā cāsīti | rahasyaṃ hi yasmād etad uttamaṃ yogo jñānam ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


tṛtīye ‚dhyāye prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭasya mumukṣoḥ sahasā jñānayoge ‚nadhikārāt karmayoga eva kāryaḥ, jñānayogādhikāriṇo ‚py akartṛtvānusandhānapūrvakakarmayoga eva śreyān iti sahetukam uktam; śiṣṭatayā vyapadeśyasya tu viśeṣataḥ karmayoga eva kārya iti coktam / caturthenedānīm asyaiva karmayogasya nikhilajagaduddharaṇāya manvantarādāv evopadiṣṭatayā kartavyatāṃ draḍhayitvā antargatajñānatayāsyaiva jñānayogākaratāṃ pradarśya, karmayogasvarūpam, tadbhedāḥ, karmayoge jñānāṃśasyaiva prādhānyaṃ cocyate / prasaṅgāc ca bhagavadavatārayāthātmyam ucyate /

yo ‚yaṃ tavodito yogaḥ sa kevalaṃ yuddhaprotsāhanāyedānīm udita iti na mantavyam / manvantarādāv eva nikhilajagaduddharaṇāya paramapuruṣārthalakṣaṇamokṣasādhanatayā imaṃ yogam aham eva vivasvate proktavān, vivasvāṃś ca manave, manur ikṣvakave / ity evaṃ saṃpradāyaparamparayā prāptam imaṃ yogaṃ pūrve rājarṣayo ‚viduḥ / sa mahatā kālena tattacchrotṛbuddhimāndyād vinaṣṭaprāyo ‚bhūt / sa evāyam askhalitasvarūpaḥ purātano yogaḥ sakhyenātimātrabhaktyā ca mām eva prapannāya te mayā proktaḥ saparikaras savistaram ukta ityarthaḥ / madanyena kenāpi jñātuṃ vaktuṃ cāśakyam, yata idaṃ vedāntoditam uttamaṃ rahasyaṃ jñānam

 

Śrīdhara


sa evāyam iti | sa evāyaṃ yogo ‚dya vicchinne sampradāye sati punaś ca te tubhyam uktaḥ | yatas tvaṃ mama bhakto ‚si sakhā ca | anyasmai mayā nocyate | hi yasmād etad uttamaṃ rahasyam

 

Madhusūdana


ya evaṃ pūrvam upadiṣṭo ‚py adhikārya-bhāvād vicchinna-sampradāyo ‚bhūt | yaṃ vinā ca puruṣārtho na labhyate | sa evāyaṃ purātano ‚nādi-guru-paramparā-gato yogo ‚dya sampradāya-viccheda-kāle mayātisnigdhena te tubhyaṃ prakarṣeṇoktaḥ | na tv anyasmai kasmaicit | kasmāt ? bhakto ‚si me sakhā ceti | iti-śabdo hetau | yasmāt tvaṃ mama bhaktaḥ śaraṇāgatatve saty atyanta-prītimān sakhā ca samāna-vayāḥ snigdha-sahāyo ‚si sarvadā bhavasi atas tubhyam ukta ity arthaḥ anyasmai kuto nocyate tatrāha | hi yasmād etaj jñānam uttamaṃ rahasyam atigopyam

 

Viśvanātha


tvāṃ praty evāsya proktatve hetuḥ : bhakto dāsaḥ sakhā ceti bhāva-dvayam | anyas tu arvācīnaṃ praty eva avaktavyatve hetū rahasyam iti

 

Baladeva


sa eva tadānupūrvika-vacana-vācyo yogo mayā tvat-sakhenātisnigdhena te tubhyaṃ mat-sakhāyeti snigdhāya proktas tvaṃ me bhaktaḥ prapannaḥ sakhā cāsīti hetor na tv anyasmai kasmaicit | tatra hetuḥ rahasyam iti | hi yasmād uttamaṃ rahasyam iti gopyam etat

 
 

BhG 4.4

arjuna uvāca
aparaṃ bhavato janma paraṃ janma vivasvataḥ
katham etad vijānīyāṃ tvam ādau proktavān iti

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arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
bhavataḥ (Your) janma (birth) aparam (later) [asti] (it is),
vivasvataḥ (of Vivasvant) janma (birth) param (earlier) [asti] (it is).
[ataḥ eva] (therefore) tvam (you) ādau (in the beginning) [vivasvate] (to Vivasvant) proktavān iti (one who declared).
etat (this) [aham] (I) katham (how?) vijānīyām (I should undersand).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
aparam a-para 1n.1 n.different, later, other;
bhavataḥ bhavant 6n.1 m.Your (honorific) (from: bhū – to be, bha-vant – honorific form of address, looks like PPr of: bhū, but differs in declension in: nominative singular; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
janma janman 1n.1 n.birth (from: jan – to be born);
param para 1n.1 n.distant, beyond, out, previous, ancient;
janma janman 1n.1 n.birth (from: jan – to be born);
vivasvataḥ vi-vasvant 6n.1 m.of one who illuminates, who has rays, of the Sun (from: vi-vas – to shine forth; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
katham av.how?, in what manner?
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
vijānīyām vi-jñā (to distinguish, to know, to understand) Imperat. P 3v.1I should understand;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
ādau ādi 7n.1 m.in the beginning;
proktavān proktavant (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] pas. 1n.1one who declared;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);

 

textual variants


aparaṁ → avaraṁ (lower, later);
aparaṁ bhavato janma → ādyaṁ bhagavato janma (your birth now);
etad → evam (thus);
iti → asi (you are);

 
 

Śāṃkara


bhagavatā vipratiṣiddham uktam iti mā bhūt kasyacid buddhir iti parihārārthaṃ codyam iva kurvann arjuna uvāca—

aparam arvāg vasudeva-gṛhe bhavato janma paraṃ pūrvaṃ sargādau janma utpattiḥ vivasvata ādityasya | tat katham etad vijānīyām aviruddhārthatayā yas tvam evādau proktavān imaṃ yogam | sa eva tvam idānīṃ mahyaṃ proktavān asīti

 

Rāmānuja


asmin prasaṅge bhagavadavatārayāthātmyaṃ yathāvaj jñātum arjuna uvāca

kālasaṅkhyayā avaram asmajjanmasamakālaṃ hi bhavato janma / vivasvataś ca janma kālasaṅkhyayā param aṣṭāviṃśaticaturyugasaṅkhyāsaṅkhyātam / tvam evādau proktavān iti katham etad asaṃbhāvanīyaṃ yathārthaṃ jānīyām ? nanu janmāntareṇāpi vaktuṃ śakyam, janmāntarakṛtasya mahatāṃ smṛtiś ca yujyata iti nātra kaścid virodhaḥ / na cāsau vaktāram enaṃ vasudevatanayaṃ sarveśvaraṃ na jānāti, yata evaṃ vakṣyati, „paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma pavitraṃ paramaṃ bhavān / puruṣaṃ śāśvataṃ divyam ādidevam ajaṃ vibhum // āhus tvām ṛṣayas sarve devarṣir nāradas tathā / asito devalo vyāsaḥ svayaṃ caiva bravīṣi me” iti / yudhiṣṭhirarājasūyādiṣu bhīṣmādibhyaś cāsakṛcchrutam, „kṛṣṇa eva hi lokānām utpattir api cāpyayaḥ / kṛṣṇasya hi kṛte bhūtam idaṃ viśvaṃ carācaram” ityevamādiṣu / kṛṣṇasya hi kṛte iti, kṛṣṇasya śeṣabhūtam idaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagad ityarthaḥ // atrocyate jānāty evāyaṃ bhagavantaṃ vasudevasūnaṃ pārthaḥ / jānato ‚py ajānata iva pṛcchato ‚yam āśayaḥ nikhilaheyapratyanīkakalyāṇaikatānasya sarveśvarasya sarvajñasya satyasaṅkalpasyāvāptasamastakāmasya karmaparavaśadevamanuṣyādisajātīyaṃ janma kim indrajālādivan mithyā, uta satyam? satyatve ca kathaṃ janmaprakāraḥ? kim ātmako ‚yaṃ dehaḥ? kaś ca janmahetuḥ? kadā ca janma? kim arthaṃ ca janmeti / parihāraprakāreṇa praśnārtho vijñāyate

 

Śrīdhara


bhagavato vivasvantaṃ prati yogopadeśāsambhavaṃ paśyann arjuna uvāca aparam iti | aparam arvācīnaṃ tava janma | paraṃ prāk kālīnaṃ vivasvato janma | tasmāt tavādhunātanatvāt cirantanāya vivasvate tvam ādau yogaṃ proktavān iti etat katham ahaṃ jānīyāṃ jñātuṃ śaknuyām

 

Madhusūdana


yā bhagavati vāsudeve manuṣyatvenāsarvajñatvānityatvāśaṅkā mūrkhāṇāṃ tām apanetum anuvadann arjuna āśaṅkate – aparam iti | aparam alpa-kālīnam idānantanaṃ vasudeva-gṛhe bhavato janma śarīra-grahaṇaṃ vihīnaṃ ca manuṣyatvāt | paraṃ bahu-kālīnaṃ sargādi-bhavam utkṛṣṭaṃ ca devatvāt, vivasvato janma | atrātmano janmābhāvasya prāg-vyutpāditatvād dehābhiprāyeṇaivārjunasya praśnaḥ | ataḥ katham etad vijānīyām aviruddhārthatayā | etac chabdārtham eva vivṛṇoti | tvam ādau yogaṃ proktavān iti | tvam idānīṃtano manuṣyo ‚sarvajñaḥ sargādau pūrvatanāya sarvajñāyādityāya proktavān iti viruddhārtham etad iti bhāvaḥ |

atrāyaṃ nirgalito ‚rthaḥ | etad dehānavacchinnasya tava dehāntarāvacchedena vādityaṃ pratyupadeṣṭṛtvam etad-dehena vā | nādyaḥ | janmāntarānubhūtasyāsarvajñena smartum aśakyatvāt | anyathā mamāpi janmāntarānubhūta-smaraṇa-prasaṅgaḥ | tava mama ca manuṣyatvenāsarvajñatvāviśeṣāt | tad uktam abhiyuktaiḥ janmāntarānubhūtaṃ ca na smaryate iti | nāpi dvitīyaḥ sargādāv idānīṃtanasya dehasyāsad-bhāvāt | tad evaṃ dehāntareṇa sargādau sad-bhāvānupappattir ity asarvajñatvānityatvābhyāṃ dvāv arjunasya pūrva-pakṣau

 

Viśvanātha


uktam artham asambhavaṃ pṛcchati aparam idānīntanam | paraṃ purātanam ataḥ katham etat pratyemīti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


kṛṣṇasya sanātanatve sārvajñe ca śaṅkamānān anabhijñān nirākartum arjuna uvāca aparam iti | aparam arvācīnaṃ paraṃ parācīnaṃ tasmād ādhunikas tvaṃ prācīnāya vivasvate yogam uktavān ity etat katham ahaṃ vijānīyāṃ pratīyām | ayam arthaḥ : na khalu sarveśvaratvena kṛṣṇam arjuno na vetti tasya narākhya-tad-avatāratvena tādrūpyāt, paraṃ dhāma paraṃ dhāma ity ādi tad-ukteś ca | na tv atat-sarvajña-viṣayām ajña-śaṅkām apākartum aparam ity ādi pṛcchati | sarveśvaraḥ sa yathā sva-tattvaṃ vetti na tathānyaḥ | tatas tan-mukhāmbujād eva tad-rūpa-taj-janmādi parkāśanīyaṃ loka-maṅgalāya | tad-arthaṃ sva-mahimānaṃ pravadan vikatthanatayā sa nākṣepyaḥ, kintu stavanīya eva kṛpālutayā | tac ca manuṣākṛti-para-brahmaṇas tava rūpaṃ janmādi ca loka-vilakṣaṇaṃ kiṃ-vidhaṃ kim-arthakaṃ kiṃ-kālam iti vijñasyāpy ājñavat praśno ‚yam ajña-śaṅkā-nirāsaka-prativacanārthaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.5

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna
tāny ahaṃ veda sarvāṇi na tvaṃ vettha paraṃtapa

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he arjuna (O Arjuna!), he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!).
me (my) tava ca (and your) bahūni (many) janmāni (births) vyatītāni (gone) [santi] (they are).
aham (I) tāni sarvāṇi [janmāni] (all those births) veda (I know),
tvam (you) [tāni janmāni] (those births) na vettha (you do not know).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
bahūni bahu 1n.3 m.many;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
vyatītāni vi-ati-ita (vi-ati-i – to go away) [PP] 1n.3 n.gone, past;
janmāni janman 1n.3 n.births (from: jan – to be born);
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
ca av.and;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
tāni tat sn. 2n.3 n.them;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
veda vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 3v.1 (meaning Praes.) – I know;
sarvāṇi sarva sn. 2n.3 n.them all;
na av.not;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
vettha vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 2v.1 (meaning Praes.) – you know;
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);

 

textual variants


cārjunavārjuna (or O Arjuna);
veda → vedmi (I know);
vettha → vetsi (you know);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yā vāsudeve anīśvarāsarvajñāśaṅkā mūrkhāṇāṃ tāṃ pariharan śrī-bhagavān uvāca padartho hy arjunasya praśnaḥ—

bahūni me mama vyatītāni atikrāntāni janmāni tava ca he arjuna tāny ahaṃ veda jāne sarvāṇi na tvaṃ vettha jānīṣe | dharmādharmādi-pratibaddha-jñāna-śaktitvāt | ahaṃ punar nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-svabhāvatvād anāvaraṇa-jñāna-śaktir iti vedāham | he parantapa

 

Rāmānuja


anena janmanas satyatvam uktam, bahūni me vyatītāni janmānīti vacanāt, tava ceti dṛṣṭāntatayopādānāc ca

 

Śrīdhara


rūpāntareṇopadiṣṭavān ity abhiprāyeṇottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca bahūnīti | tāny ahaṃ veda vedmi | alupta-vidyā-śaktitvāt | tvaṃ tu na vettha na vetsi avidyāvṛttatvāt

 

Madhusūdana


tatra sarvajñatvena prathamasya parihāram āha bahūnīti | janmāni līlā-deha-grahaṇāni loka-dṛṣṭy-abhiprāyeṇādityasyodayavan me mama bahūni vyatītāni tava cājñāninaḥ karmārjitāni deha-grahaṇāni | tava cety upalakṣaṇam itareṣām api jīvānāṃ, jīvaikyābhiprāyeṇa vā | he ‚rjuna ! ślokenārjuna-vṛkṣa-nāmnā sambodhayann āvṛta-jñānatvaṃ sūcayati | tāni janmāny ahaṃ sarvajñaḥ sarva-śaktir īśvaro veda jānāmi sarvāṇi madīyāni tvadīyāny anyadīyāni ca | na tvam ajño jīvas tirobhūta-jñāna-śaktir vettha na jānāsi svīyāny api kiṃ punaḥ parakīyāṇi | he parantapa ! paraṃ śatruṃ bheda-dṛṣṭyā parikalpya hantuṃ pravṛtto ‚sīti viparīta-darśitatvād bhrānto ‚sīti sūcayati | tad anena sambodhana-dvayenāvaraṇa-vikṣepau dvāv apy ajñāna-dharmau darśitau

 

Viśvanātha


avatārāntareṇopadiṣṭavān ity abhiprāyeṇāha bahūnīti | tava ceti yadā yadaiva mamāvatāras tadā mat-pārṣadatvāt tavāpy āvirbhāvo ‚bhūd evety arthaḥ | veda vedmi sarveśvaratvena sarvajñatvāt | tvaṃ na vettha mayaiva sva-līlā-siddhy-arthaṃ tvaj-jñānāvaraṇād iti bhāvaḥ | ataeva he parantapa ! sāmpratika-kuntī-putratvābhimāna-mātreṇaiva parān śatrūṃs tāpayasi

 

Baladeva


eka evāhaṃ eko ‚pi san bahudhā yo ‚vabhāti ity ādi śruty-uktāni nitya-siddhāni bahūni rūpāṇi vaidūryavad ātmani dadhānaḥ purā rūpāntareṇa taṃ pratyupadiṣṭavān iti bhāvenāha bhagavān bahūnīti | tava ceti mat-sakhatvāt tāvanti janmāni tavāpy abhūvann ity arthaḥ | na tvaṃ vettheti | idānīṃ mayaivācintya-śaktyā sva-līlā-siddhaye tvaj-jñānācchādanād iti bhāvaḥ | etena sārvajñyaṃ svasya darśitam | atra bhagavaj-janmanāṃ vāstavatvaṃ bodhyam | bahūnītyādi śrī-mukhoktes tava ceti dṛṣṭāntāc ca | na ca janmākhyo vikāras tasyāgrima-vyākhyayā pratyākhyānāt
 
 

BhG 4.6

ajo pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaro pi san
prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāya saṃbhavāmy ātma-māyayā

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[aham] (I) ajaḥ (unborn) avyayātmā (unchangeable) san api (although being),
bhūtānām (of creatures) īśvaraḥ (ruler) san api (although being),
svām (own) prakṛtim (nature) adhiṣṭhāya (after controlling)
ātma-māyayā (by my own magic) sambhavāmi (I manifest).

 

grammar

ajaḥ a-ja 1n.1 m.unborn (from: jan – to be born; ja – suffix: born);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
san sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 m.being, existing, true;
avyayātmā avyayātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmāvyaya asti saḥwhose self is unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense, a-vyaya – unchangeable; ātman – self);
bhūtānām bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 6n.3 m. of beings, creatures;
īśvaraḥ īśvara 1n.1 m.ruler, lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
san sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 m.being, existing, true;
prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
svām svā sn. 2n.1 f.own;
adhiṣṭhāya adhi-sthā (to stand upon, to superintend) absol.after controlling;
saṁbhavāmi sam-bhū (to come into being) Praes. P 3v.1I manifest;
ātma-māyayā ātma-māyā 3n.1 f.; [TP]: ātmano māyayetiby [my] own magic (from: ātman – self; māyā – magic, illusion, supernatural power);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kathaṃ tarhi tava nityeśvarasya dharmādharmābhāve’pi janma ? ity ucyate —

ajo’pi janma-rahito’pi san, tathāvyayātmākṣīṇa-jñāna-śakti-svabhāvo’pi san, tathā bhūtānāṃ brahmādi-stamba-paryantānām īśvara īśana-śīlo’pi san | prakṛtiṃ svāṃ mama vaiṣṇavīṃ māyāṃ triguṇātmikāṃ yasyā vaśe sarvam idaṃ jagad vartate | yayā mohitaṃ jagat sat svam ātmānaṃ vāsudevaṃ na jānāti | tāṃ prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāya vaśīkṛtya saṃbhavāmi dehavān iva bhavāmi jāta ivātma-māyayātmano māyayā, na paramārthato lokavat

 

Rāmānuja


avatāraprakāram, dehayāthātmyam, janmahetuṃ cāha

ajatvāvyayatvasarveśvaratvādi sarvaṃ pārameśvaraṃ prakāram ajahad eva svāṃ prakṛtim adhiṣṭhāya ātmamāyayā saṃbhavāmi / prakṛtiḥ svabhāvaḥ svam eva svabhāvam adhiṣṭhāya svenaiva rūpeṇa svecchayā saṃbhavāmītyarthaḥ / svasvarūpaṃ hi, „ādityavarṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt”, „kṣayantam asya rajasaḥ parāke”, „ya eṣo ‚ntarāditye hiraṇyamayaḥ puruṣaḥ”, „tasminn ayaṃ puruṣo manomayaḥ; amṛto hiraṇmayaḥ”, „sarve nimeṣā jajñire vidyutaḥ puruṣād adhi” , „bhārūpas satyasaṅkalpa ākāśātmā sarvakāmā sarvakāmas sarvagandhas sarvarasaḥ”, „māhārajanaṃ vāsaḥ” ityādiśrutisiddham / ātmamāyayā ātmīyayā māyayā / „māyā vayunaṃ jñānam” iti jñānaparyāyo ‚tra māyāśabdaḥ / tathā cābhiyuktaprayogaḥ, „māyayā satataṃ vetti prāṇināṃ ca śubhāśubham” iti / ātmīyena jñānena ātmasaṅkalpenetyarthaḥ / ato ‚pahatapāpmatvādisamastakalyāṇaguṇātmakatvaṃ sarvam aiśaṃ svabhāvam ajahat svam eva rūpaṃ devamanuṣyādisajātīyasaṃsthānaṃ kurvan ātmasaṅkalpena devādirūpaḥ saṃbhavāmi / tad idam āha, „ajāyamāno bahudhā vijāyate” iti śrutiḥ / itarapuruṣasādhāraṇaṃ janma akurvan devādirūpeṇa svasaṅkalpenoktaprakriyayā jāyata ityarthaḥ / „bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna / tāny ahaṃ veda sarvāṇi”, „tadātmānaṃ sṛjāmy aham” „janma karma ca me divyam evaṃ yo vetti tattvataḥ” iti pūrvāparāvirodhāc ca

 

Śrīdhara


nanu anādes tava kuto janma ? avināśinaś ca kathaṃ punar janma yena bahūni me vyatītānity ucyate | īśvarasya tava puṇya-pāpa-vihīnasya kathaṃ jīvavaj janmeti ? ata āha ajo ‚pīti | satyam evam | tathāpi ajo ‚pi janma-śūnyo ‚pi sann aham | tathāvyayātmāpy anaśvara-svabhāvo ‚pi san | tathā – īśvaro ‚pi karma-pāratantrya-rahito ‚pi san | sva-māyayā sambhavāmi samyag apracyuta-jñāna-bala-vīryādi-śaktyaiva bhavāmi |

nanu tathāpi ṣoḍaśa-kalātamka-liṅga-deha-śūnyasya ca tava kuto janmeti ? ata uktaṃ svāṃ śuddha-sattvātmikāṃ prakṛtiṃ adhiṣṭhāya svīkṛtya | viśuddhorjita-sattva-mūrtyā svecchayāvatarāmīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanv atītāneka-janma-vattvam ātmanaḥ smarasi cet tarhi jāti-smaro jīvas tvaṃ para-janma-jñānam api yoginaḥ sārvātmyābhimānena śāstra-dṛṣṭyā tūpadeśo vāma-devavat [Vs 1.1.30] iti nyāyena sambhavati | tathā cāha vāmadevo jīvo ‚pi ahaṃ manur abhavaṃ sūryaś cāhaṃ kakṣīvānṛpir asmi vipraḥity ādi dāśatayyām | ataeva na mukhyaḥ sarvajñas tvam | tathā ca katham ādityaṃ sarvajñam upadiṣṭavān asy anīśvaraḥ san | na hi jīvasya mukhyaṃ sārvajñyaṃ sambhavati vyaṣṭy-upādheḥ paricchinnatvena sarva-sambandhitvābhāvāt | samaṣṭy-upādher api virājaḥ sthūla-bhūtopādhitvena sūkṣma-bhūta-pariṇāma-viṣayaṃ māyā-pariṇāma-viṣayaṃ ca jñānaṃ na sambhavati | evaṃ sūkṣma-bhūtopādher api hiraṇyagarbhasya tat-kāraṇa-māyā-pariṇāmākāśādi-sarga-kramādi-viṣaya-jñānābhāvaḥ siddha eva | tasmād īśvara eva kāraṇopāditvād atītān āgata-vartamāna-sarvārtha-viṣaya-jñānavān mukhyaḥ sarvajñaḥ | atītān āgata-vartamāna-viṣayaṃ māyā-vṛtti-trayam ekaiva vā sarva-viṣayā māyā-vṛttir ity anyat | tasya ca nityeśvarasya sarvajñasya dharmādharmādy-abhāvena janmaivānupapannam atītāneka-janmavattvaṃ tu dūrotsāritam eva | tathā ca jīvatve sārvajñyānupapattir īśvaratve ca deha-grahaṇānupapattir iti śaṅkā-dvayaṃ pariharann anityatva-pakṣasyāpi parihāram āha ajo ‚pīti |

apūrva-dehendriyādi-grahaṇaṃ janma | pūrva-ghīta-dehendriyādi-viyogo vyayaḥ | yad ubhayaṃ tārkikaiḥ prety abhāva ity ucyate | tad uktaṃ jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca [Gītā 2.27] iti | tad ubhayaṃ ca dharmādharma-vaśād bhavati | dharmādharma-vaśatvaṃ cājñasya jīvasaya dehābhimāninaḥ karmādhikāritvād bhavati | tatra yad ucyate sarvajñasyeśvarasya sarva-kāraṇasyedṛg-deha-grahaṇaṃ nopapadyata iti tat tathaiva | katham ? yadi tasya śarīraṃ sthūla-bhūta-kāryaṃ syāt tadā vyaṣṭi-rūpatve jāgrad-avasthāsmad-ādi-tulyatvam | samaṣṭi-rūpatve ca virāḍ-jīvatvaṃ tasya tad-upādhitvāt | atha sūkṣma-bhūta-kāryaṃ tadā vyaṣṭi-rūpatve svapnāvasthāsmad-ādi-tulyatvam | samaṣṭi-rūpatve ca hiraṇya-garbha-jīvatvaṃ tasya tad-upādhitvāt | tathā ca bhautikaṃ śarīraṃ jīvānāviṣṭaṃ parameśvarasya na sambhavaty eveti siddham | na ca jīvāviṣṭa eva tādṛśe śarīre tasya bhūtāveśavat praveśa iti vācyam | tac-charīrāvacchedena taj-jīvasya bhogābhyupagame ‚ntaryāmi-rūpeṇa sarva-śarīra-praveśasya vidyamānatvena śarīra-viśeṣābhyupagama-vaiyarthyāt | bhogābhāve ca jīva-śarīratvānupapatteḥ | ato na bhautikaṃ śarīram īśvarasyeti pūrvārdhenāṅgīkaroti — ajo ‚pi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaro ‚pi sann iti |

ajo ‚pi sann ity apūrva-deha-grahaṇam avyayātmāpi sann iti pūrva-deha-vicchedaṃ bhūtānāṃ bhagava-dharmāṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ brahmādi-stamba-paryantānām īśvaro ‚pi sann iti dharmādharma-vaśatvaṃ nivārayati | kathaṃ tarhi deha-grahaṇam ity uttarārdhenāha prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāya sambhavāmi | prakṛtiṃ māyākhyāṃ vicitrāneka-śaktim aghaṭamāna-ghaṭanāpaṭīyasīṃ svāṃ svopādi-bhūtām adhiṣṭhāya cid-ābhāsena vaśīkṛtya sambhavāmi tat-pariṇāma-viśeṣair eva jagat-kāraṇatva-sampādikā mad-icchayaiva pravartamānā viśuddha-sattva-mayatvena mama mūrtis tad-viśiṣṭasya cājatvam avyayatvam īśvaratvaṃ copapannam | ato ‚nena nityenaiva dehena vivasvantaṃ ca tvāṃ ca pratīmaṃ yogam upadiṣṭavān aham ity upapannam | tathā ca śrutiḥ – ākāśa-śarīraṃ brahma iti | ākāśo ‚nnāvyākṛtam | ākāśa eva tad otaṃ ca protaṃ ca [BAU 3.8.7] ity ādau tathā darśanāt | ākāśas tal-liṅgāt [Vs. 1.1.22] iti nyāyāc ca |

tarhi bhautika-vigrahābhāvāt tad-dharma-manuṣyatvādi-pratītiḥ katham iti cet tatrāha ātma-māyayeti | man-māyayaiva mayi manuṣyatvādi-pratītir lokānugrahāya na tu vastu-vṛttyeti bhāvaḥ | tathā coktaṃ mokṣa-dharme –

māyā hy eṣā mayā sṛṣṭā yan māṃ paśyasi nārada |
sarva-bhūta-guṇair yuktaṃ na tu māṃ draṣṭum arhasi || [Mbh 12.326.43] iti |

sarva-bhūta-guṇair yuktaṃ kāraṇopādhiṃ māṃ carma-cakṣuṣā draṣṭuṃ nārhasīty arthaḥ | uktaṃ ca bhagavatā bhāṣyakāreṇa – sa ca bhagavān jñānaiśvarya-śakti-bala-vīrya-tejobhiḥ sadā sampannas triguṇātmikāṃ vaiṣṇavīṃ svāṃ māyāṃ prakṛtiṃ vaśīkṛtyājo ‚vyayo bhūtānām īśvaro nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-svabhāvo ‚pi san sva-māyayā dehavān iva jāta iva ca lokānugrahaṃ kurvan lakṣyate sva-prayojanābhāve ‚pi bhūtānujighṛkṣayā iti | vyākhyātṛbhiś coktaṃ svecchā-vinirmitena māyāmayena divyena rūpeṇa sambabhūveti |

nityo yaḥ kāraṇopādhir māyākhyo ‚neka-śaktimān |
sa eva bhagavad-deha iti bhāṣya-kṛtāṃ matam ||

anye tu parameśvare deha-dehi-bhāvaṃ na manyante | kiṃ yaś ca nityo vibhuḥ sac-cid-ānanda-ghano bhagavān vāsudevaḥ paripūrṇo nirguṇaḥ paramātmā sa eva tad-vigraho nānyaḥ kaścid bhautiko māyiko veti | asmin pakṣe yojanā – ākāśavat sarva-gataś ca nityaḥ, avināśī vā are ‚yam ātmānucchitti-dharmā ity ādi śruteḥ, asaṃbhavas tu sato ‚nupaptteḥ [Vs. 2.3.8], nātmāśruter nityatvāc ca tābhyaḥ [Vs. 2.3.16] ity ādi nyāyāc ca vastu-gatyā janma-vināśa-rahitaḥ sarva-bhāsakaḥ sarva-kāraṇa-māyādhiṣṭhānatvena sarva-bhūteśvaro ‚pi sann ahaṃ prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanaika-rasam |

māyāṃ vyāvartayati svām iti | nija-svarūpam ity arthaḥ | sa bhagavaḥ kasmin pratiṣṭhitaḥ sve mahimni [ChāU 7.24.1] iti śruteḥ | sva-svarūpam adhiṣṭhāya svarūpāvasthita eva san sambhavāmi deha-dehi-bhāvam antareṇaiva dehivad vyavaharāmi | kathaṃ tarhy adehe sac-cid-ānanda-ghane dehatva-pratītir ata āha ātma-māyayeti | nirguṇe śuddhe sac-cid-ānanda-ghane mayi bhagavati vāsudeve deha-dehi-bhāva-śūnye tad-rūpeṇa pratītir māyā-mātram ity arthaḥ | tad uktam –

kṛṣṇam enam avehi tvam ātmānam akhilātmanām |
jagad-dhitāya so ‚py atra dehīvābhāti māyayā || iti [BhP 10.14.55]
aho bhāgyam aho bhāgyaṃ nanda-gopa-vrajaukasām
yan-mitraṃ paramānandaṃ pūrṇaṃ brahma sanātanam || [BhP 11.14.32] iti ca |

kecit tu nityasya niravayavasya nirvikārasyāpi paramānandasyāvayavāya-vibhāvaṃ vāstavam evecchanti te niryuktikaṃ bruvāṇas tu nāsmābhir vinivāryate iti nyāyena nāpavādyāḥ | yadi sambhavet tathaivāstu kim atipallavitenety uparamyate

 

Viśvanātha


svasya janma-prakāram āha – ajo ‚pi janma-rahito ‚pi san sambhavāmi, deva-manuṣya-tiryag-ādiṣu āvirbhavāmi | nanu kim atra citram ? jīvo ‚pi vastuto ‚ja eva sthūla-deha-nāśānantaraṃ jāyata eva ? tatrāha savyayātmānaśvara-śarīraḥ | kiṃ ca, jīvasya sva-deha-bhinna-sva-svarūpeṇājatvam eva, āvidyakena deha-sambandhenaiva tasya janmavattvam, mama tv īśvaratvāt sva-dehābhinnasyājatvaṃ janmavattvam ity ubhayam api svarūpa-siddham | tac ca durghaṭatvāt citram atarkyam eva | ataḥ puṇya-pāpādimato jīvasyeva sad-asad-yoniṣu na me janmāśaṅkety āha – bhūtānām īśvaro ‚pi san karma-pāratantrya-rahito ‚pi bhūtvety arthaḥ |

nanu jīvo hi liṅga-śarīreṇa sva-bandhakena karma-prāpyān devādi-dehān prāpnoti | tvaṃ parameśvaro liṅga-rahitaḥ sarva-vyāpakaḥ karma-kālādi-niyantā | bahu syām iti śruteḥ sarva-jagad-rūpo bhavaty eva | tad api yad viśeṣata evambhūto ‚py ahaṃ sambhavāmīti brūṣe, tan manye sarva-jagad-vilakṣaṇān deha-viśeṣān nityān eva loke prakāśayituṃ tvaj-janmety avagamyate | tat khalu katham ity ata āha prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāyeti | atra prakṛti-śabdena yadi bahiraṅgā māyā-śaktir ucyate, tadā tad-adhiṣṭhātā parameśvaras tad-dvārā jagad-rūpo bhavaty eveti na viśeṣopalabdhiḥ | tasmāt saṃsiddhi-prakṛtī tv ime svarūpaṃ ca svabhāvaś ca ity abhidhānād atra prakṛti-śabdena svarūpam evocyate | na tat svarūpa-bhūtā māyā-śaktiḥ | svarūpaṃ ca tasya sac-cid-ānanda eva | ataveva tvāṃ śuddha-sattvātmikāṃ prakṛtim iti śrī-svāmi-caraṇāḥ | prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ svam eva svabhāvam adhiṣṭhāya svarūpeṇa svecchayā sambhavāmīty arthaḥ iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ | prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanaika-rasam | māyāṃ vyāvartayati svām iti nija-svarūpam ity arthaḥ | sa bhagavaṃ kasmin pratiṣṭhitaḥ sva-mahimni iti śruteḥ | sva-svarūpam adhiṣṭhāya svarūpāvasthita eva sambhavāmi deha-dehi-bhāvam antareṇaiva dehivad vyavaharāmi iti śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ |

nanu yady avyayātmā anaśvara-matsya-kūrmādi-svarūpa eva bhavasi, tarhi tava prādurbhavat-svarūpaṃ pūrva-prādurbhūta-svarūpāṇi ca yugapad eva kiṃ nopalabhyanta ? tatrāha ātma-bhūtā yā māyā tayā sva-svarūpāvaraṇa-prakāśana-karma ca yayā cic-chakti-vṛttyāyoga-māyayety arthaḥ | tayā hi pūrva-kālāvatīrṇa-svarūpāṇi pūrvam evāvṛtya vartamāna-svarūpaṃ prakāśya sambhavāmi | ātma-māyayā samyag apracyuta-jñāna-bala-vīryādi-śaktyaiva bhavāmi iti śrī-svāmi-caraṇāḥ | ātma-māyayātma-jñānena māyā vayunaṃ jñānam iti jñāna-paryāyo ‚tra māyā-śabdaḥ | tathā cābhiyukta-prayogaḥ māyayā satataṃ vetti prācīnānāṃ śubhāśubham iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ | mayi bhagavati vāsudeve deha-dehi-bhāva-śūnye tad-rūpeṇa pratītiḥ māyā-mātram iti śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ

 

Baladeva


loka-vilakṣaṇatayā svarūpaṃ sva-janma ca vadan sanātanatvaṃ svasyāha ajo ‚pīti | atra svarūpa-svabhāva-paryāyaḥ prakṛti-śabdaḥ | svāṃ prakṛtiṃ svaṃ svarūpaṃ adhiṣṭhāyālambya sambhavāmi āvirbhavāmi | saṃsiddhi-prakṛtī tv ime | svarūpaṃ ca svabhāvaś ca ity amaraḥ | svarūpeṇaiva sambhavāmīti | etam arthaṃ vicarituṃ viśinaṣṭi ajo ‚pīty ādinā | api avadhāraṇe | apūrva-deha-yogo janma | tad-rahita eva san | avyayātmāpi san avyayaḥ pariṇāma-śūnya ātmā buddhyādir yasya tādṛśa eva san | ātmā puṃsi ity ādy ukteḥ | bhūtānām īśvaro ‚pi san svetareṣāṃ jīvānāṃ niyantaiva san ity arthaḥ | ajatvādi-guṇakaṃ yad vibhu-jñāna-sukha-ghanaṃ rūpaṃ tenaivāvatarāmīti svarūpeṇaiva sambhavāmīty asya vivaraṇaṃ tādṛśasya svarūpasya raver ivābhiyakti-mātram eva janmeti tat-svarūpasya taj-janmanaś ca loka-vilakṣaṇatvaṃ tena sanātanatvaṃ ca vyaktam | karma-tantratvaṃ nirastam | śrutiś caivam āha ajāyamāno bahudhā vijāyate iti | smṛtiś ca pratyakṣaṃ ca harer janma na vikāraḥ kathaṃcana ity ādyā | ataeva sūtikā-gṛhe divyāyudha-bhūṣaṇasya divya-rūpasya ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-sampannasya tasya vīkṣaṇaṃ smaryate | prayojanam āha ātma-māyayeti | bhajaj-jīvānukampayā hetunā tad-uddhārāyety arthaḥ | māyā dambhe kṛpāyāṃ ca iti viśvaḥ | ātma-māyayā sva-sārvajñena sva-saṅkalpeneti kecit | māyā vayunaṃ jñānaṃ ca iti nirghaṇṭu-koṣāt | lokaḥ khalu rājādiḥ pūrva-dehādīni vihāyāpūrva-dehādīni bhajan niranusandhir ajño janmībhavati tad-vailakṣaṇyaṃ harer janminaḥ prasphuṭam | bhūtānām īśvaro ‚pi sann ity anena labdha-siddhayo yogi-prabhṛtayo ‚pi vyāvṛttāḥ | sukha-cid-ghano harir deha-dehi-bhedena guṇa-guṇi-bhedena ca śūnyo ‚pi viśeṣa-balāt tat-tad-bhāvena viduṣāṃ pratītir āsīd iti

 
 

BhG 4.7

yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata
abhyutthānam adharmasya tadātmānaṃ sṛjāmy aham

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
yadā yadā hi (indeed always when) dharmasya (of dharma) glāniḥ (decrease) bhavati (it is),
adharmasya [ca] (and of adharma) abhyutthānam (rise) [bhavati] (it is),
tadā (then) aham (I) ātmānam ([my] self) sṛjāmi (I manifest).

 

grammar

yadā yadā av.when, when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then; distributive use);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
dharmasya dharma 6n.1 m. of the law, of dharma (from: dhṛ – to hold);
glāniḥ glāni 1n.1 f.exhaustion, fatique, dicrease, sickness (from: glai – to feel dislike, to be exhausted, to faint);
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
abhyutthānam abhi-utthāna 1n.1 n.rise, gain, elevation (from: abhi-ut-sthā – to rise);
adharmasya a-dharma 6n.1 m. of the lawlessness, of adharma (from: dhṛ – to hold);
tadā av.at that time, then;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
sṛjāmi sṛj (to let go, to emit) Praes. P 3v.1I let go, I emit, I create;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


tadātmānaṃ → tadātmāṃśaṃ (then [my] own part);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tac ca janma kadā kim-arthaṃ ca ? ity ucyate —

yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir hānir varṇāśramādi-lakṣaṇasya prāṇinām abhyudaya-niḥśreyasa-sādhanasya bhavati | bhārata ! abhyutthānam udbhavo’dharmasya tadātmānaṃ sṛjāmy ahaṃ māyayā

 

Rāmānuja


janmakālam āha

na kālaniyamo ‚smatsaṃbhavasya / yadā yadā hi dharmasya vedoditasya cāturvarṇyacāturāśramyavyavasthayāvasthitasya kartavyayasya glānir bhavati, yadā yadā ca tadviparyayasyādharmasyābhyutthānam tadāham eva svasaṅkalpenoktaprakāreṇātmānaṃ sṛjāmi

 

Śrīdhara


kadā sambhavasīty apekṣāyām āha yadā yadeti | glānir hāniḥ | abhyutthānam ādhikyam

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanasya tava kadā kim-arthaṃ vā dehivad vyavahāra iti tatrocyate yadā yadeti | dharmasya veda-vihitasya prāṇinām abhyudaya-niḥśreyasa-sādhanasya pravṛtti-nivṛtti-lakṣaṇasya varṇāśrama-tad-ācāra-vyaṅgyasya yadā yadā glānir hānir bhavati he bhārata bharata-vaṃśodbhavatvena bhā jñānaṃ tatra ratatvena vā tvaṃ na dharma-hāniṃ soḍhuṃ śaknoṣīti sambodhanārthaḥ | evaṃ yadā yadābhyutthānam udbhavo ‚dharmasya veda-niṣiddhasya nānā-vidha-duḥkha-sādhanasya dharma-virodhinas tadā tadātmānaṃ dehaṃ sṛjāmi nitya-siddham eva sṛṣṭam iva darśayāmi māyayā

 

Viśvanātha


kadā sambhavāmīty apekṣāyām āha yadeti | dharmasya glānir hānir adharmasyābhyutthānaṃ vṛddhis te dve soḍhum aśaknuvan tayor vaiparītyaṃ kartum iti bhāvaḥ | ātmānaṃ dehaṃ sṛjāmi nity siddham eva taṃ sṛṣṭam iva darśayāmi māyayā iti śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ

 

Baladeva


atha sambhava-kālam āha yadeti | dharmasya vedoktasya glānir vināśaḥ adharmasya tad-viruddhasyābhyutthānam abhuyudayas tadāham ātmānaṃ sṛjāmi prakaṭayāmi | na tu nirmame tasya pūrva-siddhatvād iti nāsti mat-sambhava-kāla-niyamaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.8

paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṃ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām
dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya saṃbhavāmi yuge yuge

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sādhūnām (of what is right) paritrāṇāya (for protection),
duṣkṛtām (of what is evil) vināśāya (for destruction),
dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya ca (and for the sake of establishing dharma),
yuge yuge (in each and every aeon) [aham] (I) sambhavāmi (I manifest).

 

grammar

paritrāṇāya paritrāṇa 4n.1 n.for protection (from: pari-trai – to protect, to rescue, to save);
sādhūnām sādhu 6n.3 m.of the right, of the noble men, of the saints (from: sādh – to succeed);
vināśāya vināśa 4n.1 m.for destruction (from: vi-naś – to destroy, to vanish);
ca av.and;
duṣkṛtām duṣ-kṛta 2n.2 n.wrongly done, evil action, sin (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made);
dharma-saṁsthāpanārthāya dharma-saṁsthāpana-artha 4n.1 n.; [TP]: dharmasya saṁsthāpanasyārthāyetifor the sake of establishing the law (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law; sam-sthā – to come into being, saṁ-sthāpana – setting, establishing; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use; with the meaning ‘for the sake’ requires genitive – whose?);
saṁbhavāmi sam-bhū (to come into being) Praes. P 3v.1I manifest;
yuge yuge yuga 7n.1 n.in an aeon, an age of the world (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage; distributive use);

 

textual variants

sādhūnāṃ → sādhyānāṃ (of these to be achieved);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kim-arthaṃ ?

paritrāṇāya parirakṣaṇāya sādhūnāṃ san-mārga-sthānām | vināśāya ca duṣkṛtāṃ pāpa-kāriṇām | kiṃ ca dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya dharmasya samyak-sthāpanaṃ tad-arthaṃ sambhavāmi | yuge yuge pratiyugam

 

Rāmānuja


janmanaḥ prayojanam āha

sādhavaḥ uktalakṣaṇadharmaśīlāḥ vaiṣṇavāgresarā matsamāśrayaṇe pravṛttā mannāmakarmasvarūpāṇāṃ vāṅmanasāgocaratayā maddarśanena vinā svātmadhāraṇapoṣaṇādikm alabhamānāḥ kṣaṇamātrakālaṃ kalpasahasraṃ manvānāḥ pratiśithilasarvagātrā bhaveyur iti matsvarūpaceṣṭitāvalokanālāpādidānena teṣāṃ paritrāṇāya tadviparītānāṃ vināśāya ca kṣīṇasya vaidikasya dharmasya madārādhanarūpasyārādhyasvarūpapradarśanena sthāpanāya ca devamanuṣyādirūpeṇa yuge yuge saṃbhavāmi / kṛtatretādiyugaviśeṣaniyamo ‚pi nāstītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kim-artham ? ity apekṣāyām āha paritrāṇāyeti | sādhūnāṃ sva-dharma-vartināṃ rakṣaṇāya | duṣṭaṃ karma kurvantīti duṣkṛtaḥ | teṣāṃ vadhāya ca | evaṃ dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya sādhu-rakṣaṇena duṣṭa-vadhena ca dharmaṃ sthirīkartum | yuge yuge tat-tad-avasare sambhavāmīty arthaḥ | na caivaṃ duṣṭa-nigrahaṃ kurvato ‚pi nairghṛṇyaṃ śaṅkanīyam | yathāhuḥ – lālane tāḍane mātur nākāruṇyaṃ yathārbhake | tat tad eva maheśasya niyantur guṇa-doṣayoḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tat kiṃ dharmasya hānir adharmasya ca vṛddhis tava paritoṣa-kāraṇaṃ yena tasminn eva kāla āvirbhavasīti tathā cānarthāvaha eva tavāvatāraḥ syāt ? iti nety āha paritrāṇāyeti | dharma-hānyā hīyamānānāṃ sādhūnāṃ puṇya-kāriṇāṃ veda-mārga-sthānāṃ paritrāṇāya paritaḥ sarvato rakṣaṇāya | tathādharma-vṛddhyā vardhamānānāṃ duṣkṛtāṃ pāpa-kāriṇāṃ veda-mārga-virodhināṃ vināśāya ca | tad ubhayaṃ kathaṃ syād iti tad āha dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya dharmasya samyag-adharma-nivāraṇena sthāpanaṃ veda-mārga-parirakṣaṇaṃ dharma-saṃsthāpanaṃ tad-arthaṃ sambhavāmi pūrvavat | yuge yuge pratiyugam

 

Viśvanātha


nanu tvad-bhaktā rājarṣayo brahmarṣayo ‚pi vā dharma-hāny-adharma-vṛddhī dūrīkartuṃ śaknuvanty eva | etāvad artham eva kiṃ tavāvatāreṇa ? iti cet, satyam | anyad api anya-duṣkaraṃ karma kartuṃ sambhavāmīty āha parīti | sādhūnāṃ paritrāṇāya mad-ekānta-bhaktānāṃ mad-darśanotkaṇṭhā-sphuṭa-cittānāṃ yad vaiyāgrya-rūpaṃ duḥkham | tasmāt trāṇāya | tathā duṣkṛtāṃ mad-bhakta-loka-duḥkha-dāyināṃ mad-anyair avadhyānāṃ rāvaṇa-kaṃsa-keśy-ādīnāṃ vināśāya | tathā dharma-saṃsthāpanārthāya madīya-dhyāna-yajana-paricaryā-saṅkīrtana-lakṣaṇaṃ parama-dharmaṃ mad-anyaiḥ pravartayitum aśakyaṃ samyak prakāreṇa sthāpayitum ity arthaḥ | yuge yuge prati-yugaṃ pratikalpaṃ vā | na caivaṃ duṣṭa-nigraha-kṛto bhagavato vaiṣamyam āśaṅkanīyam | duṣṭānām apy asurāṇāṃ sva-kartṛ-vadhena vividha-duṣkṛta-phalān naraka-saha-praṇipātāt saṃsārāc ca paritrāṇatas tasya sa khalu nigraho ‚py anugraha eva nirṇītaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu tvad-bhaktā rājarṣayo ‚pi dharma-glānim adharmābhyutthānaṃ cāpanetuṃ prabhavanti tāvate ‚rthāya kiṃ sambhavāmīty āha parīti | sādhūnāṃ mad-rūpa-guṇa-niratānāṃ mat-sākṣāt-kāram ākāṅkṣyatāṃ tena vinātivyagrāṇāṃ tad-vaiyagrya-rūpād duḥkhāt paritrāṇāyātimanojña-svarūpa-sākṣāt-kāreṇa | tathā duṣkṛtāṃ duṣṭa-karma-kāriṇāṃ mad-anyair avadhyānāṃ daśagrīva-kaṃsādīnāṃ tādṛg-bhakta-drohiṇāṃ vināśāya dharmasya mad-ekārcana-dhyānādi-lakṣaṇasya śuddha-bhakti-yogasya vaidikasyāpi mad-itaraiḥ pracārayitum aśakyasya saṃsthāpanārthāya sampracārāyety etat trayaṃ mat-sambhavasya kāraṇam iti | yuge yuge tat-tat-samayena ca duṣṭa-vadhena harau vaiṣamyaṃ, tena duṣṭānāṃ mokṣānanda-lābhe sati tasyānugraha-rūpatvena pariṇāmāt

 
 

Michalski


Dla obrony dobrych, na zgubę złych, dla ugruntowania sprawiedliwości odradzam się w każdym wieku na nowo.

 

Olszewski


Dla obrony dobrych, dla zagłady złych, dla przywrócenia sprawiedliwości powstaję w każdym okresie.

 

Dynowska


Dla ochrony sprawiedliwych, dla zagłady nieprawość czyniących, dla utrwalenia Dharmy, w różnych wiekach przychodzę Ja Sam.

 

Sachse


Objawiam się w każdej erze ludzkości,
ku pomocy dobrym, występnym na zgubę,
i dla odnowienia prawa.

 

Kudelska


Dla ochrony szlachetnych, dla zniszczenia zła, aby prawo utrwalić,
Ja się odradzam z wieku na wiek.

 

Rucińska


Aby ochraniać cnotliwych i aby zgubić złoczyńców,
By dharmę znów ustanowić, powstaję wciąż w każdej judze.

 

Szuwalska


Zstępuję, aby chronić ludzi sprawiedliwych,
Unicestwić złoczyńców oraz ład przywrócić.

 
 

BhG 4.9

janma karma ca me divyam evaṃ yo vetti tattvataḥ
tyaktvā dehaṃ punar-janma naiti mām eti so rjuna

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
evam (thus) yaḥ (he who) me (my) divyam (divine) janma (birth) karma ca (and activities) tattvataḥ (truly) vetti (he knows),
saḥ (he) deham (body) tyaktvā (after abandoning)
punar-janma (re-birth) na eti (he does not go),
[kiṁtu] (but) mām eva (to me only) eti (he goes).

 

grammar

janma janman 2n.1 n.birth (from: jan – to be born);
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
divyam divya 2n.1 n.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
evam av.thus;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
tattvataḥ av.truly (from: tat – to, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
deham deha 2n.1 m. body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
punar-janma punar-janman 2n.1 n.re-birth (from: jan – to be born, janman – birth; av. punaḥ – back, again);
na av.not;
eti i (to go) Praes. P 1v.1he goes;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1to me;
eti i (to go) Praes. P 1v.1he goes;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;

 

textual variants


naiti → neti (not, ‘end of a quote’);
so rjuna → pāṁḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu);

 
 

Śāṃkara


taj-janma māyā-rūpaṃ, karma ca sādhu-paritrāṇādi, me mama divyam aprākṛtam aiśvaram evaṃ yathoktaṃ yo vetti tattvatas tattvena yathāvat tyaktvā deham imaṃ punar janma punar utpattiṃ naiti na prāpnoti, mām ety āgacchati, sa mucyate he’rjuna

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ karmamūlaheyatriguṇaprakṛtisaṃsargarūpajanmarahitasya sarvesvaratvasārvajñyasatyasaṅkalpatvādisamastakalyāṇaguṇopetasya sādhuparitrāṇamatsamāśrayaṇaikaprayojanaṃ divyam aprākṛtaṃ madasādhāraṇaṃ mama janma ceṣṭitaṃ ca tattvato yo vetti, sa vartamānaṃ dehaṃ parityajya punarjanma naiti, mām eva prāpnoti / madīyadivyajanmaceṣṭitayāthātmyavijñānena vidhvastasamastamatsamāśryaṇavirodhipāpaḥ asminn eva janmani yathoditaprakāreṇa mām āśritya madekapriyo madekacitto mām eva prāpnoti

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ-vidhānām īśvara-janma-karmaṇāṃ jñāne phalam āha janmeti | svecchayā kṛtaṃ mama janma karma ca dharma-pālana-rūpaṃ divyam alaukikaṃ tattvataḥ parānugrahārtham eveti yo vetti sa dehābhimānaṃ tyaktvā punar janma saṃsāraṃ naiti na prāpnoti | kintu mām eva prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


janma nitya-siddhasyaiva mama sac-cid-ānanda-ghanasya līlayā tathānukaraṇam | karma ca dharma-saṃsthāpanena jagat-paripālanaṃ me mama nitya-siddheśvarasya divyam aprākṛtam anyaiḥ kartum aśakyam īśvarasyaivāsādharaṇam | evam ajo ‚pi sann ity ādinā pratipāditaṃ yo vetti tattvato bhrama-nivartanena | mūḍhair hi mauṣyatva-bhrāntyā bhagavato ‚pi garbha-vāsādi-rūpam eva janma sva-bhogārtham eva karmety āropitam | paramārthataḥ śuddha-sac-cid-ānanda-rūpatva-jñānena tad-apanudyājasyāpi māyayā janmānukaraṇam akartur api parānugrahāya karmānukaraṇam iy evaṃ yo vetti sa ātmano ‚pi tattva-sphuraṇāt tyaktvā deham imaṃ punar janma naiti | kintu māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam eva sac-cid-ānanda-ghanam eti saṃsārān mucyata ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


ukta-lakṣaṇasya maj-janmanas tathā janmānantaraṃ mat-karmaṇaś ca tattvato jñāna-mātreṇaiva kṛtārthaḥ syād ity āha janmeti | divyam aprākṛtaṃ iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāś ca | divyam alaukikaṃ iti śrī-svāmi-caraṇāḥ | lokānāṃ prakṛti-sṛṣṭatvād alaukika-śabdasya aprākṛtatvam evārthas teṣām apy abhipretaḥ | ataevāprākṛtatvena guṇātītatvād bhagavaj-janma-karmaṇo nityatvam | tac ca bhagavat-sandarbhe na vidyate yasya ca janma karma vā [BhP 8.3.8] ity atra śloke śrī-jīva-gosvāmi-caraṇair upapāditam | yad vā yukty-anupapannam api śruti-smṛti-vākya-balād atarkam evedaṃ mantavyam | tatra pippalāda-śākhāyāṃ puruṣa-bodhinī-śrutiḥ – eko devo nitya-līlānurakto bhakta-vyāpī bhakta-hṛdayāntarātmā iti | tathā janma-karmaṇo nityatvaṃ śrī-bhāgavatāmṛte bahuśa eva prapañcitam | evaṃ yo vetti tattvata iti ajo ‚pi sann avyayatātmā ity asmiṃs tathā janma karma ca me divyam ity asmiṃś ca mad-vākya evāstikatayā maj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvam eva yo jānāti, na tu tayor nityatve kāñcid yuktim apy apekṣamāṇo bhavatīty arthaḥ | yad vā tattvataḥ oṃ tat sad iti nirdeśo brahmaṇas trividhaḥ smṛtaḥ [Gītā 17.18] ity agrimoktes tac-chabdena brahmocyate tasya bhāvas tattvaṃ tena brahma-svarūpatvena yo vettīty arthaḥ | sa vartamānaṃ dehaṃ tyaktvā punar janma naiti kintu mām evaiti | atra dehaṃ tyaktvā ity asyādhikyād evaṃ vyācakṣate sma | sa dehaṃ tyaktvā punar janma naiti kintu deham atyaktvaiva mām eti | madīya-divya-janma-ceṣṭita-yāthātmya-vijñānena vidhvasta-samasta-mat-samāśrayaṇa-virodhi-pāpmāsminn eva janmani yathodita-prakāreṇa mām āśritya mad-eka-priyo mad-eka-citto mām eva prāpnoti iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ

 

Baladeva


bahulāyāsaiḥ sādhana-sahasrair api durlabho mokṣo maj-janma-carita-śravaṇena mad-ekānti-pathānuvartināṃ sulabho ‚stv ity etad arthaṃ ca sambhavāmīty āśayā bhagavān āha janmeti | mama sarveśvarasya satyecchasya vaidūryavan nitya-siddha-nṛsiṃha-raghunāthādi-bahula-rūpasya tatra tatrokta-lakṣṇaṃ janma tathā karma ca tat-tad-bhakta-sambandhaṃ caritaṃ tad ubhayaṃ divyam aprākṛtaṃ nityaṃ bhavatīty evam evaitad iti yas tattvato vetti yad gataṃ bhavac ca bhaviṣyac ca eko devo nitya-līlānurakto bhakta-vyāpī bhakta-hṛdy antarātmā iti śrutyā divyam iti mad-uktyā ca dṛḍha-śraddho yukti-nirapekṣaḥ san | he arjuna ! sa vartamānaṃ dehaṃ tyaktvā punaḥ prāpañcikaṃ janma naiti | kintu mām eva tat-tat-karma-manojñam eti mukto bhavatīty arthaḥ | yad vā mocakatva-liṅgena tat tvam asi iti śruteś ca me janma-karmaṇī tattvato brahmatvena yo vettīti vyākhyeyam | itarathā tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti nānyaḥ panthā vidyate ‚yanāya [ŚvetU 3.8] iti śrutir vyākupyet | samānam anyat | janmādi-nityatāyāṃ yuktayas tv anyatra vistṛtā draṣṭavyāḥ

 
 

BhG 4.10

vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhā man-mayā mām upāśritāḥ
bahavo jñāna-tapasā pūtā mad-bhāvam āgatāḥ

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vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ (those whose passion, fear and anger are gone) man-mayāḥ (who are absorbed in me) mām upāśritāḥ (sheltered in me) jñāna-tapasā (by knowledge and austerity) pūtāḥ (purified) bahavaḥ (many) mad-bhāvam (to my nature) āgatāḥ (who have come).

 

grammar

vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodha 1n.3 m.; DV/BV: yeṣāṁ rāgaś ca bhayaṁ ca krodhaś ca vitāḥ santi tethose whose passion, fear and anger are gone (from: vi-i – to go away, [PP] vīta – gone; rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty; bhī – to scare, bhaya – fear; krudh – to be angry, krodha – anger, wrath);
man-mayāḥ mat-maya 1n.3 m.those full of me, absorbed in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; –maya – in compounds: made of, of the nature of);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1in me;
upāśritāḥ upāśrita (upa-ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.3 m.those who took refuge, who approached – whom? – requires accusative);
bahavaḥ bahu 1n.3 m.many;
jñāna-tapasāḥ jñāna-tapas 3n.1 n.; DV: jñānena ca tapasā ceti by knowledge and austerity (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
pūtāḥ pūta ( – to purify) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are purified;
mad-bhāvam mad-bhāva 2n.1 m.to my nature (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
āgatāḥ āgata (ā-gam – to come) [PP] 1n.3 m.who have come;

 

textual variants

mām upāśritāḥ → mad-vyapāśrayāḥ / mām apāśritāḥ (those for whom I am the shelter / those resting on me);

 
 

Śāṃkara


naiṣa mokṣa-mārga idānīṃ pravṛttaḥ | kiṃ tarhi ? pūrvam api —

vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ—rāgaś ca bhayaṃ ca krodhaś ca rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ, vītā vigatā rāga-bhaya-krodhā yebhyas te vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ | man-mayā brahma-vida īśvarābheda-darśinaḥ | mām eva parameśvaram upāśritāḥ | kevala-jñāna-niṣṭhā ity arthaḥ | bahavo’neke jñāna-tapasā jñānam eva ca paramātma-viṣayaṃ tapaḥ | tena jñāna-tapasā | pūtāḥ parāṃ śuddhiṃ gatāḥ santaḥ | mad-bhāvam īśvara-bhāvaṃ mokṣam āgatāḥ samanuprāptāḥ | itara-tapo-nirapekṣā jñāna-niṣṭhā ity asya liṅgaṃ jñāna-tapaseti viśeṣaṇam

 

Rāmānuja


tad āha

madīyajanmakarmatattvajñānākhyena tapasā pūtā bahava evaṃ saṃvṛttāḥ / tathā ca śrutiḥ, „tasya dhīrāḥ parijānanti yonim” iti / dhīrāḥ dhīmatām agresarā evaṃ tasya janmaprakāraṃ jānantītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kathaṃ janma-karma-jñānena tvat-prāptiḥ syād iti ? ata āha vīta-rāgeti | ahaṃ śuddha-sattvāvatāraiḥ dharma-pālanaṃ karomīti madīyaṃ parama-kāruṇikatvaṃ jñātvā | mām evopāśritāḥ santaḥ | mat-prasāda-labdhaṃ yadātma-jñānaṃ ca tapaś ca | tat-paripāka-hetuḥ sva-dharmaḥ | tayor dvandvaikavad bhāvaḥ | tena jñāna-tapasā pūtāḥ śuddhā nirastājñāna-tat-kārya-malāḥ | mad-bhāvaṃ mat-sāyujyaṃ prāptā bahavaḥ | na tv adhunaiva pravṛtto ‚yaṃ mad-bhakti-mārga ity arthaḥ | tad evaṃ tāny ahaṃ veda sarvāṇīty ādinā vidyāvidyopādhibhyāṃ tat-tvaṃ-padārthāv īśvara-jīvau pradarśyeśvarasya cāvidyābhāvena nitya-śuddhatvāj jīvasya ceśvara-prasāda-labdha-jñānenājñāna-nivṛtteḥ śuddhasya sataś cid-aṃśena tadaikyam uktam iti draṣṭavyam

 

Madhusūdana


mām eti so ‚rjunety uktaṃ tatra svasya sarva-mukta-prāpyatayā puruṣārthatvam asya mokṣa-mārgasyānādi-parasparāgatatvaṃ ca darśayati vīta-rāgeti | rāgas tat-tat-phala-tṛṣṇā | sarvān viṣayān parityajya jñāna-mārge kathaṃ jīvitavyam iti trāso bhayam | sarva-viṣayocchedako ‚yaṃ jñāna-mārgaḥ kathaṃ hitaḥ syād iti dveṣaḥ krodhaḥ | ta ete rāga-bhaya-krodhā vītā vivekena vigatā yebhyas te vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhāḥ śuddha-sattvāḥ | man-mayā māṃ paramātmānaṃ tat-padārthatvaṃ gatāḥ | bahavo ‚neke jñāna-tapasā jñānam eva tapaḥ sarva-karma-kṣaya-hetutvāt | na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram iha vidyate iti hi vakṣyati | tena pūtāḥ kṣīṇa-sarva-pāpāḥ santo nirastājñāna-tat-kārya-malāḥ | mad-bhāvaṃ mad-rūpatvaṃ viśuddha-sac-cid-ānanda-ghanaṃ mokṣam āgatā ajñāna-mātrāpanayena mokṣaṃ prāptāḥ |

jñāna-tapasā pūtā jīvan-muktāḥ santo mad-bhāvaṃ mad-viṣayaṃ bhāvaṃ raty-ākhyaṃ premāṇam āgatā iti vā | teṣāṃ jñānī nitya-yuktā eka-bhaktir viśiṣyate iti hi vakṣyati

 

Viśvanātha


na kevalam eka evādhunika eva, maj-janma-karma-tattva-jñāna-mātreṇaiva māṃ prāpnoty api tu prāktanā api pūrva-pūrva-kalpāvatīrṇasya mama janma-karma-tattva-jñānavanto mām āpur evety āha vīteti | jñānam ukta-lakṣaṇaṃ maj-janma-karmaṇos tattvato ‚nubhava-rūpam eva tapas tena pūtāḥ iti śrī-rāmānujācārya-caraṇāḥ |

yad vā, jñāne maj-janma-karmaṇor nityatva-niścayānubhave yan-nānā-kumata-kutarka-yukti-sarpī-viṣa-dāha-sahana-rūpaṃ tapas tena pūtāḥ | tathā ca śrī-rāmānuja-dhṛta-śrutiḥ – tasya dhīrāḥ parijānanti yoniṃ iti dhīrā dhīmanta eva tasya yoniṃ janma-prakāraṃ jānantīty arthaḥ | vītās tyaktāḥ kumata-prajalpiteṣu janeṣu rāgādyā yais te na teṣu rāgaḥ prītir nāpi tebhyo bhayaṃ nāpi teṣu krodho mad-bhaktānām ity arthaḥ | kuto man-mayā maj-janma-karmānudhyāna-manana-śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-pracurāḥ | mad-bhāvaṃ mayi premāṇam

 

Baladeva


idānīm iva purāpi maj-janmādi-nityatā-jñānena bahūnāṃ vimuktir abhūd iti tan-nityatāṃ draḍhayitum āha vīteti | bahavo janā jñāna-tapasā pūtāḥ santaḥ purā mad-bhāvam āgatā ity anuṣaṅgaḥ | maj-janmādi-nityatva-viṣayakaṃ yaj jñānaṃ tad eva duradhigama-śruti-yukti-sampādyatvāt tapas tasmin jñāne vā yad vividha-kumata-kutarkādi-nivāraṇa-rūpaṃ tapas tena pūtā nirdhūtāvidyā ity arthaḥ | mayi bhāvaṃ premāṇaṃ vidyamānatāṃ vā mat-sākṣāt-kṛtim | kīdṛśās te ity āha vīteti | vītāḥ parityaktās tan-nityatva-virodhiṣu rāgādayo yais te, na teṣu rāgaṃ na bhayaṃ na ca krodhaṃ prakāśayantīty arthaḥ | tatra hetuḥ – man-mayā mad-eka-niṣṭhā upāśritāḥ saṃsevamānāḥ

 
 

BhG 4.11


ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham
mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ

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ye (those who) yathā (as) mām (in me) prapadyante (they take shelter),
aham (I) tān (them) tathā eva (just the same way) bhajāmi (I adore).
he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
manuṣyāḥ (people) sarvaśaḥ (in every way) mama (my) vartma (path) anuvartante (they follow).

 

grammar

ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
prapadyante pra-pad (to surrender) Praes. Ā 1v.3 they surrender, they take shelter of;
tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
bhajāmi bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. P 3v.1I adore;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
vartman vartman 2n.1 n.track of a wheel, path, way, course (from: vṛt – to move, to happen, to act);
ānuvartante anu-vṛt (to follow, to obey) Praes. Ā 1v.3they follow, they obey;
manuṣyāḥ manuṣya 1n.3 m.people (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
sarvaśaḥ av.completely, entirely, altogether, on all sides (from: sarva – all, whole);

 

textual variants

The third and fourth pada of verse 4.11 are the same as the third and fourth pada of verse BhG 3.23;

 
 

Śāṃkara


tava tarhi rāga-dveṣau staḥ | yena kebhyaścit evātma-bhāvaṃ prayacchasi, na sarvebhyaḥ | ity ucyate —

ye yathā yena prakāreṇa yena prayojanena yat-phalārthitayā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva tat-phala-dānena bhajāmy anugṛhṇāmy aham ity etat | teṣāṃ mokṣaṃ pratyanarthitvāt | na hy ekasya mumukṣutvaṃ phalārthitvaṃ ca yugapat sambhavati | ato ye yat-phalārthinas tāṃs tat-phala-pradānena, ye yathokta-kāriṇas tv aphalārthino mumukṣavaś ca tān jñāna-pradānena | ye jñāninaḥ sannyāsino mumukṣavaś ca tān mokṣa-pradānena, tathārtānārti-haraṇena ity evaṃ yathā prapadyante ye tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmīty arthaḥ | na punār rāga-dveṣa-nimittaṃ moha-nimittaṃ vā kaṃcid bhajāmi | sarvathāpi sarvāvasthasya mameśvarasya vartma mārgam anuvartante manuṣyāḥ | yat-phalārthitayā yasmin karmaṇy adhikṛtā ye prayatante te manuṣyā atra ucyante he pārtha sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakāraiḥ

 

Rāmānuja


na kevalaṃ devamanuṣyādirūpeṇāvatīrya matsamāśrayaṇāpekṣāṇāṃ paritrāṇaṃ karomi, api tu ye matsamāśrayaṇāpekṣā yathā yena prakāreṇa svāpekṣānurūpaṃ māṃ saṃkalpya prapadyante samāśrayante; tān prati tathaiva tanmanīṣitaprakāreṇa bhajāmi māṃ darśayāmi / kim atra bahunā, sarve manuṣyāḥ madanuvartanaikamanorathā mama vartma matsvabhāvaṃ sarvaṃ yogināṃ vāṅmanasāgocaram api svakīyāiś cakṣurādikaraṇaiḥ sarvaśaḥ svāpekṣitaiḥ sarvaprakārair anubhūyānuvartnte

 

Śrīdhara


nanu tarhi kiṃ tvayy api vaiṣamyam asti ? yad evaṃ tvad-eka-śaraṇānām evātmābhāvaṃ dadāsi nānyeṣāṃ sakāmānām iti | ata āha ya iti | yathā yena prakāreṇa sakāmatayā niṣkāmatayā vā ye māṃ bhajante tān ahaṃ tathaiva tad-apekṣita-phala-dānena bhajāmi anugṛhṇāmi, na tu sakāmā māṃ vihāyendrādīn eva ye bhajante tān aham upekṣa iti mantavyam | yataḥ sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakārair indrādi-sevakā api mamaiva vartma bhajana-mārgam anuvartante | indrādi-rūpeṇāpi mamaiva sevyatvāt

 

Madhusūdana


nanu ye jñāna-tapasā pūtā niṣkāmās te tvad-bhāvaṃ gacchanti, ye tv apūtāḥ sakāmās te na gacchantīti phala-dātus tava vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye syātām iti nety āha ye yatheti | ya ārtā arthārthino jijñāsavo jñāninaś ca yathā yena prakāreṇa sakāmatayā niṣkāmatayā ca mām īśvaraṃ sarva-phala-dātāraṃ prapadyante bhajanti tāṃs tathaiva tad-apekṣita-phala-dānenaiva bhajāmy anugṛhṇāmy ahaṃ na viparyayeṇa | tatrāmumukṣūn ārtān arthārthinaś cārti-haraṇenārtha-dānena cānugṛhṇāmi | jiijñāsūn vividiṣanti yajñenety ādi-śruti-vihita-niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhātṝn jñāna-dānena jñāninaś ca mumukṣūn mokṣa-dānena na tv anya-kāmāyānyad dadāmīty arthaḥ |

nanu tathāpi sva-bhaktānām eva phalaṃ dadāsi na tv anya-deva-bhaktānām iti vaiṣamyaṃ sthitam eveti nety āha mama sarvātmano vāsudevasya vartma bhajana-mārgaṃ karma-jñāna-lakṣaṇam anuvartante he pārtha sarvajñaḥ sarva-prakārair indrādīn apy anuvartamānā manuṣyā iti karmādhikāriṇaḥ | indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇam agnim āhuḥ ity ādi-mantra-varṇāt phalam ata upapatteḥ [Vs. 3.2.38] iti nyāyāc ca sarva-rūpeṇāpi phala-dātā bhagavān eka evety arthaḥ | tathā ca vakṣyati ye ‚py anya-devatā-bhaktā [Gītā 9.23] ity ādi

 

Viśvanātha


nanu tvad-ekānta-bhaktāḥ kilataj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ manyanta eva | kecit tu jñānādi-siddhy-arthaṃ tvāṃ prapannā jñāni-prabhṛtayas tvaj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ nāpi manyanta iti tatrāha ya iti | yathā yena prakāreṇa māṃ prapadyante bhajante aham api tāṃs tenaiva prakāreṇa bhajāmi | bhajana-phalaṃ dadāmi |

ayam arthaḥ – ye mat-prabhor janma-karmaṇī nitye eveti manasi kurvāṇās tat-tal-līlāyām eva kṛta-manoratha-viśeṣā māṃ bhajantaḥ sukhayanty aham apīśvaratvāt kartum akartum anyathā kartum api samarthas teṣām api janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ kartuṃ tān sva-pārṣadīkṛtya taiḥ sārdham eva yathā-samayam avatarann antar dadhānaś ca tān pratikṣaṇam anugṛhṇann eva tad-bhajana-phalaṃ premāṇam eva dadāmi | ye jñāni-prabhṛtayo maj-janma-karmaṇor naśvaratvaṃ mad-vigrahasya māyā-mayatvaṃ ca manyamānā māṃ prapadyante aham api tān punaḥ punar naśvara-janma-karmavato māyā-pāśa-patitān eva kurvāṇas tat-pratiphalaṃ janma-mṛtyu-duḥkham eva dadāmi | ye tu maj-janma-karmaṇor nityatvaṃ mad-vigrahasya ca sac-cid-ānandatvaṃ manyamānā jñāninaḥ sva-jñāna-siddhy-arthaṃ māṃ prapadyante, teṣāṃ sva-deha-dvaya-bhaṅgam evecchatāṃ mumukṣūṇām anaśvaraṃ brahmānandam eva sampādayan bhajana-phalam āvidyaka-janma-mṛtyu-dhvaṃsam eva dadāmi | tasmān na kevalaṃ mad-bhaktā eva māṃ prapadyante, api tu sarvaśaḥ sarve ‚pi manuṣyā jñāninaḥ karmiṇo yoginaś ca devatāntaropāsakāś ca mama vartmānuvartante mama sarva-svarūpatvāt jñāna-karmādikaṃ sarvaṃ māmakam eva vartmeti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu nitya-janmādi-manojñaḥ sarveśvaras tvaṃ mayāvagata-kvacittvaṅguṣṭha-mātrādir apīśvaro janmādi-śūnyaḥ śrūyate | tat kiṃ tava tvad-upāsanasya ca vaividhyaṃ bhaved iti ced om ity āha ye yatheti | ye bhaktā mām ekaṃ vaidūryam iva bahu-rūpaṃ sarveśvaraṃ yathā yena prakāreṇa bhāveneti yāvat prapadyante bhajanti, tān ahaṃ tādṛśas tathaiva tad-bhāvānusāriṇā rūpeṇa bhāvena ca bhajāmi sākṣāt bhavann anugṛhṇāmi | nūnatām eva-kāro nivartayati | ato mamaikasyaiva bahu-rūpasya vartma-bahu-vidham upāsana-mārgam anādi-pravṛtta-tad-upāsaka-paramparānukampitā manuṣyāḥ sarve ‚nuvartante anusaranti

 
 

BhG 4.12

kāṅkṣantaḥ karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ yajanta iha devatāḥ
kṣipraṃ hi mānuṣe loke siddhir bhavati karma-jā

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karmaṇām (of activities) siddhim (perfection) kāṅkṣantaḥ (who are desiring)
iha (here) devatāḥ (to divinities) yajante (they offer in sacrifice).
mānuṣe loke (in the human world) karma-jā (born of activity) siddhiḥ (perfection) kṣipram hi (quickly indeed) bhavati (there is).

 

grammar

kāṅkṣantaḥ kāṅkṣant (kāṅkṣ – to desire, to expect) PPr 1n.3 m.who are desiring;
karmaṇām karman 6n.3 n.of activities (from: kṛ – to do);
siddhim siddhi 2n.1 f.accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
yajante yaj (to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they offer in sacrifice;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
devatāḥ devatā 2n.3 f.divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
kṣipram av.quickly, immediately (from: kṣipra – quick);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
mānuṣe mānuṣa 7n.1 m.in human (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person);
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
siddhiḥ siddhi 1n.1 f.accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
karma-jā karma-ja 1n.1 f.born from activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);

 

textual variants


karmaṇāṃ → karmaṇaḥ / paramāṃ (of activity / supreme);
iha → iti (thus);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yadi taveśvarasya rāgādi-doṣābhāvāt sarva-prāṇiṣv anujighṛkṣāyāṃ tulyāyāṃ sarva-phala-pradāna-samarthe ca tvayi sati vāsudevaḥ sarvaṃ [gītā 7.19] iti jñānenaiva mumukṣavaḥ santaḥ kasmāt tvām eva sarve na pratipadyante ? iti śṛṇu tatra kāraṇaṃ—

kāṅkṣanto’bhīpsantaḥ karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ phala-niṣpattiṃ prārthayanto yajanta ihāsmin loke devatā indrādgny-ādyāḥ | atha yo’nyāṃ devatām upāste’nyo’sāv anyo’ham asmīti na sa veda, yathā paśuḥ | evaṃ sa devānāṃ [bhāvātmauttaṃ 1.4.10] iti śruteḥ | teṣāṃ hi bhinna-devatāyājināṃ phalākāṅkṣiṇāṃ kṣipraṃ śīghraṃ hi yasmān mānuṣe loke | manuṣya-loke hi śāstrādhikāraḥ | kṣipraṃ hi mānuṣe loke iti viśeṣaṇāt | anyeṣv api karma-phala-siddhiṃ darśayati bhagavān | mānuṣe loke varṇāśramādi-karmādhikāra iti viśeṣaḥ | teṣāṃ ca varṇāśramādhikāriṇāṃ karmiṇāṃ phala-siddhiḥ kṣipraṃ bhavati karmajā karmaṇo jātā

 

Rāmānuja


idānīṃ prāsaṅgikaṃ parisamāpya prakṛtasya karmayogasya jñānākāratāprakāraṃ vaktuṃ tathāvidhakarmayogādhikāriṇo durlabhatvam āha

sarva eva puruṣāḥ karmaṇāṃ phalaṃ kāṅkṣamāṇāḥ indrādidevatāmātraṃ yajante ārādhayanti, na tu kaścid anabhisaṃhitaphalaḥ indrādidevatātmabhūtaṃ sarvayajñānāṃ bhoktāraṃ māṃ yajate / kuta etat? yataḥ kṣiprasminn eva mānuṣe loke karmajā putrapaśvannādysiddhir bhavati / manuṣyalokaśabdaḥ svargādīnām api pradarśanārthaḥ / sarvaṃ eva laukikāḥ puruṣā akṣīṇānādikālapravṛttānantapāpasaṃcayatayā avivekinaḥ kṣipraphalākāṅkṣiṇaḥ putrapaśvannādyasvargādyarthatayā sarvāṇi karmāṇīndrādidevatārādhanamātrāṇi kurvate; na tu kaścit saṃsārodvignahṛdayo mumukṣuḥ uktalakṣaṇaṃ karmayogaṃ madārādhanabhūtam ārabhata ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tarhi mokṣārtham eva kim iti sarve tvāṃ na bhajantīti | ata āha kāṅkṣanta iti | karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ karma-phalaṃ kāṅkṣantaḥ prāyeneha mānuṣya-loke indrādi-devatā eva yajante | na tu sākṣān mām eva | hi yasmāt karmajā siddhiḥ karmajaṃ phalaṃ śīghraṃ bhavati | na tu jñāna-phalaṃ kaivalyaṃ, duṣprāpyatvāj jñānasya

 

Madhusūdana


nanu tvām eva bhagavantaṃ vāsudevaṃ kim iti sarve na prapadyanta iti tatrāha kāṅkṣanta iti | karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ phala-niṣpattiṃ kāṅkṣanta iha loke devatā devān indrāgny-ādyān yajante pūjayanti ajñāna-pratihatatvān na tu niṣkāmāḥ santo māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam iti śeṣaḥ | kasmāt ? hi yasmād indrādi-devatā-yājināṃ tat-phala-kāṅkṣiṇāṃ karmajā siddhiḥ karma-janyaṃ phalaṃ kṣipraṃ śīghram eva bhavati mānuṣe loke | jñāna-phalaṃ tv antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-sāpekṣatvān na kṣipraṃ bhavati |

mānuṣe loke karma-phalaṃ śīghraṃ bhavatīti viśeṣaṇād anya-loke ‚pi varṇāśrama-dharma-vyatirikta-karma-phala-siddhir bhagavatā sūcitā | yatas tat tat kṣudra-phala-siddhy-arthaṃ sa-kāmā mokṣa-vimukhā anyā devatā yajante ‚to na mumukṣava iva māṃ vāsudevaṃ sākṣāt te prapadyanta ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tatrāpi manuṣyeṣu madhye kāminas tu mama sākṣād-bhūtam api bhakti-mārgaṃ parihāya śīghra-phala-sādhakaṃ karma-vartmaivānuvartanta ity āha kāṅkṣanta iti | karmajā siddhiḥ svargādimayī

 

Baladeva


evaṃ prāsaṅgikaṃ procya prakṛtasya niṣkāma-karmaṇo jñānākāratvaṃ vadiṣyaṃs tad anuṣṭhātuṃ viralatvam āha kāṅkṣanta iti | iha loke ‚nādi-bhoga-vāsanā-niyantritāḥ prāṇinaḥ karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ paśuputrādi-phala-niṣpattiṃ kāṅkṣanto ‚nityālpa-dān apīndrādi-devān yajante sakāmaiḥ karmabhir na tu sarva-deveśvaraṃ nityānanda-phala-pradam api māṃ niṣkāmais tair yajante | hi yasmād asmin mānuṣe loke karmajā siddhiḥ kṣipraṃ bhavati | niṣkāma-karmārādhitān matto jñānato mokṣa-lakṣaṇā siddhis tu cireṇaiva bhavatīti | sarve lokā bhoga-vāsanā-grasta-sad-asad-vivekāḥ śīghra-bhogecchavas tad-arthaṃ mad-bhṛtyān devān bhajanti | na tu kaścit sad-asad-vivekī saṃsāra-duḥkha-vitrasta-duḥkha-nivṛttaye niṣkāma-karmabhiḥ sarva-deveśaṃ māṃ bhajatīti viralas tad-adhikārīti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.13

cātur-varṇyaṃ mayā sṛṣṭaṃ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ
tasya kartāram api māṃ viddhy akartāram avyayam

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syntax


mayā (by me) guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ (according to guṇa and action) cātur-varṇyam (the system of four varṇas) sṛṣṭam (created) [asti] (it is).
[tvam] (you) mām (me) tasya (of this) kartāram api (even the doer)
avyayam (unchangeable) akartāram (a non-doer) viddhi (you must know).

 

grammar

cātur-varṇyam cātur-varṇya 1n.1 n.the system of four varṇas (from: catur – four; varṇ – to paint, to delineate, to tell, varṇa – colour, social class, varṇya – related to colour or social classes);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
sṛṣṭam sṛṣṭa (sṛj – to let go, to emit) [PP] 1n.1 n.emitted, created;
guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ av. guṇānāṁ ca karmaṇāṁ ca vibhāgaśa itiaccording to guṇa and action (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; vi-bhāj – to divide, to separate; vi-bhāga – share, portion, division; -śas – at the end: according to, one by one; vibhāga-śas – according to share, portion, proportionally);
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.of this;
kartāram kartṛ 2n.1 m.the doer (from: kṛ – to do);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
akartāram a-kartṛ 2n.1 m.non-doer (from: kṛ – to do);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 n.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


cātur-varṇyaṁ → catur-varṇyaṁ (the system of four varṇas);
cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁcātur-varṇā mayā sṛṣṭāḥ (four varṇas by me created);
guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥguṇa-karma-vibhāgataḥ (from the division of guṇa and action);
viddhy akartāram → viddhi kartāram (you must know as the doer);

 
 

Śāṃkara


mānuṣa eva loke varṇāśramādi-karmādhikāraḥ | nānyeṣu lokeṣv iti niyamaḥ kiṃ-nimittaḥ ? iti | athavā varṇāśramādi-pravibhāgopetā manuṣyā mama vartmānuvartante sarvaśa [gītā 4.11] ity uktaṃ kasmāt punaḥ kāraṇān niyamena tavaiva vartmānuvartante, nānyasya kiṃ ? ucyate —

cāturvarṇyaṃ catvāra eva varṇāś cāturvarṇyaṃ mayeśvareṇa sṛṣṭam utpāditaṃ brāhmaṇo’sya mukham āsīt [rādhāk 8.4.19.2, ayatiajuḥ 32.11] ity ādi śruteḥ | guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśo guṇa-vibhāgaśaḥ karma-vibhāgaśaś ca | guṇāḥ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsi | tatra sāttvikasya sattva-pradhānasya brāhmaṇasya śamo damas tapaḥ [gītā 18.42] ity ādīni karmāṇi | sattvopa-sarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānasya kṣatriyasya śaurya-tejaḥ-prabhṛtīni karmāṇi | tama-upasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānasya vaiśyasya kṛṣy-ādīni karmāṇi | raja-upasarjana-tamaḥ-pradhānasya śūdrasya śuśrūṣaiva karma | ity evaṃ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaś cāturguṇyaṃ mayā sṛṣṭam ity arthaḥ | tac cedaṃ cāturvarṇyaṃ nānyeṣu lokeṣu | ato mānuṣe loke iti viśeṣaṇam | hanta tarhi cāturvarṇya-sargādeḥ karmaṇaḥ kartṛtvāt tat-phalena yujyase’to na tvaṃ nitya-mukto nityeśvaraś ceti | ucyate—yadyapi māyā-saṃvyavahāreṇa tasya karmaṇaḥ kartāram api santaṃ māṃ paramārthato viddhy akartāraṃ, ataevāvyayam asaṃsāriṇaṃ ca māṃ viddhi

 

Rāmānuja


yathoktakarmayogārambhavirodhipāpakṣayahetum āha

cāturvarṇyapramukhaṃ brahmādistambaparyantaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagat sattvādiguṇavibhāgena tadanuguṇaśamādikarmavibhāgena ca vibhaktaṃ mayā sṛṣṭam / sṛṣṭigrahaṇaṃ pradarśanārtham / mayaiva rakṣyante, mayaiva copasaṃhriyate / tasya vicitrasṛṣtyādeḥ kartāram apy akartāraṃ māṃ viddhi

 

Śrīdhara


nanu kecit sakāmatayā pravartante, kecit niṣkāmatayā iti karma-vaicitryam | tat-kartṛṇā ca brāhmaṇādīnām uttama-madhyamādi-vaicitryaṃ kurvatas tava kathaṃ vaiṣamyaṃ nāsti ? ity āśaṅkyāha cāturvarṇyam iti | catvāro varṇā eveti cāturvarṇyaṃ svārthe ṣyañ-pratyayaḥ | ayam arthaḥ — sattva-pradhānā brāhmaṇās teṣāṃ śama-damādīni karmāṇi | sattva- rajaḥ-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ śaurya-yuddhādīni karmāṇi | rajas- tamaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ kṛṣi-vāṇijyādīni karmāṇi | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ traivarṇika-śuśrūṣādīni karmāṇi | ity evaṃ guṇānāṃ karmaṇāṃ ca vibhāgaiś cāturvarṇyaṃ mayaiva sṛṣṭam iti satyam, tathāpy evaṃ tasya kartāram api phalato ‚kartāram eva māṃ viddhi | tatra hetuḥ — avyayam āsakti-rāhityena śrama-rahitaṃ nāśādi-rahitaṃ vā

 

Madhusūdana


śarīrārambhaka-guṇa-vaiṣamyād api na sarve samāna-svabhāvā ity āha cāturvarṇyam iti | catvāro varṇā eva cāturvarṇyaṃ svārthe ṣyañ | mayeśvareṇa sṛṣṭam utpāditaṃ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśo guṇa-vibhāgaśaḥ karma-vibhāgaśaś ca | tathā hi sattva-pradhānā brāhmaṇās teṣāṃ ca sāttvikāni śama-damādīni karmāṇi | sattvopasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ ca tādṛśāni śaurya-tejaḥ-prabhṛtīni karmāṇi | tama-upasarjana-rajaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ ca kṛṣy-ādīni tādṛśāni karmāṇi | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ ca tāmasāni traivarṇika-śuśrūṣādīni karmāṇīti mānuṣe loke vyavasthitāni |

evaṃ tarhi viṣama-svabhāva-cāturvarṇya-sraṣṭṛtena tava vaiṣamyaṃ durvāram ity āśaṅkya nety āha tasya viṣama-svabhāvasya cāturvarṇyasya vyavahāra-dṛṣṭyā kartāram api māṃ paramārtha-dṛṣṭyā viddhy akartāram avyayaṃ nirahaṅkāratvenākṣīṇa-mahimānam

 

Viśvanātha


nanu bhakti-jñāna-mārgau mocakau, karma-mārgas tu bandhaka iti sarva-mārga-sraṣṭari tvayi parameśvare vaiṣamyaṃ prasaktam | tatra nahi nahīty āha cāturvarṇyam iti | catvāro varṇā eva cāturvarṇyam | svārthe ṣyañ | atra sattva-pradhānā brāhmaṇās teṣāṃ śama-damādīni karmāṇi | rajaḥ-sattva-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ śaurya-yuddhādīni karmāṇi | tamo-rajaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ kṛṣi-go-rakṣādīni karmāṇi | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ paricaryātmakaṃ karmety evaṃ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśo guṇānāṃ karmaṇāṃ ca vibhāgaiś catvāro varṇā mayā dharma-mārgāśritatvena sṛṣṭāḥ | kintu teṣāṃ kartāraṃ sraṣṭāram api mām akartāram asraṣṭāram eva viddhi | teṣāṃ prakṛti-guṇa-sṛṣṭatvāt prakṛteś ca mac-chaktitvāt | sraṣṭāram api māṃ vastutas tv asraṣṭāram | mama prakṛti-guṇātīta-svarūpatvād iti bhāvaḥ | ataevāvyayam | sraṣṭṛtve ‚pi na sāmyaṃ kiṃcid evety arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


atha niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhāna-virodhi-bhoga-vāsanā-vināśa-hetum āha cāturvarṇyam iti dvābhyām | catvāro varṇāś cāturvarṇyaṃ svārthikaḥ ṣyañ | sattva-pradhānāḥ viprās teṣāṃ śamādīni karmāṇi | rajaḥ-sattva-pradhānāḥ kṣatriyās teṣāṃ yuddhādīni | tamo-rajaḥ-pradhānā vaiśyās teṣāṃ kṛṣy-ādīni | tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ śūdrās teṣāṃ viprādi-trika-paricaryādīnīti guṇa-vibhāgaiḥ karma-vibhāgaiś ca vibhaktāś catvāro varṇāḥ sarveśvareṇa mayā sṛṣṭāḥ sthiti-saṃhṛtyor upalakṣaṇam etat | brahmādi-stambāntasya prapañcasyāham eva sargādi-karteti | yad āha sūtrakāraḥ – janmādy asya yataḥ [Vs 1.1.2] iti | tasya sargādeḥ kartāram api māṃ tat tat karmāntaritatvād akartāraṃ viddhīti svasmin vaiṣamyādikaṃ parihṛtam | etat prāhāvyayaym iti sraṣṭṛtve ‚pi sāmyān na vyemīty arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.14

na māṃ karmāṇi limpanti na me karma-phale spṛhā
iti māṃ yo bhijānāti karmabhir na sa badhyate

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syntax


karmāṇi (activities) mām (me) na limpanti (they do not stain),
karma-phale (in the fruit of activity) me (my) spṛhā (desire) na [asti] iti (there is not).
yaḥ (he who) mām (me) abhijānāti (he distinguishes),
sa (he) karmabhiḥ (by activities) na badhyate (he is not bound).

 

grammar

na av.not;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
karmāṇi karman 1n.3 n. activities (from: kṛ – to do);
limpanti lip (to smear, to anoint, to stain, to stick) Praes. P 1v.3they smear, they stain;
na av.not;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
karma-phale karma-phala 7n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ phala itiin the fruit of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result);
spṛhā spṛhā 1n.1 f. eager desire, longing for, envy (from: spṛh – to desire to obtain, to long for);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
abhijānāti abhi-jñā (to distinguish) Praes. P 1v.1he distinguishes, he understands;
karmabhiḥ karman 3n.3 n.by activities (from: kṛ – to do);
na av.not;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
badhyate bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. pass 1v.1he is bound;

 

textual variants


limpanti → lipaṁti (they stain);
karma-phale spṛhākarma-phala-spṛhā / kāmaḥ phaleṣv api (longing for the fruit of activities / even the desire for fruits);
yo bhijānātiyo vijānāti (he who understands);
badhyate → padyate (is fallen down);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yeṣāṃ tu karmaṇāṃ kartāraṃ māṃ manyase paramārthatas teṣām akartaivāham | yato—

na māṃ tāni karmāṇi limpanti dehādy-ārambhakatvenāhaṅkārābhāvāt | na ca teṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ phale me mama spṛhā tṛṣṇā | yeṣāṃ tu saṃsāriṇām ahaṃ kartety ābhimānaḥ karmasu spṛhā tat-phaleṣu ca tān karmāṇi limpantīti yuktam | tad-abhāvān na māṃ karmāṇi limpantīti | evaṃ yo’nye’pi mām ātmatvenābhijānāti nāhaṃ kartā na me karma-phale spṛheti na karmabhir na badhyate | tasyāpi na dehādy-ārambhakāni karmāṇi bhavantīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


katham ity atrāha

yata imāni vicitrasṛṣṭyādīni karmāṇi māṃ na limpanti na māṃ saṃbadhnanti / na matprayuktāni tāni devamanuṣyādivaicitryāṇi / sṛjyānāṃ puṇyapāparūpakarmaviśeṣaprayuktānītyarthaḥ / ataḥ prāptāprāptavivekena vicitrasṛṣṭyāder nāhaṃ kartā; yataś ca sṛṣṭāḥ kṣetrajñāḥ sṛṣṭilabdhakaraṇakalebarāḥ sṛṣṭilabdhaṃ bhogyajātaṃ phalasaṅgādihetusvakarmānuguṇaṃ bhuṅjate; sṛṣṭyādkarmaphale ca teṣām eva spṛheti ne me spṛhā / tathāha sūtrakāraḥ vaiṣamyanairghṛṇye na sāpekṣatvād iti / tathā ca bhagavān parāśaraḥ „nimittamātram evāsau sṛjyānāṃ sargakarmaṇi / pradhānakāraṇībhūtā yato vai sṛjyaśaktayaḥ // nimittamātraṃ muktvedaṃ nānyat kiṃcid apekṣate / nīyate tapatāṃ śreṣṭha svaśaktyā vastu vastutām // BhGR_4.” iti / sṛjyānāṃ devādīnāṃ kṣetrajñānāṃ sṛṣṭeḥ kāraṇamātram evāyaṃ paramapuruṣaḥ; devādivaicitrye tu pradhānakāraṇaṃ sṛjyabhūtakṣetrajñānāṃ prācīnakarmaśaktaya eva / ato nimittamātraṃ muktvā sṛṣṭeḥ kartāraṃ paramapuruṣaṃ muktvā idaṃ kṣetrajñavastu devādivicitrabhāve nānyad apekṣate; svagataprācīnakarmaśaktyā eva hi devādivastubhāvaṃ nīyata ityarthaḥ / evam uktena prakāreṇa sṛṣtyādeḥ kartāram apy akartāraṃ sṛṣṭyādikarmaphalasaṅgarahitaṃ ca yo mām abhijānāti, sa karmayogārambhavirodhibhiḥ phalasaṅgādihetubhiḥ prācīnakarmabhir na saṃbadhyate / mucyata ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tad eva darśayann āha na mām iti | karmāṇi viśva-sṛṣṭy-ādīny api māṃ na limpanty āsaktaṃ na kurvanti | nirahaṅkāratvān mama karma-phale spṛhābhāvāc ca | māṃ limpantīti kiṃ kartavyam ? yataḥ karma-lepa-rahitatvena māṃ yo ‚bhijānāti so ‚pi karmabhir na badhyate | mama nirlepatve kāraṇaṃ nirahaṅkāratva-niḥspṛhatvādikaṃ jānatas tasyāpy ahaṅkārādi-śaithilyāt

 

Madhusūdana


karmāṇi viśva-sargādīni māṃ nirahaṅkāratvena kartṛtvena kartṛtvābhimāna-hīnaṃ bhagavantaṃ na limpanti dehārambhakatvena na badhnanti | evaṃ kartṛtvaṃ nirākṛtya bhoktṛtvaṃ nirākaroti na me mamāpta-kāmasya karma-phale spṛhā tṛṣṇā āpta-kāmasya kā spṛhā iti śruteḥ | kartṛtvābhimāna-phala-spṛhābhyāṃ hi karmāṇi limpanti tad-abhāvān na māṃ karmāṇi limpantīti | evaṃ yo ‚nyo ‚pi mām akartāram abhoktāraṃ cātmatvenābhijānāti karmabhir na sa badhyate ‚kartrātma-jñānena mucyata ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanv etat tāvad āstām, samprati tvaṃ kṣatriya-kule ‚vatīrṇaḥ | kṣatriya-jāty-ucitāni karmāṇi pratyahaṃ karoṣy eva | tatra kā vārtā ity ata āha na mām iti | na limpanti jīvam iva na liptīkurvanti | nāpi jīvasyeva karma-phale svargādau spṛhā | parameśvaratvena svānanda-pūrṇatve ‚pi loka-pravartanārtham eva me karmādi-karaṇam iti bhāvaḥ | iti mām iti | yas tu na jānāti sa karmabhir badhyata iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


etad viśadayati na mām iti | karmāṇi viśva-sargādīni māṃ na limpanti vaiṣamyādi-doṣeṇa jīvam iva liptaṃ na kurvanti, yat tāni sṛjya-jīva-karma-prayuktāni na ca mat-prayuktāni na ca sargādi-karma-phale mama spṛhāsty ato na limpantīti | phala-spṛhayā yaḥ karmāṇi karoti sa tat-phalair lipyate | ahaṃ tu svarūpānanda-pūrṇaḥ prakṛti-vilīna-kṣetrajña-bubhukṣābhyudita-dayaḥ | parjanyavan nimitta-mātraḥ san tat-karmāṇi pravartayāmīti | smṛtiś ca –

nimitta-mātram evāsau sṛjyānāṃ sarga-karmaṇi |
pradhāna-kāraṇībhūtā yato vai sṛjya-śaktayaḥ || ity ādyā |

sṛjyānāṃ deva-mānavādi-bhāva-bhājāṃ kṣetrajñānāṃ sarga-kriyāyām asau pareśo nimitta-mātram eva devādi-bhāva-vaicitryāṃ kāraṇībhūtās tu sṛjyānāṃ teṣāṃ prācīna-karma-śaktaya eva bhavantīti tad-arthaḥ | evam āha sūtrakṛt – vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇyena [Vs. 2.1.35] ity ādinā | evaṃ jñānasya phalam āha iti mām iti | itthambhūtaṃ māṃ yo ‚bhijānāti, sa tad-virodhibhis tad-dhetubhiḥ prācīna-karmabhir na badhyate | tair vimucyata ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.15

evaṃ jñātvā kṛtaṃ karma pūrvair api mumukṣubhiḥ
kuru karmaiva tasmāt tvaṃ pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam

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syntax


evam (thus) jñātvā (knowing),
pūrvaiḥ (by those earlier) mumukṣubhiḥ api (even by those desiring liberation) karma (activity) kṛtam (done) [āsit] (it was).
tasmāt (therefore) tvam (you) pūrvaiḥ (by those earlier) pūrvataram (more previous) kṛtam (done) karma eva (just activity) kuru (you must do).

 

grammar

evam av.thus;
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.understanding, knowing;
kṛtam kṛta (kṛ – to do) [PP] 2n.1 n.done, made;
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
pūrvaiḥ pūrva sn. 3n.3 m.by those earlier;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
mumukṣubhiḥ mumukṣu (muc – to liberate) des. 3n.3 m.; mokṣam icchadbhir itiby those desiring liberation;
kuru kṛ (to do) Imperat P 2v.1you must do;
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
pūrvaiḥ pūrva sn. 3n.3 m.by those earlier;
pūrvataram pūrva-tara 2n.1 n.momre previous (comparative of: pūrva – pūrva-tara, pūrva-tama);
or av.earlier, previously;
kṛtam kṛta (kṛ – to do) [PP] 2n.1 n.done, made;

 

textual variants


pūrvairsarvair (by all);
karmaivakarmeva (as if activity);
pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṁ → pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraiḥ / pūrvaṁ pūrvataraṁ (by those earlier and even more earlier / earlier by those earlier);

 
 

Śāṃkara


nāhaṃ kartā, na me karma-phale spṛheti—

evaṃ jñātvā kṛtaṃ karma pūrvair apy atikrāntair mumukṣubhiḥ | kuru tena karmaiva tvam | na tuṣṇīm āsanaṃ nāpi saṃnyāsaḥ kartavyaḥ | tasmāt tvat-pūrvair apy anuṣṭhitatvād yady anātmajñas tvaṃ tad ātma-śuddhy-artham | tattvavic cet loka-saṃgrahārtham | pūrve janakādibhiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam | nādhunātana-kṛtaṃ nivartitam

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ māṃ jñātvā vimuktapāpaiḥ pūrvair api mumukṣubhir uktalakṣaṇaṃ karma kṛtam / tasmāt tvam uktaprakāramadviṣayajñānavidhūtapāpaḥ pūrvair vivasvanmanvādibhiḥ kṛtaṃ pūrvataraṃ purātanaṃ tadānīm eva mayoktaṃ vakṣyamāṇākāraṃ karvaiva kuru

 

Śrīdhara


ye yathā mām ity ādi caturbhiḥ ślokaiḥ prāsaṅgikam īśvarasya vaiṣamyaṃ parihṛtya pūrvoktam eva karma-yogaṃ prapañcayitum anusmārayati evam iti | ahaṅkārādi-rāhityena kṛtaṃ karma bandhakaṃ na bhavati | ity evaṃ jñātvā pūrvair janakādibhir api mumukṣubhiḥ sattva-śuddhy-arthaṃ pūrvataraṃ yugāntareṣv api kṛtam | tasmāt tvam api prathamaṃ karmaiva kuru

 

Madhusūdana


yato nāhaṃ kartā na me karma-phala-spṛheti jñānāt karmabhir na badhyate ‚ta āha evam iti | evam ātmano ‚kartuḥ karmālepaṃ jñātvā kṛtaṃ karma pūrvair atikrāntair api asmin yuge yayāti-yadu-prabhṛtibhir mumukṣubhiḥ | tasmāt tvam api karmaiva kuru na tūṣṇīm āsanaṃ nāpi saṃnyāsam | yady atattvavit tadātma-śuddhy-arthaṃ tattva-vic cel loka-saṅgrahārtham | pūrvair janakādibhiḥ pūrvataram atipūrvaṃ yugāntare kṛtam | etenāsmin yuge ‚nya-yuge ca pūrva-pūrvataraiḥ kṛtatvād avaśyaṃ tvayā kartavyaṃ karmeti darśayati

 

Viśvanātha


evambhūtam eva māṃ jñātvā pūrvair janakādibhir api loka-pravartanārtham eva karma kṛtam

 

Baladeva


evam iti | mām eva jñātvā tad-anusāribhir mac-chiṣyaiḥ pūrvair vivasvad-ādibhir mumukṣubhir niṣkāmaṃ karma kṛtam | tasmāt tvam api karmaiva tat kuru | na karma-saṃnyāsam | aśuddha-cittaś cej jñāna-garbhāyai citta-śuddhyai śuddha-cittaś cel loka-saṅgrahāyety arthaḥ | kīdṛśaṃ pūrvais taiḥ kṛtaṃ ? pūrvataraṃ atiprācīnam

 
 

BhG 4.16

kiṃ karma kim akarmeti kavayo py atra mohitāḥ
tat te karma pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā mokṣyase śubhāt

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syntax


kim (what?) karma (activity) [asti] (it is),
kim (what?) akarma (inactivity) [asti] iti (it is)
atra (in this matter) kavayaḥ api (even the seers) mohitāḥ (bewildered) [santi] (they are).
yat (that which) jñātvā (after knowing)
aśubhāt (from misfortune) mokṣyase (you will be liberated),
tat (that) karma (activity) te (to you) pravakṣyāmi (I will declare).

 

grammar

kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
akarma a-karman 1n.1 n.inactivity (from: kṛ – to do);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
kavayaḥ kavi 1n.3 m.poets, bards, seers (from: kav – to describe, to paint);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
atra av.here, in this matter;
mohitāḥ mohita (muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] caus. 1n.3 m.who are made bewildered;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
pravakṣyāmi pra-vac (to declare, to speak) Fut. P 3v.1I will declare;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which (correlative of: tat);
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
mokṣyase muc (to liberate) Fut. pass 2v.1you will be liberated;
aśubhāt aśubha 5n.1 n.from misfortune (from: śubh – to shine, śubha – splendid, pleasant, auspicious, good);

 

textual variants


pravakṣyāmi → pravakṣāmi;
mokṣyasemokṣase;
aśubhātśramāt (from weariness);

The fourth pada of verse 4.16 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 9.1;

 
 

Śāṃkara


tatra karma cet kartavyaṃ tvad-vacanād eva karomy aham | kiṃ viśeṣitena ? pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtaṃ [gītā 4.15] iti | ucyate —yasmān mahad vaiṣamyaṃ karmaṇi | kathaṃ ?

kiṃ karma kiṃ cākarmeti kavayo medhāvino’py atrāsmin karmādi-viṣaye mohitā mohaṃ gatāḥ | atas te tubhyam ahaṃ karmākarma ca pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā viditvā karmādi mokṣyase’śubhāt saṃsārāt

 

Rāmānuja


vakṣyamāṇasya karmaṇo durjñānatām āha

mumukṣuṇānuṣṭheyaṃ karma kiṃrūpam, akarma ca kim / akarmeti kartur ātmano yāthātmyajñānam ucyate; anuṣṭheyaṃ karma tadantargataṃ jñānaṃ ca kiṃrūpam ity ubhayatra kavayaḥ vidvāṃso ‚pi mohitāḥ yathāvan na jānanti / evam antargatajñānaṃ yat karma, tat te pravakṣyāmi, yaj jñātvānuṣṭhāya aśubhāt saṃsārabandhān mokṣyase / kartavyakarmajñānaṃ hy anuṣṭhānaphalam

 

Śrīdhara


tac ca tattvavidbhiḥ saha vicārya kartavyam | na loka-paramparā-mātreṇety āha kiṃ karmeti | kiṃ karma ? kīdṛśaṃ karma-karaṇam | kim akarma ? kīdṛśaṃ karmākaraṇam | ity asminn arthe vivekino ‚pi mohitāḥ | ato yaj jñātā yad-anuṣṭhāyāśubhāt saṃsārān mokṣyase mukto bhaviṣyasi tat karmākarma ca tubhyam ahaṃ pravakṣyāmi tac chṛṇu

 

Madhusūdana


nanu karma-viṣaye kiṃ kaścit saṃśayo ‚py asti yena pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam ity atinirbadhnāsi ? asty evety āha kiṃ karmeti | nau-sthasya niṣkriyeṣv api taṭastha-vṛkṣeṣu gamana-bhrama-darśanāt tathā dūrāc cakṣuḥ-saṃnikṛṣṭeṣu gacchatsv api puruṣeṣv agamana-bhrama-darśanāt paramārthataḥ kiṃ karma kiṃ vā paramārthato ‚karmeti kavayo medhāvino ‚py atrāsmin viṣaye mohitā mohaṃ nirṇayāsāmarthyaṃ prāptā atyanta-durnirūpatvād ity arthaḥ | tat tasmāt te tubhyam ahaṃ karma, a-kāra-praśleṣeṇa cchedād akarma ca pravakṣyāmi prakarṣeṇa sandehocchedena vakṣyāmi | yat karmākarma-svarūpaṃ jñātvā mokṣyase mukto bhaviṣyasy aśubhāt saṃsārāt

 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca karmāpi na gatānugatika-nyāyenaiva kevalaṃ vivekinā kartavyam | kintu tasya prakāra-viśeṣaṃ jñātvaivety atas tasya prathamaṃ durjñeyatvam āha

 

Baladeva


nanu kiṃ karma-viṣayakaḥ kaścit sandeho ‚py asti yataḥ pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam ity atinirbandhād bravīṣīti ced asty evety āha kiṃ karmeti | mumukṣubhir anuṣṭheyaṃ karma kiṃ rūpaṃ syād akarma ca karmānyat tad-antargataṃ jñānaṃ ca kiṃ rūpam ity arthaḥ | tad-anyatve enaṃ ca | atrārthe kavayo dhīmanto ‚pi mohitās tad-yāthātmya-nirṇayāsāmarthyān mohaṃ prāpuḥ | ahaṃ sarveśaḥ sarvajñas te tubhyaṃ tat karma a-kāra-praśleṣād akarma ca pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvānuṣṭhāya prāpya cāśubhāt saṃsārān mokṣyase

 
 

BhG 4.17

karmaṇo hy api boddhavyaṃ boddhavyaṃ ca vikarmaṇaḥ
akarmaṇaś ca boddhavyaṃ gahanā karmaṇo gatiḥ

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syntax


karmaṇaḥ hi api (indeed even of the activity) [gatim] (path) bodhavyam (what is to be understood) [asti] (it is),
vikarmaṇaḥ ca (and of bad activity) [gatim] (path) bodhavyam (what is to be understood) [asti] (it is),
akarmaṇaḥ api (of inactivity) [gatim] (path) bodhavyam (what is to be understood) [asti] (it is).
karmaṇaḥ (of activity) gatiḥ (path) gahanā (impenetrable) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

karmaṇaḥ karman 6n.1 n.of activity (from: kṛ – to do);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
boddhavyam boddhavya (budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.what is to be known, understood;
boddhavyam boddhavya (budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.what is to be known, understood;
ca av.and;
vikarmaṇaḥ vi-karman 6n.1 n.of bad activity (from: vi-kṛ – to change, to deform);
akarmaṇaḥ a-karman 6n.1 n.of inactivity (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
boddhavyam boddhavya (budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.what is to be known, understood;
gahanā gahanā 1n.1 f.deep, dense, impenetrable;
karmaṇaḥ karman 6n.1 n.of activity (from: kṛ – to do);
gatiḥ gati 1n.1 f.moving, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


karmaṇo hy apikarmaṇo ‘pi hi (even of activity indeed);
akarmaṇaś ca → akarmaṇo ‘pi / akarmaṇas tu (even of inactivity / but of inactivity);

 
 

Śāṃkara


na caitat tvayā mantavyaṃ, karma nāma dehādi-ceṣṭā loka-prasiddhaṃ, akarma nāma tad-akriyā tūṣṇīm āsanam | kiṃ tatra boddhavyaṃ ? iti | kasmāt ? ucyate—

karmaṇaḥ śāstra-vihitasya hi yasmād apy asti boddhavyam | boddhavyaṃ cāsty eva vikarmaṇaḥ pratiṣiddhasya | tathākarmaṇaś ca tūṣṇīmbhāvasya boddhavyam astīti triṣv apy adhyāhāraḥ kartavyaḥ | yasmād gahanā viṣamā durjñānā karmaṇa ity upalakṣaṇārthaṃ karmādīnāṃ karmākarma-vikarmaṇāṃ gatir yāthātmyaṃ tattvam ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


kuto ‚sya durjñānatety āha

yasmān mokṣasādhanabhūte karmasvarūpe boddhavyam asti; vikarmaṇi ca / nityanaimittikakāmyarūpeṇa, tatsādhanadravyārjanādyākāreṇa ca vividhatāpannaṃ karma vikarma / akarmaṇi jñāne ca boddhavyam asti / gahanā durvijñānā mumukṣoḥ karmaṇo gatiḥ

 

Śrīdhara


nanu loka-prasiddham eva karma dehādi-vyāpārātmakam | akarma tad-avyāpārātmakam | ataḥ katham ucyate kavayo ‚py atra mohaṃ prāptā iti ? tatrāha karmaṇa iti | karmaṇo vihita-vyāpārasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti | na tu loka-prasiddha-mātram eva | akarmaṇo ‚vihita-vyāpārasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti | vikarmaṇo niṣiddha-vyāpārasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti | yataḥ karmaṇo gatir gahanā | karmaṇa ity upalakṣaṇārtham | karmākarma-vikarmaṇāṃ tattvaṃ durvijñeyam ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanu sarva-loka-prasiddhatvād aham evaitaj jānāmi dehendriyādi-vyāpāraḥ karma tūṣṇīm āsanam akarmeti tatra kiṃ tvayā vaktavyam iti tatrāha karmaṇa iti | hi yasmāt karmaṇaḥ śāstra-vihitasyāpi tattvaṃ boddhavyam asti, vikarmaṇaś ca pratiṣiddhasya, akarmaṇaś ca tūṣṇīmbhāvasya | atra vākya-traye ‚pi tattvam asīty adhyāhāraḥ | yasmād gahanā durjñānā | karmaṇa ity upalakṣaṇaṃ karmākarma-vikarmaṇām | gatis tattvam ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


niṣiddhācaraṇaṃ durgati-prāpakam iti tattvam | tathākarmaṇaḥ karmākaraṇasyāpi sannyāsinaḥ kīdṛśaṃ karmākaraṇaṃ śubhadam iti | anyathā niḥśreyasaṃ kathaṃ hasta-gataṃ syād iti bhāvaḥ | karmaṇa ity upalakṣaṇaṃ karmākarma-vikarmaṇām | gatis tattvam | gahanā durgamā

 

Baladeva


nanu kavayo ‚pi mohaṃ prāpur iti cet tatrāha karmaṇo hīti | karmaṇo niṣkāmasya mumukṣubhir anuṣṭhātavyasya svarūpaṃ boddhavyam | vikarmaṇo jñāna-viruddhasya kāmya-karmaṇaḥ svarūpaṃ boddhavyam | akarmaṇaś ca karma-bhinnasya jñānasya ca svarūpaṃ boddhavyam | tat-tat-svarūpavidbhiḥ sārdhaṃ vicāryam ity arthaḥ | karmaṇo ‚karmaṇaś ca gatir gahanā durgamā | ataḥ kavayo ‚pi tatra mohitāḥ

 
 

BhG 4.18

karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed akarmaṇi ca karma yaḥ
sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu sa yuktaḥ kṛtsna-karma-kṛt

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) karmaṇi (in activity) akarma (inactivity) paśyet (he would see),
yaḥ ca (and he who) akarmaṇi (in inactivity) karma (activity) [paśyet] (he would see),
saḥ (he) manuṣyeṣu (among people) buddhimān (intelligent) [asti] (he is),
saḥ (he) yuktaḥ (engaged) kṛtsna-karma-kṛt (who does all work) [asti] (he is).

 

grammar

karmaṇi karman 7n.1 n.in activity (from: kṛ – to do);
akarma a-karman 2n.1 n.inactivity (from: kṛ – to do);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
paśyet dṛś (to see) Pot. P 1v.1he would see;
akarmaṇi a-karman 7n.1 n.in inactivity (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
buddhimān buddhimant 1n.1 m.intelligent (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
manuṣyeṣu manuṣya 7n.3 m.among people (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
kṛtsna-karma-kṛt kṛtsna-karma-kṛt 1n.1 m.; yaḥ kṛtsnaṁ karma karoti saḥ who does all work (from: kṛtsna – whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; -kṛt – suffix: a doer);

 

textual variants


paśyed akarmaṇipaśyaty akarmaṇi (he sees in inactivity);
sa yuktaḥ → sa coktaḥ / saṁyuktaḥ (and he is said / well yoked);
kṛtsna-karma-kṛt → sarva-karma-kṛt / kṛtsna-karmasu (who does all work / in all activities);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ punas tattvaṃ karmāder yad boddhavyaṃ vakṣyāmīti pratijñātaṃ ? ucyate —

karmaṇi | karma kriyata iti karma vyāpāra-mātraṃ, tasmin karmaṇy akarma karmābhāvaṃ yaḥ paśyet | akarmaṇi ca karmābhāve kartṛ-tantratvāt pravṛtti-nivṛttyor vastv aprāpyaiva hi sarva eva kriyākārakādi-vyavahāro’vidyābhūmāv eva karma yaḥ paśyet paśyati | sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu, sa yukto yogī ca kṛtsna-karma-kṛt samasta-karma-kṛc ca sa iti stūyate karmākarmaṇor itaretara-darśī |

nanu kim idaṃ viruddham ucyate karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed iti | akarmaṇi ca karma iti | na hi karmākarma syād akarma vā karma, tatra viruddhaṃ kathaṃ paśyed draṣṭā ? na | akarmaiva paramārthataḥ sat-karmavad avabhāsate mūḍha-dṛṣṭer lokasya, tathā karmaivākarmavat | tatra yathābhūta-darśanārtham āha bhagavān karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity ādi | ato na viruddhaṃ buddhimattvādy-upapatteś ca | boddhavyam iti ca yathābhūta-darśanam ucyate | na ca viparīta-jñānād aśubhān mokṣaṇaṃ syāt yaj jñātvā mokṣyase’śubhāt [gītā 4.16] iti coktam | tasmāt karmākarmaṇī viparyayeṇa gṛhīte prāṇibhis tad-viparyaya-grahaṇa-nivṛtty-arthaṃ bhagavato vacanaṃ karmaṇy akarma yaḥ ity ādi |

na cātra karmādhikaraṇa-karmāsti, kuṇḍe badarāṇīva | nāpy akarmādhikaraṇaṃ karmāsti karmābhāvatvād akarmaṇaḥ | ato viparīta-gṛhīte eva karmākarmaṇī laukikaiḥ, yathā mṛgatṛṣṇikāyām udakaṃ śuktikāyāṃ vā rajatam |

nanu karma karmaiva sarveṣāṃ na kvacid vyabhicarati | tan na nau-sthasya nāvi gacchantyāṃ taṭasthesv agatiṣu nageṣu pratikūla-gati-darśanāt | dūreṣu cakṣuṣāsannikṛṣṭeṣu gacchatsu gaty-abhāva-darśanāt | evam ihāpy akarmaṇy ahaṃ karomīti karma-darśanaṃ karmaṇi cākarma-darśanaṃ viparīta-darśanaṃ yena, tan-nirākaraṇārtham ucyate karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyet ity ādi |

tad etad ukta-prativacanam apy asakṛd atyanta-viparīta-darśana-bhāvitatayā momuhyamāno lokaḥ śrutam apy asakṛt tattvaṃ vismṛtya vismṛtya mithyā-prasaṅgam avatāryāvatārya codayatīti punaḥ punar uttaram āha bhagavān | durvijñeyatvaṃ cālakṣya vastunaḥ | avyakto’yam acintyo’yaṃ [gītā 2.25], na jāyate mriyate [gītā 2.27] ity ādinātmani karmābhāvaḥ śruti-smṛti-nyāya-prasiddha ukto vakṣyamāṇaś ca | tasminn ātmani karmābhāve’karmaṇi karma-viparīta-darśanam atyanta-nirūḍham | yataḥ kiṃ karma kim akarmeti kavayo’py atra mohitāḥ [gītā 4.16] dehādy-āśrayaṃ karmātmany adhyāropya | ahaṃ kartā mamaitat karma, mayāsya karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ bhoktavyam iti ca | tathā ahaṃ tūṣṇīṃ bhavāmi, yenāhaṃ nirāyāso’karmā sukhī syām iti kārya-karaṇāśraya-vyāpāroparamaṃ tat-kṛtaṃ casukhitvam ātmany adhyāropya na karomi kiṃcit tūṣṇīṃ sukham āsam ity abhimanyate lokaḥ | tatredaṃ lokasya viparīta-darśanāpanayanāyāha bhagavān karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity ādi |

atra ca karma karmaiva sat kārya-karaṇāśrayaṃ karma-rahito’vikriya ātmani sarvair adhyastam | yataḥ paṇḍito’py ahaṃ karomīti manyate | atha ātma-samavetatayā sarva-loka-prasiddhe karmaṇi nadī-kula-stheṣv iva gatiḥ pratilaumyena | ato’karma karmābhāvaṃ yathā-bhūtaṃ gaty-abhāvam iva vṛkṣeṣu yaḥ paśyet | akarmaṇi ca kārya-karaṇa-vyāpāroparame karmavad ātmany adhyāropite tūṣṇīm akurvan sukham āse ity ahaṅkārābhisandhi-hetutvāt tasminn akarmaṇi ca karma yaḥ paśyet | ya evaṃ karmākarma-vibhāgajñaḥ sa buddhimān paṇḍito manuṣyeṣu | sa yukto yogī kṛtsna-karma-kṛc ca | so’śubhān mokṣitaḥ kṛta-kṛtyo bhavatīty arthaḥ |

ayaṃ śloko’nyathā vyākhyātaḥ kaiścit | kathaṃ ? nityānāṃ kila karmaṇām īśvarārthe’nuṣṭhīyamānānāṃ tat-phalābhāvād akarmāṇi tāny ucyante gauṇyā vṛttyā | teṣāṃ cākaraṇam akarma | tac ca pratyavāya-phalatvāt karmocyate gauṇyaiva vṛttyā | tatra nitye karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyet phalābhāvāt | yathā dhenur api gaur agaur ucyate kṣīrākhyaṃ phalaṃ na prayacchatīti tadvat | tathā nityākaraṇe tv akarmaṇi karmaḥ âśyen narakādi-pratyavāya-phalaṃ prayacchatīti | naitad yuktaṃ vyākhyānam | evaṃ-jñānād aśubhān mokṣānupapatteḥ | yaj jñātvā mokṣyase’śubhāt [gītā 4.16] iti bhagavatoktaṃ vacanaṃ bodhyeta | kathaṃ ? nityānām anuṣṭhānād aśubhāt syān nāma mokṣaṇam | na tu teṣāṃ phalābhāva-jñānāt | na hi nityānāṃ phalābhāva-jñānam aśubha-mukti-phalatvena coditaṃ nitya-karma-jñānaṃ vā | na ca bhagavativehoktam |

etenākarmaṇi karma-darśanaṃ pratyuktam | na hy akarmaṇi karmeti darśanaṃ kartavyatayeha codyate, nityasya tu kartavyatā-mātram | na cākaraṇān nityasya pratyavāyo bhavatīti vijñānāt kiṃcit phalaṃ syāt | nāpi nityākaraṇaṃ jñeyatvena coditam | nāpi karmākarmeti mithā-darśanād aśubhān mokṣaṇam | buddhimattvaṃ, yuktatā, kṛtsna-karma-kṛttvādi ca phalam upapadyate stutir vā | mithyā-jñānam eva hi sākṣād aśubha-rūpaṃ kuto’nyasmād aśubhān mokṣaṇaṃ ? na hi tamas tamaso nivartakaṃ bhavati |

nanu karmaṇi yad akarma-darśanam akarmaṇi vā karma-darśanaṃ, na tan-mithyā-jñānam | kiṃ tarhi gauṇaṃ phala-bhāvābhāva-nimittaṃ ? na, karmākarma-vijñānād api gauṇāt phalasyāśravaṇāt | nāpi śruta-hānya-śruta-parikalpanayā kaścid viśeṣo labhyate | sva-śabdenāpi śakyaṃ vaktuṃ nitya-karmaṇāṃ phalaṃ nāsty akaraṇāc ca teṣāṃ naraka-pātaḥ syād iti | tatra vyājena para-vyāmoha-rūpeṇa karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity ādinā kiṃ ? tatraiva vyācakṣāṇena bhagavatoktaṃ vākyaṃ loka-vyāmohārtham iti vyaktaṃ kalpitaṃ syāt | na caitac chadma-rūpeṇa vākyena rakṣaṇīyaṃ vastu, nāpi śabdāntareṇa punaḥ punar ucyamānaṃ subodhaṃ syād ity evaṃ vaktuṃ yuktam | karmaṇy evādhikāras te [gītā 2.47] ity atra hi sphuṭatara ukto’rtho na punar vaktavyo bhavati | sarvatra ca praśastaṃ boddhavyaṃ ca kartavyam eva, na niṣprayojanaṃ boddhavyam ity ucyate |

na ca mithyā-jñānaṃ boddhavyaṃ bhavati tat-pratyupasthāpitaṃ vā vastv-ābhāsam | nāpi nityānām akaraṇād abhāvāt prayavāya-bhāvotpattiḥ | nāsato vidyate bhāvo [gītā 2.16] iti vacanāt | tat-katham asataḥ saj jāyate [candrhāuttaṃ 6.2.2] iti ca darśitam | asataḥ saj-janma-pratiṣedhād asataḥ sad-utpattiṃ bruvatā’sad eva sad bhavet | sac cāsad bhaved ity uktaṃ syāt | tac cāyuktaṃ, sarva-pramāṇa-virodhāt | na ca niṣphalaṃ vidadhyāt karma śāstraṃ duḥkha-svarūpatvāt | duḥkhasya ca buddhi-pūrvakatayā kāryatvānupapatteḥ | tad-akaraṇe ca naraka-pātābhyupagame’narthāyaiva | ubhayathāpi karaṇe’karaṇe ca śāstraṃ niṣphalaṃ kalpitaṃ syāt | svābhyupagama-virodhaś ca nityaṃ niṣphalaṃ karmety abhyupagamya mokṣa-phalāyeti bruvataḥ | tasmād yathā-śruta evārthaḥ karmaṇy akarma ya ity ādeḥ | tathā ca vyākhyāto’smābhiḥ ślokaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


vikarmaṇi boddhavyaṃ nityanaimittikakāmyadravyārjanādau karmaṇi phalabhedakṛtaṃ vaividhyaṃ parityajya mokṣaikaphalatayaikaśāstrārthatvānusandhānam / tad etat „vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekā” ity atraivoktam iti neha prapañcyate / karmākarmaṇor boddhavyam āha

akarmaśabdenātra karmetarāt prastutam ātmajñānam ucyate / karmaṇi kriyamāṇa evātmajñānaṃ yaḥ paśyet, akarmaṇi cātmajñāne vartamāna eva yaḥ karma paśyet / kim uktaṃ bhavati? kriyamāṇam eva karma ātmayāthātmyānusandhānena jñānākāraṃ yaḥ paśyet, tac ca jñānaṃ karmayogāntaragatatayā karmākāraṃ yaḥ paśyed ity uktaṃ bhavati / kriyamāṇe hi karmaṇi kartṛbhūtātmayāthātmyānusandhāne sati tadubhayaṃ saṃpannaṃ bhavati / evam ātmayāthātmyānusandhānāntargarbhaṃ karma yaḥ paśyet, sa buddhimān kṛtsnaśāstrārthavit,manuṣyeṣu sa yuktaḥ mokṣāyārhaḥ, sa eva kṛtsnakarmakṛt kṛtsnaśāstrārthakṛt

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ karmādīnāṃ durvijñeyatvaṃ darśayann āha karmaṇīti | parameśvarārādhana-lakṣaṇe karmaṇi karma-viṣaye akarma karmedaṃ na bhavatīti yaḥ paśyet | tasya jñāna-hetutvena bandhakatvābhāvāt | akarmaṇi ca vihitākaraṇe karma yaḥ paśyet pratyavāyotpādakatvena bandha-hetutvāt | manuṣyeṣu karma kurvāṇeṣu sa buddhimān vyavasāyātmaka-buddhimattvāc chreṣṭhaḥ | taṃ stauti sa yukto yogī | tena karmaṇā jñāna-yogāvāpteḥ | sa eva kṛtsna-karma-kartā ca | sarvataḥ samplutodaka-sthānīye ca tasmin karmaṇi sarva-karma-phalānām antarbhāvāt tad evam ārurukṣoḥ karma-yogādhikārāvasthāyāṃ na karmaṇām anārambhād ity ādinokta eva karma-yogaḥ spaṣṭīkṛtaḥ | tat-prapañca-rūpatvāc cāsya prakaraṇasya na paunaruktya-doṣaḥ | anenaiva yogārūḍhāvasthāyāṃ yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād ity ādinā yaḥ karmānupayoga uktas tasyāpy arthāt prapañcaḥ kṛto veditavyaḥ | yad ārurukṣor api karma bandhakaṃ na bhavati tad-ārūḍhasya kuto bandhakaṃ syāt ity atrāpi śloko yujyate |

yad vā, karmaṇi dehendriyādi-vyāpāre vartamāne ‚py ātmano dehādi-vyatirekānubhavena akarma svābhāvikaṃ niaṣkarmyam eva yaḥ paśyet tathā akarmaṇi ca jñāna-rahite duḥkha-buddhyā karmaṇāṃ tyāge karma yaḥ paśyet tasya prayatna-sādhyatvena mithyācāratvāt | tad uktaṃ karmendriyāṇi saṃyamyety ādinā | ya evambhūtaḥ sa tu sarveṣu manuṣyeṣu buddhimān paṇḍitaḥ | tatra hetuḥ – yataḥ kṛtsnāni sarvāṇi yadṛcchayā prāptāny āhārādīni karmāṇi kurvann api sa yukta eva akartrātma-jñānena samādhistha evety arthaḥ | anenanaiva jñāninaḥ svabhāvād āpannaṃ kalañja-bhakṣaṇādikaṃ na doṣāya | ajñasya tu rāgataḥ kṛtaṃ doṣāya iti vikarmaṇo ‚pi tattvaṃ nirūpitaṃ draṣṭavyam

 

Madhusūdana


kīdṛśaṃ tarhi karmādīnāṃ tattvam iti tad āha karmaṇīti | karmaṇi dehendriyādi-vyāpāre vihite pratiṣiddhe cāhaṃ karomīti dharmy-adhyāsenātmany āropit## | nau-sthenācalatsu taṭastha-vṛkṣādiṣu samāropite calana ivākartātma-svarūpālocanena vastutaḥ karmābhāvaṃ taṭastha-vṛkṣādiṣv iva yaḥ paśyet paśyati | tathā dehendriyādiṣu triguṇa-māyā-pariṇāmatvena sarvadā savyāpāreṣu nirvyāpāras tūṣṇīṃ sukham āsa ity abhimānena samāropite ‚karmaṇi vyāpāroparame dūrastha-cakṣuḥ-saṃnikṛṣṭa-puruṣeṣu gacchatsv apy agamana iva sarvadā sa-vyāpāra-dehendriyādi-svarūpa-paryālocanena vastu-gatyā karma nivṛttyākhya-prayatna-rūpaṃ vyāpāraṃ yaḥ paśyed udāhṛta-puruṣeṣu gamanam iva | audāsīnyāvasthāyām apy udāsīno ‚ham āsa ity abhimāna eva karma | etādṛśaḥ paramārtha-darśī sa buddhimān ity ādinā buddhimattva-yoga-yuktatva-sarva-karma-kṛttvais tribhir dharmaiḥ stūyate |

atra prathama-pādena karma-vikarmaṇos tattvaṃ karma-śabdasya vihita-pratiṣiddha-paratvāt | dvitīya-pādena cākarmaṇas tattvaṃ darśitam iti draṣṭavyam | tatra yat tvaṃ manyase karmaṇo bandha-hetutvāt tūṣṇīm eva mayā sukhena sthātavyam iti tan mṛṣā | asati kartṛtvābhimāne vihitasya pratiṣiddhasya vā karmaṇo bandha-hetutvābhāvāt | tathā ca vyākhyātaṃ na māṃ karmāṇi limpanti [Gītā 4.14] ity ādinā | satica kartṛtvābhimāne tūṣṇīm aham āsa ity audāsīnyābhimānātmakaṃ yat karma tad api bandha-hetur eva vastu-tattvāparijñānāt | tasmāt karma-vikarmākarmaṇāṃ tattvam īdṛśaṃ jñātvā vikarmākarmaṇī parityajya kartṛtvābhimāna-phalābhisandhi-hānena vihitaṃ karmaiva kurv ity abhiprāyaḥ |

aparā vyākhyā karmaṇi jñāna-karmaṇi dṛśye jaḍe sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇa cānusyūtaṃ sarva-bhramādhiṣṭhānam akarmāvedyaṃ sva-prakāśa-caitanyaṃ paramārtha-dṛṣṭyā yaḥ paśyet | tathākarmaṇi ca sva-prakāśe dṛg-vastuni kalpitaṃ karma dṛśyaṃ māyā-mayaṃ na paramārtha-sat | dṛg-dṛśyayoḥ sambandhānupapatteḥ –

yas tu sarvāṇi bhūtāni ātmany evānupaśyati |
sarva-bhūteṣu cātmānaṃ tato na vijugupsate || [ĪśaU 6] iti śruteḥ |

evaṃ parasparādhyāse ‚pi śuddhaṃ vastu yaḥ paśyati manuṣyeṣu madhye sa eva buddhimān nānyaḥ | asya paramārtha-darśitvād anyasya cāparamārtha-darśitvāt | sa ca buddhi-sādhana-yogya-yukto ‚ntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhy-aikāgra-cittaḥ | ataḥ sa evāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-sādhana-kṛtsna-karma-kṛd iti vāstava-dharmair eva stūyate | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvam api paramārtha-darśī bhava tāvataiva kṛtsna-karma-kāritvopapatter ity abhiprāyaḥ |

ato yad uktaṃ yaj jñātvā mokṣyase ‚śubhād iti | yac coktaṃ karmādīnāṃ tattvaṃ boddhavyam astīti sa buddhimān ity ādi-stutiś ca | tat sarvaṃ paramārtha-darśane saṃgacchate | anya-jñānād aśubhāt saṃsārān mokṣānupapatteḥ | atattvaṃ cānyan na boddhavyaṃ na vā yaj-jñāne buddhimattvam iti yuktaiva paramārtha-darśināṃ vyākhyā |

yat tu vyākhyānaṃ karmaṇi nitye parameśvarārthe ‚nuṣṭhīyamāne bandha-hetutvābhāvād akarmedam iti yaḥ paśyet | tathākarmaṇi ca nitya-karmākaraṇe pratyavāya-hetutvena karmedam iti yaḥ paśyet sa buddhimān ity ādi tad asaṅgatam eva | nitya-karmaṇy akarmedam iti jñānasyāśubha-mokṣa-hetutvābhāvāt, mithyājñānatvena tasyivāśubhatvāc ca | na caitādṛśaṃ mithyā-jñānaṃ boddhavyaṃ tattvaṃ nāpy etādṛśa-jñāne buddhimattvādi-stuty-upapattir bhrāntitvāt | nitya-karmānuṣṭhānaṃ hi svarūpato ‚ntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvāropayujyate na tatrākarma-buddhiḥ kutrāpy upayujyate śāstreṇa nāmādiṣu brahma-dṛṣṭivad avihitatvāt | nāpīdam eva vākyaṃ tad-vidhāyakam upakramādi-virodhasyokteḥ | evaṃ nitya-karmākaraṇam api svarūpato nitya-karma-viruddha-karma-lakṣakatayopayujyate na tu tatra karma-dṛṣṭiḥ kvāpy upayujyate | nāpi nitya-karmākaraṇāt pratyavāyaḥ | abhāvād bhāvotpatty-ayogāt | anyathā tad-aviśeṣeṇa sarvadā kāryotpatti-prasaṅgāt | bhāvārthāḥ karma-śabdās tebhyaḥ kriyā pratīyetaiṣa hy artho vidhīyata iti nyāyena bhāvārthasyaivāpūrva-janakatvāt | atirātre ṣoḍaśinaṃ na gṛhṇāti ity ādāv api saṅkalpa-viśeṣasyaivāpūrva-janakatvābhyupagamāt | nekṣetodyantam ādityam ity ādi-prajāpati-vratavat | ato nitya-karmānuṣṭhānārhe kāle tad-viruddhatayā yad-upaveśanādi karma tad eva nitya-karmākaraṇopalakṣitaṃ pratyavāya-hetur iti vaidikānāṃ siddhāntaḥ | ataevākurvan vihitaṃ karmety atra lakṣaṇārthe śatā vyākhyātaḥ | lakṣaṇa-hetvoḥ kriyāyā ity aviśeṣa-smaraṇe ‚py atra hetutvānupapatteḥ | tasmān mithyā-darśanāpanode prastute mithyā-darśana-vyākhyānaṃ na śobhatetarām | nāpi nityānuṣṭhāna-param evaitad vākyaṃ nityāni kuryād ity arthe karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity ādi tad-abodhakaraṃ vākyaṃ prayuñjānasya bhagavataḥ pratārakatvāpatter ity ādi bhāṣya eva vistareṇa vyākhyātam ity uparamyate

 

Viśvanātha


tatra karmākarmaṇos tattva-bodham āha karmaṇīti | śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇasya jñānavattve ‚pi janakāder ivākṛta-sannyāsasya karmaṇy anuṣṭhīyamāne niṣkāma-karma-yoge akarma | karmedaṃ na bhavatīti yaḥ paśyet tat-karmaṇo bandhakatvābhāvāt iti bhāvaḥ | tathāśuddhāntaḥkaraṇasya jñānābhāve ‚pi śāstrajñatvāt jñāna-vāvadūkasya sannyāsino ‚karmaṇi karmākaraṇe karma paśyet durgati-prāpakaṃ karma-bandham evopalabhate | sa eva buddhimān | sa tu kṛtsna-karmāṇy eva karoti, na tu tasya jñāna-vāvadūkasya jñāni-māninaḥ saṅgenāpi tad-vacasāpi sannyāsaṃ na karotīti bhāvaḥ | tathā ca bhagavad-vākyam –

yas tv asaṃyata-ṣaḍ-vargaḥ pracaṇḍendriya-sārathiḥ |
jñāna-vairāgya-rahitas tri-daṇḍam upajīvati ||
surān ātmānam ātma-sthaṃ nihnute māṃ ca dharma-hā |
avipakva-kaṣāyo ‚smād amuṣmāc ca vihīyate || [BhP 11.18.40-1] iti

 

Baladeva


karmākarmaṇor boddhavyaṃ svarūpam āha karmaṇīti | anuṣṭhīyamāne niṣkāme karmaṇi yo ‚karma prastutatvāt karmaṇy ātma-jñānaṃ paśyet, akarmaṇy ātma-jñāne yaḥ karma paśyet | etad uktaṃ bhavati – yo mumukṣur hṛd-viśuddhaye kriyamāṇaṃ karmātma-jñānānusandhi-garbhatvāj jñānākāraṃ, tac ca jñānaṃ karma-dvārakatvāt karmākāraṃ paśyet | ubhayor ekātmoddeśyatvād ubhayam ekaṃ vidyād ity arthaḥ | evam eva vakṣyate sāṅkhya-yogau pṛthag bālāḥ ity ādineti | evam anuṣṭhīyamāne karmaṇi ātma-yāthātmyaṃ yo ‚nusandhatte sa manuṣyeṣu buddhimān paṇḍitaḥ | yukto mokṣa-yogyaḥ | kṛtsna-karma-kṛt sarveṣāṃ karma-phalānām ātma-jñāna-sukhāntarbhūtatvāt

 
 

BhG 4.19

yasya sarve samārambhāḥ kāma-saṃkalpa-varjitāḥ
jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇaṃ tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṃ budhāḥ

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syntax


yasya (whose) sarve (all) samārambhāḥ (undertakings) kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ (deprived of desire for pleasure) [santi] (they are),
budhāḥ (those intelligent) tam (that) jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇam (whose actions are burnt by the fire of knowledge) paṇḍitam (the wise) āhuḥ (they called).

 

grammar

yasya yat sn. 6n.1 m.whose;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
samārambhāḥ sam-ārambha 1n.3 m.undertakings (from: sam-ā-rabh – to undertake, to begin);
kāma-saṁkalpa-varjitāḥ kāma-saṁkalpa-varjita 1n.3 m.; [TP]: kāmasya saṅkalpena varjitāḥdeprived of desire for pleasure (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; sam-kḷp – to be ready, to wish, saṁkalpa – idea, desire; vṛj – to exclude, to avoid, caus. [PP] varjita – excluded, deprived of, without);
jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇam jñāna-agni-dagdha-karmāṇa 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya jñānasyāgninā dagdhāni karmāṇi santi tam whose actions are burnt by the fire of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; ag – to move tortuously, agni – fire; dah – to burn, [PP] dagdha – burnt; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
āhuḥ ah (to speak – inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū) [Perf.] P 1v.3they said, they called;
paṇḍitaṁ paṇḍita 2n.1 m.the learned, wise (paṇḍā wisdom, knowledge);
budhāḥ budha 1n.3 m.those intelligent, clever, thinkers  (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);

 

textual variants


kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ → kāma-krodha-varjitāḥ (deprived of desire and anger);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tad etat karmaṇy akarmādi-darśanaṃ stūyate —

yasya yathokta-darśinaḥ sarve yāvantaḥ samārambhāḥ karmāṇi samārabhyanta iti samārambhāḥ | kāma-saṃkalpa-varjitāḥ kāmaistat-kāraṇaiś ca saṅkalpa-varjitā mudhaiva ceṣṭā-mātrā anuṣṭhīyante | pravṛttena cel loka-saṅgrahārthaṃ, nivṛttena cej jīvana-mātrārthaṃ, taṃ jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇaṃ karmādāv akarmādi-darśanaṃ jñānaṃ, tad evāgnis tena jñānāgninā dagdhāni śubhāśubha-lakṣaṇāni karmāṇi yasya | tam āhuḥ paramārthataḥ paṇḍitaṃ budhāḥ brahma-vidaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


pratyakṣeṇa kriyamāṇasya karmaṇo jñanākāratā katham upapadyata ity atrāha

yasya mumukṣoḥ sarve dravyārjanādilaukikakarmapūrvakanityanaimittikakāmyarūpakarmasamārambhāḥ kāmārjitāḥ phalasaṅgarahitāḥ / saṅkalpavarjitāś ca / prakṛtyā tadguṇaiś cātmānam ekīkṛtyānusandhānaṃ saṅkalpaḥ; prakṛtiviyuktātmasvarūpānusandhānayuktatayā tadrahitāḥ / tam evaṃ karma kurvāṇaṃ paṇḍitaṃ karmāntargatātmayāthātmyajñānāgninā dagdhaprācīnakarmāṇam āhus tattvajñāḥ / ataḥ karmaṇo jñānākāratvam upapadyate

 

Śrīdhara


karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity anena śruty-arthārthāpattibhyāṃ yad uktam artha-dvandvaṃ tad eva spaṣṭayati yasyeti pañcabhiḥ | samyag ārabhyanta iti samārambhāḥ karmāṇi | kāmyata iti kāmaḥ phalam | tat-saṅkalpena varjitā yasya bhavanti taṃ paṇḍitam āhuḥ | tatra hetur yatas taiḥ samārambhaiḥ śuddhe citte sati jātena jñānāgninā dagdhāny akarmatāṃ nītāni karmāṇi yasya tam | ārūḍhāvasthāyāṃ tu kāmaḥ phala-hetu-viṣayaḥ | tad-artham idaṃ kartavyam iti kartavya-viṣayaḥ saṅkalpaḥ | tābhyāṃ varjitāḥ | śeṣaṃ spaṣṭam

 

Madhusūdana


tad etat paramārtha-darśinaḥ kartṛtvābhimānābhāvena karmāliptatvaṃ prapañcyate yasya sarva ity ādi brahma-karma-samādhinety antena | yasya pūrvokta-paramārtha-darśinaḥ sarve yāvanto vaidikā laukikā vā samārambhāḥ samārabhyanta iti vyutpattyā karmāṇi kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ kāmaḥ phala-tṛṣṇā saṅkalpo ‚haṃ karomīti kartṛtvābhimānas tābhyāṃ varjitāḥ | loka-saṅgrahāthaṃ vā jīvana-mātrārthaṃ vā prārabdha-karma-vegād vṛthā-ceṣṭā-rūpā bhavanti | taṃ karmādāv akarmādi-darśanaṃ jñānaṃ tad evāgnis tena dagdhāni śubhāśubha-lakṣaṇāni karmāṇi yasya tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvārdhayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśāt [Vs 4.1.13] iti nyāyāt | jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇaṃ taṃ budhā brahma-vidaḥ paramārthataḥ paṇḍitam āhuḥ | samyag-darśī hi paṇḍita ucyate na tu bhrānta ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


uktam arthaṃ vivṛṇoti yasyeti pañcabhiḥ | samyag ārabhyanta iti samārambhāḥ karmāṇi | kāmaḥ phalaṃ, tat-saṅkalpena varjitāḥ | jñānam evāgnis tena dagdhāni karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni vihitāni niṣiddhāni ca yasya saḥ | etena vikarmaṇaś ca boddhavyam ity api vivṛtam | etādṛśādhikāriṇi karma yathā akarma paśyet, tathaiva vikarmāpy akarmaiva paśyed iti pūrva-ślokasyaiva saṅgatiḥ | yad agre vakṣyate –

api ced asi pāpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kṛttamaḥ |
sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva vṛjinaṃ santariṣyasi ||
yathaidhāṃsi samiddho ‚gnir bhasmasāt kurute ‚rjuna |
jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā || [Gītā 4.36-37] iti

 

Baladeva


karmaṇo jñānākāram āha yasyeti pañcabhiḥ | samārambhāḥ karmāṇi kāmyanta iti kāmāḥ phalāni tat-saṅkalpena varjitāḥ śūnyā yasya karmabhir ātmoddeśino bhavanti | taṃ budhāḥ paṇḍitam ātmajñam āhuḥ | tatra hetuḥ – jñāneti | taiḥ samārambhair hṛd-viśuddhau satyām āvirbhūtenātma-jñānāgninā dagdhāni saṃcitāni karmāṇi yasya tam

 
 

BhG 4.20

tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ nitya-tṛpto nirāśrayaḥ
karmaṇy abhipravṛtto pi naiva kiṃ-cit karoti saḥ

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[yaḥ] (he who) karma-phalāsaṅgam (attachment to the fruit of activities) tyaktvā (after abandoning),
nitya-tṛptaḥ (ever satisfied) nirāśrayaḥ (without shelter) [san] (being),
saḥ (he) karmaṇi (in activity) abhipravṛttaḥ api (although engaged) kiṁ-cit eva (indeed nothing) na karoti (he does not do).

 

grammar

tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
karma-phalāsaṅgam karma-phala-āsaṅga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ phale āsaṅgam iti attachment to the fruit of activities (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; ā-sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, ā-saṅga – clinging, connection, attachment);
nitya-tṛptaḥ nitya-tṛpta 1n.1 m.; nityaṁ tṛpta iti ever satisfied (from: av. nityam – constantly, eternally; tṛp – to be satisfied, [PP] tṛpta – satisfied);
nirāśrayaḥ nir-ā-śraya 1n.1 m.without shelter (from: niḥ out of, away from, without; ā-śri – to lean on, to rest on, to depend on, āśraya – place of refuge, shelter);
karmaṇi karman 7n.1 n.in activity (from: kṛ – to do);
abhipravṛttaḥ abhi-pra-vṛtta (pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass) [PP] 1n.1 m.advancing, proceding, engaged;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
na av.not;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kiṁ-cit kiṁ-cit sn. 2n.1 m.something (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
karoti kṛ (to do) Praes. P 1v.1he does;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;

 

textual variants


nirāśrayaḥ → nirāmayaḥ (with no sickness);
karmaṇy abhipravṛtto ‚pikarmaṇy api pravṛtto ‚pi / karmabhiḥ sampravṛtto ‚pi (although in activity engaged / even engaged in activities);
saḥ → me (for me / my);

The fourth pada of verse 4.20 is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 5.8;

 
 

Śāṃkara


yas tu karmādāv akarmādi-darśī so’karmādi-darśanād eva niṣkarmā sannyāsī jīvana-mātrārtha-ceṣṭaḥ san karmaṇi na pravartate, yadyapi prāg-vivekataḥ pravṛttaḥ | yas tu prārabdha-karmā sann uttara-kālam utpannātma-samyag-darśanaḥ syāt, sa sarva-karmaṇi prayojanam apaśyan sa-sādhanaṃ karma pariyajaty eva | sa kutaścin nimittāt karma-parityāgāsambhave sati karmaṇi tat-phale ca saṅga-rahitatayā sva-prayojanābhāvāl loka-saṅgrahārthaṃ pūrvavat karmaṇi pravṛtto’pi naiva kiṃcit karoti jñānāgni-dagdha-karmatvāt tadīyaṃ karmākarmaiva sampadyata ity etam arthaṃ darśayiṣyann āha

tyaktvā karmasv abhimānaṃ phalāsaṅgaṃ ca yathoktena jñānena nitya-tṛpto nirākāṅkṣo viṣayeṣv ity arthaḥ | nirāśraya āśraya-rahitaḥ | āśrayo nāma yad āśritya puruṣārthaṃ sisādhayiṣati | dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-phala-sādhanāśraya-rahita ity arthaḥ | viduṣā kriyamāṇaṃ karma paramārthato’karmaiva | tasya niṣkriyātma-darśana-sampannatvāt | tenaivambhūtena sva-prayojanābhāvāt sa-sādhanaṃ karma parityaktavyam eveti prāpte, tato nirgamāsambhavāl loka-saṅgraha-cikīrṣayā śiṣṭa-vigarhaṇāparijihīrṣayā vā pūrvavat karmaṇy-abhipravṛtto’pi niṣkryātma-darśana-sampannatvān naiva kiṃcit karoti saḥ

 

Rāmānuja


etad eva vivṛṇoti

karmaphalasaṅgaṃ tyaktvā nityatṛptaḥ nitye svātmny eva tṛptaḥ, nirāśrayaḥ asthiraprakṛtau āśrayabuddhirahito yaḥ karmāṇi karoti, sa karmaṇy ābhimukhyena pravṛtto ‚pi naiva kiṃcit karma karoti karmāpadeśena jñānābhyāsam eva karotītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca tyaktveti | karmaṇi tat-phale cāsaktiṃ tyaktvā nityena nijānandena tṛptaḥ | ataeva yoga-kṣemārtham āśrayaṇīya-rahitaḥ | evambhūto yaḥ svābhāvike vihite vā karmaṇy abhitaḥ pravṛtto ‚pi kiṃcid eva naiva karoti | tasya karmākarmatām āpadyata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


bhavatu jñānāgninā prāktanānām aprārabdha-karmaṇāṃ dāha āgāmināṃ cānutpattiḥ | jñānotpatti-kāle kriyamāṇaṃ tu pūrvottarayor anantar-bhāvāt phalāya bhaved iti bhavet kasyacid āśaṅkā tām apanudaty āha tyaktveti | karmaṇi phale cāsaṅgaṃ kartṛtvābhimānaṃ bhogābhilāṣaṃ ca tyaktvākartr-abhoktr-ātma-samyag-darśanena bādhitvā nitya-tṛptaḥ paramānanda-svarūpa-lābhena sarvatra nirākāṅkṣaḥ | nirāśraya āśrayo dehendriyādir advaita-darśanena nirgato yasmāt sa nirāśrayo dehendriyādy-abhimāna-śūnyaḥ | phala-kāmanāyāḥ kartṛtvābhimānasya ca nivṛttau hetu-garbhaṃ krameṇa viśeṣaṇa-dvayam | evambhūto jīvanmukto vyutthāna-daśāyāṃ karmaṇi vaidike laukike vābhipravṛtto ‚pi prārabdha-karma-vaśāl loka-dṛṣṭyābhitaḥ sāṅgopāṅgānuṣṭhānāya pravṛtto ‚pi sva-dṛṣṭyā naiva kiṃcit karoti sa niṣkriyātma-darśanena bādhitatvād ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nitya-tṛpto nityaṃ nijānandaena tṛptaḥ | nirāśrayaḥ svayoga-kṣemārthaṃ na kam apy āśrayate

 

Baladeva


uktam arthaṃ viśadayati tyaktveti | karma-phale saṅgaṃ tyaktvā nityenātmanānubhūtena tṛpto nirāśrayo yoga-kṣemaārtahm apy āśraya-rahita īdṛśo yo ‚dhikārī sa karmaṇy abhitaḥ pravṛtto ‚pi naiva kiṃcit karoti | karmānuṣṭhānāpadeśena jñāna-niṣṭhām eva sampādayatīty ārurukṣor daśeyam | etena vikarmaṇaḥ svarūpaṃ bandhakatvaṃ boddhavyam ity uktaṃ bhavati

 
 

BhG 4.21

nirāśīr yata-cittātmā tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ
śārīraṃ kevalaṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam

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[saḥ] (he) nirāśīḥ (free from desires) yata-cittātmā (whose mind and self are controlled) tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ (by whom all property is abandoned)
kevalam (merely) śārīram (bodily) karma (activities) kurvan (doing)
kilbiṣam (sin) na āpnoti (he does not obtain).

 

grammar

nir-āśīḥ nir-ā-śis 1n.1 m.who has no desires (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; ā-śās – to desire, āśis – desire, blessing);
yata-cittātmā yata-citta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya cittam ātmā ca yatau staḥ saḥ whose mind and self are controlled (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness; ātman – self);
tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ tyakta-sarva-parigraha 1n.1 m.; BV: yena sarve parigrahāḥ tyktāḥ santi saḥby whom all property is abandoned (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up, [PP] tyakta – abandoned; sarva – all, whole; pari-grah – to take hold, to embrace, parigraha – taking, attaining, household, property);
śārīram śārīra 2n.1 n.bodily, related to body (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);
kevalam av.only, merely (from: kevala – alone, simple, entire);
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kurvan kurvant (kṛ to do) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] doing;
na av.not;
āpnoti āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he achieves;
kilbiṣam kilbiṣa 2n.1 n. fault, offence, sin;

 

textual variants


nirāśīr → yadāśīr (when desiring);
śārīraṁ → śarīraṁ (body);

The fourth pada of verse 4.21 is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 18.47;

 
 

Śāṃkara


yaḥ punaḥ pūrvokta-viparītaḥ prāg eva karmāmbhād brahmaṇi sarvāntare pratyag-ātmani niṣkriye saṃjātātma-darśanaḥ, sa dṛṣṭādṛṣṭeṣṭa-viṣayāśīr vivarjitatayā dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthe karmaṇi prayojanam apyaśyan sa-sādhanaṃ karma saṃnyasya śarīra-yātrā-mātra-ceṣṭo yatir jñāna-niṣṭho mucyata iti | etad arthaṃ darśayitum āha—

nirāśīr nirgatā āśiṣo yasmāt sa nirāśīḥ | yata-cittātmā cittam antaḥ-karaṇam | ātmā bāhyaḥ kārya-karaṇa-saṃghātaḥ | tāv ubhāv api yatau saṃyatau yasya sa yata-cittātmā | tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ—tyaktaḥ sarvaḥ parigraho yena sa tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ | śārīraṃ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ kevalaṃ tatrāpi abhimāna-varjitaṃ karma kurvan | nāpnoti na prāpnoti kilbiṣam aniṣṭa-rūpaṃ pāpaṃ dharmaṃ ca | dharmo’pi mumukṣor aniṣṭa-rūpaṃ kilbiṣam eva | bandhāpādakatvāt | tasmāt tābhyāṃ mukto bhavati, saṃsārān mukto bhavatīty arthaḥ |

kiṃ ca śārīraṃ kevalaṃ karmety atra kiṃ śarīra-nirvartyaṃ śārīraṃ karmābhipretaṃ ? āho svic charīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ śārīraṃ karma ? iti | kiṃ cāto yadi śarīra-nirvartyaṃ śārīraṃ karma yadi vā śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ śarīraṃ ? iti | ucyate —yadā śarīra-nirvartyaṃ karma śārīram abhipretaṃ syāt tadā dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-prayojanaṃ karma pratiṣiddham api śarīreṇa kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam iti bruvato viruddhābhidhānaṃ prasajyeta | śāstrīyaṃ ca karma dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-prayojanaṃ śarīreṇa kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam ity api bruvato’prāpta-pratiṣedha-prasaṅgaḥ | śārīraṃ karma kurvan iti viśeṣaṇāt kevala-śabda-prayogāc ca vāṅ-manasa-nirvartyaṃ karma vidhi-pratiṣedha-viṣayaṃ dharmādharma-śabda-vācyaṃ kurvan prāpnoti kilbiṣam ity uktaṃ syāt |

tatrāpi vāṅ-manasābhyāṃ vihitānuṣṭhāna-pakṣe kilbiṣa-prāpti-vacanaṃ viruddham āpadyeta | pratiṣiddha-sevi-pakṣe’pi bhūtārthānuvāda-mātram anarthakaṃ syāt | yadā tu śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ śārīraṃ karmābhipretaṃ bhavet, tadā dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-prayojanaṃ karma vidhi-pratiṣedha-gamyaṃ śarīra-vāṅ-manasa-nirvartyam anyad akruvaṃs tair eva śarīrādibhiḥ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ kevala-śabda-prayogāt ahaṃ karomi ity abhimāna-varjitaḥ śarīrādi-ceṣṭā-mātraṃ loka-dṛṣṭyā kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam | evambhūtasya pāpa-śabda-vācya-kilbiṣa-prāpty-asambhavāt kilbiṣaṃ saṃsāraṃ nāpnoti | jñānāgni-dagdha-sarva-karmatvād apratibandhena mucyate eveti pūrvokta-samyag-darśana-phalānuvāda evaiṣaḥ | evaṃ śarīraṃ kevalaṃ karma ity asyārthasya parigrahe niravadyaṃ bhavati

 

Rāmānuja


punar api karmaṇo jñānākārataiva viśodhyate

nirāśīḥ nirgataphalābhisandhiḥ yatacittātmā yatacittamanāḥ tyaktasarvaparigrahaḥ ātmaikaprayojanatayā prakṛtiprākṛtavastuni mamatārahitaḥ, yāvajjīvaṃ kevalaṃ śārīram eva karma kurvan kilbiṣaṃ saṃsāraṃ nāpnoti jñānaniṣṭhāvyavadhānarahitakevalakarmayogenaivaṃrūpeṇātmānaṃ paśyatītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca nirāśīr iti | nirgatā āśiṣaḥ kāmanā yasmāt | yataṃ niyataṃ cittam ātmā śarīraṃ ca yasya | tyaktāḥ sarve parigraho yena | sa śarīraṃ śarīra-mātra-nirvartyaṃ kartṛtvābhiniveśa-rahitaṃ kurvann api kilbiṣam bandhanaṃ na prāpnoti | yogārūḍha-pakṣe śārīra-nirvāha-mātropayogi svābhāvikaṃ bhikṣāṭanādi kurvann api kilbiṣaṃ vihitākaraṇa-nimitta-doṣaṃ na prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


yadātyanta-vikṣepa-hetor api jyotiṣṭomādeḥ samyag-jñāna-vaśān na tat-phala-janakatvaṃ tadā śarīra-sthiti-mātra-hetor avikṣepakasya bhikṣāṭanāder nāsty eva bandha-hetutvam iti kaimutya-nyāyenāha nirāśīr iti | nirāśīr gata-tṛṣṇo yata-cittātmā cittam antaḥkaraṇam ātmā bāhyendriya-sahito dehas tau saṃyatau pratyāhāreṇa nigṛhītau yena saḥ | yato jitendriyo ‚to vigata-tṛṣṇatvāt tyakta-sarva-parigrahas tyaktāḥ sarve parigrahā bhogopakaraṇāni yena saḥ | etādṛśo ‚pi prārabdha-karma-vaśāc chārīraṃ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ kaupīnācchādanādi-grahaṇa-bhikṣāṭanādi-rūpaṃ yatiṃ prati śāstrābhyanujñātaṃ karma kāyikaṃ vācikaṃ mānasaṃ ca, tad api kevalaṃ kartṛtvābhimāna-śūnyaṃ parādhyāropita-kartṛtvena kurvan paramārthato ‚kartrātma-darśanān nāpnoti na prāpnoti kilbiṣaṃ dharmādharma-phala-bhūtam aniṣṭaṃ saṃsāraṃ pāpavat puṇyasyāpy aniṣṭa-phalatvena kilbiṣatvam |

ye tu śarīra-nirvartyaṃ śārīram iti vyācakṣate tan mate kevalaṃ karma kurvann ity ato ‚dhikārthālābhād avyāvartakatvena śārīra-padasya vaiyarthyam | atha vācika-mānasika-vyāvartanātham iti brūyāt tadā karma-padasya vihita-mātra-paratvena śārīraṃ vihitaṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam ity aprasakta-pratiṣedho ‚narthakaḥ | pratiṣiddha-sādhāraṇa-paratve ‚py evam eva vyāghāta iti bhāṣya eva vistaraḥ

 

Viśvanātha


ātmā sthūla-dehaḥ | śārīraṃ śārīra-nirvāhārthaṃ karmāsat-pratigrahādikaṃ kurvann api kilbiṣaṃ pāpaṃ nāpnotīty etad api vikarmaṇaś ca boddhavyam ity asya vivaraṇam

 

Baladeva


athārūḍhasya daśām āha nirāśīr iti tribhiḥ | nirgatā āśīḥ phalecchā yasmāt sa | yata-cittātmā vaśīkṛta-citta-dehas tyakta-sarva-parigraha ātmaikāvalokanārthatvāt prākṛteṣu vastuṣu mamatva-varjitaḥ | śārīraṃ karma śarīra-nirvāhārthaṃ karmāsat-parigrahādi kurvann api kilbiṣaṃ pāpaṃ nāpnoti

 
 

BhG 4.22

yadṛcchā-lābha-saṃtuṣṭo dvaṃdvātīto vimatsaraḥ
samaḥ siddhāv asiddhau ca kṛtvāpi na nibadhyate

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[yaḥ] (he who) yadṛcchā-lābha-santuṣṭaḥ (satisfied with what comes by chance) dvandvātītaḥ (one who passed over duality) vimatsaraḥ (free from envy),
siddhau (in success) asiddhau ca (and in failure) samaḥ (the same),
[saḥ] (he) [karma] (activity) kṛtvā api (even after doing) na nibadhyate (he is not bound).

 

grammar

yadṛcchā-lābha-saṁtuṣṭaḥ yadṛcchā-lābha-saṁtuṣṭa 1n.1 m.; KD/[TP]: yadṛcchayā lābhena santuṣṭa iti satisfied with what comes by chance (from: yad-ṛcchā – accident, chance; labh – to obtain, to gain; lābha – gain, profit; sam-tuṣ – to rejoice, saṁtuṣṭa – completely satisfied);
dvaṁdvātītaḥ dvaṁdva-atīta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: dvandvam atīta itione who passed over duality (from: dva – two, dvaṁdva – two-two, pair of opposites; ati-i – to pass over, [PP] atīta – who passed over);
vi-matsaraḥ vi-matsara 1n.1 m.free from envy (from: matsara – selfish, greedy, envious, hostile);
samaḥ sama sn. 1n.1 m.the same, equal, equivalent;
siddhau siddhy 7n.1 f.in success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
asiddhau a-siddhi 7n.1 f.in failure (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect, siddhi – success, perfection);
ca av.and;
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
na av.not;
nibadhyate ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is bound;

 

textual variants


kṛtvāpikṛtvā ca (and after doing);
nibadhyate → sa badhyate (he he is bound);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tyakta-sarva-parigrahasya yater annādeḥ śarīra-sthiti-hetorḥ parigrahasyābhāvād yācanādinā śarīra-sthitau kartavyatāyāṃ prāptāyām ayācitam asaṃkÿptam upapannaṃ yadṛcchayā [mātrbh 14.46.19; bhāvaudhayana-dharma-sūtra 21.8.12] ity ādinā vacanenānujñātaṃ yateḥ śarīra-sthiti-hetor annādeḥ prāpti-dvāram āviṣkurvann āha—

yadṛcchā-lābha-santuṣṭaḥ prārthitopanato lābho yadṛcchā-lābhaḥ, tena santuṣṭaḥ saṃjātālaṃ-pratyayaḥ | dvandvātīto dvandvaiḥ śītoṣṇādibhir hanyamāno’py aviṣaṇṇa-citto dvandvātīta ucyate | vimatsaro vigata-matsaro nirvaira-buddhiḥ | samas tulyo yadṛcchā-lābhasya siddhāv asiddhau ca, ya evambhūto yatir annādeḥ śarīra-sthiti-hetor lābhālābhayoḥ samo harṣa-viṣāda-varjitaḥ, karmādāv akarmādi-darśī, yathā-bhūtātma-darśana-niṣṭhaḥ san śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojane bhikṣāṭanādi-karmaṇi śarīrādi-nirvartye naiva kiṃcit karomīti [gītā 5.8] guṇā guṇeṣu vartanta [gītā 3.28] ity evaṃ sadā samparicakṣāṇa ātmanaḥ kartṛtvābhāvaṃ paśyann eva kiṃcid bhikṣāṭanādikaṃ karma karoti | loka-vyavahāra-sāmānya-darśanena tu laukikair āropita-kartṛtve bhikṣāṭanādau karmaṇi kartā bhavati | svānubhavena tu śāstra-pramāṇādi-janitenākartraiva | sa evaṃ parādhyāropita-kartṛtvaṃ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ bhikṣāṭanādikaṃ karma kṛtvāpi na nibadhyate, bandha-hetoḥ karmaṇaḥ sahetukasya jñānāgninā dagdhatvād ity uktānuvāda evaiṣaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yadṛcchopanataśarīradhāraṇahetuvastusantuṣṭaḥ, dvandvātītaḥ yāvatsādhanasamāptyavarjanīyaśītoṣṇādisahaḥ, vimatsaraḥ aniṣṭopanipātahetubhūtasvakarmanirūpaṇena pareṣu vigatamatsaraḥ, samas siddhāv asiddau ca yuddhādikarmasu jayādisiddhyasiddhyoḥ samacittaḥ, karmaiva kṛtvāpi jñānaniṣṭhāṃ vināpi na nibadhyate na saṃsāraṃ pratipadyate

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca yadṛcchā-lābheti | aprārthitopasthito lābho yadṛcchā-lābhaḥ | tena santuṣṭaḥ | dvandvāni śītoṣṇādīny atīto ‚tikrāntaḥ | tat-sahana-śīla ity arthaḥ | vimatsaro nirvairaḥ | yadṛcchā-lābhasyāpi siddhāv asiddhau ca samo harṣa-viṣāda-rahitaḥ | ya evambhūtaḥ sa pūrvottara-bhūmikayor yathāyathaṃ vihitaṃ svābhāvikaṃ vā karma kṛtvāpi bandhaṃ na prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


tyakta-sarva-parigrahasya yateḥ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ karmābhyanujñātaṃ tatrānnācchādanādi-vyatirekeṇa śarīra-sthiter asaṃbhavād yācñādināpi sva-prayatnenānnādikaṃ sampādyam iti prāpte niyamāyāha yadṛcchā-lābheti | śāstrānanumata-prayatna-vyatireko yadṛcchā tayaiva yo lābho ‚nnācchādanādeḥ śāstrānumatasya sa yadṛcchālābhas tena santuṣṭas tad-adhika-tṛṣṇā-rahitaḥ | tathā ca śāstraṃ bhaikṣaṃ caret iti prakṛṣya ayācitam asaṃk ptam upapannaṃ yadṛcchayā iti yācñā-saṃkalpādi-prayatnaṃ vārayati | manur api –

na cotpāta-nimittābhyāṃ na nakṣatrāṅgavidyayā |
nānuśāsana-vādābhyāṃ bhikṣāṃ lipseta karhicit || [Manu 6.50] iti |

yatayo bhikṣārthaṃ grāmaṃ viśantīty ādi-śāstrānumatas tu prayatnaḥ kartavya eva | evaṃ labdhavyam api śāstra-niyatam eva –

kaupīna-yugalaṃ vāsaḥ kanthāṃ śīta-nivāriṇīm |
pāduke cāpi gṛhṇīyāt kuryān nānyasya saṅgraham || ity ādi |

evam anyad api vidhi-niṣedha-rūpaṃ śāstram ūhyam |
nanu sva-prayatnam antareṇālābhe śītoṣṇādi-pīḍitaḥ kathaṃ jīved ata āha dvandvātīta dvandvāni kṣut-pipāsā-śītoṣṇa-varṣādīni atīto ‚tikrāntaḥ samādhi-daśāyāṃ teṣām asphuraṇāt | vyutthāna-daśāyāṃ sphuraṇe ‚pi paramānandādvitīyākartr-abhoktr-ātma-pratyayena bādhāt tair dvandvair upahanyamāno ‚py akṣubhita-cittaḥ | ataeva parasya lābhe svasyālābhe ca vimatsaraḥ parotkarṣāsahana-pūrvikā svotkarṣa-vāñchā matsaras tad-rahito ‚dvitīyātma-darśanena nirvaira-buddhiḥ | ataeva samas tulyo yadṛcchā-lābhasya siddhāv asiddhau ca siddhau na hṛṣṭo nāpy asiddhau viṣaṇṇaḥ sa svānubhavenākartaiva parair āropita-kartṛtvaḥ śarīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ bhikṣāṭanādi-rūpaṃ karma kṛtvāpi na nibadhyate bandha-hetoḥ sa-hetukasya karmaṇo jñānāgninā dagdhatvād iti pūrvoktānuvādaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 4.23

 

Baladeva


atha śarīra-nirvāhārtham annācchādanādikaṃ sva-prayatnena na sampādyam ity āha yadṛcchayeti | yācñāṃ vinaiva lābho yadṛcchā-lābhas tena santuṣṭas tṛptaḥ | dvandvāni śītoṣṇādīny atītas tat-sahiṣṇuḥ | vimatsaro ‚nyair upadruto ‚pi taiḥ saha vairam akurvan yadṛcchā-lābha-siddhau harṣasya tad-asiddhau viṣādasya cābhāvāt sama evaṃbhūtaḥ śārīraṃ karma kṛtvāpi tena tena na badhyate jñāna-niṣṭhā-prabhāvān na lipyate

 
 

BhG 4.23

gata-saṅgasya muktasya jñānāvasthita-cetasaḥ
yajñāyācarataḥ karma samagraṃ pravilīyate

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syntax


gata-saṅgasya (whose attachment is gone) muktasya (of the liberated) jñānāvasthita-cetasaḥ (of one whose mind is established in knowledge)
yajñāya (for sacrifice) [karma] (activity) ācarataḥ (of one who is performing)
samagram (whole) karma (activity) pravilīyate (it is dissolved).

 

grammar

gata-saṅgasya gata-saṅga 6n.1 m.; BV: yasya saṅgo gato ‘sti tasyawhose attachment is gone (from: gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment);
muktasya mukta (muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 6n.1 m.of the liberated;
jñānāvasthita-cetasaḥ jñāna-avasthita-cetas 6n.1 m.; BV: yasya ceto jñāne avasthitam asti tasyaof one whose mind is established in knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; ava-sthā – to be present, [PP] avasthita – placed; cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
yajñāya yajña 4n.1 m.for sacrifice, for worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
ācarataḥ ācarant (ā-car – to behave, to perform) PPr 6n.1 m.of one who is performing;
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
samagram samagra 1n.1 n.whole, complete;
or av.completely;
pravilīyate pra-vi- (to dissolve, to melt) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is dissolved;

 

textual variants


muktasyayuktasya (of the yoked);
yajñāyācarataḥ → jñānāyārabhataḥ (of one who undertakes [activities] for knowledge);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ [gītā 4.20] ity anena ślokena yaḥ prārabdha-karmā san yadā niṣkriya-brahmātma-darśana-sampannaḥ syāt tadā tasyātmanaḥ kartṛ-karma-prayojanābhāva-darśinaḥ karma-parityāge prāpte kutaścin nimittāt tad-asambhave sati pūrvavat tasmin karmaṇy abhipravṛttasyāpi naiva kiṃcit karoti sa [gītā 4.20] itikarmābhāvaḥ pradarśitaḥ | yasyaivaṃ karmābhāvo darśitas tasyaiva—

gata-saṅgasya sarvato nivṛttāsakter muktasya nivṛtta-dharmādharmādi-bandhanasya, jñānāvasthita-cetaso jñāna evāvasthitaṃ ceto yasya so’yaṃ jñānāvasthita-cetāḥ | tasya yajñāya yajña-nirvṛtty-artham ācarato nirvartayataḥ karma samagraṃ sahāgreṇa phalena vartata iti samagraṃ karma tat-samagraṃ pravilīyate vinaśyatīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


ātmaviṣayajñānāvasthitamanastvena nirgatataditarasaṅgasya tata eva nikhilaparigrahavinirmuktasya uktalakṣaṇayajñādikarmanirvṛttaye vartamānasya puruṣasya bandhahetubhūtaṃ prācīnaṃ karma samagraṃ pravilīyate niśśeṣaṃ kṣīyate

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca gata-saṅgasyeti | gata-saṅgasya niṣkāmasya rāgādibhir muktasya | jñāne ‚vasthitaṃ ceto yasya tasya | yajñāya parameśvarārthaṃ karmācarataḥ sataḥ samagraṃ savāsanaṃ karma pravilīyate | akarma-bhāvam āpadyate | arūḍha-yoga-pakṣe yajñāyeti | yajñāya yajña-rakṣaṇārthaṃ loka-saṃgrahārtham eva karma kurvata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tyakta-sarva-parigrahasya yadṛcchā-lābha-santuṣṭasya yater yac-charīra-sthiti-mātra-prayojanaṃ bhikṣāṭanādi-rūpaṃ karma tat kṛtvā na nibadhyata ity ukte gṛhasthasya brahma-vido janakāder yajñādi-rūpaṃ yat karma tad-bandha-hetuḥ syād iti bhavet kasyacid āśaṅkā tām apanetuṃ tyaktvā karma-phalāsaṅgam ity ādinoktaṃ vivṛṇoti gata-saṅgasyeti | gata-saṅgasya phalāsaṅga-śūnyasya muktasya kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādy-adhyāsa-śūnyasya jñānāvasthita-cetaso nirvikalpaka-brahmātmaikya-bodha eva sthitaṃ cittaṃ yasya tasya sthita-prajñasyety arthaḥ | uttarottara-viśeṣaṇasya pūrva-pūrva-hetutvenānvayo draṣṭavyaḥ | gata-saṅgatvaṃ kuto yato ‚dhyāsa-hīnatvaṃ tat kuto yataḥ sthita-prajñatvam iti | īdṛśasyāpi prārabdha-karma-vaśād yajñāya yajña-saṃrakṣaṇārthaṃ jyotiṣṭomādi-yajñe śreṣṭhācāratvena loka-pravṛtty-arthaṃ yajñāya viṣṇave tat-prīty-artham iti vā | ācarataḥ karma yajña-dānādikaṃ samagraṃ sahāgreṇa phalena vidyata iti samagraṃ pravilīyate prakarṣeṇa kāraṇocchedena tattva-darśanād vilīyate vinaśyatīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


yajño vakṣyamāṇa-lakṣaṇas tad-arthaṃ karmācaratas tat karma pravilīyate akarma-bhāvam āpadyata ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


gata-saṅgasya niṣkāmasya rāga-dveṣādibhir muktasya svātma-viṣayaka-jñāna-niviṣṭa-manaso yajñāya viṣṇuṃ prasādayituṃ tac-cintanam ācarataḥ prācīnaṃ bandhakaṃ karma samagraṃ kṛtsnaṃ pravilīyate

 
 

BhG 4.24

brahmārpaṇaṃ brahma havir brahmāgnau brahmaṇā hutam
brahmaiva tena gantavyaṃ brahma-karma-samādhinā

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arpaṇam (offering) brahma (brahman) [asti] (it is),
haviḥ (oblation) brahma (brahman) [asti] (it is),
brahmāgnau (in the fire of brahman) brahmaṇā (by the brahman) hutam (offered in sacrifice) [brahma] (brahman) [asti] (it is).
tena (by him) brahma-karma-samādhinā (by one who is absorbed in the activities of brahman) brahma eva (brahman only) gantavyam (to be understood) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
arpaṇam arpaṇa 1n.1 n.placing, offering, delivering (from: – to go, to reach);
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
haviḥ haviḥ 1n.1 n.oblation (from: hu – to offer into fire);
brahmāgnau brahma-agni 7n.1 m.; [TP]: brahmaṇaḥ agnāv itiin the fire of brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; ag – to move tortuously, agni – fire);
brahmaṇā brahman 3n.1 n.by the spirit (from: bṛh – to increase);
hutam huta (from: hu – to offer into fire) [PP] 1n.1 n.offered in sacrifice;
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tena tat sn. 3n.1by that, by him;
gantavyam gantavya (gam – to go) PF 1n.1 n.to be gone, to be accomplished, to be understood;
brahma-karma-samādhinā brahma-karma-samādhin 3n.1 m.; [TP]: brahmaṇaḥ karmasu samādhineti by one who is absorbed in the activities of brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; sam-ā-dhā – to put, to fix, to compose, to concentrate się, samādhi – union, concentration, harmony, samādhin – absorbed in ncontemplation);

 

textual variants


brahmaiva tena → brahma tenaiva (brahman just by him);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kasmāt punaḥ kāraṇāt kriyamāṇaṃ karma svakāryārambham akurvat samagraṃ pravilīyata ity ucyate ? yataḥ—

brahmārpaṇaṃ yena karaṇena brahmavid havir agnāv arpayati | tad brahmaiveti paśyati tasyātma-vyatirekeṇābhāvaṃ paśyati | yathā śuktikāyāṃ rajatābhāvaṃ paśyati tad ucyate brahmaivārpaṇam iti | yathā yad rajataṃ tac chuktikaiveti | brahma arpaṇam ity asamaste pade yad-arpaṇa-buddhyā gṛhyate loke tad asya brahma-vido brahmaivety arthaḥ |

brahma havis tathā yad dhavir buddhyā gṛhyamāṇaṃ tad brahmaivāsay | tathā brahmāgnau iti samastaṃ padam | agnir api brahmaiva | yatra hūyate brahmaṇā kartrā brahmaiva kartety arthaḥ | yat tena hutaṃ havana-kriyā tad brahmaiva | yat tena gantavyaṃ phalaṃ tad api brahmaiva | brahma-karma-samādhinā brahmaiva karma brahma-karma tasmin samādhir yasya sa brahma-karma-samādhis tena brahma-karma-samādhinā brahmaiva gantavyam |

evaṃ loka-saṅgrahaṃ cikīrṣuṇāpi kriyamāṇaṃ karam, paramārthato’karma brahma-buddhy-upamṛditvāt | evaṃ sati nivṛtta-karmaṇo’pi sarva-karma-sannyāsinaḥ samyag-darśana-stuty-arthaṃ yajñatva-sampādanaṃ jñānasya sutarām upapadyate | yad-arpaṇādy-adhiyajñe prasiddhaṃ tad asyādhyātmaṃ brahmaiva paramārtha-darśina iti | anyathā sarvasya brahmatve’rpaṇādīnām eva viśeṣato brahmatvābhidhānam anarthakaṃ syāt | tasmād brahmaivedaṃ sarvam ity abhijānato viduṣaḥ sarva-karmābhāvaḥ |

kāraka-buddhy-abhāvāc ca | nahi kāraka-buddhi-rahitaṃ yajñākhyaṃ karma dṛṣṭam | sarvam evāgni-hotrādikaṃ karma śabda-samarpita-devatā-viśeṣa-sampradānādi-kāraka-buddhimat-kartr-abhimāna-phalābhisandhimac ca dṛṣṭam | nopamṛdita-kriyākāraka-phala-bheda-buddhimat kartṛtvābhimāna-phalābhisandhi-rahitaṃ vā | idaṃ tu brahma-buddhy-upamṛditārpaṇādi-kāraka-kriyā-phala-bheda-buddhi karmāto’karmaiva tat |

tathā ca darśitaṃ karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyet [gītā 4.18], karmaṇy abhipravṛtto’pi naiva kiṃcit karoti saḥ [gītā 4.20], guṇā guṇeṣu vartante [gītā 3.28], naiva kiṃcit karomīti yukto manyeta tattvavit [gītā 5.8] ity ādibhiḥ | tathā ca darśayaṃs tatra tatra kriyā-kāraka-phala-bheda-buddhy-upamardaṃ karoti | dṛṣṭā ca kāmyāgnihotrādau kāmopamardena kāmyāgnihotrādi-hāniḥ | tathā mati-pūrvakām atipūrvakādīnāṃ karmaṇāṃ kārya-viśeṣasyārambhakatvaṃ dṛṣṭam | tathehāpi brahma-buddhy-upamṛditārpaṇādi-kāraka-kriyā-phala-bheda-buddher bāhya-ceṣṭā-mātreṇa karmāpi viduṣo’karma sampadyate | ata uktaṃ samagraṃ pravilīyate [gītā 4.23] iti |

atra kecid āhuḥ—yad brahma tad arpaṇādīni | brahmaiva kilārpaṇādinā pañca-vidhena kārakātmanā vyavasthitaṃ sat tad eva karma karoti | tatra nārpaṇādi-buddhir nivartyate | kintv arpaṇādiṣu brahma-buddhir ādhīyate | yathā pratimādau viṣṇv-ādi-buddhiḥ, yathā vā nāmādau brahma-buddhir iti | satyam evam api syād yadi jñāna-yajña-stuty-arthaṃ prakaraṇaṃ na syāt | atra tu samyag-darśanaṃ jñāna-yajña-śabditam anekān yajña-śabditān kriyā-viśeṣān upanyasya śreyān dravya-mayād yajñāj jñāna-yajñaḥ parantapa [gītā 4.33] iti jñānaṃ stauti | atra ca samartham idaṃ vacanaṃ brahmārpaṇam ity ādi jñānasya yajñatva-sampādane, anyathā sarvasya brahmatve’rpaṇādīnām eva viśeṣato brahmatvābhidhānam anarthakaṃ syāt | ye tv arpaṇādiṣu pratimāyāṃ viṣṇu-dṛṣṭivad brahma-dṛṣṭiḥ kṣipyate | nāmādiṣv iva ceti bruvate, na teṣāṃ brahma-vidyokteha vivakṣitā syāt | arpaṇādi-viṣayatvāj jñānasya | na ca dṛṣṭi-sampādana-jñānena mokṣa-phalaṃ prāpyate | brahmaiva tena gantavyam iti cocyate |

viruddhaṃ ca samyag-darśanam antareṇa mokṣa-phalaṃ prāpyata iti | prakṛti-virodhaś ca | samyag-darśanaṃ ca prakṛtaṃ karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyet [gītā 4.18] ity atrānte ca samyag-darśanaṃ tasyaivopasaṃhārāt | śreyān dravya-mayād yajñāj jñāna-yajñaḥ parantapa [gītā 4.33] jñānaṃ labdhvā parāṃ śāntiṃ [gītā 4.39] ity ādinā samyag-darśana-stutim eva kurvann upakṣīṇo’dhyāyaḥ | tatrākasmād arpaṇādau brahma-dṛṣṭir aprakaraṇe pratimāyām iva viṣṇu-dṛṣṭir ucyata ity anupapannam | tasmād yathā-vyākhyātārtha evāyaṃ ślokaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


prakṛtiviyuktātmasvarūpānusandhānayuktatayā karmaṇo jñānākāratvam uktam; idānīṃ sarvasya saparikarasya karmaṇaḥ parabrahmabhūtaparamapuruṣātmakatvānusandhānayuktatayā jñānākāratvam āha

brahmārpaṇam iti havir viśeṣyate / arpyate ‚nenety arpaṇaṃ srugādi / tadbrahmakāryatvād brahma / brahma yasya haviṣo ‚rpaṇaṃ tad brahmārpaṇam, brahma haviḥ brahmārpaṇaṃ haviḥ / svayaṃ ca brahmabhūtam, brahmāgnau brahmabhūte agnau brahmaṇā kartrā hutam iti sarvaṃ karma brahmātmakatayā brahmamayam iti yaḥ samādhatte, sa brahmakarmasamādhiḥ, tena brahmakarmasamādhinā brahmaiva gantavyam brahmātmakatayā brahmabhūtam ātmasvarūpaṃ gantavyam / mumukṣuṇā kriyamāṇaṃ karma parabrahmātmakam evety anusandhānayuktatayā jñānākāraṃ sākṣādātmāvalokanasādhanam; na jñānaniṣṭhāvyadhānenetyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ parameśvarārādhana-lakṣaṇaṃ karma jñāna-hetutvena bandhakatvābhāvād akarmaiva | āruḍhāvasthāyāṃ tu akartrātma-jñānena bādhitatvāt svābhāvikam api karma-karmaiveti karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity anenoktaḥ karma-pravilayaḥ prapañcitaḥ | idānīṃ karmaṇi tad-aṅgeṣu ca brahmaivānusyūtaṃ paśyataḥ karma-pravilayam āha brahmārpaṇam iti | arpyate ‚nenety arpaṇaṃ sruv-ādi | tad api brahmaiva | arpyamāṇaṃ havir api ghṛtādikaṃ brahmaiva | brahmaivāgniḥ | tasmin brahmaṇā kartrā hutaṃ homaḥ | agniś ca kartā ca kriyā ca brahmaivety arthaḥ | evaṃ brahmaṇy eva karmātmake samādhiś cittaikāgryaṃ yasya tena brahmaiva gantavyaṃ prāpyam | na tu phalāntaram ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanu kriyamāṇaṃ karma phalam ajanayitvaiva kuto naśyati brahma-bodhe tat-kāraṇocchedād ity āha brahmārpaṇam iti | aneka-kāraka-sādhyā hi yajñādi-kriyā bhavati | devatoddeśena hi dravya-tyāgo yāgaḥ | sa eva tyajyamāna-dravyasyāgnau prakṣepād dhoma ity ucyate | tatroddeśyā devatā sampradānaṃ, tyajyamānaṃ dravyaṃ haviḥ-śabda-vācyaṃ sākṣād-dhātv-artha-karma, tat phalaṃ tu svargādi vyavahitaṃ bhāvanā-karma | evaṃ dhārakatvena haviṣo ‚gnau prakṣepe sādhakatamatayā juhvādi karaṇaṃ prakāśakatayā mantrādīti karaṇam api kāraka-jñāpaka-bhedena dvividham | evaṃ tyāgo ‚gnau prakṣepaś ca dve kriye | tatrādyāyāṃ yajamānaḥ kartā | prakṣepe tu yajamāna-parikrīto ‚dhvaryuḥ prakṣepādhikaraṇaṃ cāgniḥ | evaṃ deśa-kālādikam apy adhikaraṇaṃ sarva-kriyā-sādhāraṇaṃ draṣṭavyam |

tad evaṃ sarveṣāṃ kriyā-kārakādi-vyavahārāṇāṃ brahma-jñāna-kalpitānāṃ rajjv-ajñāna-kalpitānāṃ sarpa-dhārā-daṇḍādīnāṃ rajju-tattva-jñāneneva brahma-tattva-jñānena bādhe badhitānuvṛttyā kriyākārakādi-vyavhārābhāso dṛśyamāno ‚pi dagdha-paṭa-nyāyena na phalāya kalpata ity anena ślokena pratipādyate | brahma-dṛṣṭir eva ca sarva-yajñātmiketi stūyate |

tathā hi – arpyate ‚neneti karaṇa-vyutpattyārpaṇaṃ juhvādi mantrādi ca | evam arpyate ‚smā iti vyutpattyārpaṇaṃ devatā-rūpaṃ sampradānam | evam arpyate ‚sminn iti vyutpattyārpaṇam adhikaraṇaṃ deśa-kālādi | tat sarvaṃ brahmaṇi kalpitatvād brahmaiva rajju-kalpita-bhujaṅgavad adhiṣṭhāna-vyatirekeṇāsad ity arthaḥ | evaṃ havis-tyāga-prakṣepa-kriyayoḥ sākṣāt karma kārakaṃ tad api brahmaiva | evaṃ yatra prakṣipyate ‚gnau so ‚pi brahmaiva | brahmāgnāv iti samastaṃ padam | tathā yena kartrā yajamānenādhvaryuṇā ca tyajyate prakṣipyate ca tad ubhayam api kartṛ-kārakaṃ kartari vihitayā tṛtīyayānūdya brahmeti nidhīyae brahmaṇeti | evaṃ hutam iti havanaṃ tyāga-kriyā prakṣepa-kriyā ca tad api brahmaiva | tathā yena havanena yad gantavyaṃ svargādi vyavahitaṃ karma tad api brahmaiva | atratya eva-kāraḥ sarvatra sambadhyate | hutam ity atrāpīta eva brahmety anuṣajyate | vyavadhānābhāvāt sākāṅkṣatvāc ca cit-patis tvā punātu ity ādāv acchidreṇetyādi-para-vākya-śeṣavat |

anena rūpeṇa karmaṇi samādhir brahma-jñānaṃ yasya sa karma-samādhis tena brahma-vidā karmānuṣṭhātrāpi brahma paramānandādvayaṃ gantavyam ity anuṣajyate | sākāṅkṣatvād avyavadhānāc ca yā te agne rajāśayety ādau tanūr varṣiṣṭheyādi-pūrva-vākya-śeṣavat |

athavārpyate ‚smai phalāyeti vyutpattyārpaṇa-padenaiva svargādi-phalam api grāhyam | tathā ca brahmaiva tena gantavyaṃ brahma-karma-samādhinā ity uttarārdhaṃ jñāna-phala-kathanāyaiveti samañjasam | asmin pakṣe brahma-karma-samādhinety ekaṃ vā padam | pūrvaṃ brahma-padaṃ hutam ity anena sambadhyate caramaṃ gantavya-padeneti bhinnaṃ vā padam | evaṃ ca nānuṣaṅga-dvaya-kleśa iti draṣṭavyam | brahma gantavyam ity abhedenaiva tat-prāptir upacārāt | ataeva na svargādi tuccha-phalaṃ tena gantavyaṃ vidyayāvidyaka-kāraka-vyavahārocchedāt | tad uktaṃ vārtika-kṛdbhiḥ –

kāraka-vyavahāre hi śuddhaṃ vastu na vīkṣyate |
śuddhe vastuni siddhe ca kāraka-vyāvṛttiḥ kutaḥ || iti |

arpaṇādi-kāraka-svarupānupamardenaiva tatra nāmādāv iva brahma-dṛṣṭiḥ kṣipyate sampan-mātreṇa phala-viśeṣāyeti keṣāṃcid vyākhyānaṃ bhāṣyakṛdbhir eva nirākṛtam upakramādi-virodhād brahma-vidyā-karaṇe sampan-mātrasyāprasaktatvād ity ādi yuktibhiḥ

 

Viśvanātha


yajñāyācarata ity uktam | sa yajña eva kīdṛśaḥ ? ity apekṣāyām āha brahmeti | arpyate ‚nenety arpaṇaṃ juhv-ādi | tad api brahmaiva | arpyamāṇaṃ havir api brahmaiva | brahmaivāgnāv iti havanādhikaraṇam agnir api brahmaiva | evaṃ vivekatavatā puṃsā brahmaiva gantavyaṃ, na tu phalāntaram | kutaḥ ? brahmātmakaṃ yat karma tatraiva samādhiś cittaikāgryaṃ yasya tena

 

Baladeva


evaṃ vivikta-jīvātmānusandhi-garbhatayā sva-vihitasya karmaṇo jñānākāratām abhidhāya sāṅgasya tasya parātma-rūpatānusandhinā tad-ākāratām āha brahmārpaṇam iti | arpyate ‚nenātmaiveti vyutpatter arpaṇaṃ sruvaṃ mantrādhidaivataṃ cendrādi tat tac ca brahmaiva | arpyamāṇaṃ haviś cājyādi tad api brahmaiva | tac ca havir homādhāre ‚gnau brahmaṇi yajamānenādhvaryuṇā ca brahmaṇā hutaṃ tyaktaṃ prakṣiptaṃ ca | agnir yajamāno ‚dhvaryuś ca brahmaivety arthaḥ | brahmāgnāv ity atra ṇi-kāra-lopaś chāndasaḥ | na ca samastaṃ padam iti vācyam | agnau brahma-dṛṣṭer vidheyatvād itthaṃ ca brahma-rūpe sāṅge karmaṇi samādhiś cittaikāgryaṃ yasya tena mumukṣuṇā brahmaiva gantavyaṃ sva-svarūpaṃ para-svarūpaṃ ca labhyam avalokyam ity arthaḥ | vijñānaṃ brahma ced veda ity ādau jīve brahma-śabdaḥ | vijñānam ānandaṃ brahma ity ādau paramātmani ca brahmārpaṇatvādi-guṇa-yogān nāsya prakaraṇasya paunaruktam | sruv-ādīnāṃ brahmatvaṃ tad-āyatta-vṛttikatvāt tad-vāpyatvāc ca iti vyākhyātāraḥ | tādṛśatayānusandhitaṃ karma-jñānākāraṃ sat tad avalokanāya kalpyate

 
 

BhG 4.25

daivam evāpare yajñaṃ yoginaḥ paryupāsate
brahmāgnāv apare yajñaṃ yajñenaivopajuhvati

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apare (others) yoginaḥ (yogīs) daivam eva (only related to divinities) yajñam (sacrifice) paryupāsate (they attend),
apare (others) brahmāgnau (in the fire of brahman) yajñena eva (only by the sacrifice) yajñam (sacrifice) upajuhvati (they offer in sacrifice).

 

grammar

daivam daiva 2n.1 m.divine, related to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;
yajñam yajña 2n.1 m. sacrifice, worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
yoginaḥ yogin 1n.3 m.yogīs (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
paryupāsate pari-upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;
brahmāgnāu brahma-agni 7n.1 m.; [TP]:: brahmaṇaḥ agnāv itiin the fire of brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; ag – to move tortuously, agni – fire);
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;
yajñam yajña 2n.1 m. sacrifice, worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
yajñena yajña 3n.1 m. by the sacrifice, by worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
upajuhvati upa-hu (to offer into fire) Praes. P 1v.3they offer in sacrifice;

 

textual variants


yajñaṁ → jñeyaṁ / yajñaḥ (to be known / sacrifice) – in the first pada;
paryupāsate → samupāsate (they worship);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tatrādhunā samyag-darśanasya yajñatvaṃ sampādya tat-stuty-artham anye’pi yajñā upakṣipyante—

daivam eva devā ijyante yena yajñenāsau daivo yajñas tam evāpare yajñaṃ yoginaḥ karmiṇaḥ paryupāsate, kurvantīty arthaḥ | brahmāgnau satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahma [sthitaittuttaṃ 2.1] vijñānam ānandaṃ brahma [bhāvātmauttaṃ 3.9.28], yat sākṣād aparokṣād brahma ya ātmā sarvāntaraḥ [bhāvātmauttaṃ 3.4.1], ity ādi vacanoktam aśanāyāpipāsādi-sarva-saṃsāra-dharma-varjitaṃ neti neti [bhāvātmauttaṃ 4.4.22] iti nirastāśeṣa-viśeṣaṃ brahma-śabdenocyate | brahma ca tad-agniś ca sa homādhikaraṇatva-vivakṣayā brahmāgnis tasmin brahmāgnāv apare’nye brahma-vido yajñaṃ yajña-śabda-vācya ātmā ātma-nāmasu yajña-śabdasya pāṭhāt [ānāṃirukti 14.11] tam ātmānaṃ yajñaṃ paramārthataḥ param eva brahma santaṃ buddhyādy-upādhi-saṃyuktam adhyasta-sarvopādhi-dharmakam āhuti-rūpaṃ yajṇinaivātmanaivokta-lakṣaṇopajuhvati prakṣipanti, sopādhikasyātmano nirupādhikena para-brahma-svarūpeṇaiva yad darśanaṃ, sa tasmin homas taṃ kurvanti, brahmātmaikatva-darśana-niṣṭhāḥ sannyāsina ity arthaḥ | so’yaṃ samyag-darśana-lakṣaṇo yajño daiva-yajñādiṣu yajñeṣūpakṣipyante brahmārpaṇam ity ād-ślokaiḥ prastutaḥ śreyān dravya-mayād yajñāj jñāna-yajñaḥ parantapa [gītā 4.33] ity ādinā stuty-artham

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ karmaṇo jñānākāratāṃ pratipādya karmayogabhedān āha

daivaṃ devārcanarūpaṃ yajñam apare karmayoginaḥ paryupāsate sevante / tatraiva niṣṭhāṃ kurvantītyarthaḥ / apare brahmāgnau yajñaṃ yajñenaivopajuhvati; atra yajñaśabdo havis srugādiyajñasādhane vartate; „brahmārpaṇaṃ brahma haviḥ” iti nyāyena yāgahomayor niṣṭhāṃ kurvanti

 

Śrīdhara


etad eva yajñatvena sampāditaṃ sarvatra brahma-darśana-lakṣaṇaṃ jñānaṃ sarva-yajñopāya-prāpyatvāt sarva-yajñebhyaḥ śreṣṭham ity evaṃ stotum adhikāri-bhedena jñānopāya-bhūtān bahūn yajñān āha daivam ity ādibhir aṣṭabhiḥ | devā indra-varuṇādaya ijyante yasmin | eva-kāreṇendrādiṣu brahma-buddhi-rāhityaṃ darśitam | taṃ daivam eva yajñam apare karma-yoginaḥ paryupāsate śraddhayānutiṣṭhanti | apare tu jñāna-yogino brahma-rūpe ‚gnau apare yajñenaivopāyena brahmārpaṇam ity ādy ukta-prakāreṇa yajñam upajuhvati | yajñādi-sarva-karmāṇi pravilāpayantīty arthaḥ | so ‚yaṃ jñāna-yajñaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


adhunā samyag-darśanasya yajña-rūpatvena stāvakatayā brahmārpaṇa-mantre sthite punar api tasya stuty-artham itarāny ajñān upanyasyati daivam iti | devā indrāgny-ādaya ijyante yena sa daivas tam eva yajñaṃ darśa-pūrṇamāsa-jyotiṣṭomādi-rūpam apare yoginaḥ paryupāsate sarvadā kurvanti na jñāna-yajñam | evaṃ karma-yajñam uktvāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-dvāreṇa tat-phala-bhūtaṃ jñāna-yajñam āha brahmāgnau satya-jñānānantānanda-rūpaṃ nirasta-samasta-viśeṣaṃ brahma tat-padārthas tasminn agnau yajñaṃ pratyag ātmānaṃ tva-padārthaṃ yajñenaiva | yajña-śabda ātma-nāmasu yāskena paṭhitaḥ | itthambhūta-lakṣaṇe tṛtīyā | eva-kāro bhedābheda-vyāvṛtty-arthaḥ | tvaṃ-padārthābhedenaivopajuhvati tat-svarūpatayā paśyantīty arthaḥ | apare pūrva-vilakṣaṇās tattva-darśana-niṣṭhāḥ saṃnyāsina ity arthaḥ |

jīva-brahmābheda-darśanaṃ yajñatvena sampādya tat-sādhana-yajña-madhye paṭhyate śreyān dravya-mayād yajñāj jñāna-yajñaa ity ādinā stotum

 

Viśvanātha


yajñāḥ khalu bhedenānye ‚pi bahavo vartante | tāṃs tvaṃ śṛṇv ity āha daivam evety aṣṭabhiḥ | devā indra-varuṇādaya ijyante yasmin taṃ daivam iti | indrādiṣu brahma-buddhi-rāhityaṃ darśitam | sāsya devatety aṇ | yoginaḥ karma-yoginaḥ | apare jñāna-yoginas tu brahma paramātmaivāgnis tasmiṃs tat-padārthe yajñaṃ haviḥ-sthānīyaṃ tvaṃ-padārthaṃ jīvaṃ yajñena praṇava-rūpeṇa mantreṇaiva juhvati | ayam eva jñāna-yajño ‚gre stoṣyate | atra yajñaṃ yajñena iti śabdau karma-karaṇa-sādhanau prathamātiśayoktyā śuddha-jīva-praṇavāvāhatuḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ brahmānusandhi-garbhatayā ca karmaṇo jñānākāratāṃ nirūpya karma-yoga-bhedān āha daivam iti | daivam indrādi-devārcana-rūpaṃ yajñam apare yoginaḥ paryupāsate tatraiva niṣṭhāṃ kurvanti | apare brahmārpaṇaṃ ity ādi-nyāyena brahma-bhūtāgnāv yajñena sruvādinā yajñaṃ ghṛtādi-havī-rūpaṃ juhvati homa eva niṣṭhāṃ kurvatīty arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.26

śrotrādīnīndriyāṇy anye saṃyamāgniṣu juhvati
śabdādīn viṣayān anya indriyāgniṣu juhvati

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anye (others) saṁyamāgniṣu (in the fires of restraint) śrotrādīni (beginning with an ear) indriyāṇi (the senses) juhvati (they offer in sacrifice).
anye (others) indriyāgniṣu (in the fires of the senses) śabdādīn (beginning with sound) viṣayān (objects) juhvati (they offer in sacrifice).

 

grammar

śrotrādīni śrotra-ādi 2n.3 n.beginning with an ear (from: śru – to hear, to listen, śrotra – listening, ear; ādi – suffix: beginning with, etc.);
indriyāṇi indriya 2n.3 n.the senses (from: ind – to be powerful);
anye anya sn. 1n.3 m.others;
saṁyamāgniṣu saṁyama-agni 7n.3 m.; [TP]: saṁyamasyāgniṣv itiin the fires of restraint (from: sam-yam – to hold together, to restrain, saṁyama – restraint, control; agni – fire);
juhvati hu (to offer into fire) Praes. P 1v.3they offer in sacrifice;
śabdādīn śabda-ādi 2n.3 m.beginning with sound (from: śabda – sound; ādi – suffix: beginning with, etc.);
viṣayān viṣaya 2n.3 m. spheres, territories, scopes, sense objects, subjects (from: viṣ – to be active, to perform);
anye anya sn. 1n.3 m.others;
indriyāgniṣu indriya-agni 7n.3 m.; [TP]: indriyāṇām agniṣv itiin the fires of the senses (from: ind – to be powerful; indriya – the senses; agni – fire);
juhvati hu (to offer into fire) Praes. P 1v.3they offer in sacrifice;

 
 

Śāṃkara


śrotrādīnīndriyāṇy anye yoginaḥ saṃyamāgniṣu pratīndriyaṃ saṃyamo bhidyata iti bahu-vacanam | saṃyamā evāgnayas teṣu juhvati | indriya-saṃyamam eva kurvantīty arthaḥ | śabdādīn viṣayān anya indriyāgniṣu juhvati, indriyāṇy evāgnayas teṣv indriyāgniṣu juhvati śrotrādibhir aviruddha-viṣaya-grahaṇaṃ homaṃ manyante

 

Rāmānuja


anye śrotrādīnām indriyāṇāṃ saṃyamane prayatante / anye yoginaḥ indriyāṇāṃ śabdādipravaṇatānivāraṇe prayatante

 

Śrīdhara


śrotrādīnīti | anye naiṣṭhikī brahmacāriṇas tat-tad-indriya-saṃyama-rūpeṣv agniṣu śrotrādīni juhvati pravilāpayanti | indriyāṇi nirudhya saṃyama-pradhānās tiṣṭhantīty arthaḥ | indriyāṇy evāgnayaḥ | teṣu śabdādīn anye gṛhasthā juhvati | viṣaya-bhoga-samaye ‚py anāsaktāḥ santo ‚gnitvena bhāviteṣv indriyeṣu haviṣṭvena bhāvitān śabdādīn prakṣipantīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


śrotrādīnīndriyāṇy anye saṃyamāgniṣu juhvati śabdādīn viṣayān anya indriyāgniṣu juhvati

 

Viśvanātha


anye naiṣṭhikāḥ śrotrādīnīndriyāṇi | saṃyamaḥ saṃyataṃ mana evāgnayas teṣu juhvati | śuddhe manasīndriyāṇi pravlāpayantīty arthaḥ | anye tato nyūnā brahmacāriṇaḥ śabdādīn viṣayāni indriyāgniṣv indriyāṇy evāgnayas teṣu juhvati śabdādīnīndriyeṣu pravilāpayantīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


śrotrādīnīty anye naiṣṭhika-brahmacāriṇaḥ saṃyamāgniṣu tat-tad-ndriya-saṃyama-rūpeṣv agniṣu śrotrādīni juhvati tāni nirudhya saṃyama-pradhānās tiṣṭhanti | anye gṛhiṇa indriyāgniṣv agnitvena bhāviteṣu śrotrādiṣu śabdādīn upajuhvati anāsaktyā tān bhuñjānās tāni tat-pravaṇāni kurvanti

 
 

BhG 4.27

sarvāṇīndriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-karmāṇi cāpare
ātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau juhvati jñāna-dīpite

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apare (others) jñāna-dīpite (in the inflamed by knowledge) ātma-saṁyama-yogāgnau (in the fire of yoga of self-restraint) sarvāṇi (all) indriya-karmāṇi (activities of the senses) prāṇa-karmāṇi ca (and activitis of the life airs) juhvati (they offer in sacrifice).

 

grammar

sarvāṇi sarva sn. 2n.3 n.all;
indriya-karmāṇi indriya-karman 2n.3 n.; [TP]: indriyānāṁ śrotrādīnāṁ śravaṇādīni karmāṇīti activities (beginning with hearing) of the senses (beginning with an ear) (from: ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
prāṇa-karmāṇi prāṇa-karman 2n.3 n.; [TP]: prāṇādīnāṁ daśānāṁ vāyūnāṁ bahir-gamanādīni karmāṇīti activities (beginning with going out) of the airs (ten in number beginning with prāṇa) (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – air, life; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
ca av.and;
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;
ātma-saṁyama-yogāgnau ātma-saṁyama-yoga-agni 7n.1 m.; [TP]: ātmanaḥ saṁyama-rūpe yoge ‘gnāv itiin the fire of yoga of self-restraint (from: ātman – self; sam-yam – to hold together, to restrain, saṁyama – restraint, control; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy agni – fire);
juhvati hu (to offer into fire) Praes. P 1v.3they offer in sacrifice;
jñāna-dīpite jñāna-dīpita 7n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānena dīpita itiin the inflamed by knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; dīp – to blaze, to shine, [PP] caus. dīpita – inflamed);

 

textual variants

jñāna-dīpite → jñāna-dīpike (in the lamp of knowledge);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

sarvāṇīndriya-karmāṇi indriyāṇāṃ karmāṇīndriya-karmāṇi | tathā prāṇa-karmāṇi prāṇo vāyur ādhyātmikas tat-karmāṇy ākuñcana-prasāraṇādīni tāni cāpara ātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau, ātmani saṃyama ātma-saṃyamaḥ | sa eva yogāgnis tasminn ātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau juhvati prakṣipanti | jñāna-dīpite sneheneva pradīpite viveka-vijñānenojjvala-bhāvam āpādite pravilāpayantīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


anye jñānadīpite manassaṃyanayogāgnau sarvāṇīndriyakarmāṇi prāṇakarmāṇi ca juhvati / manasa indriyaprāṇakarmaprvaṇatānivāraṇe prayatanta ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca sarvāṇīti | apare dhyāna-niṣṭhāḥ | buddhīndriyāṇāṃ śrotrādīnāṃ karmāṇi śravaṇa-darśanādīni | karmendriyāṇāṃ vāk-pāṇy-ādīnāṃ karmāṇi vacanopādānādīni | prāṇānāṃ ca daśānāṃ karmāṇi | prāṇasya bahir gamanam | apānasyādho-nayanam | vyānasya vyānayanam ākuñcana-prasāraṇādi | samānasyāśitapītādīnāṃ samunnayanam | udānasyordhva-nayanam –

udgāre nāga ākhyātaḥ kūrmas tūnmīlane smṛtaḥ |
kṛkaraḥ kṣut-karo jñeyo devadatto vijṛmbhaṇe |
na jahāti mṛte kvāpi sarvavyāpī dhanaṃjayaḥ || [Gheraṇḍa-saṃhitā 5.64|

ity evaṃ rūpāṇi juhvati | ātmani saṃyamo dhyānaikāgryam | sa eva yogaḥ | sa evāgniḥ | tasmin jñānena dhyeya-viṣayeṇa dīpite prajvalite dhyeyaṃ samyag jñātvā tasmin manaḥ saṃyamya tāni sarvāṇi karmāṇy uparamayantīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tad ananyatvam ārambhaṇa-śabdādibhyaḥ [Vs. 2.1.14] apare śuddha-tvaṃ-padārtha-vijñāḥ | sarvāṇīndriyāṇi tat-karmāṇi śravaṇa-darśanāni sarvāṇīndriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-karmāṇi cāpare ātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau juhvati jñāna-dīpite

 

Viśvanātha


apare śuddha-tvaṃ-padārtha-vijñāḥ | sarvāṇīndriyāṇi tat-karmāṇi śravaṇa-darśanādīni ca | prāṇa-karmāṇi daśa-prāṇās tat-karmāṇi ca | prāṇasya bahir gamanam | apānasyādho-nayanam | samānasya bhukta-pītādīnāṃ samīkaraṇam | udānasyoccair nayanam | vyānasya viṣvak-nayanam |

udgāre nāga ākhyātaḥ kūrmas tūnmīlane smṛtaḥ |
kṛkaraḥ kṣut-karo jñeyo devadatto vijṛmbhaṇe |
na jahāti mṛte kvāpi sarvavyāpī dhanaṃjayaḥ || [Gheraṇḍa-saṃhitā 5.64|

ity evaṃ daśa-prāṇās tat-karmāṇi | ātmanas tvaṃ-padārthasya saṃyamaḥ śuddhir evāgnis tasmin juhvati | mano-buddhy-ādīndriyāṇi daśa-prāṇāṃś ca pravilāpayanti | ekaḥ pratyag ātmaivāsti, nānye mana ādāya iti bhāvayantīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


sarvāṇīti | apare indriya-karmāṇi prāṇa-karmāṇi cātma-saṃyama-yogāgnau ca juhvati | ātmano manasaḥ saṃyamaḥ sa eva yogas tasminn agnitvena bhāvite juhvati | manasā indriyāṇāṃ prāṇānāṃ ca karma-pravaṇatāṃ nivārayituṃ prayatante | indriyāṇāṃ śrotrādīnāṃ karmāṇi śabda-grahaṇādīni prāṇa-karmāṇi prāṇasya bahir-gamanaṃ karma, apānasyādhogamanaṃ, vyānasya nikhila-deha-vyāpanam ākuñcana-prasāraṇādi, samānasyāśita-pītādi-samīkaraṇam, udānasyordhva-nayanaṃ cety evaṃ bodhyāni sarvāṇi sāmastyena jñāna-dīpite ātmānusandhānojjvalite

 
 

BhG 4.28

dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā yoga-yajñās tathāpare
svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāś ca yatayaḥ saṃśita-vratāḥ

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syntax


[ke-cit] (some persons) dravya-yajñāḥ (whose sacrifice is giving away goods) [bhavanti] (they are),
[ke-cit] (some persons) tapo-yajñāḥ (whose sacrifice is austerity) [bhavanti] (they are),
[ke-cit] (some persons) yoga-yajñāḥ (whose sacrifice is yoga) [bhavanti] (they are),
tathā ca (and so) apare (others) svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāḥ (whose sacrifice is knowledge gained through recitation) [bhavanti] (they are).
[ete] (these) yatayaḥ (endeavouring) saṁśita-vratāḥ (whose vows are firm) [bhavanti] (they are).

 

grammar

dravya-yajñāḥ dravya-yajña 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ dravyānāṁ dānam yajño ‘sti tethose whose sacrifice is giving away goods (from: dravya – substance, thing, object, goods; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
tapo-yajñāḥ tapo-yajña 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ tapo yajño ‘sti tethose whose sacrifice is austerity (from: tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
yoga-yajñāḥ yoga-yajña 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ yogo yajño ‘sti tethose whose sacrifice is yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;
svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāḥ svādhyāya-jñāna-yajña 1n.3 m.; BV: svādhyāyena jñānaṁ yajño ‘sti tethose whose sacrifice is knowledge gained through recitation (from: ādhī – to contemplate, to think over, svādhyāya – recitation, repeating the Veda, studying, reading; jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
ca av.and;
yatayaḥ yati 1n.3 m.endeavouring, ascetics (from: yat – to place in order, to endeavour);
saṁśita-vratāḥ saṁśita-vrata 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ saṁśitāni vratāni santi tethose whose vows are firm (from: sam-śi – to sharpen, saṁśita – sharp, firm; vṛ – to choose, to like or vṛ – to cover, to restrain, vrata – austerity, a vow);

 

textual variants


yoga-yajñās jñāna-yajñās (those whose sacrifice is knowledge);
yatayaḥ → munayaḥ (sages);

 
 

Śāṃkara


dravya-yajñās tīrtheṣu dravya-viniyogaṃ yajña-buddhyā kurvanti ye te dravya-yajñāḥ | tapo-yajñās tapo yajño yeṣāṃ tapasvināṃ te tapo-yajñāḥ | yoga-yajñāḥ prāṇāyāma-pratyāhārādi-lakṣaṇo yogo yajño yeṣāṃ te yoga-yajñāḥ | tathāpare svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāś ca svādhyāyo yathā-vidhi ṛg-ādy-abhyāso yajño yeṣāṃ te svādhyāya-yajñāḥ | jñāna-yajñā jñānaṃ śāstrārtha-parijñānaṃ yajño yeṣāṃ te jñāna-yajñāḥ | svādhyāya-yajñā jñāna-yajñāś ca yatayo yatana-śīlāḥ | śaṃsita-vratāḥ samyak śitāni tanūkṛtāni tīkṣṇīkṛtāni vratāni yeṣāṃ te saṃśita-vratāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


kecit karmayogino dravyayajñāḥ nyāyato dravyāṇy upādāya devatārcane prayatante, kecic ca dāneṣu, kecic ca yāgeṣu, kecic ca homeṣu / ete sarve dravyayajñāḥ / kecit tapoyajñāḥ kṛcchracāndrāyaṇopavāsādiṣu niṣṭhāṃ kurvanti / yogayajñāś cāpare puṇyatīrthapuṇyasthānaprāptiṣu niṣṭhāṃ kurvanti / iha yogaśabdaḥ karmaniṣṭhābhedaprakaraṇāt tadviṣayaḥ / kecit svādhyāyābhyāsaparāḥ / kecit tadarthajñānābhyāsaparāḥ / yatayaḥ yatanaśīlāḥ, saṃśitavratāḥ dṛḍhasaṅkalpāḥ

 

Śrīdhara


dravya-yajñā ity ādi | dravya-dānam eva yajño yeṣāṃ te dravya-yajñāḥ | kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi tapa eva yajño yeṣāṃ te eva yajño yeṣāṃ te tapo-yajñāḥ | yogo ‚ṣṭāṅga eva yajño yeṣāṃ te yoga-yajñāḥ | svādhyāyena vedena śravaṇa-mananādinā yat tad artha-jñānaṃ tad eva yajño yeṣāṃ te svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāḥ | yad vā veda-pāṭha-yajñās tad-artha-jñāna-yajñāś ceti dvividhāḥ | yatayaḥ prayatna-śīlāḥ | samyak śitaṃ tīkṣṇīkṛtaṃ vrataṃ yeṣāṃ te

 

Madhusūdana


dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā yoga-yajñās tathāpare svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāś ca yatayaḥ saṃśita-vratāḥ

 

Viśvanātha


dravya-dānam eva yajño yeṣāṃ te dravya-yajñāḥ | tapaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādy eva yajño yeṣāṃ te tapo-yajñāḥ | yogo ‚ṣṭāṅga eva yajño yeṣāṃ te yoga-yajñāḥ | svādhyāyo vedasya pāṭhas tad-arthasya jñānaṃ ca yajño yeṣāṃ te | yatayo yatna-parāḥ | sarva ete samyak śitaṃ tīkṣṇīkṛtaṃ vrataṃ yeṣāṃ te

 

Baladeva


dravyeti | kecit karma-yogino dravya-yajñā annādi-dāna-parāḥ | kecit tapo-yajñāḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-vrata-parāḥ | kecit svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñā vedābhyāsa-parās tad-arthābhyāsa-parāś ca | yatayas tatra prayatna-śīlāḥ | saṃśita-vratās tīkṣṇa-tat-tad-ācaraṇāḥ

 
 

BhG 4.29

apāne juhvati prāṇaṃ prāṇe pānaṃ tathāpare
prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ

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syntax


tathā (in that manner) apare (others) prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ (fully dedicated to stopping the breaths) prāṇāpāna-gatī (the paths of air going up and down) ruddhvā (after checking),
apāne (in the inhaled breath) prāṇam (exhaled breath) juhvati (they offer in sacrifice),
prāṇe ca (and in the exhaled breath) apānam (inhaled breath) [juhvati] (they offer in sacrifice).

 

grammar

apāne apāna 7n.1 m.in the air going down (from: ap-an – to breath downwards);
juhvati hu (to offer into fire) Praes. P 1v.3they offer in sacrifice;
prāṇam prāṇa 2n.1 m.breath, life, the air going up (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live);
prāṇe prāṇa 7n.1 m.in breath, in the air going up (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live);
apānam apāna 2n.1 m.the air going down (from: ap-an – to breath downwards);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;
prāṇāpāna-gatī prāṇa-apāna-gati 2n.2 f.; [TP]: prāṇasyāpānasya ca gatītithe paths of air going up and down (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – breath, the air going upwards; ap-an – to breath downwards, apāna – the air going downwards; gam – to go, gati – moving, passage, means, refuge, goal);
ruddhvā rudh (to obstruct, to stop) absol.after stopping;
prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ prāṇa-āyāma-parāyaṇa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ prāṇānām āyāmaḥ parāyaṇam asti tethose for whom stopping of breaths is the highest goal (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – breath, air; ā-yam – to strech, to hold in, āyāma – streching stopping; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; ayana – a path; parāyaṇa – supreme path, the final goal; in compounds: fully dedicated to);

 

textual variants


juhvati → nirjahati / juhvatī (he rises / two persons who offer);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

apāne’pāna-vṛttau juhvati pratikṣipanti prāṇaṃ prāṇa-vṛttiṃ, pūrakākhyaṃ prāṇāyāmaṃ kurvantīty arthaḥ | prāṇe’pānaṃ tathāpare juhvati | recakākhyaṃ ca prāṇāyāmaṃ kurvantīty etat | prāṇāpāna-gatī mukhya-nāsikābhyāṃ vāyor nirgamanaṃ prāṇasya gatis tad-viparyayeṇādho-gamanam apānasya gatis, te prāṇāpāna-gatī | ete ruddhvā nirudhya prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ prāṇāyāma-tat-parāḥ kumbhakākhyaṃ prāṇāyāmaṃ kurvantīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


apare karmayoginaḥ prāṇāyāmeṣu niṣṭhāṃ kurvanti / te ca trividhāḥ pūrakarecakakumbhakabhedena; apāne juhvati prāṇam iti pūrakaḥ, prāṇe ‚pānam iti recakaḥ, prāṇāpānagatī ruddhvā ….. prāṇān prāṇeṣu juhvati iti kumbhakaḥ / prāṇāyāmapareṣu triṣv apy anuṣajyate niyatāhārā iti

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca apāne iti | apāne ‚dho-vṛttau prāṇam ūrdhva-vṛttiṃ pūrakeṇa juhvati | pūraka-kāle prāṇam apānenaikīkurvanti | tathā kumbhakena prāṇāpānayor ūrdhvādho-gatī ruddhvā recaka-kāle ‚pānaṃ prāṇe juhvati | evaṃ pūraka-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇā apara ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca apara iti | apare tv āhāra-saṅkocam abhyasyantaḥ svayam eva jīryamāṇeṣv indriyeṣu tat-tad-indriya-vṛtti-layaṃ bhāvayantīty arthaḥ |

yad vā – apāne juhvati prāṇaṃ prāṇe ‚pānaṃ tathāpara ity anena pūraka-recakayor āvartamānayor haṃsaḥ so ‚ham ity anulomataḥ pratilomataś ca abhivyajyamānenājapā-mantreṇa tat-ttvaṃ-padārthaikyaṃ vyatīhāreṇa bhāvayantīty arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ yoga-śāstre –
sa-kāreṇa bahir yāti haṃ-kāreṇa viśet punaḥ |
prāṇas tatra sa evāhaṃ haṃsa ity anucintayet || iti |

prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvety anena tu ślokena prāṇāyāma-yajñā aparaiḥ kathyante | tatrāyam arthaḥ – dvau bhāgau pūrayed annair jalenaikaṃ prapūrayet | pracārārthaṃ caturtham avaśeṣayed iti | evam ādi-vacanokto niyata āhāro yeṣāṃ te | kumbhakena prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ santaḥ prāṇān indriyāṇi prāṇeṣu juhvati | kumbhake hi sarve prāṇā ekībhavantīti tatraiva layamāneṣv indriyeṣu homaṃ bhāvayantīty arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ yoga-śāstre –

yathā yathā sadābhyāsān manasaḥ sthiratā bhavet |
vāyu-vāk-kāya-dṛṣṭīnāṃ sthiratā ca tathā tathā || iti

 

Madhusūdana


apāne juhvati prāṇaṃ prāṇe ‚pānaṃ tathāpare prāṇāpāna-gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇāḥ

 

Viśvanātha


apare prāṇāyāma-niṣṭhāḥ apāne ‚dho-vṛttau prāṇam ūrdhva-vṛttaṃ juhvati pūraka-kāle prāṇam apānenaikīkurvanti | tathā recaka-kāle ‚pānaṃ prāṇe juhvati | kumbhaka-kāle prāṇāpānayor gatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāma-parāyaṇā bhavanti | apare indriya-jaya-kāmāḥ | niyatāhārā alpāhārāḥ prāṇeṣv āhāra-saṅkocanenaiva jīvyamāneṣu prāṇān indriyāṇi juhvati | indriyāṇāṃ prāṇādhīna-vṛttitvāt prāṇa-daurbalye sati svayam eva sva-sva-viṣaya-grahaṇāsamarthānīndriyāṇi prāṇeṣv evālpīyanta ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


kiṃ cāpāne iti | tathāpare prāṇāyāma- parāyaṇās te tridhā adho-vṛttāv apāne prāṇam ūrdhva-vṛttiṃ juhvati | pūrakeṇa prāṇam apānena sahaikīkurvanti | tathā prāṇe ‚pānaṃ juhvati recakenāpānaṃ prāṇena sahaikīkṛtya bahir nirgamayanti | yathā prāṇāpānayor gatī śvāsa-praśvāsau kumbhakena ruddhvā vartanta iti | āntarasya vāyor nāsāsyena bahir nirgamaḥ śvāsaḥ prāṇasya gatiḥ | vinirgatasya tasyāntaḥ-praveśaḥ praśvāso ‚pānasya gatiḥ | tayor nirodhaḥ kumbhakaḥ sa dvividhaḥ vāyum āpūrya śvāsa-praśvāsayor nirodho ‚ntaḥ-kumbhakaḥ | vāyuṃ virecya tayor nirodho bhaiḥ kumbhakaḥ | apare nityatāhārāḥ bhojana-saṅkocaam abhyasyantaḥ prāṇān indriyāṇi prāṇeṣu juhvati | teṣv alpāhāreṇa jīryamāṇeṣu tad-āyatta-vṛttikāni tāni viṣaya-grahaṇākṣamāṇi taptāyoniṣiktoda-binduvat teṣv eva vilīyante

 
 

BhG 4.30-31

apare niyatāhārāḥ prāṇān prāṇeṣu juhvati
sarve py ete yajña-vido yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ
yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujo yānti brahma sanātanam
nāyaṃ loko sty ayajñasya kuto nyaḥ kuru-sattama

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syntax


apare (others) niyatāhārāḥ (those who restrain from eating) prāṇeṣu (in the airs) prāṇān (airs) juhvati (they offer in sacrifice).
ete sarve api (indeed these all) yajña-vidaḥ (knowers of the sacrifice) yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ (whose sins got destroyed by  sacrifice) yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujaḥ (those eating the nectar of remnants of sacrifices) sanātanaṁ brahma (to primeval spirit) yānti (they go).
he kuru-sattama (O the best among the Kurus!),
ayajñasya (of one who does not perform sacrifice) ayam lokaḥ (this world) na asti (it is not),
kutaḥ (how?) anyaḥ (other) [lokaḥ] (world).

 

grammar

apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;
niyatāhārāḥ niyata-āhāra 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām āhāro niyato ‘sti tethose who restrain from eating (from: ni-yam – to hold back, [PP] niyata – held back; ā-hṛ – to fetch, to carry near, āhāra – fetching, food, livelihood);
prāṇān prāṇa 2n.3 m.breaths, airs (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live);
prāṇeṣu prāṇa 7n.3 m.in breaths, in the airs (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live);
juhvati hu (to offer into fire) Praes. P 1v.3they offer in sacrifice;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ete etat sn. 1n.3 m.these;
yajña-vidaḥ yajña-vit 1n.3 m.; ye yajñān vetti tethose who know sacrifice (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ yajñaiḥ kṣapitāni kalmaṣāni santi tewhose sins got destroyed by  sacrifice (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship; kṣi – to destroy, caus. [PP] kṣapita – destroyed, diminished; karma+so – destroying good acts, kalmaṣa – dirt, stain, sin);

******

yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujaḥ yajña-śiṣṭa-amṛta-bhuk 1n.3 m.; ye yajñasya śiṣṭam amṛta-rūpaṁ bhuñjanti tethose eating the nectar of remnants of sacrifices (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu; śiṣ – to leave, [PP] śiṣṭa – left, remnants; mṛ – to die; mṛta [PP] – dead, a-mṛta – not dead, eternal, nectar of immortality; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhuk – suffix: one who eats);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
brahma brahman 2n.1 n.spirit (from: bṛh – to increase);
sanātanam sanātana 2n.1 n.eternal, primeval;
na   av.not;
āyam idam sn. 1n.1 m.that;
lokaḥ loka 1n.1 m.world;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it is;
ayajñasya a-yajña 6n.1 m.of one who does not perform sacrifice;
kutaḥ av.from where, how? (from: kim – what? indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
kuru-sattama kuru-sattama 8n.1 m.; [TP]: kurūṇāṁ sattama tiO the best among the Kurus (from: from: kuru – Kuru, Kurowie – descendants of Kuru; as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, superlative of: sat – sat-tara, sat-tama);

 

textual variants

yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ → yajña-kṣapita-kilbiṣāḥ (whose faults got destroyed by sacrifice);
kuto nyaḥ → kuto nyat  (how the other?);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

apare niyatāhārā niyataḥ parimita āhāro yeṣāṃ te niyatāhārāḥ santaḥ, prāṇān vāyu-bhedān prāṇeṣv eva juhvati | yasya yasya vāyor jayaḥ kriyata itarān vāyu-bhedān tasmin tasmin juhvati, te tatra praviṣṭā iva bhavanti | sarve’py ete yajña-vido yajña-kṣapitakalmaṣā yajñair yathoktaiḥ kṣapito nāśitaḥ kalmaṣo yeṣāṃ te yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ

evaṃ yathoktān yajñān nirvatrya —-

yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujo yajñānāṃ śiṣṭaṃ yajña-śiṣṭaṃ yajña-śiṣṭaṃ ca tad amṛtaṃ ca yajña-śiṣṭāmṛtaṃ tad bhuñjata iti yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujaḥ | yathoktān yajñān kṛtvā tac-chiṣṭena kālena yathā-vidhi-coditam annam amṛtākhyaṃ bhuñjate iti yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujo yānti gacchanti brahma sanātanaṃ cirantanaṃ mumukṣavaś cet | kālātikramāpekṣayeti sāmarthyād gamyate | nāyaṃ lokaḥ sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇo’py asti yathoktānāṃ yajñānām eko’pi yajño yasya nāsti so’yajñas tasya | kuto’nyo viśiṣṭa-sādhana-sādhyaḥ kuru-sattama

 

Rāmānuja


daivayajñaprabhṛtiprāṇāyāmaparyanteṣu karmayogabhedeṣu svasamīhiteṣu pravṛttā ete sarve „saha yajñaiḥ prajāḥ sṛṣṭvā” ityabhihitamahāyajñapūrvakanityanaimittikakarmarūpayajñavidaḥ tanniṣṭhāḥ tata eva kṣapitakalmaṣāḥ yajñaśiṣṭāmṛtena śarīradhāraṇaṃ kurvanta eva karmayoga vyāpṛtāḥ sanātanaṃ brahma yānti

ayajñasya mahāyajñādipūrvakanityamaimittikakarmarahitasya nāyaṃ lokaḥ na prākṛtalokaḥ, prākṛtalokasaṃbandhidharmārthakāmākhyaḥ puruṣārtho na sidhyati / kuta ito ‚nyo mokṣākhyaḥ puruṣārthaḥ? paramapuruṣārthatayā mokṣasya prastutatvāt taditarapuruṣārthaḥ ayaṃ lokaḥ iti nirdiśyate / sa hi prākṛtaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tad evam uktānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ yajña-vidāṃ phalam āha sarve ‚pīti | yajñān vindanti labhanta iti yajña-vidaḥ | yajña-jñā iti vā | yajñaiḥ kṣayitaṃ nāśitaṃ kalmaṣaṃ yais te

yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhuja iti | yajñān kṛtvā avaśiṣṭe kāle ‚niṣiddham annam amṛta-rūpaṃ bhuñjata iti tathā | te sanātanaṃ nityaṃ brahma jñāna-dvāreṇa prāpnuvanti | tad-akaraṇe doṣam āha nāyam iti | ayam alpa-sukho ‚pi manuṣya-loko ‚yajñasya yajñānuṣṭhāna-rahitasya nāsti | kuto ‚nyo bahu-sukhaḥ para-lokaḥ | ato yajñāḥ sarvathā kartavyā ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tad evam uktānāṃ dvādaśadhā yajña-vidāṃ phalam āha sarve ‚pīti | yajñān vidanti jānanti vindanti labhante veti yajña-vido yajñānāṃ jñātāraḥ kartāraś ca | yajñaiḥ pūrvoktaiḥ kṣapitaṃ nāśitaṃ kalmaṣaṃ pāpaṃ yeṣāṃ te yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ | yajñān kṛtvāvaśiṣṭe kāle ‚nnam amṛta-śabda-vācyaṃ bhuñjata iti yajña-śiṣṭāmṛta-bhujaḥ | te sarve ‚pi sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇa yānti brahma sanātanaṃ nityaṃ saṃsārān mucyanta ity arthaḥ

evam anvaye guṇam uktvā vyatireke doṣam āha yejñety ardhena | uktānāṃ yajñānāṃ madhye ‚nyatamo ‚pi yajño yasya nāsti so ‚yajñas tasyāyam alpa-sukho ‚pi manuṣya-loko nāsti sarva-nindyatvāt | kuto ‚nyo viśiṣṭa-sādhana-sādhyaḥ para-loko he kuru-sattama

 

Viśvanātha


sarve ‚py ete yajña-vida ukta-lakṣaṇān yajñān vindamānāḥ santo jñāna-dvārā brahma yānti | atrānanusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha yajña-śiṣṭaṃ yajñāvaśiṣṭaṃ yad amṛtaṃ bhogaiśvarya-siddhy-ādikaṃ tad bhuñjata iti

tathānusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha brahma yāntīti | tad-akaraṇe pratyavāyam āha nāyam iti | ayam alpa-sukho manuṣa-loko ‚pi nāsti | kuto ‚nyo devādi-lokas tena prāptavya ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


ete khalv indirya-vijaya-kāmāḥ sarve ‚pīti yajña-vidaḥ | pūrvoktān devādi-yajñān vindamānā tair eva yajñaiḥ kṣapita-kalmaṣāḥ

ananusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha yajña-śiṣṭeti | yajña-śiṣṭaṃ yad amṛtam annādi bhogaiśvarya-siddhy-ādi ca tad-bhuñjānāḥ | anusaṃhitaṃ phalam āha yāntīti | tat-sādhyena jñānena brahmeti prāgvat

 
 

BhG 4.32

evaṃ bahu-vidhā yajñā vitatā brahmaṇo mukhe
karma-jān viddhi tān sarvān evaṃ jñātvā vimokṣyase

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syntax


evam (thus) bahu-vidhāḥ (which are of may parts) yajñāḥ (sacrifices) brahmaṇaḥ (of the brahman) mukhe (in the mouth) vitatāḥ (spread),
[tvam] (you) tān sarvān (them all) karma-jān (born from activity) viddhi (you must know),
evam (thus) jñātvā (after knowing) vimokṣyase (you will be liberated).

 

grammar

evam av.thus;
bahu-vidhāḥ bahu-vidhā 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ bahavo vidhāḥ santi te which are of many parts (from: bahu – many; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
yajñāḥ yajña 1n.3 m.sacrifices, worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
vitatāḥ vi-tata (vi-tan – to spread out) [PP] 1n.3 m.spread, pervaded, covered over;
brahmaṇaḥ brahman 6n.1 n.of the spirit, of the Veda (from: bṛh – to increase);
mukhe mukha 7n.1 n.in the face, in the mouth;
karma-jān karma-ja 2n.3 m.born from activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; jan – to be born; ja – suffix: born);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
sarvān sarva sn. 2n.3 n.all;
evam av.thus;
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
vimokṣyase vi-muc (to liberate) Fut. pass. 2v.1you will be liberated;

 

textual variants


mukhe → sarve (all);
evaṁ → etej / enaṁ (this / this)  in the fourth pada;
vimokṣyase → vimokṣase;

 
 

Śāṃkara


evaṃ yathoktā bahu-vidhā bahu-prakārā yajñā vitatā vistīrṇā brahmaṇo vedasya mukhe dvāre veda-dvāreṇa avagamyamānā brahmaṇo mukhe vitatā ucyante | tad yathā vāci hi prāṇaṃ juhumaḥ ity ādayaḥ | karmajān kāyika-vācika-mānasa-karmodbhavān viddhi tān sarvān anātmajān, nirvyāpāro hy ātmā | ata evaṃ jñātvā vimokṣyase’śubhāt | na mad-vyāpārā ime, nirvyāpāro’ham udāsīna ity evaṃ jñātvāsmāt samyag-darśanān mokṣyase saṃsāra-bandhanād ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ hi bahuprakārāḥ karmayogāḥ brahmaṇo mukhe vitatāḥ ātmayāthātmyāvāptisādhanatayā sthitāḥ; tān uktalakṣaṇān uktabhedān karmayogān sarvān karmajān viddhi aharaharanuṣṭhīyamānanityanaimittikakarmajān viddhi / evaṃ jñātvā yathoktaprakāreṇānuṣṭhāya mokṣyase

 

Śrīdhara


jñāna-yajñaṃ stotum uktān yajñān upasaṃharati evaṃ bahu-vidhā iti | brahmaṇo vedasya mukhe vitatāḥ | vedena sākṣād-vihitā ity arthaḥ | tathāpi tān sarvān vāṅ-manaḥ-kāya-karma-janitān ātma-svarūpa-saṃsparśa-rahitān viddhi jānīhi | ātmanaḥ karmāgocaratvāt | evaṃ jñātvā jñāna-niṣṭhaḥ san saṃsārād vimukto bhaviṣyasi

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ tvayā svotprekṣā-mātreṇaivam ucyate na hi veda evātra pramāṇam ity āha evam iti | evaṃ yathoktā bahu-vidhā bahu-prakārā yajñāḥ sarva-vaidika-śreyaḥ-sādhana-rūpā vitatā vistṛtā brahmaṇo vedasya mukhe dvāre veda-dvāreṇaivaite ‚vagatā ity arthaḥ | veda-vākyāni tu pratyekaṃ vistara-bhayān nodāhriyante | karmajān kāyika-vācika-mānasa-karmodbhavān viddhi jānīhi tān sarvān yajñān nātmajān | nirvyāpāro hy ātmā na tad-vyāpārā ete kintu nirvyāpāro ‚ham udāsīna ity evaṃ jñātvā vimokṣyase ‚smāt saṃsāra-bandhanād iti śeṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


brahmaṇo vedasya mukhena vedena svamukhenaiva spaṣṭam uktā ity arthaḥ | karmajān vāṅ-manaḥ-kāya-karma-janitān

 

Baladeva


evam iti | brahmaṇo vedasya mukhe vitatāḥ | viviktātma-prāpty-upāyatayā sva-mukhenaiva tena sphuṭam uktāḥ | karmajān vāṅ-manaḥ-kāya-karma-janitān ity arthaḥ | evaṃ jñātvā tad-upāyatayā tenoktān tān avabudhyānuṣṭhāya tad-utpanna-vijñānenāvalokitātma-dvayaḥ saṃsārād vimokṣyase

 
 

BhG 4.33

śreyān dravya-mayād yajñāj jñāna-yajñaḥ paraṃtapa
sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate

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syntax


he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!), he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
dravya-mayāt (from that made of things) yajñāt (from sacrifice) jñāna-yajñaḥ (sacrifice through knowledge) śreyān (better),
akhilam (without a break) sarvam (all) karma (activity) jñāne (in knowledge) parisamāpyate (it is contained).

 

grammar

śreyān śreyas 1n.1 m. better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
dravya-mayāt dravya-maya 5n.1 m. from that made of things (from: dravya – substance, thing, object, goods; –maya – in compounds: made of, of the nature of);
yajñāt yajña 5n.1 m.from sacrifice, from worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
jñāna-yajñaḥ jñāna-yajña 1n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānena yajña itisacrifice through knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
akhilam a-khila 1n.1 n.whole, complete, without a gap (from: khila – hole, gap);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
jñāne jñāna 7n.1 n.in knwledge, in wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
parisamāpyate pari-sam-āp (to obtain, to reach) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is completed, it is contained (requires locative);

 

textual variants


dravya-mayād yajñājdravya-mayād yajño / brahmayād yajñāj (scrifice from that made of things / from sacrifice of brahman);
sarvaṁ karmākhilaṁ → sarva-karmākhilaṁ (whole complete activity);

 
 

Śāṃkara


brahmārpaṇaṃ [gītā 4.24] ity ādi lokena samyag-darśanasya yajñatvaṃ saṃpāditam | yajñāś cāneka upadiṣṭāḥ | taiḥ siddha-puruṣārtha-prayojanair jñānaṃ stūyate | kathaṃ ? —-

śreyān dravya-mayāt dravya-sādhana-sādhyād yajñāj jñāna-yajño he paraṃtapa | dravya-mayo hi yajñaḥ phalasyārambhakaḥ, jñāna-yajño na phalārambhakaḥ, ataḥ śreyān praśasyataraḥ | kathaṃ ? yataḥ sarvaṃ karma samastam akhilam apratibaddhaṃ pārtha jñāne mokṣa-sādhane sarvataḥ saṃplutodaka-sthānīye parisamāpyate antarbhavatīty arthaḥ | yathā kṛtāya vijitāyādhareyāḥ saṃyanty evam enaṃ sarvaṃ tad abhisameti yat kiṃcit prajāḥ sādhu kurvanti yas tad veda yat sa veda [candrhāuttaṃ 4.1.4] iti śruteḥ

 

Rāmānuja


antargatajñānatayā karmaṇo jñānākāratvam uktam; tatrāntargatajñāne karmaṇi jñānāṃśasyaiva prādhānyam āha

ubhayākāre karmaṇi dravyamayād aṃśāj jñānamayāṃśaḥ śreyān; sarvasya karmaṇaḥ taditarasya cākhilasyopādeyasya jñāne parisamāpteḥ tad eva sarvais sādhanaiḥ prāpyabhūtaṃ jñānaṃ karmāntargatatvenābhyasyate / tad eva abhyasyamānaṃ krameṇa prāpyadaśāṃ pratipadyate

 

Śrīdhara


karma-yajñāj jñāna-yajñas tu śreṣṭha ity āha śreyān iti | dravya-mayād anātma-vyāpāra-janyād daivādi-yajñāj jñāna-yajñaḥ śreyān śreṣṭhaḥ | yadyapi jñāna-yajñasyāpi mano-vyāpārādhīnatvam asty eva tathāpy ātma-svarūpasya jñānasya manaḥ-pariṇāme ‚bhivyakti-mātram | na taj-janyatvam iti dravya-mayād viśeṣaḥ | śreṣṭhatve hetuḥ — sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ phala-sahitaṃ jñāne parisamāpyate | antarbhavatīty arthaḥ | sarvaṃ tad abhisameti yat kiṃ ca prajāḥ sādhu kurvantīti śruteḥ

 

Madhusūdana


sarveṣāṃ tulyavan nirdeśātma-karma-jñānayoḥ sāmya-prāptāv āha śreyān iti | śreyān praśasyataraḥ sākṣān mokṣa-phalatvāt | dravya-mayāt tad-upalakṣitāj jñāna-śūnyāt sarvasmād api yajñāt saṃsāra-phalāj jñāna-yajña eka eva | he parantapa ! kasmād evam ? yasmāt sarvaṃ karmeṣṭi-paśu-soma-cayana-rūpaṃ śrautam akhilaṃ niravaśeṣaṃ smārtam upāsanādi-rūpaṃ ca yat karma taj-jñāne brahmātmaikya-sākṣātkāre samāpyate pratibandha-kṣaya-dvāreṇa paryavasyati | tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dāne tapasānāśakena iti dharmena pāpam apanudati iti ca śruteḥ | sarvāpekṣā ca yajñādi-śruter aśvavat [Vs. 3.4.26] iti nyāyāc cety arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


teṣāṃ madhye brahmārpaṇaṃ brahma-havir iti lakṣaṇād api dravya-mayād yajñād brahmāgnāv ity anenokto jñāna-yajñaḥ śreyān | kutaḥ ? jñāne sati sarvaṃ karmākhilam avyarthaṃ sat parisamāpyate samāptībhavati | jñānānantaraṃ karma na tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


uktāḥ karma-yogā viviktātmānusandhi-garbhatvād araṇyād iva ubhaya-rūpās teṣu jñāna-rūpaṃ saṃstauti śreyān iti | dvirūpe karmaṇi karma-dravya-bhayād aṃśāj jñāna-mayo ‚ṃśaḥ śreyān praśastaraḥ | dravya-mayād ity upalakṣaṇām indirya-saṃyamādīnāṃ teṣāṃ tad-upāyatvāt | etad vivṛṇoti – he pārtha ! jñāne sati sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ sāṅgaṃ parisamāpyate nivṛttim eti phale jāte sādhana-nivṛtter darśanāt

 
 

BhG 4.34

tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā
upadekṣyanti te jñānaṃ jñāninas tattva-darśinaḥ

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[tvam] (you) praṇipātena (by bowing down) paripraśnena (by asking questions) sevayā (by serving) tat (that) viddhi (you must know),
tattva-darśinaḥ (those who know the truth) jñāninaḥ (the wise) te (to you) jñānam (knowledge) upadekṣyanti (they will explain).

 

grammar

tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
praṇipātena pra-ṇi-pāta (pra-ni-pat – to bow down at the feet) [PP] 3n.1 m.by falling down before the feet, by bowing down;
paripraśnena pari-praśna 3n.1 m.by asking (from: pari-prach – to ask);
sevayā sevā 3n.1 f.by serving (sev – to serve);
upadekṣyanti upa-diś (to instruct, to explain) Fut. P 1v.3they will instruct, they will explain;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
jñāninaḥ jñānin 1n.3 m.the wise persons (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
tattva-darśinaḥ tattva-darśin 1n.3 m.; [TP]: tattvaṁ darśina itithose who see the truth (from: tat – that, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; dṛś – to see, darśa – view, appearance, darśin – one who sees, seer);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tad etad viśiṣṭāṃ jñānaṃ tarhi kena prāpyata ity ucyate —-

tat viddhi vijānīhi yena vidhinā prāpyate iti | ācāryān abhigamya, praṇipātena prakarṣeṇa nīcaiḥ patanaṃ praṇipāto dīrgha-namaskāras tena | kathaṃ bandhaḥ ? kathaṃ mokṣaḥ ? kā vidyā ? kā cāvidyā ? iti paripraśnena, sevayā guru-śuśrūṣayā evam ādinā | praśrayeṇāvarjitā ācāryā upadekṣyanti kathayiṣyanti te jñānaṃ yathokta-viśeṣaṇaṃ jñāninaḥ | jñānavanto’pi kecid yathāvat tattva-darśana-śīlāḥ, apare na | ato viśinaṣṭi tattva-darśina iti | ye samyag-darśinas tair upadiṣṭaṃ jñānaṃ kārya-kṣamaṃ bhavati | netarad iti bhagavato matam

 

Rāmānuja


tad atmaviṣayaṃ jñānaṃ „avināśi tu tad viddhi” ityārabhya „eṣā te ‚bhihitā” ityantena mayopadiṣṭam, „tadyuktakarmaṇi vartamānatvaṃ vipākānuguṇaṃ kāle kāle praṇipātaparipraśnasevādibhir viśadākāraṃ jñānibhyo viddhi / sākṣātkṛtātmasvarūpās tu jñāninaḥ praṇipātādibhyas sevitāḥ jñānabubhutsayā paritaḥ pṛcchatas tavāśayam ālakṣya jñānam upadekṣyanti

 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtātma-jñāne sādhanam āha tad iti | tad taj jñānaṃ viddhi jānīhi prāpnuhīty arthaḥ | jñānināṃ praṇipātena daṇḍavan-namaskāreṇa | tataḥ paripraśnena | kuto ‚yaṃ me saṃsāraḥ ? kathaṃ vā nivarteta ? iti paripraśnena | sevayā guru-śuśrūṣayā ca | jñāninaḥ śāstrajñāḥ | tattva-darśino ‚parokṣānubhava-sampannāś ca | te tubhyaṃ jñānam upadeśena sampādayiṣyanti

 

Madhusūdana


etādṛśa-jñāna-prāptau ko ‚tipratyāsanna upāya ity ucyate tad viddhīti | tat-sarva-karma-phala-bhūtaṃ jñānaṃ viddhi labhasva ācāryānabhigamya teṣāṃ praṇipātena prakarṣeṇa nīcaiḥ patanaṃ praṇipāto dīrgha-namaskāras tena ko ‚haṃ kathaṃ baddho ‚smi kenopāyena mucyeyam ity ādi paripraśnena bahu-viṣayeṇa praśnena | sevayā sarva-bhāvena tad-anukūla-kāritayā | evaṃ bhakti-śraddhātiśaya-pūrvakeṇāvanati-viśeṣeṇābhimukhāḥ santa upadekṣyanty upadeśena sampādayiṣyanti te tubhyaṃ jñānaṃ paramātma-viṣayaṃ sākṣān mokṣa-phalaṃ jñāninaḥ pada-vākya-nyāyādimāna-nipuṇās tattva-darśinaḥ kṛta-sākṣātkārāḥ | sākṣātkāravadbhir upadiṣṭam eva jñānaṃ phala-paryavasāyi na tu tad-rahitaiḥ pada-vākya-nyāyādimāna-nipuṇair apīti bhagavato matam | tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham iti śruti-saṃvādi | tatrāpi śrotriyam adhīta-vedaṃ brahma-niṣṭhaṃ kṛta-brahma-sākṣātkāram iti vyākhyānāt | bahu-vacanaṃ cedam ācārya-viṣayam ekasminn api gauravātiśayārthaṃ na tu bahutva-vivakṣayā | ekasmād eva tattva-sākṣātkāravata ācāryāt tattva-jñānodaye satyācāryāntara-gamanasya tad-artham ayogād iti draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


taj-jñāna-prāptaye prakāram āha tad iti | praṇipātena jñānopadeṣṭari gurau daṇḍavan-namaskāreṇa | bhagavan ! kuto ‚yaṃ me saṃsāraḥ ? kathaṃ nivartiṣyate ? iti paripraśnena ca | sevayā tat-paricaryayā ca | tad vijñānārthaṃ sa gurum evābhigacchet samit-pāṇiḥ śrotriyaṃ brahma-niṣṭham iti śruteḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ jīva-svarūpa-jñānaṃ tat-sādhanaṃ ca sāṅgam upadiśya para-svarūpopāsana-jñānam upadśan sat-prasaṅga-labhyatvaṃ tasyāha tad iti | yad arthaṃ tad ubhayaṃ mayā tavopadiṣṭaṃ avināśi tu tad viddhi [Gītā 2.17] ity ādinā tat parātma-sambandhi-jñānaṃ praṇipātādibhiḥ prasāditebhyo jñānibhyaḥ sadbhyas tvam avagata-sva-svarūpo viddhi prāpnuhi | tatra praṇipāto daṇḍavat-praṇatiḥ | sevā bhṛtyavat teṣāṃ paricaryā | paripraśnaḥ tat-svarūpa-tad-guṇa-tad-vibhūti-viṣayako vividhaḥ praśnaḥ|

nanūdāsīnās te na vakṣyantīti cet tatrāha upeti | te jñānino ‚dhigata-svarūpātmānaḥ praṇipātādinā taj-jijñāsutām ālakṣya te tubhyaṃ tādṛśāya tat-sambandhi jñānam upadekṣyanti tattva-darśinas taj-jñāna-pracārakāḥ kāruṇikā iti yāvat |

nanv atra tad iti jīva-jñānaṃ vācyaṃ prakṛtatvād iti cen, na | na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsaṃ [Gītā 2.12], yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ [Gītā 2.61], ajo ‚pi sann avyayātmā [Gītā 4.6] ity ādinā parātmano ‚py aprākṛtatvāt | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ – anyārthaś ca parāmarśaḥ [Vs. 1.3.20] iti | anyathā śruti-sūtrārtha-saṃvādino ‚grimasya jñāna-mahimno virodhaḥ syād uktam eva suṣṭhu

 
 

BhG 4.35

yaj jñātvā na punar moham evaṃ yāsyasi pāṇḍava
yena bhūtāny aśeṣeṇa drakṣyasy ātmany atho mayi

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syntax


he pāṇḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!),
yat (that which) jñātvā (after knowing)
[tvam] (you) punaḥ evam (thus again) moham (bewilderment) na yāsyasi (you will not attain),
yena (by which) aśeṣeṇa (completely) bhūtāni (creatures) ātmani (in the self) atho mayi (next in me) drakṣyasi (you will see).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
na av.not;
punaḥ av.back, again;
moham moha 2n.1 m.bewilderment, confusion (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
evam av.thus;
yāsyasi (to go, to attain) Fut. P 2v.1you will attain;
pāṇḍava pāṇḍava 8n.1 m.O son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);
yena yat sn. 3n.1 n.that by which, wherefore;
bhūtāni bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 2n.3 n.beings, creatures;
aśeṣeṇa av.completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end; formed from: 3n.1);
drakṣyasi dṛś (to see) Fut. P 2v.1you will see;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
atho av.now, likewise, next, therefore;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;

 

textual variants


aśeṣeṇaaśeṣāṇi (innumerable);
drakṣyasi → drakṣasi;

 
 

Śāṃkara


tathā ca satīdamapi samarthaṃ vacanaṃ —

yaj jñātvā yaj jñānaṃ tair upadiṣṭam adhigamya prāpya punar bhūyo moham evaṃ yathedānīṃ mohaṃ gato’si punar evaṃ na yāsyasi he pāṇḍāva | kiṃ ca ——yena jñānena bhūtāny aśeṣeṇa brahmādīni stamba-paryantāni drakṣyasi sākṣād ātmani pratyag ātmani mat-saṃsthānīmāni bhūtānīty atho api mayi vāsudeve parameśvare cemānīti | kṣetrajñeśvaraikatvaṃ sarvopaniṣat-prasiddhaṃ drakṣyasīty artha

 

Rāmānuja


ātmayāthātmyaviṣayasya jñānasya sākṣātkārarūpasya lakṣaṇam āha

yaj jñānaṃ jñātvā punar evaṃ devādyātmābhimānarūpaṃ tatkṛtaṃ mamatādyāspadaṃ ca mohaṃ na yāsyasi, yena ca devamanuṣyādyākāreṇānusanhitāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni svātmany eva drakṣyasi, yatas tavānyeṣāṃ ca bhūtānāṃ prakṛtiviyuktānāṃ jñānaikākāratayā sāmyam / prakṛtisaṃsargadoṣavinirmuktam ātmarūpaṃ sarvaṃ samam iti ca vakṣyate, „nirdoṣaṃ hi samaṃ brahma tasmād brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ” iti / atho mayi sarvabhūtāny aśeṣeṇa drakṣyasi, matsvarūpasāmyāt pariśuddhasya sarvasyātmavastunaḥ / „idaṃ jñānam upāśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ” iti hi vakṣyate / tathā, „tadā vidvān puṇyapāpe vidhūya nirañjanaḥ paramaṃ sāmyam upaiti” ityevamādiṣu nāmarūpavinirmuktasyātmavastunaḥ parasvarūpasāmyam avagamyate / ataḥ prakṛtivinirmuktaṃ sarvam ātmavastu parasparaṃ samaṃ sarveśvareṇa ca samam

 

Śrīdhara


jñāna-phalam āha yaj jñātveti sārdhais tribhiḥ | yaj jñānaṃ jñātvā prāpya punar bandhu-vadhādi-nimittaṃ moham na prāpsyasi | tatra hetuḥ – yena jñānena bhūtāni pitāputrādīni svāvidyā-vijṛmbhitāni svātmany evābhedena drakṣyasi | atho anantaram ātmānaṃ mayi paramātmany abhedena drakṣyasīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evam atinirbandhena jñānotpādane kiṃsyāt ata āha yaj jñātveti | yat pūrvoktaṃ jñānam ācāryair upadiṣṭaṃ jñātvā prāpya | odana-pākaṃ pacatītivat tasyaiva dhātoḥ | sāmānya-vivakṣayā prayogaḥ | na punar moham evaṃ bandhu-vadhādi-nimittaṃ bhramaṃ yāsyasi | he parantapa !
kasmād evaṃ yasmād eva jñānena bhūtāni pitṛ-putrādīni aśeṣeṇa brahmādi-stamba-paryantāni svāvidyā-vijṛmbhitāni ātmani tvayi tvaṃ-padārthe ‚tho api mayi bhagavati vāsudeve tat-padārthe paramārthato bheda-rahite ‚dhiṣṭhāna-bhūte drakṣyasy abhedenaiva | adhiṣṭhānātirekeṇa kalpitasyābhāvāt | māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam ātmatvena sākṣātkṛtya sarvājñāna-nāśe tat-kāryāṇi bhūtāni na sthāsyantīti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


jñānasya phalam āha yaj jñātveti sārdhais tribhiḥ | yaj jñānaṃ dehād atiikta evātmeti lakṣaṇaṃ jñātvaivaṃ moham antaḥ-karaṇa-dharmaṃ na prāpsyasi | yena ca moha-vigamena svābhāvika-nitya-siddhātma-jñāna-lābhād aśeṣāṇi bhūtāni manuṣya-tiryag-ādīny ātmani jīvātmany upādhitvena sthitāni pṛthag drakṣyasi | atho mayi parama-kāraṇe ca kāryatvena sthitāni drakṣyasi

 

Baladeva


ukta-jñāna-phalam āha yad iti | yaj-jīva-jñāna-pūrvakaṃ paramātma-sambandhi-jñānaṃ jñātvopalabhya punar evaṃ bandhu-vadhādi-hetukaṃ mohaṃ na yāsyasi | kathaṃ na yāsyāmītiy atrāha yeneti | yena jñānena bhūtāni deva-mānavādi-śarīrāṇi aśeṣeṇa sāmastyena sarvāṇīty arthaḥ | ātmani sva-svarūpe upādhitvena sthitāni tāni pṛthag drakṣyasi | atho mayi sarveśvare sarva-hetau kāryatvena sthitāni tāni drakṣyasīti | etad uktaṃ bhavati – deha-dvaya-viviktā jīvātmānas teṣāṃ hari-vimukhānāṃ hari-māyayaiva deheṣu daihikteṣu ca mamatvāni racitāni | hantṛ-hantavya-bhāvāvabhāsaś ca tayaiva | śuddha-svarūpāṇāṃ na tat-tat-sambaddhaḥ | paramātmā khalu sarveśvaraḥ svāśritānāṃ jīvānāṃ tat-tat-karmānuguṇatayā tat-tad-dehendriyāṇi tat-tad-deha-yātrāṃ lokāntareṣu tat-tat-sukha-bhogāṃś ca sampādayaty upāsitas tu muktim ity eva jñānino na mohāvakāśa iti

 
 

BhG 4.36

api ced asi pāpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kṛttamaḥ
sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva vṛjinaṃ saṃtariṣyasi

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syntax


api cet (even if) [tvam] (you) sarvebhyaḥ (among all) pāpebhyaḥ (among the sinners) pāpa-kṛt-tamaḥ (the greatest sinner) asi (you are),
[tathā api] (even then) jñāna-plavena eva (just with the boat of knowledge) sarvam (whole) vṛjinam (evil) saṁtariṣyasi (you will cross over).

 

grammar

api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
cet av.if;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
pāpebhyaḥ pāpa 6n.3 m.among the sinners;
sarvebhyaḥ sarva sn. 6n.3 n.among all;
pāpa-kṛttamaḥ pāpa-kṛttama 1n.1 m.the greatest sinner (from: pāpa – evil, sin; kṛ – to do, -kṛt – suffix: a doer; superlative of: kṛt – kṛt-tara, kṛt-tama);
sarvam sarva sn. 2n.1 n.all, whole;
jñāna-plavena jñāna-plava 3n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānasya plavenetiwith the boat of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; plu – to float; plava – floating, a flood, a boat);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
vṛjinam vṛjina 2n.1 n.bent, crooked; evil, sin, suffering (from: vṛj – to bend, to turn, to avoid);
saṁtariṣyasi sam-tṝ (to cross over) Fut. P 2v.1you will cross over;

 

textual variants


sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva → sarva-jñāna-plavenaiva (indeed with the boat of all knowledge);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ caitasya jñānasya māhātmyaṃ —-

api ced asi pāpebhyaḥ pāpa-kṛdbhyaḥ sarvebhyo’tiśayena pāpa-kṛt pāpa-kṛttamaḥ sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva jñānam eva plavaṃ kṛtvā vṛjinaṃ vṛjinārṇavaṃ pāpa-samudraṃ saṃtariṣyasi | dharmo’pīha mumukṣoḥ pāpam ucyate

 

Rāmānuja


yady api sarvebhyaḥ pāpebhyaḥ pāpakṛttamo ‚si, sarvaṃ pūrvārjitaṃ vṛjinarūpaṃ samudram ātmaviṣayajñānarūpaplavenaiva saṃtariṣyasi

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca api ced iti | sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kāribhyo yadyapy atiśayena pāpa-kārī tvam asi, tathāpi sarvaṃ pāpa-samudraṃ jñāna-plavenaiva jñāna-potenaiva samyag-anāyāsena tariṣyasi

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca śṛṇu jñānasya māhātmyam api ced iti | api ced ity asambhāvitābhyupagama-pradarśanārthau nipātau | yadyapy ayam artho na sambhavaty eva, tathāpi jñāna-phala-kathanāyābhyupetyocyate | yadyapi tvaṃ pāpa-kāribhyaḥ sarvebhyo ‚py atiśayena pāpa-kārī pāpa-kṛttamaḥ syās tathāpi sarvaṃ vṛjinaṃ pāpam atidustaratvenārṇava-sadṛśaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva nānyena jñānam eva plavaṃ potaṃ kṛtvā santariṣyasi samyag anāyāsena punar āvṛtti-varjitatvena ca tariṣyasi atikramiṣyasi | vṛjina-śabdenātra dharmādharma-rūpaṃ karma saṃsāra-phalam abhipretaṃ mumukṣoḥ pāpavat puṇyasyāpy aniṣṭatvāt

 

Viśvanātha


jñānasya māhātmyam āha api ced iti | pāpibhyaḥ pāpa-kṛdbhyo ‚pi sakāśād yadyapy atiśayena pāpakārī tvam asi, tathāpi atraitāvat pāpa-sattve katham antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhiḥ ? tad-abhāve ca kathaṃ jñānotpattiḥ ? nāpy utpanna-jñānasyaitad durācāratvaṃ sambhaved ato ‚tra vyākhyā śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādānām – api ced ity asambhāvitābhyupagama-pradarśanārthau nipātau | yadyapy ayam artho na sambhavaty eva, tathāpi jñāna-phala-kathanāyābhyupetyocyate ity eṣā

 

Baladeva


jñāna-prabhāvam āha api ced iti | yadyapi sarvebhyaḥ pāpa-kartṛbhyas tvam atiśayena pāpa-kṛd asi, tathāpi sarvaṃ vṛjinaṃ nikhilaṃ pāpaṃ dustaratvenārṇava-tulyam ukta-lakṣaṇa-jñāna-plavena santariṣyasi

 
 

BhG 4.37

yathaidhāṃsi samiddho gnir bhasmasāt kurute rjuna
jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā

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he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
yathā (as) samiddhaḥ (blazing) agniḥ (fire) edhāṁsi (fuel) bhasma-sāt (into ashes) kurute (he does),
tathā (in like manner) jñānāgniḥ (fire of knowledge) sarva-karmāṇi (all activities) bhasma-sāt (into ashes) kurute (he does).

 

grammar

yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
edhāṁsi edhas 2n.3 n.fuel;
samiddhaḥ samiddha (sam-indh – to kindle) [PP] 1n.1 m.blazing;
agniḥ agni 1n.1 m.fire (from: ag – to move tortuously);
bhasmasāt av.into ashes (from: bhas – to devour; bhasman – ashes);
kurute kṛ (to do) Praes. Ā 1v.1he does;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
jñānāgniḥ jñāna-agni 1n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānasyāgnir iti fire of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; ag – to move tortuously, agni – fire);
sarva-karmāṇi sarva-karman 2n.3 n.; [TP]: sarvāṇi karmāṇītiall activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
bhasmasāt av.into ashes (from: bhas – to devour; bhasman – ashes);
kurute kṛ (to do) Praes. Ā 1v.1he does;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;

 
 

Śāṃkara


jñānaṃ kathaṃ nāśayati pāpaṃ ? iti sa-dṛṣṭāntam ucyate —-

yathaidhāṃsi kāṣṭhāni samiddhaḥ samyag iddho dīpto’gnir bhasmasāt bhasmībhāvaṃ kurute he arjuna, jñānam eva agnir jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā nirbījīkarotīty arthaḥ | na hi sākṣād eva jñānāgniḥ karmāṇīndhanavat bhasmīkartuṃ śaknoti | tasmāt samyag darśanaṃ sarva-karmaṇāṃ nirbījatve kāraṇam ity abhiprāyaḥ | sāmarthyād yena karmaṇā arīram ārabdhaṃ tat pravṛtta-phalatvād upabhogenaiva kṣīyate | tasya tāvad eva ciraṃ yāvan na vimokṣye’tha sampatsye [candrhāuttaṃ 6.14.1] ato yāny apravṛtta-phalāni jñānotpatteḥ prāk kṛtāni jñāna-sahabhāvīni cātītāneka-janma-kṛtāni ca tāny eva sarvāṇi bhasmasāt kurute

 

Rāmānuja


samyakpravṛddho ‚gnir indhanasañcayam iva, ātmayāthātmyajñānarūpo ‚gnir jīvātmagatam anādikālapravṛttānantakarmasañcayaṃ bhasmīkaroti

 

Śrīdhara


samudravat sthitasyaiva pāpasyātilaṅghana-mātraṃ, na tu pāpasya nāśaḥ | iti bhrāntiṃ dṛṣṭāntena vārayann āha yathaidhāṃsīti | edhāṃsi kāṣṭhāni pradīpto ‚gnir yathā bhasmībhāvaṃ nayati tathātma-jñānam āpanno mumukṣuḥ kālena mahatātmani vindati labhata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanu samudravat taraṇe karmaṇāṃ nāśo na syād ity āśaṅkya dṛṣṭāntaram āha yathaidhāṃsīti | yathaidhāṃsi kāṣṭhāni samiddhaḥ prajvalito ‚gnir bhasmasāt kurute bhasmībhāvaṃ nayati he ‚rjuna jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi pāpāni puṇyāni cāviśeṣeṇa prārabdha-phala-bhinnāni bhasmasāt kurute tathā tat-kāraṇājñāna-vināśena vināśayatīty arthaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ –

bhidyate hṛdaya-granthiś chidyante sarvasaṃśayāḥ |
kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi tasmin dṛṣṭe parāvare || [MuṇḍU 2.2.8] iti |

tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvārdhayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśāt | itarasyāpy evam asaṃśleṣaḥ pāte tu [Vs. 4.1.13-14] iti ca sūtre | anārabdhe puṇya-pāpe naśyata evety atra sūtram anārabdha-kārya eva tu pūrve tad-avadheḥ [Vs. 4.1.15] iti | jñānotpādaka-dehārambhakāṇāṃ tu tad-dehānta eva vināśaḥ | tasya tāvad eva ciraṃ yāvan na vimokṣye [ChāndU 6.14.2] iti śruteḥ | bhogena tv itare kṣapayitvā sampadyate [Vs. 4.1.19] iti sūtrāc ca | ādhikārikāṇāṃ tu yāny eva jñānotpādaka-dehārambhakāṇi tāny eva dehāntarārambhakāṇy api | yathā vasiṣṭāpāntara-tamaḥ-prabhṛtīnām | tathā ca sūtraṃ yāvad-adhikāram avasthitir ādhikārikāṇām [Vs. 3.3.32] iti | adhikāro ‚neka-dehārambhakaṃ balavat-prārabdha-phalaṃ karma | tac copāsakānām eva nānyeṣāṃ | anārabdha-phalāni naśyanti ārabdha-phalāni tu yāvad-bhoga-samāpti tiṣṭhanti | bhogaś caikena dehenānekena veti na viśeṣaḥ | vistaras tv ākara draṣṭavyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


śuddhāntaḥkaraṇasyotpannaṃ tu prārabdha-bhinnaṃ karma-mātraṃ vināśayatīti sa-dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | samiddhaḥ prajvalitaḥ

 

Baladeva


brahma-vidyayā pāpa-karmāṇi naśyantīty uktam | idānīṃ puṇya-karmāṇy api naśyantīty āha yatheti | edhāṃsi kāṣṭhāni samiddhaḥ prajvalito ‚gnir yathā bhasmasāt kurute, tathā jñānāgniḥ sva-parātmānubhava-vahniḥ sarvāṇi karmāṇi puṇyāni pāpāni ca prārabdhetarāṇi bhasmasāt kurute | tatra sañcitāni prārabdhetarāṇīpīkatulavan nirdahati kriyamāṇāni padma-patrāmbu-binduvad viśeṣayati prārabdhāni tu tat-prabhāvenātijīrṇāny api sat-patha-pracārārthayā harer icchayaivātmānubhaviny avasthāpayatīti | śrutiś ca -ubhe uhaivaiṣa ete taraty amṛtaḥ sādhvasādhunī iti | eṣa brahmānubhavī ubhe saṃcitya kriyamāṇe ete sādhvasādhunī puṇya-pāpe karmaṇī tarati krāmatīty arthaḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvārdhayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśāt [Vs. 4.1.13] ity ādibhiḥ

 
 

BhG 4.38

na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram iha vidyate
tat svayaṃ yoga-saṃsiddhaḥ kālenātmani vindati

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iha (here) jñānena (to knowledge) sadṛśam (similar) pavitram (purifying agent) na hi vidyate (surely there is not).
kālena (by time) yoga-saṁsiddhaḥ (one perfected in yoga) tat (that) ātmani (in the self) svayam (on his own) vindati (he finds).

 

grammar

na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
jñānena jñāna 3n.1 n.as knowledge, as wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
sadṛśam sa-dṛśa 1n.1 n.similar to (from: sa = sama – as prefix: the same; dṛś – to see; requires instrumental, genitive or locative);
pavitram pavitra 1n.1 n. – means of purification, purity (from: – to purify);
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
vidyate vid (to be) Praes. Ā 1v.1it is;
or from: vid (to find) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is found;
or from: vid (to know, to understand) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is understood;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
svayam av.personally, on one’s own;
yoga-saṁsiddhaḥ yoga-saṁsiddha 1n.1 m.; yoge saṁsiddha itione perfected in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; sam-sidh – to succeed, to become perfect, [PP] saṁsiddha – accomplished, perfectl, ready for – requires genitive; skilled in – requires locative);
kālena kāla 3n.1 m.by time;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
vindati vid (to find) Praes. P 1v.1 he obtains, he finds;

 

textual variants


jñānena sadṛśaṁ → sa-jñāna-sadṛśaṁ (something similar to knowledge);
yoga-saṁsiddhaḥ → yoga-saṁsiddhaṁ / yoga-saṁsiddhiḥ (perfection in yoga / one who got perfection in yoga);
vindati → viṁdate (he finds);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yataḥ evam ataḥ—-

na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ tulyaṃ pavitraṃ pāvanaṃ śuddhi-karam iha vidyate | taj jñānaṃ svayam eva yoga-saṃsiddho yogena karma-yogena samādhi-yogena ca saṃsiddhaḥ saṃskṛto yogyatām āpannaḥ san mumukṣuḥ kālena mahatā ātmani vindati labhate ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yasmād ātmajñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitraṃ śuddhikaram iha jagati vastvantaraṃ na vidyate, tasmād ātmajñānaṃ sarvapāpaṃ nāśayatītyarthaḥ / tat tathāvidhaṃ jñānaṃ yathopadeśam aharaharanuṣṭhīyamānajñānākārakarmayogasaṃsiddhaḥ kālena svātmani svayam eva labhate

 

Śrīdhara


tatra hetum āha na hīti | pavitraṃ śuddhi-karam | iha tapo-yogādiṣu madhye jñāna-tulyaṃ nāsty eva | tarhi sarve ‚pi kim ity ātma-jñānam eva nābhyasanta iti ? ata āha tat svayam iti sārdhena | tad ātmani viṣaye jñānaṃ kālena mahatā karma-yogena saṃsiddho yogyatāṃ prāptaḥ san svayam evānāyāsena labhate | na tu karma-yogaṃ vinety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt na hīti | na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram pāvanaṃ śuddhi-karam anyad iha vede loka-vyavahāre vā vidyate, jñāna-bhinnasya ajñānānivartakatvena samūla-pāpa-nivartakatvābhāvāt kāraṇa-sad-bhāvena punaḥ pāpodayāc ca | jñānena tv ajñāna-nivṛttyā samūla-pāpa-nivṛttir iti tat-samam anyac ca vidyate|

tad ātma-viṣayaṃ jñānaṃ sarveṣāṃ kim iti jhaṭiti notpadyate ? tatrāha taj jñānaṃ kālena mahatā yoga-saṃsiddho yogena pūrvokta-karma-yogena saṃsiddhaḥ saṃskṛto yogyatām āpannaḥ svayam ātmany antaḥ-karaṇe vindati labhate na tu yogayatām āpanno ‚nya-dattaṃ sva-niṣṭhatayā na vā para-niṣṭhaṃ svīyatayā vindatīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


iha tapo-yogādi-yukteṣu madhye jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitraṃ kim api nāsti | taj jñānaṃ na sarva-sulabham | kintu yogena niṣkāma-karma-yogena samyak siddha eva, na tv aparipakvaḥ | so ‚pi kālenaiva, na tu sadyaḥ | ātmani svasmin svayaṃ prāptaṃ vindati | na tu sannyāsa-grahaṇa-mātreṇaiveti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


na hīti | hi yato jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitraṃ śuddhi-karaṃ tapas tīrthāṭanādikaṃ nāsti | atas tat sarva-pāpa-nāśakaṃ taj jñānaṃ na sarva-sulabhaṃ, kintu yogena niṣkāma-karmaṇā saṃsiddhaḥ paripakva eva kālenaiva, na tu sadyaḥ | ātmani svasmin svayaṃ labdhaṃ vindati | na tu pārivrājya-grahaṇa-mātreṇeti

 
 

BhG 4.39

śraddhāvāṃl labhate jñānaṃ tat-paraḥ saṃyatendriyaḥ
jñānaṃ labdhvā parāṃ śāntim acireṇādhigacchati

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tat-paraḥ (devoted to that) saṁyatendriyaḥ (who put the senses under control) śraddhā-vān (having faith) jñānam (knowledge) labhate (he obtains),
jñānam (knowledge) labdhvā (after obtaining)
acireṇa (speedily) parām (the supreme) śāntim (tranquility) adhigacchati (he obtains).

 

grammar

śraddhā-vān śraddhā-vant 1n.1 m.who has faith (from: śrat- – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]; śraddhā – faith, confidence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
labhate labh (to obtain, to gain) Praes. Ā 1v.1he obtains;
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
tat-paraḥ tat-para 1n.1 m.yasya tat param asti saḥone for whom the supreme [object] is that (from: tatsn. that; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; suffix: para – devoted, engaged in; tat-para – devoted to that);
saṁyatendriyaḥ saṁyata-indriya 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyendriyāṇi saṁyatāni santi saḥwhose senses are controlled (from: sam-yam – to hold together, to restrain, [PP] saṁyata – restrained, controlled; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses);
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
labdhvā labh (to obtain, to gain) absol.after obtaining;
parām para 2n.1 f.distant, final, the best, the supreme;
śāntim śānti 2n.1 f.tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
a-cireṇa av.speedily, not for long (from: cira – long, delay);
adhigacchati adhi-gam (to cross over, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


tat-paraḥ saṁyatendriyaḥ mat-paraḥ saṁjiteṁdriyaḥ (devoted to me, who conquered the senses);
parāṁ → praraṁ (next);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yenaikāntena jñāna-prāptir bhavati sa upāya upadiśyate —-

śraddhāvān śraddhālur labhate jñānam | śraddhālutve’pi bhavati kaścin manda-prasthānaḥ, ata āha —- tat-paraḥ | gurūpāsadanādāv abhiyukto jñāna-labdhy-upāye śraddhāvān | tat-paro’py ajitendriyaḥ syāt ity ata āha —- saṃyatendriyaḥ | saṃyatāni viṣayebhyo nivartitāni yasyendriyāṇi sa saṃyatendriyaḥ | ya evaṃbhūtaḥ śraddhāvān tat-paraḥ saṃyatendriyaś ca so’vaśyaṃ jñānaṃ labhate | praṇipātādis tu bāhyo’naikāntiko’pi bhavati, māyāvitvādi-saṃbhavāt | na tu tat śraddhāvattvādau ity ekāntato jñāna-labdhy-upāyaḥ | kiṃ punar jñāna-lābhāt syād ity ucyate —jñānaṃ labdhvā paraṃ mokṣākhyāṃ śāntim uparatim acireṇa kṣipram evādhigacchati | samyag-darśanāt kṣipram eva mokṣo bhavatīti sarva-śāstra-nyāya-prasiddhaḥ suniścito’rthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


tad eva vispaṣṭam āha

evam upadeśāj jñānaṃ labdhvā copadiṣṭajñānavṛddhau śraddhāvān tatparaḥ tatraiva niyatamanāḥ taditaraviṣayāt saṃyatendriyo ‚cireṇa kālenoktalakṣaṇavipākadaśāpannaṃ jñānaṃ labhate, tathāvidhaṃ jñānaṃ labdhvā parām śāntim acireṇādhigacchati paraṃ nirvāṇam āpnoti

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca śraddhāvān iti | śraddhāvān gurūpadiṣṭe ‚rthe āstikya-buddhimān | tat-paras tad-eka-niṣṭhaḥ | saṃyatendriyaś ca | taj jñānaṃ labhate | nānyaḥ | ataḥ śraddhādi-sampattyā jñāna-lābhāt prāk karma-yoga eva śuddhy-artham anuṣṭheyaḥ | jñāna-lābhānantaraṃ tu na tasya kiṃcit kartavyam ity āha jñānaṃ labdhvā tu mokṣam acireṇa prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


yenaikāntena jñāna-prāptir bhavati sa upāyaḥ pūrvokta-praṇipātādy-apekṣayāpy āsannatara ucyate śraddhāvān iti | guru-vedānta-vākyeṣv idam ittham veti pramā-rūpāstikya-buddhiḥ śraddhā tadvān puruṣo labhate jñānam | etādṛśo ‚pi kaścid alasaḥ syāt tatrāha tat-paraḥ | gurūpāsanādau jñānopāye ‚tyantābhiyuktaḥ | śraddhāvāṃs tat-paro ‚pi kaścid ajitendriyaḥ syād ata āha saṃyatendriyaḥ | saṃyatāni viṣayebhyo nivartitānīndriyāṇi yena sa saṃyatendriyaḥ | ya evaṃ viśeṣaṇa-traya-yuktaḥ so ‚vaśyaṃ jñānaṃ labhate | praṇipātādis tu bāhyo māyāvitvādi-sambhavād anaikāntiko ‚pi | śraddhāvattvādis tv aikāntika upāya ity arthaḥ|

īdṛśenopāyena jñānaṃ labdhvā parāṃ caramāṃ śāntim avidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛtti-rūpāṃ muktim acireṇa tad-avyavadhānenaivādhigacchati labhate | yathā hi dīpaḥ svotpatti-mātreṇaivāndhakāra-nivṛttiṃ karoti na tu kaṃcit sahakāriṇam apekṣate tathā jñānam api svotpatti-mātreṇaivājñāna-nivṛttiṃ karoti na tu kiṃcit prasaṅkhyānādikam apekṣata iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tarhi kīdṛśaḥ san kadā prāpnotīty ata āha śraddhāvān iti | śraddhā niṣkāma-karmaṇaivāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhyaiva jñānaṃ syād iti śāstrārthaṃ āstikya-buddhis tadvān eva | tat-paras tad-anuṣṭhāna-niṣṭhas tādṛśo ‚pi yadā saṃyatendriyaḥ syāt tadā parāṃ śāntim saṃsāra-nāśam

 

Baladeva


kīdṛśaḥ san kadā vindatīty āha śraddhāvān iti | niṣkāmena karmaṇā hṛd-viśuddhau jñānaṃ syād iti | dṛḍha-viśvāsaḥ śraddhā tadvān | tat-paras tad-anuṣṭhāna-niṣṭhas tādṛg api yadā saṃyatendriyas tadā parāṃ śāntim muktim

 
 

BhG 4.40

ajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca saṃśayātmā vinaśyati
nāyaṃ loko sti na paro na sukhaṃ saṃśayātmanaḥ

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ajñaḥ (ignorant) aśraddadhānaḥ ca (and lacking faith) saṁśayātmā ca (and doubtful) vinaśyati (he perishes).
saṁśayātmanaḥ (of one doubtful) ayam lokaḥ (that world) na asti (there is not),
paraḥ [ca] (and higher) [lokaḥ] (world) na [asti] (there is not),
sukham [ca] (and happiness) na [asti] (there is not).

 

grammar

ajñaḥ a-jña 1n.1 m.ignorant (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
ca av.and;
aśraddadhānaḥ a-śrad-dadhāna 1n.1 m.not having faith (from: śrat- – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith], PPr dadhāna – [while] putting);
ca av.and;
saṁśayātmā saṁśaya-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā saṁśaye ‘sti saḥwhose self is doubtful (from: sam-śī – to waver, saṁśaya – hesitation, doubt; ātman – self);
vinaśyati vi-naś (to destroy, to vanish, to be lost) Praes. P 1v.1he perishes;
na av.not;
ayaṁ idam sn. 1n.1 m.that;
lokaḥ loka 1n.1 m.world;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it is;
na av.not;
paraḥ para 1n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
na av.not;
sukham sukha 1n.1 n.joy, happiness, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
saṁśayātmanaḥ saṁśaya-ātman 6n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā saṁśaye ‘sti tasyaof one whose self is doubtful (from: sam-śī – to waver, saṁśaya – hesitation, doubt; ātman – self);

 
 

Śāṃkara


atra saṃśayo na kartavyaḥ, pāpiṣṭho hi saṃśayaḥ | katham ity ucyate —-

ajñaś cānātmajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca guru-vākya-śāstreṣv aviśvāsavāṃś ca saṃśayātmā ca saṃśaya-cittaś ca vinaśyati | ajñāśraddadhānau yadyapi vinaśyataḥ, na tathā yathā saṃśayātmā | saṃśayātmā tu pāpiṣṭhaḥ sarveṣām | kathaṃ ? nāyaṃ sādhāraṇo’pi loko’sti | tathā na paro lokaḥ | na sukham, tatrāpi saṃśayotpatteḥ saṃśayātmanaḥ saṃśaya-cittasya | tasmāt saṃśayo na kartavyaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


ajñaḥ evam upadeśalabdhajñānarahitaḥ, upadiṣṭajñānavṛddhyupāye cāśraddhadhānaḥ atvaramāṇaḥ, upadiṣṭe ca jñāne saṃśayātmā saṃśayamanāḥ vinaśyati vinaṣṭo bhavati / asminn upadiṣṭe ātmayāthātmyaviṣaye jñāne saṃśayātmano ‚yam api prākṛto loko nāsti, na ca paraḥ / dharmārthakāmarūpapuruṣārthāś ca na sidhyanti, kuto mokṣa ityarthaḥ; śāstrīyakarmasiddhirūpatvāt sarveṣāṃ puruṣārthānām, śāstrīyakarmajanyasiddheś ca dehātiriktātmaniścayapūrvakatvāt / ataḥ sukhalavabhāgitvam ātmani saṃśayātmano na saṃbhavati

 

Śrīdhara


jñānādhikāriṇam uktvā tad-viparītam anadhikāriṇam āha ajñaś ceti | ajño gurūpadiṣṭārthānabhijñaḥ | kathaṃcij jñāne jāte ‚pi tatrāśraddadhānaś ca | jātāyām api śraddhāyāṃ mamedaṃ siddhen na veti aṃśayākrānta-cittaś ca vinaśyate | svārthād bhraśyati | eteṣu triṣv api saṃśayātmā sarvathā naśyati | yatas tasyāyaṃ loko nāsti dhanārjana-vivāhādy-asiddheḥ | na ca para-loko dharmasyāniṣpatteḥ | na ca sukhaṃ saṃśayenaaiva bhogasyāpy asambhavāt

 

Madhusūdana


atra ca saṃśayo na kartavyaḥ, kasmāt ? ajña iti | ajño ‚nadhīta-śāstratvenātma-jñāna-śūnyaḥ | guru-vedānta-vākyārtha idam evaṃ na bhavaty eveti viparyaya-rūpā nāstikya-buddhir aśraddhā tadvān aśraddadhānaḥ | idam evaṃ bhavati na veti sarvatra saṃśayākrānta-cittaḥ saṃśayātmā vinaśyati svārthād bhraṣṭo bhavati | ajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca vinaśyatīti saṃśayātmāpekṣayā nyūnatva-kathanārthaṃ cakārābhyāṃ tayoḥ prayogaḥ | kutaḥ ? saṃśayātmā hi sarvataḥ pāpīyān yato nāyaṃ manuṣya-loko ‚sti vittārjanādy-abhāvāt, na paro lokaḥ svarga-mokṣādi-dharma-jñānādy-abhāvāt | na sukhaṃ bhojanādi-kṛtaṃ saṃśayātmanaḥ sarvatra sandehākrānta-cittasya | ajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca paro loko nāsti manuṣya-loko bhojanādi-sukhaṃ ca vartate | saṃśayātmā tu tritaya-hīnatvena sarvataḥ pāpīyān ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


jñānādhikāriṇam uktvā tad-viparītādhikāriṇam āha ajñaś ceti | ajñaḥ paśv-ādivan mūḍhaḥ | aśraddadhānaḥ śāstra-jñānavattve ‚pi nānā-vādināṃ paraspara-vipratipattiṃ dṛṣṭvā na kvāpi viśvastaḥ | śraddhāvattve ‚pi saṃśayātmā mamaitat sidhyen na veti sandehākrānt-matiḥ | teṣv api madhye saṃśayātmānaṃ viśeṣato nindati nāyam iti

 

Baladeva


jñānādhikāriṇaṃ tat-phalaṃ cābhidhāya tad-viparītaṃ tat-phalaṃ cāha ajñaś ceti | ajñaḥ paśv-ādivac chāstra-jñāna-hīnaḥ | aśraddadhānaḥ śāstra-jñāne saty api vivādi-pratipattibhir na kvāpi viśvastaḥ, śraddadhānatve ‚pi saṃśayātmā mamaitat siddhyen na veti sandihāna-manā vinaśyati svārthād vicyavate | teṣv api madhye saṃśayātmānaṃ vinindati nāyam iti | ayaṃ prākṛto lokaḥ paro ‚prākṛtaḥ saṃśayātmanaḥ kiṃcid api sukhaṃ nāsti | śāstrīya-karma-janyaṃ hi sukhaṃ, tac ca karma viviktātma-jñāna-pūrvakam | tatra sandihānasya kutas tad ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 4.41

yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayam
ātmavantaṃ na karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya

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syntax

he dhanaṁjaya (O winner of wealth!),
karmāṇi (activities) yoga-saṁnyasta-karmāṇam (one who renounced activities by yoga) jñāna-saṁchinna-saṁśayam (whose doubts are destroyed by knowledge) ātma-vantam (composed) na nibadhnanti (they do not bind).

 

grammar

yoga-saṁnyasta-karmāṇam yoga-saṁnyasta-karman 2n.1 m.; BV: yena yogena sannyastāni karmāṇi santi tamone who renounced activities by yoga (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, [PP] saṁnyasta – laid aside, renounced; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
jñāna-saṁchinna-saṁśayam jñāna-saṁchinna-saṁśaya 2n.1 m.; yasya jñānena saṁchinnāḥ saṁśayāḥ santi tamwhose doubts are destroyed by knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; sam-chid – to cut, [PP] saṁchinna – cut, destroyed; sam-śī – to waver, saṁśaya – hesitation, doubt);
ātmavantam ātmavant 2n.1 m.having self, situated in the self, composed (from: ātman – self; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
na av.not;
karmāṇi karman 1n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
nibadhnanti ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. P 1v.3they bind;
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.O winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥ – one who wins wealth; dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);

 

textual variants


yoga-saṁnyasta-karmāṇam → vedaṁ saṁnyasta-karmāṇam (knowledge, one who renounced activities by yoga);
jñāna-saṁchinna-saṁśayam → jñāna-saṁchinna-saṁśayaḥ (one whose doubts are destroyed by knowledge);

The fourth pada of verse 4.41 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 9.9;

 
 

Śāṃkara


kasmāt ? ——

yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ paramārtha-darśana-lakṣaṇena yogena saṃnyastāni karmāṇi yena paramārtha-darśinā dharmādharmākhyāni taṃ yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇam | kathaṃ yoga-saṃnyasta-karmā ? ity āha—jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayaṃ jñānenātmeśvaraikatva-darśana-lakṣaṇena saṃchinnaḥ saṃśayo yasya yo jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayaḥ | ya evaṃ yoga-saṃnyasta-karmā tam ātmavantam apramattaṃ guṇa-ceṣṭā-rūpeṇa dṛṣṭāni karmāṇi na nibadhnanty aniṣṭādi-rūpaṃ phalaṃ nārabhante | he dhanaṃjaya

 

Rāmānuja


yathopadiṣṭayogena saṃnyastakarmāṇam jñānākāratāpannakarmāṇaṃ yathopadiṣṭena cātmajñānena ātmani saṃcchinnasaṃśayam, ātmavantaṃ manasvinam upadiṣṭārthe dṛḍhāvasthitamanasaṃ bandhahetubhūtaprācīnānantakarmāṇi na nibadhnanti

 

Śrīdhara


adhyāya-dvayoktāṃ pūrvāpara-bhūmikā-bhedena karma-jñāna-mayīṃ dvividhāṃ brahma-niṣṭhām upasaṃharati yogeti dvābhyām | yogena parameśvarārādhana-rūpeṇa tasmin saṃnyastāni karmāṇi yena taṃ karmāṇi sva-phalair na nibadhnanti | tataś ca jñānena ātma-bodhena kartrā saṃchinnaḥ saṃsāro dehādy-atimāna-lakṣaṇo yasya tam ātmavantam apramādinaṃ karmāṇi loka-saṅgrahārthāni svātāvikāni vā na nibadhnanti

 

Madhusūdana


etādṛśaysya sarvānartha-mūlasya saṃśayasya nirākaraṇāyātma-niścayam upāyaṃ vadann adhyāya-dvayoktāṃ pūrvāpara-bhūmikā-bhedena karma-jñāna-mayīṃ dvividhāṃ brahma-niṣṭhām upasaṃharati yogeti dvābhyām | yogena bhagavad-ārādhana-lakṣaṇa-samatva-buddhi-rūpeṇa saṃnyastāni bhagavati samarpitāni karmāṇi yena | yad vā paramārtha-darśana-lakṣaṇena yogena saṃnyastāni tyaktāni karmāṇi yena taṃ yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇam | saṃśaye sati kathaṃ yoga-saṃnyasta-karmatvam ata āha jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayaṃ jñānenātma-niścaya-lakṣaṇena cchinnaḥ saṃśayo yena tam | viṣaya-para-vaśatva-svarūpa-prasāde sati kuto jñānotpattir ity ata āha ātmavantam apramādinaṃ sarvadā sāvadhānam | etādṛśam apramāditvena jñānavantaṃ jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayatvena yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ karmāṇi loka-saṅgrahārthāni vṛthā-ceṣṭā-rūpāṇi vā na nibadhnanti aniṣṭam iṣṭaṃ miśraṃ vā śarīraṃ nārabhante he dhanaṃjaya

 

Viśvanātha


naiṣkarmyaṃ tv etādṛśasya syād ity āha yogān niṣkāma-karma-yogānantaram eva saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ saṃnyāsena tyakta-karmāṇam | tataś ca jñānābhyāsānantaraṃ chinna-saṃśayam | ātmavantaṃ prāpta-pratyag-ātmānaṃ karmāṇi na nibadhnanti

 

Baladeva


īdṛśasya naiṣkarmya-lakṣaṇā siddhiḥ syād ity āha yogeti | yogena yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmāṇi ity atroktena saṃnyastāni jñānākāratāpannāni karmāṇi yasya tam | mad-upadiṣṭena jñānena chinna-saṃśayo yasya tam | ātmavantam avalokitātmānaṃ karmāṇi na nibadhnanti | teṣāṃ jñānena vigamāt

 
 

BhG 4.42

tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ
chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata),
tasmāt (therefore) ātmanaḥ (of the self) enam (this) ajñāna-sambhūtam (born from ignorance) hṛt-stham (which is situated in the heart) saṁśayam (doubt) jñānāsinā (with a sword of knowledge) chittvā (after cutting)
[tvam] (you) yogam (yoga) ātiṣṭha (you must undertake),
[tataḥ yuddhāya] (then for fighting) uttiṣṭha (you must stand up).

 

grammar

tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
ajñāna-saṁbhūtam ajñāna-saṁbhūta 2n.1 m.; [TP]: ajñānāt saṁbhūtam itiborn from ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand, a-jñāna – ignorance; sam-bhū – to come into being, [PP] saṁbhūta – produced, born);
hṛt-stham hṛt-stha 2n.1 m.; yo hṛdi tiṣṭhati tamwhich is situated in the heart (from: hṛt / hṛdaya – heart, mind, self; sthā – to stand, -stha – suffix: being in);
jñānāsinā jñānāsi 3n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānasya asineti – with a sword of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; asi – sword, knife);
ātmanaḥ   ātman 6n.1 m. of the self;
chittvā chid (to cut) absol.after cutting;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
saṁśayam saṁśaya 2n.1 m.hesitation, doubt (from: sam-śī – to waver);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
ātiṣṭha ā-sthā (to stand near, to undertake) Imperat. P 2v.1you must undertake;
uttiṣṭha ut-sthā (to stand up) Imperat. P 2v.1you must stand up;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


hṛt-sthaṁ → kṛtsnaṁ (whole);
chittvainaṁ → chittvaivaṁ (indeed after cutting);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yasmāt karma-yogānuṣṭhānād aśuddhi-kṣaya-hetuka-jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayo na nibadhyate karmabhir jñānāgni-dagdha-karmatvād eva, yasmāc ca jñāna-karmānuṣṭhāna-viṣaye saṃśayavān vinaśyati —

tasmāt pāpiṣṭham ajñāna-saṃbhūtam ajñānād avivekāj jātaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ hṛdi buddhau sthitaṃ jñānāsinā śoka-mohādi-doṣa-haraṃ samyag darśanaṃ jñānaṃ tad evāsiḥ khaḍgas tena jñānāsinā ātmanaḥ svasya, ātma-viṣayatvāt saṃśayasya | na hi parasya saṃśayaḥ pareṇa cchettavyatāṃ prāptaḥ, yena svasyeti viśeṣyeta | ata ātma-viṣayo’pi svasyaiva bhavati | chittvā enaṃ saṃśayaṃ sva-vināśa-hetu-bhūtam, yogaṃ samyag-darśanopāyaṃ karmānuṣṭhānam ātiṣṭha kurv ity arthaḥ | uttiṣṭha cedānīṃ yuddhāya bhārata iti

 

Rāmānuja


tasmād anādyajñānasaṃbhūtaṃ hṛtstham ātmaviṣayaṃ saṃśayaṃ mayopadiṣṭenātmajñānāsinā chittvā mayopadiṣṭaṃ karmayogam ātiṣṭha; tadartham uttiṣṭha bhārateti

 

Śrīdhara


tasmād iti | yasmād evaṃ tasmād ātmano ‚jñānena saṃbhūtaṃ hṛdi-sthitam enaṃ saṃśayaṃ śokādi-nimittaṃ dehātma-viveka-khaḍgena chittvā paramātma-jñānopāya-bhūtaṃ karma-yogam ātiṣṭhāśraya | tatra ca prathamaṃ prastutāya yuddhāyottiṣṭha | he bhārateti kṣatriyatvena yuddhasya dharmatvaṃ darśitam

 

Madhusūdana


tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata

 

Viśvanātha


upasaṃharati tasmād iti | hṛt-sthaṃ hṛd-gataṃ saṃśayaṃ chittvā yogaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogam ātiṣṭhāśraya | uttiṣṭha yuddhaṃ kartum iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


tasmād iti | hṛt-sthaṃ hṛd-gatam ātma-viṣayakaṃ saṃśayaṃ mad-upadiṣṭena jñānāsinā chittvā yogaṃ niṣkāmaṃ karma mayopadiṣṭam ātiṣṭha | tad-artham uttiṣṭheti

 
 

BhG 4.colophon


iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi ṣaḍ-viṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation

Thus [ends] the twenty-sixth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants

iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde manaḥ-saṃyogo / karma-saṃnyāsa-yogo / brahmārpaṇa-yogo / brahma-jñāna-praśaṃsā-yogo / jñāna-karma-saṃnyāsa-vividha-yajña-vibhāgo / vivasvata-yogo / karma-yogo / saṃdhyā-saṃyogo / yajña-yogo / jñāna-yogo / yajña-praśaṃsā-yogo / jñāna-saṃśaya-yogo / vivasvaj-jñāna-yogo / yajña-vibhāga-yogo / jñāna-karma-saṃnyāsa-yogo nāma caturtho ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the fourth chapter entitled: Concentration of the Mind / The Yoga of Renouncing Activity / The Yoga of an Offering to Brahman / The Yoga of Praise of Knowledge of Brahman / Divisions of Different Sacrifices, Renouncing Activity through Knowledge / The Yoga of the Sun / The Yoga  of Activity / The Yoga of Connection / The Yoga  of Sacrifices / The Yoga of Knowledge / The Yoga of Praise of Sacrifice / The Yoga of Doubts in Regard to Knowledge / The Yoga of Knowledge of the Sun / The Yoga of Divisions of Sacrifices / The Yoga of Renouncing Activity through Knowledge.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 

Śrīdhara


pum-avasthādi-bhedena karma-jñāna-mayī dvidhā |
niṣṭhoktā yena taṃ vande śauriṃ saṃśaya-saṃchidam ||

iti śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
jñāna-yogo nāma caturtho ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


ukteṣu mukty-upāyeṣu jñānam atra praśasyate |
jñānopāyaṃ tu karmaivety adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-darśinyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsv ayaṃ caturtho hi saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām

 

Baladeva


dvy-aṃśakaṃ dhānyavat karma tuṣāṃśād iva taṇḍulaḥ |
śreṣṭhaṃ dravyāṃśato jñānam iti turyasya nirṇayaḥ