atha pañcamo ‘dhyāyaḥ – karma-sannyāsa-yogaḥ

Now the fifth chapter: “The Yoga of Renouncing Work”

Rāmānuja


caturthe ‚dhyāye karmayogasya jñānākāratāpūrvakasvarūpabhedo jñānāṃśasya ca prādhānyam uktam; jñānayogādhikāriṇo ‚pi karmayogasyāntargatātmajñānatvād apramādatvāt sukaratvān nirapekṣatvāc ca jyāyastvaṃ tṛtīya evoktam / idānīṃ karmayogasyātmaprāptisādhanatve jñānaniṣṭhāyāś śaighryaṃ karmayogāntargatākarṭrtvānusandhānaprakāraṃ ca pratipādya tanmūlaṃ jñānaṃ ca viśodhyate

 

Śrīdhara


nivārya saṃśayaṃ jiṣṇoḥ karma-saṃnyāsa-yogayoḥ |
jitendriyasya ca yateḥ pañcame muktim abravīt ||

 

Madhusūdana


adhyāyābhyāṃ kṛto dvābhyāṃ nirṇayaḥ karma-bodhayoḥ |
karma-tat-tyāgayor dvābhyāṃ nirṇayaḥ kriyate ‚dhunā ||

tṛtīye ‚dhyāye jyāyasī cet karmaṇas te ity ādinārjunena pṛṣṭo bhagavān jñāna-karmaṇor vikalpa-samuccayāsambhavenādhikāri-bheda-vyavasthayā loke ‚smin dvividhā niṣṭhā purā proktā mayānagha ity ādinā nirṇayaṃ kṛtavān | tathā cājñādhikārikaṃ karma na jñānena saha samuccīyate tejas-timirayor iva yugapad asambhavāt karmādhikāra-hetu-bheda-buddhy-apanodakatvena jñānasya tad-virodhitvāt | nāpi vikalpyate ekārthatvābhāvāt | jñāna-kāryasyājñāna-nāśasya karmaṇā kartum aśakyatvāt tam eva viditvāpi mṛtyum eti nānyaḥ panthā vidyate ‚nāyanāya iti śruteḥ |

jñāne jāte tu karma-kāryaṃ nāpekṣyata evety uktaṃ yāvān artha udapāne ity atra | tathā ca jñāninaḥ karmānadhikāre niścite prārabdha-karma-vaśād vṛthā-ceṣṭā-rūpeṇa tad-anuṣṭhānaṃ vā sarva-karma-saṃnyāso veti nirvivādaṃ caturthe nirṇītam | ajñena tv antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-dvārā jñānotpattaye karmāṇy anuṣṭheyāni tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena dānena tapasānāśakena iti śruteḥ | sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate iti bhagavad-vacanāc ca | evaṃ sarva-karmāṇi jñānārthāni | tathā sarva-karma-saṃnyāso ‚pi jñānārthaḥ śrūyate etam eva pravrājino lokam icchantaḥ pravrajanti, śānto dānta uparatas titikṣuḥ samāhito bhūtvātmany evātmānaṃ paśyet, tyajataiva hi taj jñeyaṃ tyuktuḥ pratyak paraṃ padam, satyānṛte sukha-duḥkhe vedān imaṃ lokam amuṃ ca parityajyātmānam anvicchet ity ādau |

tatra karma tat-tyāgayor ārād upakāraka-saṃnipatyopakārakayoḥ prayājāvaghātayor iva na samuccayaḥ sambhavati viruddhatvena yaugapadyābhāvāt | nāpi karma-tat-tyāgayor ātma-jñāna-mātra-phalatvenaikārthatvād atirātrayoḥ ṣoḍaśi-grahaṇāgrahaṇayor iva vikalpaḥ syāt | dvāra-bhedenaikārthatvābhāvāt | karmaṇo hi pāpa-kṣaya-rūpam adṛṣṭam eva dvāraṃ, saṃnyāsasya tu sarva-vikṣepābhāvena vicārāvasara-dāna-rūpaṃ dṛṣṭam eva dvāram | niyamāpūrvaṃ tu dṛṣṭa-samavāyitvād avaghātādāv iva na prayojakam | tathā cādṛṣṭārtha-dṛṣṭārthayor ārād upakāraka-saṃnipātyopakārakayor eka-pradhānārthatve ‚pi vikalpo nāsty eva | prayājāvaghātādīnām api tat-prasaṅgāt | tasmāt krameṇobhayam apy anṣṭheyam | tatrāpi saṃnyāsānantaraṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ cet tadā parityakta-pūrvāśrama-svīkāreṇārūḍha-patitatvāt karmānadhikāritvaṃ prāktana-saṃnyāsa-vaiyarthyaṃ ca tasyādṛṣṭārthatvābhāvāt | prathama-kṛta-saṃnyāsenaiva jñānādhikāra-lābhe tad-uttara-kāle karmānuṣṭhāna-vaiyarthyaṃ ca | tasmād ādau bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhānād antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhau tīvreṇa vairāgyeṇa vividiṣāyāṃ dṛḍhāyāṃ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ śravaṇa-mananādi-rūpa-vedānta-vākya-vicārāya kartavya iti bhagavato matam | tathā coktam – na karmaṇām anārambhān naiṣkarmyaṃ puruṣo ‚śnute iti | vakṣyate ca –

ārurukṣor muner yogaṃ karma kāraṇam ucyate |
yogārūḍhasya tasyaiva śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyate || [Gītā 6.3] iti |

yogo ‚tra tīvra-vairāgya-pūrvikā vividiṣā | tad uktaṃ vārtika-kāraiḥ –

pratyag vividiṣāsiddhyai vedānuvacanādayaḥ |
brahmāvāptyai tu tat-tyāga īpsantīti śruter balāt || iti |

smṛtiś ca –
kaṣāya-paṅktiḥ karmāṇi jñānaṃ tu paramā gatiḥ |
kaṣāye karmabhiḥ pakve tato jñānaṃ pravartate || iti |

mokṣa-dharme –
kaṣāyaṃ pācayitvā ca śreṇī-sthāneṣu ca triṣu |
pravrajec ca paraṃ sthānaṃ pārivrājyam anuttamam ||
bhāvinaḥ karaṇaiś cāyaṃ bahu-saṃsāra-yoniṣu |
āsādayati śuddhātmā mokṣaṃ vai prathamāśrame ||
tam āsādya tu muktasya dṛṣṭārthasya vipaścitaḥ |
triṣv āśrameṣu ko nv artho bhavet paramābhīpsitaḥ || iti |

mokṣaṃ vairāgyam | etena kramākrama-saṃnyāso dvāv api darśinau | tathā ca śrutiḥ – brahmacaryaṃ samāpya gṛhī bhaved gṛhād vanī bhūtvā pravrajed yadi vetarathā brahmacaryād eva pravrajed gṛhād vā vanād vā yad ahar eva virajet tad ahar eva pravrajet iti |

tasmād ajñasyāviraktatā-daśāyāṃ karmānuṣṭhānam eva | tasyaiva viraktatā-daśāyāṃ saṃnyāsaḥ śravaṇādy-avasara-dānena jñānārthaṃ iti daśā-bhedenājñam adhikṛtyaiva karma-tat-tyāgau vyākhyātuṃ pañcama-ṣaṣṭhāv adhyāyāv ārabhyete | vidvat-saṃnyāsas tu jñāna-balād artha-siddha eveti sandehābhāvān na vicāryate |

tatraikam eva jijñāsum ajñaṃ prati jñānārthatvena karma-tat-tyāgayor vigdhānāt tayoś ca viruddhayor yugapad anuṣṭhānāsambhavān mayā jijñāsunā kim idānīm anuṣṭheyam iti sandihāno ‚rjuna uvāca saṃnyāsam iti |

 
 

BhG 5.1

arjuna uvāca
saṃnyāsaṃ karmaṇāṃ kṛṣṇa punar yogaṃ ca śaṃsasi
yac chreya etayor ekaṃ tan me brūhi suniścitam

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he kṛṣṇa (O Kṛṣṇa!),
[tvam] (you) karmaṇām (of activities) saṁnyāsam (renunciation) punaḥ (again) yogam ca (and yoga) śaṁsasi (you praise).
etayoḥ (of these two) [madhye] (among) yat (that which) śreyaḥ (better) [asti] (it is),
tat ekam (that one) su-niścitam (decidedly) me (to me) brūhi (you must speak).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
saṁnyāsam saṁnyāsa 2n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
karmaṇām karman 6n.3 n.of activities (from: kṛ – to do);
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa 8n.1 m.O dark one, O Kṛṣṇa;
punaḥ av.back, again
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
ca av.and;
śaṁsasi śaṁs (to praise, to extol) Praes. P 2v.1you praise;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
śreyaḥ śreyas 1n.1 n. better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
etayoḥ etat sn. 6n.2 m.of these two;
ekam eka sn. 2n.1 n.one;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
me asmat sn. 4n.1to me (shortened form of: mahyam);
brūhi brū (to speak) Imperat. P 2v.1you must speak;
suniścitam su-niścita (nir-ci – to ascertain, to resolve) [PP] 2n.1 n.ascertained, settled,
or av.certainly, decidedly, positively;

 

textual variants


saṁnyāsaṁ → sanyāsam (renunciation);
śaṁsasi → saṁśasi (you praise);
yac chreya etayor ekaṁyaś chreyān etayor ekas (which better, of these two one);
su-niścitam → vi-niścitam (deidedly);

 
 



Śāṃkara


saṃnyāsaṃ parityāgaṃ karmaṇām āstrīyāṇām anuṣṭheya-viśeṣāṇāṃ śaṃsasi praśaṃsasi kathayasīty etat | punar yogaṃ ca teṣām eva anuṣṭhānam avaśya-kartavyaṃ śaṃsasi | ato me katarat śreyaḥ iti saṃśayaḥ—kiṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ śreyaḥ, kiṃ vā tad-dhānam iti | praśasyataraṃ cānuṣṭheyam | ataś ca yat śreyaḥ praśasyataram etayoḥ karma-saṃnyāsa-karma-yogayor yad-anuṣṭhānāt śreyo’vāptir mama syād iti manyase, tad ekam anyatarat saha eka-puruṣānuṣṭheyatvāsaṃbhavāt me brūhi suniścitam abhipretaṃ taveti

 

Rāmānuja


karmaṇāṃ saṃnyāsaṃ jñānayogam punaḥ karmayogaṃ ca śaṃsasi / etad uktaṃ bhavati dvitīye ‚dhyāye mumukṣoḥ prathamaṃ karmayoga eva kāryaḥ, karmayogena mṛditāntaḥkaraṇakaṣāyasya jñānayogenātmadarśanaṃ kāryam iti pratipādya punas tṛtīyacaturthayoḥ jñānayogādhikāradaśāpannasyāpi karmaniṣṭhaiva jyāyasī, saiva jñānaniṣṭhānirapekṣā ātmaprāptau sādhanam iti karmaniṣṭhāṃ praśaṃśasi iti / tatraitayor jñānayogakarmayogayor ātmaprāptisādhanabhāve yad ekaṃ saukāryac chaighryāc ca śreyaḥ śreṣṭham iti suniścitam, tan me brūhi

 

Śrīdhara


ajñāna-sambhūtaṃ saṃśayaṃ jñānāsinā chittvā karma-yogam ātiṣṭha ity uktam | tatra pūrvāpara-virodhaṃ manvāno ‚rjuna uvāca saṃnyāsam iti | yas tv ātma-ratir eva syād ity ādinā sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha ity ādinā ca karma-saṃnyāsaṃ kathayasi | jñānāsinā saṃśayaṃ chittvā yogam ātiṣṭha iti punar yogaṃ ca kathayasi | na ca karma-saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś ca ekasyaiva ekadaiva sambhavataḥ viruddha-svarūpatvāt | tasmād etayor madhya ekasminn anuṣṭhātavye sati mama yac chreyaḥ suniścitam tad ekaṃ brūhi

 

Madhusūdana


he kṛṣṇa ! sadānanda-rūpa bhakta-duḥkha-karṣaṇeti vā | karmaṇāṃ yāvaj-jīvādi-śruti-vihitānāṃ nityānāṃ naimittikānāṃ ca saṃnyāsaṃ tyāgaṃ jijñāsum ajñaṃ prati kathayasi veda-mukhena punas tad-viruddhaṃ yogaṃ ca karmānuṣṭhāna-rūpaṃ śaṃsasi | etam eva pravrājino lokam icchantaḥ pravrajanti, tam etaṃ vedānuvacanena brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti yajñena ity ādi-vākya-dvayena –

nirāśīr yata-cittātmā tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ |
śārīraṃ kevalaṃ karma kurvann āpnoti kilbiṣam || [Gītā 4.21]

chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata iti gītā-vākya-dvayena vā | tatraikam ajñaṃ prati karma-tat-tyāgayor vidhānād yugapad ubhayānuṣṭhānasambhavād etayoḥ karma-tat-tyāgayor madhye yad ekaṃ śreyaḥ praśasyataraṃ manyase karma vā tat-tyāgaṃ vā tan me brūhi suniścitaṃ tava matam anuṣṭhānāya

 

Viśvanātha


proktaṃ jñānād api śreṣṭhaṃ karma tad-dāṛḍhya-siddhaye |
tat-padārthasya ca jñānaṃ sāmyād yā api pañcame ||

pūrvādhyāyānte śrutena vākya-dvāreṇa virodham āśaṅkamānaḥ pṛcchati sannyāsam iti |

yoga-saṃnyasta-karmāṇaṃ jñāna-saṃchinna-saṃśayam |
ātmavantaṃ na karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya || [Gītā 4.41]

iti vākyena tvaṃ karma-yogenotpanna-jñānasya karma-saṃnyāsaṃ brūṣe |

tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ |
chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata || [Gītā 4.42]

ity anena punas tasyaiva karma-yogaṃ ca brūṣe | na ca karma-saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś ca ekasyaiva ekadaiva sambhavataḥ, sthiti-gativat viruddha-svarūpatvāt | tasmāj jñānī karma-saṃnyāsaṃ kuryāt, karma-yogaṃ vā kuryād iti tvad-abhiprāyam anavagato |haṃ pṛcchāmi etayor madhye yad ekaṃ śreyas tvayā suniścitam tan me brūhi

 

Baladeva


jñānataḥ karmaṇaḥ śraiṣṭhyaṃ sukaratvādinā hariḥ |
śuddhasya tad-akartṛtvaṃ tvety ādi prāha pañcame ||

dvitīye mumukṣuṃ praty ātma-vijñānaṃ mocakam abhidhāya tad-upāyayā niṣkāmaṃ karma kartavyam abhyadhāt | labdha-vijñānasya na kiṃcit karmāstīti yas tv ātma-ratir eva syāt iti tṛtīye, sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha iti caturthe cāvādīt | ante tu tasmād ajñāna-saṃbhūtaṃ [Gītā 4.42] ity ādinā tasyaiva punaḥ karma-yogaṃ prāvocat | tatrārjunaḥ pṛcchati saṃnyāsam iti | he kṛṣṇa ! karmaṇāṃ sannyāsaṃ sarvendriya-vyāpāra-virati-rūpaṃ jñāna-yogam ity arthaḥ | punar yogaṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ ca sarvendriya-vyāpāra-rūpaṃ śaṃsasi | na caikasya yugapat tau sambhavetāṃ, sthiti-gativat tamas-tejovac ca viruddha-svarūpatvāt | tasmāl labdha-jñānaḥ karma sannyased anutiṣṭhed veti bhavad-abhimataṃ vettum aśakto ‚haṃ pṛcchāmi | etayoḥ karma-sannyāsa-karmānuṣṭhānayor yad ekaṃ śreyas tvayā suniścitaṃ tattvaṃ me brūhīti

 
 



BhG 5.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś ca niḥśreyasa-karāv ubhau
tayos tu karma-saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
sannyāsaḥ (renunciation) karma-yogaḥ ca (and yoga of activity) ubhau (both) niḥśreyasa-karau (making for the highest good) [staḥ] (they are).
tayoḥ tu (but of these two) [madhye] (among) karma-sannyāsāt (than renunciation of activity) karma-yogaḥ (yoga of activity) viśiṣyate (it is the best).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
saṁnyāsaḥ saṁnyāsa 1n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
karma-yogaḥ karma-yoga 1n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇo yoga iti yoga of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
ca av.and;
niḥśreyasa-karau niḥśreyasa-kara 1n.2 m.; [TP]: niḥśreyasasya karāv itithat makes perfection (from: śreyas better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare; comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha, niḥ-śreyasa – having no better, excellent, faith, liberation; kṛ – to do, kara – a a doer, cause);
ubhau ubha sn. 1n.2 m.both;
tayoḥ tat sn. 6n.2 m.of these two;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
karma-saṁnyāsāt karma-saṁnyāsa 5n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇaḥ saṁnyāsād iti than renouncing activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, saṁnyāsa laying aside, resignation, renunciation);
karma-yogaḥ karma-yoga 1n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇo yoga iti yoga of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
viśiṣyate vi-śiṣ (to distinguish) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is distinguished, the best;

 

textual variants


niḥśreyasa-karāvniśreyasa-karāv;
viśiṣyate → viśāṃ pate (O lord of people!);

 
 



Śāṃkara


svābhiprāyam ācakṣāṇo nirṇayāya śrī-bhagavān uvāca—

saṃnyāsaḥ karmaṇāṃ parityāgaḥ karma-yogaś ca teṣām anuṣṭhānaṃ tāv ubhāv api niḥśreyasa-karau mokṣaṃ kurvāte jñānotpatti-hetutvena | ubhau yadyapi niḥśreyasa-karau, tathāpi tayos tu niḥśreyasa-hetvoḥ karma-saṃnyāsāt kevalāt karma-yogo viśiṣyata iti karma-yogaṃ stauti

 

Rāmānuja


saṃnyāsaḥ jñānayogaḥ, karmayogaś ca jñānayogaśaktasyāpy ubhau nirapekṣau niśśreyasakarau / tayos tu karmasaṃnyāsāj jñānayogāt karmayoga eva viśiṣyate

 

Śrīdhara


atrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca saṃnyāsa iti | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ – na hi vedānta-vedyātma-tattvajñaṃ prati karma-yogam ahaṃ bravīmi | yataḥ pūrvoktena saṃnyāsena virodhaḥ syāt | api tu dehātmābhimāninaṃ tvāṃ bandhu-vadhādi-nimitta-śoka-mohādi-kṛtam enaṃ saṃśayaṃ dehātma-viveka-jñānāsinā chittvā paramātma-jñānopāya-bhūtaṃ karma-yogam ātiṣṭheti bravīmi | karma-yogena śuddha-cittasyātma-tattva-jñāne jāte sati tat-paripākārthaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāṅgatvena saṃnyāsaḥ pūrvam uktaḥ | evaṃ saty aṅga-pradhānayor vikalpa-yogāt saṃnyāsaḥ karma-yogaś cety etāv ubhāv api bhūmikā-bhedena samuccitāv eva niḥśreyasaṃ sādhayataḥ | tathāpi tu tayor madhye tu karma-saṃnyāsāt sakāśāt karma-yogo viśiṣṭo bhavatīti

 

Madhusūdana


evam arjunasya praśne tad-uttaram śrī-bhagavān uvāca saṃnyāsa iti | niḥśreyasa-karau jñānotpatti-hetutvena mokṣopayoginau | tayos tu karma-saṃnyāsād anadhikāri-kṛtāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate śreyān adhikāra-sampādakatvena

 

Viśvanātha


karma-yogo viśiṣyata iti jñāninaḥ karma-karaṇe na ko ‚pi doṣaḥ | pratyuta niṣkāma-karmaṇā citta-śuddhi-dārḍhyāj jñāna-dārḍhyam eva syāt | saṃnyāsinas tu kadācit citta-vaiguṇye sati tad-upaśamanārthaṃ kiṃ karma niṣiddham ? jñānābhyāsa-pratibandhakaṃ tu citta-vaiguṇyam eva | viṣaya-grahaṇe tu vāntāśitvam eva syād iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ pṛṣṭo śrī-bhagavān uvāca saṃnyāsa iti | niḥśreyasa-karau mukti-hetū | karma-saṃnyāsāj jñāna-yogād viśiṣyate śreṣṭho bhavati | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ – na khalu labdha-jñānasyāpi karma-yogo doṣāvahaḥ | kintu jñāna-garbhatvāj jñāna-dārḍhya-kṛd eva | jñāna-niṣṭhatayā karma-sannyāsinas tu citta-doṣe sati tad-doṣa-vināśāya karmānuṣṭheyaṃ pratiṣedhaka-śāstrāt | karma-tyāga-vākyāni tv ātmani ratau satyāṃ karmāṇi taṃ svayaṃ tjayantīty āhuḥ | tasmāt sukaratvād apramādatvāj jñāna-garbhatvāc ca karma-yogaḥ śreyān iti

 
 


BhG 5.3

jñeyaḥ sa nitya-saṃnyāsī yo na dveṣṭi na kāṅkṣati
nirdvaṃdvo hi mahābāho sukhaṃ bandhāt pramucyate

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syntax


he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
yaḥ (he who) na dveṣṭi (he does not hates) na kāṅkṣati (he does not desire),
sa (he) nitya-sannyāsī (eternal renunciant) jñeyaḥ (to be known),
[sa] (he) nirdvaṁdvaḥ hi (indeed without opposites) bandhāt (from bondage) sukham (easily) pramucyate (he is released).

 

grammar

jñeyaḥ jñeya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 m.to be known, to be learnt;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
nitya-saṁnyāsī nitya-saṁnyāsin 1n.1 m.eternal renunciant (from: nitya – continual, eternal; sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, saṁnyāsa laying aside, resignation, renunciation, saṁnyāsin – an ascetic, renunciant; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
na av.not;
dveṣṭi dviṣ (to hate) Praes. P 1v.1he hates;
na av.not;
kāṅkṣati kāṅkṣ (to desire, to expect) Praes. P 1v.1he desires, he expects;
nirdvaṁdvaḥ nir-dvaṁdva 1n.1 m.without opposites (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without – mostly as prefix; dva – two, dvaṁ-dva – two-two, pair of opposites);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
sukham av.easily, comfortably (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
bandhāt bandha 5n.1 m.from fetters, from bondage (from: bandh – to bind, to fetter);
pramucyate pra-muc (to liberate, to release) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is released (from what? – pass. requires instrumental or ablative);

 

textual variants


nitya- → nityaṁ / eva (always / only);
nirdvaṁdvo → nirbaṁddho (insisting);
pramucyate → vimucyate (he is released);

 
 



Śāṃkara


kasmāt iti āha—

jñeyo jñātavyaḥ sa karma-yogī nitya-saṃnyāsī iti yo na dveṣṭi kiṃcit na kāṅkṣati duḥkha-sukhe tat-sādhane ca | evaṃvidho yaḥ, karmaṇi vartamāno’pi sa nitya-saṃnyāsī iti jñātavya ity arthaḥ | nirdvandvo dvandva-varjito hi yasmāt mahābāho sukhaṃ bandhād anāyāsena pramucyate

 

Rāmānuja


kuta ity atrāha

yaḥ karmayogī tadantargatātmānubhavatṛptas tadvyatiriktaṃ kim api na kāṅkṣati, tata eva kim api na dveṣṭi, tata eva dvandvasahaś ca; sa nityasaṃnyāsī nityajñānaniṣṭha iti jñeyaḥ / sa hi sukarakarmayoganiṣṭhatayā sukhaṃ bandhāt pramucyate

 

Śrīdhara


kuta ity apekṣāyāṃ saṃnyāsitvena karma-yoginaṃ stuvaṃs tasya śreṣṭhatvaṃ darśayati jñeya iti | rāga-dveṣādi-rāhityena parameśvarārthaṃ karmāṇi yo ‚nutiṣṭhati sa nityaṃ karmānuṣṭhāna-kāle ‚pi saṃnyāsīty evaṃ jñeyaḥ | tatra hetuḥ nirdvandvo rāga-dveṣādi-dvandva-śūnyo hi śuddha-citto jñāna-dvārā sukham anāyāsenaiva bandhāt saṃsārāt pramucyate

 

Madhusūdana


tam eva karma-yogaṃ stauti jñeya iti tribhiḥ | sa karmaṇi pravṛtto ‚pi nityaṃ saṃnyāsīti jñeyaḥ | ko ‚sau ? yo na dveṣṭi bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā kriyamāṇaṃ karma niṣphalatva-śaṅkayā | na kāṅkṣati svargādikam | nirdvandvo rāga-dveṣa-rahito hi yasmāt sukham anāyāsena he mahābāho bandhād antaḥkaraṇāśuddhi-rūpāj jñāna-pratibandhāt pramucyate nityānitya-vastu-vivekādi-prakarṣeṇa mukto bhavati

 

Viśvanātha


na ca sannyāsa-prāpyo mokṣo ‚kṛta-saṃnyāsenaiva tena na prāpya iti vācyam ity āha jñeya iti | sa tu śuddha-cittaḥ karmī nitya-saṃnyāsī eva jñeyaḥ | he mahābāho iti mukti-nagarīṃ jetuṃ sa eva mahāvīra iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


kuto viśiṣyate tatrāha jñeya iti | sa viśuddha-cittaḥ karma-yogī nitya-saṃnyāsī | sa sarvadā jñāna-yoga-niṣṭho jñeyaḥ | yaḥ karmāntargatātmānubhavānanda-paritṛptas tato ‚nyat kiṃcit na kāṅkṣati na ca dveṣṭi | nirdvandvo dvandva-sahiṣṇuḥ sukham anāyāsena sukara-karma-niṣṭhayety arthaḥ

 
 



BhG 5.4

sāṃkhya-yogau pṛthag bālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ
ekam apy āsthitaḥ samyag ubhayor vindate phalam

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bālāḥ (ignorant men) sāṁkhya-yogau (sāṁkhya and yoga) pṛthak (separately) pravadanti (they declare),
paṇḍitāḥ tu (but wise men) na [vadanti] (they do not declare).
ekam api (even one) samyak (properly) āsthitaḥ (having undertaken) ubhayoḥ (of both) phalaṁ (the fruit) vindate (he obtains).

 

grammar

sāṁkhya-yogau sāṁkhya-yoga 2n.2 m.; DV: sāṁkhyaś ca yogaś cetisāṁkhya and yoga (from: sam-khyā – to count, sāmkhya – relating to number, rational, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
pṛthak av.separately, one by one (from: pṛth – to extend);
bālāḥ bāla 1n.3 m.children, ignorants, immature;
pravadanti pra-vad (to speak, to declare) Praes. P 1v.3they declare;
na av.not;
paṇḍitāḥ paṇḍita 1n.3 m.the learned, wise (paṇḍā wisdom, knowledge);
ekam eka sn. 2n.1 n.one;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
āsthitaḥ ā-sthita (ā-sthā – to stand, to undertake) [PP] 1n.1 m.having undertaken;
samyak av.properly, entirely, the same (from: añc – to bend, to move, to go, samy-añc – going along, united, whole, proper);
ubhayoḥ ubha sn. 6n.2 m.of these two;
vindate vid (to find) Praes. Ā 1v.1 he obtains, he finds;
phalam phala 2n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);

 

textual variants


āsthitaḥāśritaḥ (sheltered);
ubhayor vindate phalam → ubhayoḥ phalam aśnute (he eats the fruit of both);

 
 


Śāṃkara


saṃnyāsa-karma-yogayor bhinna-puruṣānuṣṭheyayor viruddhayoḥ phale’pi virodho yuktaḥ | na tūbhayor niḥśreyasa-karatvam eveti prāpta idam ucyate—

sāṃkhya-yogau pṛthag viruddha-bhinna-phalau bālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ | paṇḍitās tu jñānina ekaṃ phalam aviruddham icchanti | kathaṃ ? ekam api sāṃkhya-yogayoḥ samyag āsthitaḥ samyag anuṣṭhitavān ity arthaḥ, ubhayor vindate phalam | ubhayos tad eva hi niḥśreyasaṃ phalam | ato na phale virodho’sti |

nanu saṃnyāsa-karma-yoga-śabdena prastutya sāṃkhya-yogayoḥ phalaikatvaṃ katham ihāprakṛtaṃ bravīti ? naiṣa doṣaḥ—yadyapy arjunena saṃnyāsaṃ karma-yogaṃ ca kevalam abhipretya praśnaḥ kṛtaḥ | bhagavāṃs tu tad-aparityāgenaiva svābhipretaṃ ca viśeṣaṃ saṃyojya śabdāntara-vācyatayā prativacanaṃ dadau sāṃkhya-yogāv iti | tāv eva saṃnyāsa-karma-yogau jñāna-tad-upāya-sama-buddhitvādi-saṃyuktau sāṃkhya-yoga-śabda-vācyāv iti bhagavato matam | ato na aprakṛta-prakriyeti

 

Rāmānuja


jñānayogakarmayogayor ātmaprāptisādhanabhāve ‚nyonyanairapekṣyam āha

jñānayogakarmayogau phalabhedāt pṛthag bhūtau ye pravadanti, te bālāḥ aniṣpannajñānāḥ na paṇḍitāḥ akṛtsnavidaḥ / karmayogo jñānayogam eva sādhayati; jñānayogas tv eka ātmāvalokanaṃ sādhayatīti tayoḥ phalabhedena pṛthaktvaṃ vadanto na paṇḍitā ityarthaḥ / ubhayor ātmāvalokanaikaphalayor ekaphalatvena ekam apy āsthitas tad eva phalaṃ labhate

 

Śrīdhara


yasmād evam aṅga-pradhānatvenobhayor avasthā-bhedena krama-samuccayaḥ | ato vikalpam aṅgīkṛtyobhayoḥ kaḥ śreṣṭha iti praśno ‚jñāninām evocitaḥ | na vivekinām ity āha sāṅkhya-yogāv iti | sāṅkhya-śabdena jñāna-niṣṭhā-vācinā tad-aṅgaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ lakṣayati | saṃnyāsa-karma-yogau eka-phalau santau pṛthak svatantrāv iti bālā ajñā eva pravadanti na tu paṇḍitāḥ | tatra hetuḥ – anayor ekam apy samyag āsthita āśritavān ubhayor api phalam āpnoti | tathā hi karma-yogaṃ samyag anutiṣṭhan śuddha-cittaḥ san jñāna-dvārā yad ubhayoḥ phalaṃ kaivalyaṃ tad vindati | saṃnyāsaṃ samyag āsthito ‚pi pūrvam anuṣṭhitasya karma-yogasyāpi paramparayā jñāna-dvārā yad ubhayoḥ phalaṃ kaivalyaṃ tad vindatīti na pṛthak phalatvam anayor ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanu yaḥ karmaṇi pravṛttaḥ sa kathaṃ saṃnyāsīti jñātavyaḥ karma-tat-tyāgayoḥ svarūpa-virodhāt phalaikyāt tatheti cet, na | svarūpato viruddhayoḥ phale ‚pi virodhasyaucityāt | tathā ca niḥśreyasa-karāv ubhāv ity anupapannam ity āśaṅkyāha sāṃkhya-yogāv iti | saṃkhyā samyag ātma-buddhis tāṃ vahatīti jñānāntaraṅga-sādhanatayā sāṅkhyaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ | yogaḥ pūrvokta-karma-yogaḥ | tau pṛthag viruddha-phalau bālāḥ śāstrārtha-viveka-jñāna-śūnyāḥ pravadanti, na paṇḍitāḥ | kiṃ tarhi paṇḍitānāṃ matam ? ucyate – ekam apy saṃnyāsa-karmaṇor madhye samyag āsthitaḥ svādhikārānurūpeṇa samyag yathā-śāstraṃ kṛtavān sann ubhayor vindate phalam jñānotpatti-dvāreṇa niḥśreyasam ekam eva

 

Viśvanātha


tasmād yac chreya evaitayor iti tvad-uktam api vastuto na ghaṭate | vivekibhir ubhayoḥ pārthakyābhāvasya dṛṣṭatvād ity āha sāṃkhya-yogāv iti | sāṃkhya-śabdena jñāna-niṣṭhā-vācinā tad-aṅgaḥ saṃnyāso lakṣyate | saṃnyāsa-karma-yogau pṛthak svatantrāv iti bālāḥ vadanti, na tu vijñāḥ jñeyaḥ sa nitya-saṃnyāsī iti pūrvokteḥ | ata ekam apīty ādi

 

Baladeva


yaḥ śreya etayor ekam iti tvad-vākyaṃ ca na ghaṭata ity āha sāṃkhyeti | jñāna-yoga-karma-yogau phala-bhedāt pṛthag-bhūtāv iti bālāḥ pravadanti, na tu paṇḍitāḥ | ataeva ekam ity ādi phalam ātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇam
 
 


BhG 5.5

yat sāṃkhyaiḥ prāpyate sthānaṃ tad yogair api gamyate
ekaṃ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati

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sāṅkhyaiḥ (by followers of sāṁkhya) yat sthānam (that position which) prāpyate (it is obtained),
yogaiḥ api (by followers of yoga, too) tat (that) gamyate (it is reached).
yaḥ (he who) sāṅkhyaṁ ca (and sāṁkhya) yogaṁ ca (and yoga) ekam (one) paśyati (he sees),
saḥ (he) [samyak] (properly) paśyati (he sees).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
sāṁkhyaiḥ sāṁkhya 3n.3 m.by followers of sāṁkhya (from: sam-khyā – to count, sāmkhya – relating to number, rational, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
prāpyate pra-āp (to obtain, to reach) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is obtained;
sthānam sthāna 2n.1 n.state, place, position (from: sthā – to stand);
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
yogaiḥ yoga 3n.3 m.by followers of yoga (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
gamyate gam (to go) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is reached;
ekam eka sn. 2n.1 n.one;
sāṁkhyam sāṁkhya 2n.1 n. sāmkhya (from: sam-khyā – to count, sāmkhya – relating to number, rational, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
ca av.and;
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
ca av.and;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;

 

textual variants


sthānaṁ → jñānaṁ (knowledge);
api gamyateanugamyate / anugīyate / adhigamyate (it is reached / it is sung / it is obtained);

The fourth pada of verse 5.5 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 13.27;

 
 



Śāṃkara


ekasyāpi samyag anuṣṭhānāt katham ubhayoḥ phalaṃ vindate ? ity ucyate—

yat sāṃkhyair jñāna-niṣṭhaiḥ saṃnyāsibhiḥ prāpyate sthānaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ tad yogair api jñāna-prāpty-upāyatveneśvare samarpya karmāṇy ātmanaḥ phalam anabhisaṃdhāyānutiṣṭhanti ye te yogā yoginaḥ | tair api paramārtha-jñāna-saṃnyāsa-prāpti-dvāreṇa gamyata ity abhiprāyaḥ | ata ekaṃ sāṅkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca yaḥ paśyati phalaikatvāt sa paśyati samyak paśyatīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


etad eva vivṛṇoti

sāṃkhyaiḥ jñānaniṣṭhaiḥ / yad atmāvalokanarūpaṃ phalaṃ prāpyate, tad eva karmayoganiṣṭhair api prāpyate / evam ekaphalatvena ekaṃ vaikalpikaṃ sāṃkhyaṃ yogaṃ ca yaḥ paśyati, sa paśyati sa eva paṇḍita ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


etad eva sphuṭayati yat sāṃkhyair iti | sāṃkhyair jñāna-niṣṭhaiḥ saṃnyāsibhir yat sthānaṃ mokṣākhyaṃ prakarṣeṇa sākṣād avāpyate, yogair ity ārśa āditvān matv-arthīyo ‚c-pratyayo draṣṭavyaḥ | tena karma-yogibhir api tad eva jñāna-dvāreṇa gamyate ‚vāpyate | ataḥ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca ekaphalatvena ekaṃ yaḥ paśyati sa eva samyak paśyati

 

Madhusūdana


ekasyānuṣṭhānāt katham ubhayoḥ phalaṃ vindate tathāha yat sāṃkhyair iti | sāṅkhyair jñāna-niṣṭhaiḥ saṃnyāsibhir aihika-karmānuṣṭhāna-śūnyatve ‚pi prāg-bhavīya-karmabhir eva saṃskṛtāntaḥ-karaṇaiḥ śravaṇādi-pūrvikayā jñāna-niṣṭhayā yat prasiddhaṃ sthānaṃ tiṣṭhaty evāsmin na tu kadāpi cyavata iti vyutpattyā mokṣākhyaṃ prāpyata āvaraṇābhāva-mātreṇa labhyata iva nitya-prāptatvāt, yogair api bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā phalābhisandhi-rāhityena kṛtāni karmāṇi śāstrīyāṇi yogās te yeṣāṃ santi te ‚pi yogāḥ | arśa-āditvān matv-arthīyo ‚c-pratyayaḥ | tair yogibhir api sattva-śuddhyā saṃhyāsa-pūrvaka-śravaṇādi-puraḥ-sarayā jñāna-niṣṭhayā vartamāne bhaviṣyati vā janmani sampatsyamānayā tat sthānaṃ gamyate | ata eka-phalatvād ekaṃ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca yaḥ paśyati sa eva samyak paśyati nānyaḥ |

ayaṃ bhāvaḥ yeṣāṃ saṃnyāsa-pūrvikā jñāna-niṣṭhā dṛśyate teṣāṃ tayaiva liṅgena prāg-janmasu bhagavad-arpita-karma-niṣṭhānumīyate | kāraṇam antareṇa kāryotpatty-ayogāt | tad uktam –

yāny ato ‚nyāni janmāni teṣu nūnaṃ kṛtaṃ bhavet |
yat kṛtyaṃ puruṣeṇeha nānyathā brahmaṇi sthitiḥ || iti |

evaṃ yeṣāṃ bhagavad-arpita-karma-niṣṭhā dṛśyate teṣāṃ tayaiva liṅgena bhāvinī saṃnyāsa-pūrvajñāna-niṣṭhānumīyate sāmagryāḥ kāryāvyabhicāritvāt | tasmād ajñena mumukṣuṇāntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhaye prathamaṃ karma-yogo ‚nuṣṭheyo na tu saṃnyāsaḥ | sa tu vairāgya-tīvratāyāṃ svayam eva bhaviṣyatīti

 

Viśvanātha


etad eva spaṣṭayati yad iti | sāṃkhyaiḥ sannyāsena yogair niṣkāma-karmaṇā | bahu-vacanaṃ gauraveṇa | ataeva tad dvayaṃ pṛthag-bhūtam api yo vivekenaikam eva paśyati sa paśyati, cakṣuṣmān paṇḍita ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


etad viśadayati yad iti | sāṃkhyair jñāna-yogibhir yogaiḥ niṣkāma-karmabhiḥ | arśa ādy ac | sthānaṃ ātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇam | ataeva tad dvayaṃ nivṛtti-pravṛtti-rūpatayā bhinna-rūpam api phalaikyād ekaṃ yaḥ paśyati vetti, sa paśyati sa cakṣuṣmān paṇḍita ity arthaḥ

 
 


BhG 5.6

saṃnyāsas tu mahābāho duḥkham āptum ayogataḥ
yoga-yukto munir brahma nacireṇādhigacchati

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he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
ayogataḥ (because of lack of yoga) sannyāsaḥ (renunciation) duḥkham (difficult) āptum (to obtain),
yoga-yuktaḥ tu (but engaged in yoga) muniḥ (sage) na cireṇa (speedily) brahma (brahman) adhigacchati (he obtains).

 

grammar

saṁnyāsaḥ saṁnyāsa 1n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
duḥkham av.with difficulty (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness);
or duḥkha 2n.1 n.pain, difficulty;
āptum āp (to obtain, to reach) [inf.] – to obtain;
a-yogataḥ av. because of lack of yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
yoga-yuktaḥ yoga-yukta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yogena yuktaḥ iti engaged in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
muniḥ muni 1n.1 m.sage, saint, seer (from: man – to think, to imagine);
brahma brahman 2n.1 n.spirit (from: bṛh – to increase);
na-cireṇa av.speedily, not for long (from: cira – long, delay);
adhigacchati adhi-gam (to cross over, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


brahma → brahman (O knower of the Veda!);
na cireṇa → acireṇa (quickly);

 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ tarhi yogāt saṃnyāsa eva viśiṣyate | kathaṃ tarhīdam uktaṃ tayos tu karma-saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate [gītā 5.2] iti ? sṛṇu tatra kāraṇaṃ—tvayā pṛṣṭāṃ kevalaṃ karma-saṃnyāsaṃ karma-yogaṃ cābhipretya tayor anyataraḥ kaḥ śreyān ? iti | tad-anurūpaṃ prativacanaṃ mayoktaṃ karma-saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate iti jñānam anapekṣya | jñānāpekṣas tu saṃnyāsaḥ sāṃkhyam iti mayābhipretaḥ | paramārtha-yogaś ca sa eva | yas tu karma-yogo vaidikaḥ sa ca tādarthyāt yogaḥ saṃnyāsa iti copacaryate | kathaṃ tādarthyaṃ ? ity ucyate—

saṃnyāsas tu pāramārthiko duḥkham āptuṃ prāptum ayogato yogena vinā | yoga-yukto vaidikena karma-yogena vaidikena karma-yogeneśvara-samarpita-rūpeṇa phala-nirapekṣeṇa yukto muniḥ | mananād īśvara-svarūpasya muniḥ | brahma paramātma-jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇatvāt prakṛtaḥ saṃnyāso brahmocyate | nyāsa iti brahmā brahmā hi paraḥ [mātrahānāruttaṃ 78] iti śruteḥ | brahma paramārtha-saṃnyāsaṃ paramārtha-jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇaṃ na cireṇa kṣipram evādhigacchati prāpnoti | ato mayoktaṃ karma-yogo viśiṣyata iti

 

Rāmānuja


iyān viśeṣa ity āhā

saṃnyāsaḥ jñānayogas tu ayogataḥ karmayogād rte prāptum aśakyaḥ; yogayuktaḥ karmayogayuktaḥ svayam eva muniḥ ātmamananaśīlaḥ sukhena karmayogaṃ sādhayitvā na cireṇa alpenaiva kālena brahmādhigacchati ātmānaṃ prāpnoti / jñānayogayuktas tu mahatā duḥkhena jñānayogaṃ sādhayati; duḥkhasādhyatvād ātmānaṃ cireṇa prāpnotītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


yadi karma-yogino ‚py antataḥ saṃnyāsenaiva jñāna-nisṭhā tarhy ādita eva saṃnyāsaḥ kartuṃ yukta iti manvānaṃ praty āha saṃnyāsa iti | ayogataḥ karma-yogaṃ vinā saṃnyāso duḥkham āptum duḥkha-hetuḥ | aśakya ity arthaḥ | citta-śuddhy-abhāvena jñāna-niṣṭhāyā asambhavāt | yoga-yuktas tu śuddha-cittatayā muniḥ saṃnyāsī bhūtvācireṇaiva brahmādhigacchati | aparokṣaṃ jānāti | ataś citta-śuddheḥ prāk karma-yoga eva saṃnyāsād viśiṣyata iti pūrvoktaṃ siddham | tad uktaṃ vārttika-kṛdbhiḥ –

pramādino bahiś cittāḥ piśunāḥ kalahotsukāḥ |
sannyāsino ‚pi dṛśyante daiva-sandūṣitāśrayāḥ || iti

 

Madhusūdana


aśuddhāntaḥkaraṇenāpi saṃnyāsa eva prathamaṃ kuto na kriyate jñāna-niṣṭhā-hetutvena tasyāvaśakatvād iti cet tatrāha saṃnyāsa iti | ayogato yogam antaḥ-karaṇa-śodhakaṃ śāstrīyaṃ karmāntareṇa haṭhād eva yaḥ kṛtaḥ saṃnyāsaḥ sa tu duḥkham āptum eva bhavati, aśuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvena tat-phalasya jñāna-nisṭhāyā asambhavāt | śodhake ca karmaṇy anadhikārāt karma-brahmobhaya-bhraṣṭatvena parama-saṅkaṭāpatteḥ | karma-yoga-yuktas tu śuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvān munir manana-śīlaḥ saṃnyāsī bhūtvā brahma satya-jñānādi-lakṣaṇam ātmānaṃ na cireṇa śīghram evādhigacchati sākṣātkaroti pratibandhakābhāvāt | etac coktaṃ prāg eva –

na karmaṇām anārambhān naiṣkarmyaṃ puruṣo ‚śnute |
na ca saṃnyasanād eva siddhiṃ samadhigacchati || [Gītā 3.4] iti |

ata eka-phalatve ‚pi karma-saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyata iti yat prāg uktaṃ tad upapannam

 

Viśvanātha


kintu samyak-citta-śuddhim anirdhārayato jñāninaḥ saṃnyāso duḥkhadaḥ karma-yogas tu sukhada eveti pūrva-vyañjitam arthaṃ spaṣṭam evāha saṃnyāsas tv iti | citta-vaiguṇye satīti śeṣaḥ | ayogataḥ karma-yogābhāvāc citta-vaiguṇya-praśāmaka-karma-yogasya saṃnyāsiny abhāvāt tatra anadhikārād ity arthaḥ | saṃnyāso duḥkham eva prāptuṃ bhavati | tad uktaṃ vārttika-kṛdbhiḥ –

pramādino bahiś cittāḥ piśunāḥ kalahotsukāḥ |
sannyāsino ‚pi dṛśyante daiva-sandūṣitāśrayāḥ || iti |

śrutir api -yadi na samuddharanti yatayo hṛdi kāma-jaṭā iti | bhagavatāpi yas tva saṃyata-ṣaḍ-vargaḥ [BhP 11.18.40] ity ādy uktam | tasmād yoga-yuktaḥ niṣkāma-karmavān munir jñānī san brahma śīghraṃ prāpnoti

 

Baladeva


jñāna-yogasya duṣkaratvāt sukara-karma-yogaḥ śreyān ity āha saṃnyāsas tv iti | saṃnyāsaḥ sarvendriya-vyāpāra-vinivṛtti-rūpo jñāna-yogaḥ | ayogataḥ karma-yogaṃ vinā duḥkhaṃ prāptum bhavati | duṣkaratvāt sapramādatvāc ca duḥkha-hetur eva syād ity arthaḥ | yoga-yukta-niṣkāma-karmī tu munir ātma-manana-śīlaḥ sann acireṇa śīghram eva brahmādhigacchati

 
 


BhG 5.7

yoga-yukto viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitendriyaḥ
sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā kurvann api na lipyate

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syntax


yoga-yuktaḥ (engaged in yoga) viśuddhātmā (whose self is purified) vijitātmā (whose self is conquered) jitendriyaḥ (who conquered the senses) sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā (whose self became the self of all creatures)
[saḥ puruṣaḥ] (such a person) kurvan api (although working) na lipyate (he is not stained).

 

grammar

yoga-yuktaḥ yoga-yukta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yogena yuktaḥ iti engaged in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
viśuddhātmā viśuddha-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā viśuddho ‘sti saḥwhose self is purified (from: vi-śudh – to become pure, [PP] viśuddha – purified, cleansed; ātman – self);
vijitātmā vijita-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā vijito ‘sti saḥwhose self is conquered (from: vi-ji – to conquer, [PP] vi-jita – conquered, defeated; ātman – self);
jitendriyaḥ jita-indriya 1n.1 m.; BV: yenendriyāṇi jitāni santi saḥwho conquered his senses (from: ji – to conquer, [PP] jita – conquered; ind – to be powerful; indriya – the senses);
sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā sarva-bhūta-ātma-bhūta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya ātmā sarveṣāṁ bhūtānāṁ ātma-bhūto ‘sti saḥ whose self became the self of all creatures (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; ātman – self);
kurvan kurvant (kṛ to do) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] doing, [while] working;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
na av.not;
lipyate lip (to smear, to anoint, to stain, to stick) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is smeared, he is stained;

 

textual variants


vijitātmā → saṁyatātmā (whose self is restrained);
kurvann api → kurvan vāpi / kurvaṇo ‘pi (or even [while] working / even of one who is performing);

 
 



Śāṃkara


yadā punar ayaṃ samyag-darśana-prāpty-upāyatvena—

yogena yukto yoga-yukto viśuddhātmā viśuddha-sattvo vijitātmā vijita-deho jitendriyaś ca sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā sarveṣāṃ brahmādīnāṃ stamba-paryantānāṃ bhūtānām ātma-bhūta ātmā pratyak-cetano yasya sa sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā samyag-darśīty arthaḥ | sa tatraivaṃ vartamāno loka-saṃgrahāya karma kurvann api na lipyate na karmabhir badhyate ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


karmayogayuktas tu śāstrīye paramapuruṣārādhanarūpe viśuddhe karmaṇi vartamānaḥ tena viśuddhamanāḥ vijitātmā svābhyaste te karmaṇi vyāpṛtamanastvena sukhena vijitamanāḥ , tata eva jitendiyaḥ kartur ātmano yāthātmyānusandhānaniṣṭhatayā sarvabhūtātmabhūtātmā sarveṣāṃ devādibhūtānām ātmabhūta ātmā yasyāsau sarvabhūtātmabhūtātmā / ātmayāthātmyam anusandhānasya hi devādīnāṃ svasya caikākāra ātmā; devādibhedānāṃ prakṛtipariṇāmaviśeṣarūpatayātmākāratvāsaṃbhavāt / prakṛtiviyuktaḥ sarvatra devādideheṣu jñānaikākāratayā samānākāra iti „nirdoṣaṃ hi samaṃ brahma” iti anantaram eva vakṣyate / sa evaṃbhūtaḥ karma kurvann api anātmany ātmābhimānena na lipyate na saṃbadhyate / ato ‚cireṇātmānaṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


karma-yogādi-krameṇa brahmādhigame saty api tad-uparitanena karmaṇā bandhaḥ syād evety āśaṅkyāha yoga-yukta iti | yogena yuktaḥ | ataeva viśuddha ātmā cittaṃ yasya saḥ | ataeva vijita ātmā śarīraṃ yena | ataeva jitānīndriyāṇi yena | tataś ca sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām ātma-bhūta ātmā yasya sa loka-saṅgrahārthaṃ svābhāvikaṃ vā karma kurvann api na lipyate

 

Madhusūdana


nanu karmaṇo bandha-hetutvād yoga-yukto munir brahmādhigacchatīty anupapannam ity ata āha yoga-yukta iti | bhagavad-arpaṇa-phalābhisandhi-rāhityādi-guṇa-yuktaṃ śāstrīyaṃ karma yoga ity ucyate | tena yogena yuktaḥ puruṣaḥ prathamaṃ viśuddhātmā viśuddho rajas-tamo-bhyām akaluṣita ātmāntaḥkaraṇa-rūpaṃ sattvaṃ yasya sa tathā | nirmalāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ san vijitātmā sva-vaśīkṛta-dehaḥ | tato jitendriyaḥ sva-vaśīkṛta-sarva-bāhyendriyaḥ | etena manūktas tridaṇḍī kathitaḥ –

vāg-daṇḍo ‚tha mano-daṇḍaḥ kāya-daṇḍas tathaiva ca |
yasyaite nityatā daṇḍāḥ sa tridaṇḍīti kathyata || iti |

vāg iti bāhyendriyopalakṣaṇam | etādṛśasya tattva-jñānam avaśyaṃ bhavatīty āha sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtātmā sarva-bhūta ātma-bhūtaś cātmā svarūpaṃ yasya sa tathā | jaḍājaḍātmakaṃ sarva ātma-mātraṃ paśyann ity arthaḥ | sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām ātma-bhūta ātmā yasyeti vyākhyāne tu sarva-bhūtātmety etāvataivārtah-lābhād ātma-bhūtety adhikaṃ syāt | sarvātma-padayor jaḍājaḍa-paratve tu samañjasam | etādṛśaḥ paramārtha-darśī kurvann api karmāṇi para-dṛṣṭyā na lipyate taiḥ karmabhiḥ sva-dṛṣṭyā tad-abhāvād ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


kṛtenāpi karmaṇā jñāninas tasya na lepa ity āha yogeti | yoga-yukto jñānī trividhaḥ – viśuddhātmā vijita-buddhir ekaḥ | vijitātmā viśuddha-citto dvitīyaḥ | jitendriyas tṛtīya iti | pūrva-pūrveṣāṃ sādhana-tāratamyād utkarṣaḥ | etādṛśe gṛhasthe tu sarve ‚pi jīvā anurajyantīty āha sarveṣām api bhūtānām ātma-bhūtaḥ premāspadībhūta ātmā deho yasya saḥ

 

Baladeva


īdṛśī mumukṣuḥ sarveṣāṃ preyān ity āha yogeti | yoge niṣkāme karmaṇi yukto nirataḥ | ataeva viśuddhātmā nirmala-buddhiḥ | ataeva vijitātmā vaśīkṛta-manāḥ | ataeva jitendriyaḥ śabdādi-viṣaya-rāga-śūnyaḥ | ataeva sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ jīvānām ātma-bhūtaḥ premāspadatām gata ātmā deho yasya saḥ | na cātra pārtha-sārathinā sarvātmaikyam abhimatam – na tv evāham ity ādinā sarvātmanāṃ mitho bhedasya tenābhidhānāt | tad-vādināpi vijñājñābhedasya vaktum aśaktyatvāc ca | evambhūtaḥ kurvann api viviktātmānusandhānād anātmany ātmābhimānena na lipyate acireṇātmānam adhigacchati | ataḥ karma-yogaḥ śreyān

 
 

BhG 5.8-9

naiva kiṃ-cit karomīti yukto manyeta tattva-vit
paśyañ śṛṇvan spṛśañ jighrann aśnan gacchan svapañ śvasan
pralapan visṛjan gṛhṇann unmiṣan nimiṣann api
indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan

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syntax


yuktaḥ (engaged) tattva-vit (knower of the truth) paśyan (seeing) śṛṇvan (hearing) spṛśan (touching) jighran (smelling) aśnan (eating) gacchan (going) svapan (sleeping) śvasan (breathing) pralapan (speaking) visṛjan (evacuating) gṛhṇan (taking) unmiṣan (opening the eyes) nimiṣan api (closingthe eyes),
indriyāṇi (the senses) indriyārtheṣu (in the objects of the senses) vartante (they work) iti (thus) dhārayan (considering),
[ahaṁ] (I) kiṁ-cit eva (indeed something) na karomi (I do not do) iti (thus) manyeta (he would think).

 

grammar

na av.not;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kiṁ-cit kiṁ-cit sn. 2n.1 n.something (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
karomi kṛ (to do) Praes. P 3v.1I do;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
manyeta man (to think) Pot. Ā 1v.1he would think;
tattva-vit tattva-vit 1n.1 m.; yaḥ tattvaṁ vetti saḥwho knows the truth (from: tat – that, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
paśyan paśyant (dṛś – to see) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] seeing;
śṛṇvan śṛṇvant (śru – to hear) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] hearing;
spṛśan spṛśant (spṛś – to touch) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] touching;
jighran jighrant (ghrā – to smell) PPr 1n.1[while] smelling;
aśnan aśnant ( – to reach, to eat, to enjoy) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] eating;
gacchan gacchant (gam – to go) PPr 1n.1 m. [while] going;
svapan svapant (svap – to sleep) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] sleeping;
śvasan śvasant (śvas – to breath) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] breathing;

*****

pralapan pra-lapant (pra-lap – to speak) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] speaking;
visṛjan visṛjant (vi-sṛj – emitować) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] evacuating;
gṛhṇan gṛhṇant (grah – to take) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] taking;
unmiṣan un-miṣant (ud-miṣ – to open the eyes) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] opening the eyes;
nimiṣan ni-miṣant (ni-miṣ – to close the eyes) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] closing the eyes;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
indriyāṇi indriya 1n.3 n.the senses (from: ind – to be powerful);
indriyārtheṣu indriya-artha 7n.3 m.; [TP]: indriyāṇām artheṣv itiin the objects of the senses (from: ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth);
vartante vṛt (to move, to happen, to act) Praes. Ā 1v.3they move, they work;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
dhārayan dhārayant (dhṛ – to hold) caus. PPr 1n.1 m.[while] holding, [while] considering;

 

textual variants


svapañ śvasanśvasan svapan / svapañ japan (breathing, sleeping / sleeping, murmuring);
aśnan gacchan svapañ śvasan → bhuṁjan gacchañ śvasan smayan (eating, walking, breathing, smiling);
visṛjan → vilapan (lamenting);
 
 


Śāṃkara


na cāsau paramārthataḥ karotīty ataḥ—

yuktaḥ samāhitaḥ san manyeta cintayet | tattvavid ātmano yāthātmyaṃ tattvaṃ vettīti tattva-vit paramārtha-darśīty arthaḥ | kadā kathaṃ vā tattvam avadhārayan manyeta ? ity ucyate | manyeteti pūrveṇa saṃbandhaḥ | yasyaivaṃ tattva-vidaḥ sarva-kārya-karaṇa-ceṣṭāsu karmasv akarmaiva paśyataḥ samyag-darśinas tasya sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa evādhikāraḥ karmaṇo’bhāva-darśanāt | na hi mṛga-tṛṣṇikāyām udaka-buddhyā pānāya pravṛtta udakābhāva-jñāne’pi tatraiva pāna-prayojanāya pravartate

 

Rāmānuja


yataḥ saukaryāc chaighryāc ca karmayoga eva śreyān, atas tadapekṣitaṃ śṛṇu

evam ātmatattvavic śrotrādīni jñānendriyāṇi, vāgādīni ca karmendriyāṇi, praṇāś ca svaviṣayeṣu vartanta iti dhārayan anusandhānaḥ nāhaṃ kiṃcit karomīti manyeta jñānaikasvabhāvasya mama karmamūlendriyaprāṇasaṃbandhakṛtam īdṛśaṃ kartṛtvam; na svarūpaprayuktam iti manyetetyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


karma kurvann api na lipyata ity etad viruddham ity āśaṅkya kartṛtvābhimānābhāvān na viruddham ity āha naiveti dvābhyām | karma-yogena yuktaḥ krameṇa tattvavid bhūtvā darśana-śravaṇādīni kurvann apīndriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan buddhyā niścinvan kiṃcid apy ahaṃ na karomīti manyeta manyate | tatra darśana-śravaṇa-sparśanāghrānāśanāni cakṣur-ādi-jñānendriya-vyāpārāḥ | gatiḥ pādayoḥ | svāpo buddheḥ | śvāsaḥ prāṇasya | pralapanaṃ vāg-indriyasya | visargaḥ pāyūpasthayoḥ | grahaṇaṃ hastayoḥ | unmeṣaṇa-nimeṣaṇe kūrmākhya-prāṇasyeti vivekaḥ | etāni karmāṇi kurvann api abhimānābhāvād brahma-vin na lipyate | tathā ca parāmarṣaṃ sūtram – tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvāghayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśād iti

 

Madhusūdana


etad eva vivṛṇoti naiveti dvābhyām | cakṣur-ādi-jñānendriyair vāg-ādi-karmendriyaiḥ prāṇā̆di-vāyu-bhedair antaḥ-karaṇa-catuṣṭayena ca tat-tac-ceṣṭāsu kriyamāṇāsu indriyāṇīndriyādīny evendriyārtheṣu sva-sva-viṣayeṣu vartante pravartante na tv aham iti dhārayann avadhārayann naiva kiṃcit karomīti manyeta manyate tattvavit paramārtha-darśī yuktaḥ samāhita-cittaḥ | athavādau yuktaḥ karma-yogena paścād antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvāreṇa tattvavid bhūtvā naiva kiṃcit karomīti manyata iti sambandhaḥ |

tatra darśana-śravaṇa-sparśana-ghrāṇāśanāni cakṣuḥ-śrotra-tvag-ghrāṇa-rasanānāṃ pañca-jñānendriyāṇāṃ vyāpārāḥ paśyan śṛṇvan spṛśañ jighrann aśnann ity uktāḥ | gatiḥ pādayoḥ | pralāpo vācaḥ | visargaḥ pāyūpasthayoḥ | grahaṇaṃ hastayor iti pañca karmendriya-vyāpārā gacchan pralapan visṛjan gṛhṇann ity uktāḥ | śvasann iti prāṇādi-pañcakasya vyāpāropalakṣaṇam | unmiṣan nimiṣann iti nāga-kūrmādi-pañcakasya | svapann ity antaḥ-karaṇa-catuṣṭayasya | artha-krama-vaśāt pāṭha-kramaṃ bhaṅktvā vyākhyātāv imau ślokau | yasmāt sarva-vyāpāreṣv apy ātmano ‚kartṛtvam eva paśyati | ataḥ kurvann api na lipyata iti yuktam evoktam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


yena karmaṇālepas taṃ prakāraṃ śikṣayati naiveti | yuktaḥ karma-yogī darśanādīni kurvann apīndriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan buddhyā niścinvan nirabhimānaḥ kiṃcid apy ahaṃ naiva karomīti manyate

 

Baladeva


śuddhasyātmano ‚dhiṣṭhānādi-pañcāpekṣita-karma-kartṛtvaṃ nāstīty upadiśati naiveti | yukto niṣkāma-karmī prādhānika-dehendriyādi-saṃsargād darśanādīni karmāṇi kurvann api tattva-vit viviktam ātma-tattvam anubhavan indriyārtheṣu rūpādiṣu indriyāṇi cakṣur-ādīni mad-vāsanānuguṇa-paramātma-preritāni vartanta iti dhārayan niścinvann ahaṃ kiṃcid api na karomīti manyate | paśyañ śṛṇvan spṛśañ jighrann aśnann iti cakṣuḥ-śrotra-tvag-ghrāṇa-rasanānāṃ jñānendriyāṇāṃ darśana-śravaṇa-sparśanāghrānāśanāni vyāpārāḥ | tatra gamanaṃ pādayoḥ | pralāpo vācaḥ | visargānandaḥ pāyūpasthayoḥ | grahaṇaṃ hastayor iti bodhyam | śvasann iti prāṇādīnām unmiṣan nimiṣann iti nāgādīnāṃ prāṇa-bhedānām | svapann ity antaḥkaraṇānām ity arthaḥ kramād vyākhyeyam | vijñāna-sukhaika-rasasya mamānādi-vāsanā-hetuka-prādhānika-dehādi-sambandha-nimittaṃ tadīdṛśa-karma-kartṛtvam, na tu svarūpaika-nimittam iti manyata ity arthaḥ | na svarūpa-prayuktam ātmanaḥ kartṛtvaṃ kiṃcid api nāstīti śakyam abhidhātuṃ nirdhāraṇe manane ca tasyābhidhānāt | tat tac ca jñānam eva tac cātmano nityam | na hi vijñātur vijñāter viparilāpo vidyate iti śruteḥ | tat-siddhiś ca hariṇā dharma-bhūtena jñānena ca ity āhuḥ

 
 

BhG 5.10

brahmaṇy ādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ
lipyate na sa pāpena padma-patram ivāmbhasā

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) brahmaṇi (in brahman) karmāṇi (activities) ādhāya (after placing)
saṅgam (attachment) tyaktvā (after abandoning)
[karmāṇi] (activities) karoti (he does),
saḥ (he) pāpena (by sin) na lipyate (he is not stained)
padma-patram iva (as if the leaf of a lotus) ambhasā (by water) [na lipyate] (it is not stained).

 

grammar

brahmaṇi brahman 7n.1 n.in spirit (from: bṛh – to increase);
ādhāya ā-dhā (to put, to place) absol.after placing;
karmāṇi karman 2n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
saṅgam saṅga 2n.1m. – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
karoti kṛ (to do) Praes. P 1v.1he does;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
lipyate lip (to smear, to anoint, to stain, to stick) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is smeared, he is stained;
na av.not;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
pāpena pāpa 3n.1 n.by evil, by sin;
padma-patram padma-patra 1n.1 n.; [TP]: padmasya patram itileaf of a lotus (from: padma – lotus; patra / pattra – wing, leaf, petal, paper);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
ambhasā ambhas 3n.1 n.by water;

 

textual variants


ādhāya → ādāya (after taking);

 
 


Śāṃkara


yas tu punar atattva-vit pravṛttaś ca karma-yoge—

brahmaṇīśvara ādhāya nikṣipya tad-arthaṃ karma karomīti bhṛtya iva svāmy-arthaṃ sarvāṇi karmāṇi | mokṣe’pi phale saṅgaṃ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ sarva-karmāṇi, lipyate na sa pāpena na saṃbadhyate padma-patram ivāmbhasodakena

 

Rāmānuja


brahmaśabdena prakṛtir ihocyate / „mama yonir mahad brahma” iti hi vakṣyate / indriyāṇāṃ prakṛtipariṇāmaviśeṣarūpatvena indriyākāreṇāvasthitāyāṃ prakṛtau „paśyañ chṛṇvan” ityādyuktaprakāreṇa karmāṇy ādhāya, phalasaṅgaṃ tyaktvā, naiva kiṃcit karomīti yaḥ karmāṇi karoti, sa prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭatayā vartamāno ‚pi prakṛtyātmābhimānarūpeṇa bandhahetunā pāpena na lipyate / padmapatram ivāmbhasā yathā padmapatram ambhasā saṃsṛṣṭam api na lipyate, tathā na lipyata ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tarhi yasya karomīti abhimāno ‚sti tasya karma-lepo durvāraḥ | tathāviśuddha-cittatvāt saṃnyāso ‚pi nāsti iti mahat saṅkaṭam āpannam ity āśaṅkyāha brahmaṇīti | brahmaṇy ādhāya parameśvare samarpya | tat-phale ca saṅgaṃ tyaktvā | yaḥ karmāṇi karoti asau pāpena bandhu-hetutayā pāpiṣṭhena puṇya-pāpātmakena karmaṇā na lipyate yathā padma-patram ambhasi sthitam api tenāmbhasā na lipyate tadvat

 

Madhusūdana


tarhy avidvān kartṛtvābhimānāl lipyetaiva tathā ca karthaṃ tasya saṃnyāsa-pūrvikā jñāna-niṣṭhā syād iti tatrāha brahmaṇīti | brahmaṇi parameśvara ādhāya samarpya saṅgaṃ phalābhilāṣaṃ tyaktveśvarārthaṃ bhṛtya iva svāmy-arthaṃ sva-phala-nirapekṣatayā karomīty abhiprāyeṇa karmāṇi laukikāni vaidikāni ca karoti yo lipyate na sa pāpena pāpa-puṇyātmakena karmaṇeti yāvat | yathā padma-patram upari prakṣiptenāmbhasā na lipyate tadvat | bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyānuṣṭhitaṃ karma buddhi-śuddhi-phalam eva syāt

 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca brahmaṇi parameśvare mayi samarpya saṅgaṃ tyaktvā sābhimāno ‚pi karmāsaktiṃ vihāya yaḥ karmāṇi karoti | pāpenety upalakṣaṇam | so ‚pi karma-mātreṇaiva na lipyate

 

Baladeva


uktaṃ viśadayann āha brahmaṇīti | brahma-śabdenātra triguṇāvasthaṃ pradhānam uktam | tasmād etad brahma-nāma-rūpam annaṃ ca jñāyata iti śravaṇāt | mama yonir mahad brahma iti vakṣyamāṇāc ca | dehendriyādīni pradhāna-pariṇāma-viśeṣāṇi bhavanti tad-rūpatayā pariṇate pradhāne darśanādīni karmāṇy ādhāya tasyaivaitāni | na tu tad-viviktasya śuddhasya mameti nirdhāryety arthaḥ | saṅgaṃ tat-phalābhilāṣaṃ tat-kartṛtvābhiniveśaṃ ca tyaktvā | yas tāni karoti sa tādṛg dehādimattayā sann api dehādy-ātmābhimānena pāpena na lipyate | tathoparinikṣiptenāmbhasā spṛṣṭam api padma-patraṃ tadvat | na ca mayi saṃnyasya karmāṇi iti pūrva-svārasyād brahmaṇi paramātmanīti vyākhyeyam | prādhānika-dehādi-saṃsṛṣṭasyaiva jīvasya darśanādi-karma-kartṛtvaṃ, na tu tad-viviktasyety arthasya prakṛtatvāt

 
 

BhG 5.11

kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalair indriyair api
yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṃ tyaktvātma-śuddhaye

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syntax


yoginaḥ (the yogīs) saṅgaṁ (attachment) tyaktvā (after abandoning)
kāyena (with the body) manasā (with the mind) buddhyā (with intelligence) kevalaiḥ indriyaiḥ api (and even with all the senses) ātma-śuddhaye (for purufying the self) karma (activity) kurvanti (they do).

 

grammar

kāyena kāya 3n.1 m.with the body;
manasā manas 3n.1 n.with the mind (from: man – to think);
buddhyā buddhi 3n.1 f.with intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
kevalaiḥ kevala 3n.3 n.with pure, with all (from: kevala – alone, simple, entire);
indriyaiḥ indriya 3n.3 n.with the senses (from: ind – to be powerful);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
yoginaḥ yogin 1n.3 m.yogīs, those engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kurvanti kṛ (to do) Praes. P 1v.3they do;
saṅgam saṅga 2n.1m. – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
ātma-śuddhaye ātma-śuddhi 4n.1 f.for purufying the self (from: ātman – self; śudh – to become pure, [PP] śuddha – purified, cleansed; śuddhi – cleansing, purity);

 

textual variants


ātma-śuddhaye → ātma-siddhaye (for perfecting the self);
 
 


Śāṃkara


kevalaṃ sattva-śuddhi-mātram eva phalaṃ tasya karmaṇaḥ syāt, yasmāt—

kāyena dehena manasā buddhyā ca kevalair mamatva-varjitaiḥ īśvarāyaiva karma karomi, na mama phalāya iti mamatva-buddhi-śūnyair indriyair api—kevala-śabdaḥ kāyādibhir api pratyekaṃ saṃbadhyate, sarva-vyāpāreṣu mamatā-varjanāya | yoginaḥ karmiṇaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phala-viṣayam ātma-śuddhaye sattva-śuddhaya ity arthaḥ | tasmāt tatraiva tavādhikāra iti kuru karmaiva

 

Rāmānuja


kāyamanobuddhīndriyasādhyaṃ karma svargādiphalasaṅgaṃ tyaktvā yogina ātmaviśuddhaye kuranti; ātmagataprācīnakarmabandhavināśāya kurvantītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kevalaṃ sattva-śuddhi-mātra-phalam eva tasya karmaṇaḥ syāt yasmāt kāyeneti | kāyena dehena manasā buddhyā ca | yoginaḥ saṅgaṃ tyaktvā kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalair indriyair api | kevala-śabdaḥ kāyādibhir api pratyekaṃ sambadhyate | sarva-vyāpāreṣu mamatā-varjanāya yoginaḥ karmiṇaḥ karma kurvanti | saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phala-viṣayam | ātma-śuddhaye sattva-śuddhaya ity arthaḥ | tasmāt tatraiva tavādhikāra iti

 

Madhusūdana


tad eva vivṛṇoti kāyeneti | kāyena manasā buddhyendriyair api yoginaḥ karmiṇaḥ phala-saṅgaṃ tyaktvā karma kurvanti kāyādīnāṃ sarveṣāṃ viśeṣaṇaṃ kevalair iti | īśvarāyaiva karomi na mama phalāyeti mamatā-śūnyair ity arthaḥ | ātma-śuddhaye citta-śuddhy-artham

 

Viśvanātha


kevalair indriyair iti | indrāya svāhā ity ādinā havir-ādy-arpaṇa-kāle yadyapi manaḥ kvāpy anyatra tad apīty arthaḥ | ātma-viśuddhaye manaḥ-śuddhy-artham

 

Baladeva


sad-ācāraṃ pramāṇayann etad vivṛṇoti kāyeneti | kāyādibhiḥ sādhyaṃ karma kāyādy-ahaṃbhāva-śūnyā yoginaḥ kurvanti | kevalair viśuddhaiḥ | saṅgaṃ tyaktveti prāgvad ātma-śuddhaye anādi-dehātmābhimāna-nivṛttaye

 
 


BhG 5.12

yuktaḥ karma-phalaṃ tyaktvā śāntim āpnoti naiṣṭhikīm
ayuktaḥ kāma-kāreṇa phale sakto nibadhyate

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syntax


yuktaḥ (engaged) karma-phalam (the fruit of activity) tyaktvā (after abandoning),
naiṣṭhikīm (the final) śāntim (tranquility) āpnoti (he obtains).
[kiṁtu] (but) ayuktaḥ (non engaged) kāma-kāreṇa (by the power of desire) phale (to the fruit) saktaḥ (attached) nibadhyate (he is bound).

 

grammar

yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
karma-phalam karma-phala 2n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ phalam iti the fruit of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
śāntim śānti 2n.1 f.tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
āpnoti āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he achieves;
naiṣṭhikīm naiṣṭhikī 2n.1 f.finnal, fixed, the highest (from: niṣṭhā – steadiness, faith);
ayuktaḥ a-yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.not yoked, not endowed with, not engaged;
kāma-kāreṇa kāma-kāra 3n.1 m.; [TP]: kāmasya kāreṇeti by the power of desire (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; kṛ – to do, kāra – suffix: making, doer, power);
phale phala 7n.1 n.in the fruit, in result (from: phal – to ripen);
saktaḥ sakta (sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace) [PP] 1n.1 m.attached;
nibadhyate ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is bound;

 

textual variants


kāma-kāreṇakāma-cāreṇa / karma-kāreṇa (by the move of desire / by the power of action);
nibadhyate → nibādhyate (he is bound);
 
 


Śāṃkara


yasmāc ca—

yukta īśvarāya karmaṇi karomi na mama phalāya ity evaṃ samāhitaḥ san karma-phalaṃ tyaktvā parityajya śāntiṃ mokṣākhyām āpnoti naiṣṭhikīṃ niṣṭhāyāṃ bhavāṃ sattva-śuddhi-jñāna-prāpti-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-jñāna-niṣṭhā-krameṇeti vākya-śeṣaḥ | yas tu punar ayukto’samāhitaḥ kāma-kāreṇa | karaṇaṃ kāraḥ kāmasya kāraḥ kāma-kāraḥ | tena kāma-kāreṇa kāma-preritatayety arthaḥ | mama phalāya idaṃ karomi karma ity evaṃ phale sakto nibadhyate | atas tvaṃ yukto bhava ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yuktaḥ ātmavyatiriktaphaleṣv acapalaḥ ātmaikapravaṇaḥ, karmaphalaṃ tyaktvā kevalam ātmaśuddhaye karmānuṣṭhāya naiṣṭhikīṃ śāntim āpnoti sthirām ātmānubhavarūpāṃ nirvṛtim āpnoti / ayuktaḥ ātmavyatiriktaphaleṣu capalaḥ ātmāvalokanavimukhaḥ kāmakāreṇa phale saktaḥ karmāṇi kurvan nityaṃ karmabhir badhyate nityasaṃsārī bhavati / ataḥ phalasaṅgarahitaḥ indriyākāreṇa pariṇatāyāṃ prakṛtau karmāṇi saṃnyasya ātmano bandhamocanāyaiva karmāṇi kurvītetyuktaṃ bhavati

 

Śrīdhara


nanu kathaṃ tenaiva karmaṇā kaścin mucyate kaścid badhyate iti vyavasthā ? ata āha yukta iti | yuktaḥ parameśvaraika-niṣṭhaḥ san karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ tyaktvā karmaṇi kurvann ātyantikīṃ śāntiṃ mokṣaṃ prāpnoti | ayuktas tu bahirmukhaḥ kāma-kāreṇa kāmataḥ pravṛttyā phala āsakto nitarāṃ bandhaṃ prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


kartṛtvābhimāna-sāmye ‚pi tenaiva karmaṇā kaścin mucyate kaścit tu badhyata iti vaiṣamye ko hetur iti tatrāha yukta iti | yukta īśvarāyaivaitāni karmāṇi na mama phalāyety evam abhiprāyavān karma-phalaṃ tyaktvā karmāṇi kurvan śāntim mokṣākhyām āpnoti naiṣṭhikīṃ sattva-śuddhi-nitya-vastu-viveka-saṃnyāsa-jñāna-niṣṭhā-krameṇa jātām iti yāvat | yas tu punar ayukta īśvarāyaivaitāni karmāṇi na mama phalāyety abhiprāya-śūnyaḥ sa kāma-kāreṇa kāmataḥ pravṛttyā mama phalāyaivedaṃ karma karomīti phale sakto nibadhyate karmabhir nitarāṃ saṃsāra-bandhaṃ prāpnoti | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvam api yuktaḥ san karmāṇi kurv iti vākya-śeṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


karma-karaṇe anāsakty-āsaktī eva mokṣa-bandha-hetū ity āha yukto yogī niṣkāma-karmītity arthaḥ | naiṣṭhikīm niṣṭhā-prāptāṃ śāntiṃ mokṣam ity arthaḥ | ayuktaḥ sa-kāma-karmīty arthaḥ | kāma-kāreṇa kāma-pravṛttyā

 

Baladeva


yukta ātmārpita-manāḥ karma-phalaṃ tyaktvā kurvann naiṣṭhikīm sthirāṃ śāntim ātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇām āpnoti | ayukta ātmānarpita-manāḥ karma-phale saktaḥ kāma-kāreṇa kāmataḥ karmaṇi pravṛttyā nibadhyate saṃsarati

 
 

BhG 5.13

sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī
nava-dvāre pure dehī naiva kurvan na kārayan

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syntax


vaśī (one who subdued [passions]) dehī (the embodied one) manasā (with the mind) sarva-karmāṇi (all activities) sannyasya (after abandoning)
na eva kurvan (indeed not doing) na [eva] kārayan (indeed not causing to do)
nava-dvāre pure (in the city of nine gates) sukham (happily) āste (he resides).

 

grammar

sarva-karmāṇi sarva-karman 2n.3 n.; sarvāṇi karmāṇītiall activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
manasā manas 3n.1 n.with the mind (from: man – to think);
saṁnyasya sam-ni-as (to lay aside, to renounce, to give up) absol.after abandoning, after giving up;
āste ās (to sit, to exist) Praes Ā 1v.1he sits, he resides;
sukham av.easily, happily (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
vaśī vaśin 1n.1 m.who subdued passions (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command, vaśa – wish, power, control, dominion);
nava-dvāre nava-dvāra 7n.1 n.; BV: yasya nava dvārāṇi santi tasminin that which has nine gates (from: nava – nine; dvṛ – to obstruct, to cover, dvāra – gate, entrance, passage);
pure pura 7n.1 n.in the city (from: pur – to precede);
dehī dehin 1n.1 m.the embodied one (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);
na av.not;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kurvan kurvant (kṛ to do) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] doing;
na av.not;
kārayan kārayant (kṛ to do) caus. PPr 1n.1 m.[while] causing to do;

 

textual variants


sarva-karmāṇi manasāsarva-dvārāṇi manasā (with the mind all gates);
nava-dvāre purenava-dvāra-pure (in the city of nine gates);
dehī → dehe / gehe / ‘dehī (in the body / in the house / not the embodied);
kārayan → kārayet (he would do);
 
 


Śāṃkara


yas tu paramārtha-darśī saḥ—

sarvāṇi karmāṇi sarva-karmāṇi saṃnyasya parityajya nityaṃ naimittikaṃ kāmyaṃ pratiṣiddhaṃ ca | tāni sarvāṇi karmāṇi manasā viveka-buddhyā, karmādāv akarma-sandarśanena saṃtyajyety arthaḥ | āste tiṣṭhati sukham | tyakta-vāṅ-manaḥ-kāya-ceṣṭo nirāyāsaḥ prasanna-citta ātmano’nyatra nivṛtta-sarva-bāhya-prayojana iti sukham āste ity ucyate | vaśī jitendriya ity arthaḥ | kva katham āste ? ity āha—nava-dvāre pure | sapta śīrṣāṇyāny ātmana upalabdhi-dvārāṇi, arvāk dve mūtra-purīṣa-visargārthe, tair dvārair nava-dvāraṃ puram ucyate śarīraṃ puram iva puram | ātmaika-svāmikam, tad-artha-prayojanaiś ca indriya-mano-buddhi-viṣayair aneka-phala-vijñānasyotpādakaiḥ paurair ivādhiṣṭhitam | tasmin nava-dvāre pure dehī sarvaṃ karma saṃnyasyāste |

kiṃ viśeṣaṇena ? sarvo hi dehī saṃnyāsy asaṃnyāsī vā dehe evāste | tatrānarthakaṃ viśeṣaṇam iti | ucyate—yas tv ajño dehī dehendriya-saṃghāta-mātrātma-darśī sa sarvo’pi gehe bhūmāv āsane vā’’sa iti manyate | na hi deha-mātrātma-darśino geha iva dehe āsa iti pratyayaḥ saṃbhavati | dehādi-saṃghāta-vyatiriktātma-darśinas tu dehe āse iti pratyaya upapadyate | para-karmaṇāṃ ca parasminn ātmany avidyayayādhyāropitānāṃ vidyayā viveka-jñānena manasā saṃnyāsa upapadyate | utpanna-viveka-jñānasya sarva-karma-saṃnyāsino’pi geha iva deha eva nava-dvāre pura āsanam | prārabdha-phala-karma-saṃskāra-śeṣānuvṛttyā deha eva viśeṣa-vijñānotpatteḥ | dehe evāsta ity asty eva viśeṣaṇa-phalaṃ vidvad-avidvat-pratyaya-bhedāpekṣatvāt |

yadyapi kārya-karaṇa-karmāṇy avidyayātmany adhyāropitāni saṃnyasyāste ity uktam, tathāpi ātmasamavāyi tu kartṛtvaṃ kārayitṛtvaṃ ca syāt ity āśaṅkyāha—naiva kurvan svayaṃ na kārya-karaṇāni kārayan kriyāsu pravartayan | kiṃ ? yat tat kartṛtvaṃ kārayitṛtvaṃ ca dehinaḥ svātma-samavāyi sat saṃnyāsān na saṃbhavati ? yathā gacchato gatir gamana-vyāpāra-parityāge na syāt tadvat ? kiṃ vā svata eva ātmano nāsti iti ? atrocyate—nāsty ātmanaḥ svataḥ kartṛtvaṃ kārayitṛtvaṃ ca | uktaṃ hi —avikāryo’yam ucyate [gītā 2.55], śarīra-stho’pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate [gītā 3.26] iti | dhyāyatīva lelāyatīva [bhāvātmauttaṃ 4.3.7] iti ca śruteḥ

 

Rāmānuja


atha dehākāreṇa pariṇatāyāṃ prakṛtau kartṛtvasaṃnyāsa ucyate

ātmanaḥ prācīnakarmamūladehasaṃbandhaprayuktam idaṃ karmaṇāṃ kartṛtvam; na svarūpaprayuktam iti vivekaviṣayeṇa manasā sarvāṇi karmāṇi navadvāre pure saṃnyasya dehī svayaṃ vaśī dehādhiṣṭhānaprayatnam akurvan dehaṃ ca naiva kārayan sukham āste

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ tāvac citta-śuddhi-śūnyasya saṃnyāsāt karma-yogo viśiṣyate ity etat prapañcitam | idānīṃ śuddha-cittasya saṃnyāsaḥ śreṣṭha ity āha sarva-karmāṇīti | vaśī yata-cittaḥ | sarvāṇi karmāṇi vikṣepakāni manasā viveka-yuktena saṃnyasya sukhaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ jñāna-niṣṭhaḥ sann āste | kvāsta iti ? ata āha nava-dvāra iti | netre nāsike karṇau mukhaṃ ceti sapta śiro-gatāni | adhogate dve pāyūpastha-rūpe iti | evaṃ nava-dvārāṇi yasmiṃs tasmin pure puravad ahaṅkāra-śūnye dehe dehy avatiṣṭhate | ahaṅkārābhāvād eva svyaṃ tena dehena naiva kurvan mama-kārābhāvāc ca na kārayan ity aviśuddha-cittād vyavṛttir uktā | aśuddha-citto hi saṃnyasya punaḥ karoti kārayati ca | na tv ayaṃ tathā | antaḥ sukhaṃ āsta ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


aśuddha-cittasya kevalāt saṃnyāsāt karma-yogaḥ śreyān iti pūrvoktaṃ prapañcyādhunā śuddha-cittasya sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa eva śreyān ity āha sarva-karmāṇīti | nityaṃ naimittikaṃ kāmyaṃ pratiṣiddhaṃ ceti sarvāṇi karmāṇi manasā karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed ity atroktenākartrātma-svarūpa-samyag-darśanena saṃnyasya parityajya prārabdha-karma-vaśād āste tiṣṭhaty eva | kiṃ duḥkhena nety āha sukham anāyāsena | āyāsa-hetu-kāya-vāṅ-mano-vyāpāra-śūnyatvāt | kāya-vāṅ-manāṃsi svacchandāni kuto na vyāpriyante tatrāha vaśī sva-vaśīkṛta-kārya-karaṇa-saṅghātaḥ | kvāste ? nava-dvāre pure dve śrotre dve cakṣuṣī dve nāsike vāg eketi śirasi sapta | dve pāyūpasthākhye adha iti nava-dvāra-viśiṣṭe dehe | dehī deha-bhinnātma-darśī pravāsīva para-gehe tat-pūjā-paribhavādibhir aprahṛṣyann aviṣīdann ahaṅkāra-mamakāra-śūnyas tiṣṭhati | ajño hi dehatādātmyābhimānād deha eva na tu dehī | sa ca dehādhikaraṇam evātmano ‚dhikaraṇaṃ manyamāno gṛhe bhūmāvasāne vāham āsa ity abhimanyate na tu dehe ‚ham āsa iti bheda-darśanābhāvāt | saṃghāta-vyatiriktātma-darśī tu sarva-karma-saṃnyāsī bheda-darśanād dehe ‚ham āsa iti pratipadyate | ataeva dehādi-vyāpārāṇām avidyayātmany akriye samāropitānāṃ vidyayā bādha eva sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa ity ucyate | etasmād evājña-vailakṣaṇyādy-uktaṃ viśeṣaṇaṃ nava-dvāre pure āsta iti |

nanu dehādi-vyāpārāṇām ātmany āropitānāṃ nau-vyāpārāṇāṃ tīrastha-vṛkṣa iva vidyayā bādhe ‚pi sva-vyāpāreṇātmanaḥ kartṛtvaṃ dehādi-vyāpāreṣu kārayitṛtvaṃ ca syād iti nety āha naiva kurvan na kārayan | āsta iti sambandhaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


ato ‚nāsaktaḥ karmāṇi kurvann api jñeyaḥ sa nitya-saṃnyāsī iti pūrvoktavad vastutaḥ saṃnyāsī evocyate tatrāha sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya kāyādi-vyāpāreṇa bahiḥ kurvann api vaśī jitendriyaḥ sukham āste | kutra ? nava-dvāre pure ahaṃ-bhāva-śūnye dehe dehy utpanna-jñāno jīvo naiva kurvann iti karma-sukhasya vastutaḥ kartṛtvaṃ naivāstīti jānan, na kārayann iti nāpi teṣu prayojana-kartṛtvam ity api jānann ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


sarveti | vivekatā manasā tādṛśi pradhāne sarva-karmāṇi saṃnyasyārpayitvā dehādinā bahis tāni kurvann api vaśī jitendriyaḥ sukhaṃ āste | nava-dvāre pure puravad ahaṃ-bhāva-varjite dehe dve netre dve nāsike dve śrotre mukhaṃ ceti śirasi sapta dvārāṇi adhastāt tu pāyūpasthākhye dve iti nava-dvārāṇi dehī labdha-jñānojīvaḥ | naiveti dehādi-viviktasyātmanaḥ karmasu kartṛtvaṃ kārayitṛtvaṃ ca nāstīti vijānann ity arthaḥ

 
 


BhG 5.14

na kartṛtvaṃ na karmāṇi lokasya sṛjati prabhuḥ
na karma-phala-saṃyogaṃ sva-bhāvas tu pravartate

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syntax


prabhuḥ (powerful) lokasya (of the world) kartṛtvam (the state of being the doer) na [sṛjati] (he does not emit),
[prabhuḥ] (powerful) karmāṇi (activities) na sṛjati (he does not emit),
[prabhuḥ] ca (and powerful) karma-phala-saṁyogam (connection with the fruit of activity) na [sṛjati] (he does not emit).
svabhāvaḥ tu (but nature) pravartate (it acts).

 

grammar

na av.not;
kartṛtvam kartṛtva abst. 2n.1 n.the stae of being a doer (from: kṛ – to do, kartṛ – the doer);
na av.not;
karmāṇi karman 2n.3 n. activities (from: kṛ – to do);
lokasya loka 5n.1 m. of the world;
sṛjati sṛj (to let go, to emit) Praes. P 1v.1it releases, it lets go, it emits;
prabhuḥ pra-bhu 1n.1 m.perfect, powerful, rich, master, lord (from: pra- – prefix: in front, much; bhū – to be);
na av.not;
karma-phala-saṁyogam karma-phala-saṁyoga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ phalena saṁyogam iti connection with the fruit of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; sam-yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, saṁyoga – connection, union);
sva-bhāvaḥ sva-bhāva 1n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya bhāvaown nature, natural state (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
pravartate pra-vṛt (to start to act, to surpass) Praes. Ā 1v.1it starts to act, it acts;

 

textual variants


na kartṛtvaṁnākartṛtvaṁ (not the state of being the doer);
karma-phala-saṁyogaṁ → karma-phala-saṁyogaḥ (connection with the fruit of activity);
 
 


Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

na kartṛtvaṃ svataḥ kurv iti nāpi karmāṇi ratha-ghaṭa-prāsādādīnīpsitatamāni lokasya sṛjaty utpādayati prabhur ātmā | nāpi rathādi kṛtavatas tat-phalena saṃyogaṃ na karma-phala-saṃyogam | yadi kiṃcid api svato na karoti na kārayati ca dehī, kas tarhi kurvan kārayan ca pravartata iti, ucyate—svabhāvas tu svo bhāvaḥ svabhāvo’vidyā-lakṣaṇā prakṛtir māyā pravartate daivī hi [gītā 7.14] ity ādinā vakṣyamāṇā

 

Rāmānuja


sākṣād ātmanaḥ svābhāvikaṃ rūpam āha

asya devatiryaṅmanuṣyasthāvarātmanā prakṛtisaṃsargeṇa vartamānasya lokasya devādyasādhāraṇaṃ kartṛtvaṃ tattadasādhāraṇāni karmāṇi tattatkarmajanyadevādiphalasaṃyogaṃ ca, ayaṃ prabhuḥ akarmavaśyaḥ svābhāvikasvarūpeṇāvasthita ātmā na sṛjati notpādayati / kas tarhi? svabhāvas tu pravartate / svabhāvaḥ prakṛtivāsanā / anādikālapravṛttapūrvapūrvakarmajanitadevādyākāraprakṛtisaṃsargakṛtatattadātmābhimānajanitavāsanākṛtam īdṛśaṃ kartṛtvādikaṃ sarvam; na svarūpaprayuktam ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


nanu eṣa hy evainaṃ sādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam ebhyo lokebhya unninīṣate | eṣa asādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam adho ninīṣate ity-ādi-śruteḥ parameśvareṇaiva śubhāśubha-phaleṣu karmasu kartṛtvena prayujyamāno ‚svatantraḥ puruṣaḥ kathaṃ tāni karmāṇi tyajet ? īśvareṇaiva jñāna-mārge prayujyamāṇaḥ śubhāśubhani ca tyakṣyatīti cet ? evaṃ sati vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇyābhyām īśvarasyāpi prayojaka-kartṛtvāt puṇya-pāpa-sambandhaḥ syād ity āśaṅkyāha na kartṛtvam iti dvābhyām | prabhur īśvaro jīva-lokasya kartṛtvādikaṃ na sṛjati, kintu jīvasya svabhāvo ‚vidyaiva kartṛtvādi-rūpeṇa pravartate | anādy-avidyā-kāma-vaśāt pravṛtti-svabhāvaṃ jīva-lokam īśvaraḥ karmasu niyuṅkte | na tu svayam eva kartṛtvādikam utpādayatīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


devadattasya svagataiva gatir yathā sthitau satyāṃ na bhavati evam ātmano ‚pi kartṛtvaṃ kārayitṛtvam na svagatam eva sat-saṃnyāse sati na bhavati, athavā nabhasi tala-malinatādivad vastu-vṛttyā tatra nāsty eveti sandehāpohāyāha na kartṛtvam iti | lokasya dehādeḥ kartṛtvaṃ prabhur ātmā svāmī na sṛjati tvaṃ kurv iti niyogena tasya kārayitā na bhavatīty arthaḥ | nāpi lokasya karmāṇīpsitatamāni ghaṭādīni svayaṃ sṛjati kartāpi na bhavatīty arthaḥ | nāpi lokasya karma kṛtavatas tat-phala-sambandhaṃ sṛjati bhojayitāpi bhoktāpi na bhavatīty arthaḥ | na samānaḥ sann ubhau lokāv anusaṃcarati dhyāyatīva lelāyatīva sadhīḥ ity ādi śruteḥ | atrāpi śarīrastho ‚pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate [Gītā 13.31] ity ukteḥ |

yadi kiṃcid api svato na kārayati na karoti cātmā kas tarhi kārayan kurvaṃś ca pravartata iti tatrāha svabhāvas tv iti | ajñānātmikā daivī māyā prakṛtiḥ pravartate

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ca yadi jīvasya vastutaḥ kartṛtvādikaṃ naivāsti, tarhi parameśvara-sṛṣṭe jagati sarvatra jīvasya kartṛtva-bhokṛtvādi-darśanān manye parameśareṇaiva balāt tasya kartṛtvādikaṃ sṛṣṭam | tathā sati tasmin vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye prasakte, tatra na hi nahīty āha na kartṛtvam iti | nāpi tat-kartṛtvena karmāṇy api, na ca karma-phalair bhogaiḥ saṃyogam api, kintu jīvasya svabhāvo ‚nādy-avidyaiva pravartate | taṃ jīvaṃ kartṛtvādy-abhimānam ārohayitum iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


etad dvayaṃ śuddhasya nāstīti viśadayati neti | prabhur dehendriyādīnāṃ svāmī jīvo lokasya janasya kartṛtvaṃ na sṛjatīti tvaṃ kurv iti kārayitā na bhavati | nāpi tasyepsitatamāni karmāṇi mālyāmbarādīni sṛjatīti svayaṃ kartāpi na bhavati | na ca karma-phalena sukhena duḥkhena ca saṃyogaṃ sambandhaṃ sṛjatīti bhojayitā bhoktā ca na bhavatīty arthaḥ | yady evaṃ, tarhi kaḥ kārayan kurvaṃś ca pratīyate ? tatrāha svabhāvas tv iti | anādi-pravṛttā pradhāna-vāsanātra svabhāva-śabdenokta-prādhānika-dehādimān jīvaḥ kārayitā kartā ceti na viviktasya tattvam iti | śuddhe ‚pi kiṃcit kartṛtvam asty eva pūrvatra sukhāsane tattvasyokteḥ bhānādāv ivaitad bodhyaṃ, dhātv-arthaḥ khalu kriyā, tan-mukhyatvaṃ hi kartṛtvam uktam

 
 


BhG 5.15

nādatte kasya-cit pāpaṃ na caiva sukṛtaṃ vibhuḥ
ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ

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syntax


vibhuḥ (rulery) kasya-cit (of no one’s) pāpam (sin) sukṛtam vā (either virtue) na eva ādatte (indeed he does not take).
ajñānena (by ignorance) jñānam (knowledge) āvṛtam (covered) [asti] (it is),
tena (therefore) jantavaḥ (people) muhyanti (they are bewildered).

 

grammar

na av.not;
ādatte ā- (to take, to get back) Praes. Ā 1v.1he takes;
kasya-cit kim-cit sn. 6n.1 m.of someone (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
pāpam pāpa 2n.1 n.evil, sin;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
sukṛtam sukṛta 2n.1 n.well done, merit, benefit, virtue, fortune (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous);
vibhuḥ vi-bhu 1n.1 m.mighty, powerful, ruler, lord (from: vi- – prefix: to divide, in different directions; bhū – to be);
ajñānena a-jñāna 3n.1 n.by ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
āvṛtam ā-vṛta (ā-vṛ – to cover) [PP] 2n.1 n.covered;
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
tena tat sn. 3n.1 m.by that, for that reason;
muhyanti muh (to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) Praes. P 1v.3they are bewildered, they are confused;
jantavaḥ jantu 1n.3 m.creatures, people (from: jan – to be born);

 

textual variants


na caivana caivaṁ (and not thus);
vibhuḥ → prabhuḥ / vibho (powerful / O ruler!);
 
 


Śāṃkara


paramārthatas tu—

nādatte na ca gṛhṇāti bhaktasyāpi kasyacit pāpam | na caivādatte sukṛtaṃ bhaktaiḥ prayuktaṃ vibhuḥ | kim-arthaṃ tarhi bhaktaiḥ pūjādi-lakṣaṇaṃ yāga-dāna-homādikaṃ ca sukṛtaṃ prayujyate ity āha—ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ viveka-vijñānam, tena muhyanti karomi kārayāmi bhokṣye bhojayāmīty evaṃ mohaṃ gacchanty avivekinaḥ saṃsāriṇo jantavaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


kasyacit svasaṃbandhitayābhimatasya putrādeḥ pāpaṃ duḥkhaṃ nādatte nāpanudati / kasyacit pratikūlatayābhimatasya sukṛtaṃ sukhaṃ ca nādatte nāpanudati / yato ‚yaṃ vibhuḥ; na kvācitkaḥ, na devādidehādyasādhāraṇadeśaḥ, ata eva na kasyacit saṃbandhī, na kasyacit pratikūlaś ca / sarvam idaṃ vāsanākṛtam / evaṃsvabhāvasya katham iyaṃ viparītavāsanā utpadyate? ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānam jñānavirodhinā pūrvapūrvakarmaṇā svaphalānubhavayogyatvāya asya jñānam āvṛtaṃ saṃkucitam / tena jñānāvaraṇarūpeṇa karmaṇā devādidehasaṃyogas tattadātmābhimānarūpamohaś ca jāyate / tataś ca tathāvidhātmābhimānavāsanā, taducitakarmavāsanā ca; vāsanāto viparītātmābhimānaḥ, karmārambhaś copapadyate

 

Śrīdhara


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt nādatta iti | prayojako ‚pi san prabhuḥ kasyacit pāpaṃ sukṛtaṃ ca naivādatte na bhajate | tatra hetuḥ – vibhuḥ paripūrṇaḥ | āpta-kāma ity arthaḥ | yadi hi svārtha-kāmanayā kārayet tarhi tathā syāt | na tv etad asti | āpta-kāmasyaivācintya-nija-māyayā tat-tat-pūrva-karmānusāreṇa pravartakatvāt |

nanu bhaktān anugṛhṇato ‚bhaktān nigṛhṇataś ca vaiṣamyopalambhāt katham āpta-kāmatvam iti ? ata āha ajñāneneti | nigraho ‚pi daṇḍa-rūpo ‚nugraha eveti | evam ajñānena sarvatra samaḥ parameśvara ity evaṃbhūtaṃ jñānam āvṛtam | tena hetunā jantavo jīvā muhyanti | bhagavati vaiṣamyaṃ manyanta ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanv īśvaraḥ kārayitā jīvaḥ kartā, tathā ca śrutiḥ – eṣa u hy eva sādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam unninīyate | eṣa u evāsādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam adho ninīṣate ity ādiḥ | smṛtiś ca –

ajño jantur anīśo ‚yam ātmanaḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ |
īśvara-prerito gacchet svargaṃ vāśvabhram eva ca || iti |

tathā ca jīveśvarayoḥ kartṛtva-kārayitṛtvābhyāṃ bhoktṛtva-bhojayitṛtvābhyāṃ ca pāpa-puṇya-lepa-sambhavāt katham uktaṃ svabhāvas tu pravartata iti tatrāha nādatta iti | paramārthataḥ vibhuḥ parameśvaraḥ kasyacit jīvasya pāpaṃ sukṛtaṃ ca naivādatte paramārthato jīvasya kartṛtvābhāvāt parameśvarasya ca kārayitṛtvābhāvāt | kathaṃ tarhi śrutiḥ smṛtir loka-vyavahāraś ca tatrāha ajñānenāvaraṇa-vikṣepā-śaktimatā māyākhyenānṛtena tamasāvṛtam ācchāditaṃ jñānaṃ jīveśvara-jagad-bheda-bhramādhiṣṭhāna-bhūtaṃ nityaṃ sva-prakāśaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-rūpam advitīyaṃ paramārtha-satyaṃ, tena svarūpāvaraṇena muhyanti pramātṛ-prameya-pramāṇa-kartṛ-karma-karaṇa-bhoktṛ-bhogya-bhogākhya-nava-vidha-saṃsāra-rūpaṃ moham atasmiṃs tad-avabhāsa-rūpaṃ vikṣepaṃ gacchanti jantavo janana-śīlāḥ saṃsāriṇo vastu-svarūpādarśinaḥ | akartr-abhoktṛ-paramānandādvitīyātma-svarūpādarśana-nibandhano ‚yaṃ jīveśvara-jagad-bheda-bhramaḥ pratīyamāno vartate mūḍhānām | tasyāṃ cāvasthāyāṃ mūḍha-pratyayānuvādinyāv ete śruti-smṛtī vāstavādvaita-bodhi-vākya-śeṣa-bhūte iti na doṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


yasmād asādhu-sādhu-karmaṇām īśvaro na kārayitā, tasmād eva na tasya pāpa-puṇya-bhāgitvam ity āha nādatta iti | nādatte na gṛhṇāti | kintu tadīyā khalu yā śaktir avidyā saiva jīva-jñānam āvṛṇoti ity āha ajñānenāvidyayā | jñānaṃ jīvasya svābhāvikam | tena hetunā

 

Baladeva


nanu yadi viśuddhasya jīvasya tādṛśa-karma-kartṛtvādi nāstīti brūṣe, tarhi kautukākrāntaḥ paramātmā pradhānaṃ tad-gale nipātya tat-pariṇāma-dehendriyādi-matas tasya tad-racitavān ity āpadyate | yuktaṃ caitat | anyathā eṣa u hy eva sādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam ebhyo lokebhya unninīṣate | eṣa u evāsādhu karma kārayati taṃ yam adho ninīṣate iti śrutiḥ |

ajño jantur anīśo ‚yam ātmanaḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ |
īśvara-prerito gacchet svargaṃ vāśv abhram eva ca ||

iti smṛtiś ca vyākupyet | tathā ca pāpa-puṇya-mayīm avasthāṃ nayati | prayojake tasmin vaiṣamyādikaṃ pāpādi-bhāgitvaṃ ca syād iti cet tatrāha nādatta iti |

vibhur aparimita-vijñānānando ‚nanta-śakti-pūrṇaḥ svānandaika-rasikas tato ‚nyatrodāsīnaḥ paramātmānādi-pradhāna-vāsanā-nibandhaṃ bubhukṣuṃ sva-sannidhi-mātra-pariṇata-pradhāna-maya-dehādimantaṃ jīvaṃ tad-vāsanānusāreṇa karmāṇi kārayan kasyacij jīvasya pāpaṃ sukṛtaṃ ca nādatte na gṛhṇāti | evam uktaṃ śrī-vaiṣṇave –

yathā sannidhi-mātreṇa gandhaḥ kṣobhāya jāyate |
manaso nopakartṛtvāt tathāsau parameśvaraḥ ||
sannidhānād yathākāśa-kālādyāḥ kāraṇaṃ taroḥ |
tathaivāpariṇāmena viśvasya bhagavān hariḥ || [ViP 1.2.30-1] iti |

audāsīnya-mātre ‚yaṃ gandhādi-dṛṣṭānto na tv icchāyā abhāve tasyāḥ | so ‚kāmayata iti śrutatvāt | tarhi jīvās taṃ viṣamaṃ kuto vadanti, tatrāha ajñāneneti | anādi-tad-vaimukhyenājñānena jīvānāṃ nityam api jñānam āvṛtaṃ tirohitam | tena hetunā jantavo jīvā muhyanti | samam api taṃ vimūḍhā viṣamaṃ vadanti na vijñā ity arthaḥ | āha caivaṃ sūtrakāraḥ – vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye na sāpekṣatvāt tathā hi darśayati [Vs 2.1.35], na karmāvibhāgād iti cen nānāditvāt [Vs 2.1.36] iti

 
 

BhG 5.16

jñānena tu tad ajñānaṃ yeṣāṃ nāśitam ātmanaḥ
teṣām ādityavaj jñānaṃ prakāśayati tat param

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syntax


yeṣām tu (but of those whose) ātmanaḥ (own / of the self) jñānena (by knowledge) tat ajñānam (that ignorance) nāśitam (destroyed) [bhavet] (it would be),
teṣām (of those) jñānam (knowledge) āditya-vat (like the Sun) tat param (that supreme) prakāśayati (it makes visible).

 

grammar

jñānena jñāna 3n.1 n.by knowledge, by wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
ajñānam a-jñāna 1n.1 n. ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
yeṣām yat sn. 6n.3 m.of those whose (correlative of: teṣām);
nāśitam nāśita (naś – to destroy, to vanish) caus. [PP] 1n.1 n.is destroyed;
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self, own;
teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m.of those;
āditya-vat av.like the Sun (from: āditya – descendant of Aditi, the Sun; -vat – suffix: as, like);
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
prakāśayati pra-kāś (to become visible, to shine) Praes. caus. 1v.1it makes visible;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
param para 2n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;

 

textual variants


jñānena tu → ajñānenā-;
tad ajñānaṁtadājñānaṁ (then ignorance);
yeṣāṁ → eṣāṁ (them);
nāśitam → nāśitum (to destroy);
 
 


Śāṃkara


jñānena tu yena ajñānena āvṛtāḥ muhyanti jantavas tat ajñānaṃ yeṣāṃ jantūnāṃ viveka-jñānena ātma-viṣayeṇa nāśitam ātmano bhavati, teṣāṃ jantūnām ādityavat yathādityaḥ samastaṃ rūpa-jātam avabhāsayati tadvat jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ vastu sarvaṃ prakāśayati tat paraṃ paramārtha-tattvam

 

Rāmānuja


„sarvaṃ jñānaplavenaiva vṛjinaṃ saṃtariṣyati /”, „jñānāgniḥ sarvakarmāṇi bhasmasātkurute tathā”, „na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram” iti pūrvoktaṃ svakāle saṃgamayati

evaṃ vartamāneṣu sarveṣv ātmasu yeṣām ātmanām uktalakṣaṇena ātmayāthātmyopadeśajanitena ātmaviṣayeṇa aharaharabhyāsādheyātiśayena niratiśayapavitreṇa jñānena tat jñānāvaraṇam anādikālapravṛttānantakarmasaṃcayarūpam ajñānaṃ nāśitam, teṣāṃ tat svābhāvikaṃ paraṃ jñānam aparimitam asaṃkucitam ādityavat sarvaṃ yathāvasthitaṃ prakāśayati / teṣām iti vinaṣṭājñānānāṃ bahutvābhimānād ātmasvarūpabahutvam, „na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsam” ityupakramāvagatam atra spaṣṭataram uktam / na cedaṃ bahutvam upādhikṛtam; vinaṣṭājñānānām upādhigandhābhāvāt / „teṣām ādityavaj jñānam” iti vyatirekanirdeśāj jñānasya svarūpānubandhidharmatvam uktam / ādityadṛṣṭāntena ca jñātṛjñānayoḥ prabhāprabhāvator ivāvasthānaṃ ca / tata eva saṃsāradaśāyāṃ jñānasya karmaṇā saṃkoco mokṣadaśāyāṃ vikāsaś copapannaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


jñāninas tu na muhyantīty āha jñāneneti | bhagavato jñānena yeṣāṃ tad-vaiṣamyopalambhakam ajñānaṃ nāśitam taj jñānaṃ teṣām ajñānaṃ nāśayitvā tat paraṃ paripūrṇam īśvara-svarūpaṃ prakāśayati | yathādityas tamo nirasya samastaṃ vastu-jātaṃ prakāśayati tadvat

 

Madhusūdana


tarhi sarveṣām andādy-ajñānāvṛtatvāt kathaṃ saṃsāra-nivṛttiḥ syād ? ata āha jñāneneti | tad-āvaraṇa-vikṣepa-śakti-madanādy-anirvācyam anṛtam anarthavāta-mūlam ajñānam ātmāśraya-viṣayam avidyā-māyādi-śabda-vācyam ātmano jñānena gurūpadiṣṭa-vedānta-mahā-vākya-janyena śravana-manana-nididhyāsana-paripāka-nirmalāntaḥkaraṇa-vṛtti-rūpeṇa nirvikalpaka-sākṣātkāreṇa śodhita-tat-tvaṃ-padārthābheda-rūpa-śuddha-sac-cid-ānandākhaṇḍaika-rasa-vastu-mātra-viṣayeṇa nāśitaṃ bādhitaṃ kāla-traye ‚py asad evāsattayā jñātam adhiṣṭhāna-caitanya-mātratāṃ prāpitaṃ śuktāv iva rajataṃ śukti-jñānena śravana-manana-nididhyāsanādi-sādhana-sampannānāṃ bhagavad-anugṛhītānāṃ mumukṣūṇāṃ teṣāṃ taj jñānaṃ kartṛ | ādityavad yathādityaḥ svodaya-mātreṇaiva tamo niravaśeṣaṃ nivartayati na tu kaṃcit sahāyam apekṣate tathā brahma-jñānam api śuddha-sattva-pariṇāmatvād vyāpaka-prakāśa-rūpaṃ svotpatti-mātreṇaiva sahakāryantara-nirapekṣatayā sa-kāryam ajñānaṃ nivartayat param satya-jñānaānantānanda-rūpam ekam evādvitīyaṃ paramātma-tattvaṃ prakāśayati praticchāyā-grahaṇa-mātreṇaiva karmatām antareṇābhivyanakti |

atrājñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānena nāśitam ity ajñānansyāvaraṇatva-jñāna-nāśyatvābhyāṃ jñānābhāva-rūpatvaṃ vyāvartitam | nahy abhāvaḥ kiṃcid āvṛṇoti na vā jñānābhāvo jñānena nāśyate svabhāvato nāśa-rūpatvāt tasya | tasmād aham ajño mām anyaṃ ca na jānāmīty ādi-sākṣi-pratyakṣa-siddhaṃ bhāva-rūpam evājñānam iti bhagavato matam | vistaras tv advaita-siddhau draṣṭavyaḥ |

yeṣām iti bahu-vacanenāniyamo darśitaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ – tad yo yo devānāṃ pratyabudhyata sa eva tad abhavat tatha rṣīṇāṃ tathā manuṣyāṇāṃ tad idam apy etarhi ya evaṃ vedāhaṃ brahmāsmīti sa idaṃ sarvaṃ bhavati ity ādir yad viṣayaṃ yad-āśrayam ajñānaṃ tad-viṣaya-tad-āśraya-pramāṇa-jñānāt tan-nivṛttir iti nyāya-prāptam aniyamaṃ darśayati | tatrājñāna-gatam āvaraṇaṃ dvividham – ekaṃ sato ‚py asattvāpādakam anyat tu bhāto ‚py abhānāpādakam | tatrādyaṃ parokṣāparokṣa-sādhāraṇa-pramāṇa-jñāna-mātrān nivartate | anumite ‚pi vahny-ādau parvate vahnir nāstīty ādi-bhramādarśanāt | tathā satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahmāsti iti vākyāt parokṣa-niścaye ‚pi brahma nāstīti bhramo nivartata eva | asty eva brahma kintu mama na bhātīty ekaṃ bhrama-janakaṃ dvitīyam abhānāvaraṇaṃ sākṣātkārād eva nivartate | sa ca sākṣātkāro vedānta-vākyenaiva janyate nirvikalpaka ity ādy advaita-siddhāv anusandheyam

 

Viśvanātha


yathāvidyā tasya jñānam āvṛṇoti, tathaivāparā tasya vidyā-śaktir avidyāṃ vināśya jñānaṃ prakāśayatīty arthaḥ | jñānena vidyā-śaktyā | ajñānam avidyām | teṣāṃ jīvānāṃ jñānam eva kartṛ ādityavad ity-āditya-prabhā yathāndhakāraṃ vināśya ghaṭa-paṭādikaṃ prakāśayati, tathaiva vidyayaivāvidyāṃ vināśya taj-jīva-niṣṭhaṃ jñānaṃ param aprākṛtaṃ prakāśayati | tena parameśvaro na kam api badhnāti, nāpi kam api mocayati | kintv ajñāna-jñāne prakṛter eva dharmaḥ krameṇa badhnāti mocayati ca | kartṛtva-bhoktṛtva-tat-prayojakatvādayor bandhakāḥ | anāsakti-śāntyādayo mocakāś ca prakṛter eva dharmāḥ | kintu parameśvarasyāntaryāmitva eva prakṛtes te te dharmā udbudhyanta ity etad-aṃśenaiva tasya prayojakatvam iti na tasya vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye

 

Baladeva


vijñā na muhyantīty etad āha jñāneneti | sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva [Gītā 4.36] iti | jñānāgniḥ sarva-karmāṇi [Gītā 4.37], na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ [Gītā 4.38] iti cokta-mahimnā sad-guru-prasāda-labdhena sva-parātma-viṣayakena jñānena yeṣāṃ sat-prasaṅgināṃ tad-vaimukhyam ajñānaṃ nāśitaṃ pradhvaṃsitaṃ teṣāṃ taj-jñānaṃ kartṛ paraṃ prakāśayati | dehādeḥ paraṃ jīvaṃ vaiṣamyādi-doṣāt param īśvaraṃ ca bodhayati | ādityavat yathā ravir udita eva tamo nirasyan yathāvad vastu pradarśayati, tathā sad-gurūpadeśa-labdham ātma-jñānaṃ yathāvad ātma-vastv iti | atra vinaṣṭājñānānāṃ jīvānāṃ bahutvaṃ nigadatā pārtha-sārathinā mokṣe teṣāṃ tad-darśitaṃ aupādhikatvaṃ tasya praty uktaṃ neme janādhipāḥ ity upakramoktaṃ ca tat sopapattikam abhūt

 
 

BhG 5.17

tad-buddhayas tad-ātmānas tan-niṣṭhās tat-parāyaṇāḥ
gacchanty apunar-āvṛttiṃ jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣāḥ

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syntax


[ye] (those who) tad-buddhayaḥ (whose intelligence is in that) tad-ātmānaḥ (whose self is in that) tan-niṣṭhāḥ (whose faith is in that) tat-parāyaṇāḥ (who are fully dedicated to that) jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣāḥ (whose sins got destroyed by knowledge)
[te janāḥ] (these people) apunar-āvṛttim (no rebirth) gacchanti (they go).

 

grammar

tad-buddhayaḥ tad-buddhi 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ buddhis tasminn asti tethose whose intelligence is in that (from: tatsn. that; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
tad-ātmānaḥ tad-ātman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā tasminn asti tethose whose self is in that (from: tatsn. that; ātman – self);
tan-niṣṭhāḥ tad-niṣṭha 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ niṣṭhā tasminn asti tethose whose faith is in that (from: tatsn. that; sthā – to stay, to exist, niṣṭhā – state, firmness, devotion, faith, perfection, conclusion, death);
tat-parāyaṇāḥ tad-parāyaṇa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ tat parāyaṇam asti tethose who are fully dedicated to that (from: tatsn. that; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; ayana – a path; parāyaṇa – supreme path, the final goal; in compounds: fully dedicated to);
gacchanti gam (to go) Praes. P 1v.3 they go;
apunar-āvṛttim a-punar-āvṛtti 2n.1 f.no return again, no rebirth (from: av. punaḥ – back, again, a-punaḥ – never again; ā-vṛt – to return, to reverse; āvṛtti – return, repetition);
jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣāḥ jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ kalmaṣāṇi jñānena nirdhūtāni santi tethose whose sins got destroyed by knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; nir-dhū – to shake, to destroy; [PP] nir-dhūta – shaken, harassed; karma+so – destroying good acts, kalmaṣa – dirt, stain, sin);

 

textual variants


jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣāḥ → jñāna-nirdhauta-kalmaṣāḥ (whose sins got washes by knowledge);

… → verse, not found in critical edition, after verse 5.17:
smaranto ‚pi muhus tv etat spṛśanto ‚pi svakarmaṇi
saktā api na sajjanti paṅke ravi-karā iva

Although they remember again and again, although they are in touch with that [world],
and although they are attached to their own activities, they do not cling as the sunrays to the mud.

 
 


Śāṃkara


yat paraṃ jñānaṃ prakāśitaṃ—

tasmin brahmaṇi gatā buddhir yeṣāṃ te tad-buddhayaḥ, tad-ātmānas tad eva paraṃ brahma ātmā yeṣāṃ te tad-ātmanāḥ, tan-niṣṭhāḥ niṣṭhā abhiniveśas tātparyaṃ sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṃnyasya tasmin brahmaṇy eva avasthānaṃ yeṣāṃ te tan-niṣṭhāḥ, tat-parāyaṇā ca tad eva param ayanaṃ parā gatir yeṣāṃ bhavati te tat-parāyaṇāḥ kevalātma-rataya ity arthaḥ | yeṣāṃ jñānena nāśitam ātmano’jñānaṃ te gacchanti evaṃ-vidyāḥ apunar-āvṛttim apunar-deha-saṃbandhaṃ jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣā yathoktena jñānena nirdhūto nāśitaḥ kalmaṣaḥ pāpādi-saṃsāra-kāraṇa-doṣo yeṣāṃ te jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣā yatayaḥ ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


tadbuddhayaḥ tathāvidhātmadarśanādhyavasāyāḥ, tadātmānaḥ tadviṣayamanasaḥ, tanniṣṭhāḥ tadabhyāsaniratāḥ, tatparāyaṇāḥ tad eva paramaprayojanam iti manvānāḥ, evam abhyasyamānena jñānena nirdhūtaprācīnakalmaṣāḥ tathāvidham ātmanam apunarāvṛttiṃ gacchanti / yad avasthād ātmanaḥ punarāvṛttir na vidyate, sa ātmā apunarāvṛttiḥ / svena rūpeṇāvasthitam ātmānaṃ gacchantītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃbhūteśvaropāsakānāṃ phalam āha tad-buddhaya iti | tasminn eva buddhir niścayātmikā yeṣām | tasminn etātmā mano yeṣām | tasminn eva niṣṭhā tātparyaṃ yeṣām | tad eva param ayamam āśrayo yeṣām | tataś ca tat-prasāda-labdhenātma-jñānena nirdhūtaṃ nirastaṃ kalmaṣaṃ yeṣām | te ‚punar-āvṛttiṃ muktiṃ yānti

 

Madhusūdana


jñānena paramātma-tattva-prakāśe sati tad-buddhaya iti | tasmin jñāna-prakāśite paramātma-tattve sac-cid-ānanda-ghana eva bāhya-sarva-viṣaya-parityāgena sādhana-paripākāt paryavasitā buddhir antaḥkaraṇa-vṛttiḥ sākṣātkāra-lakṣaṇā yeṣāṃ te tad-buddhayaḥ sarvadā nirbīja-samādhi-bhāja ity arthaḥ | tat kiṃ boddhāro jīvā boddhavyaṃ brahma-tattvam iti boddhṛ-boddhavya-bhāvo hi māyā-vijṛmbhito na vāstavābheda-virodhīti bhāvaḥ |

nanu tad-ātmāna iti viśeṣaṇaṃ vyartham | avidvad-vyavartakaṃ hi vidvad-viśeṣaṇam | ajñā api hi vastu-gatyā tad-ātmāna iti kathaṃ tad-vyāvṛttir iti cet, na | itarātmatva-vyāvṛttau tātparyāt | ajñā hi anātma-bhūte dehādāv ātmābhimānina iti na tad-ātmāna iti vyapadiśyante | vijñās tu nivṛtta-dehādy-abhimānā iti virodhi-nivṛttyā tad-ātmāna iti vyapadiśyanta iti yuktaṃ viśeṣaṇam |

nanu karmānuṣṭhāna-vikṣepe sati kathaṃ dehādy-abhimāna-nivṛttir iti tatrāha tan-niṣṭhā iti | tasminn eva brahmaṇi sarva-karmānuṣṭhāna-vikṣepa-nivṛttyā niṣṭhā sthitir yeṣāṃ te tan-niṣṭhāḥ | sarva-karma-saṃnyāsena tad-eka-vicāra-parā ity arthaḥ | phala-rāge sati kathaṃ tat-sādhana-bhūta-karma-tyāga iti tatrāha tat-parāyaṇāḥ | tad eva param ayanaṃ prāptavyaṃ yeṣāṃ te tat-parāyaṇāḥ | sarvato viraktā ity arthaḥ |

atra tad-buddhaya ity anena sākṣātkāra uktaḥ | tad-ātmāna ity anātmābhimā-rūpa-viparīta-bhāva-nivṛtti-phalako vedānta-vicāraḥ śravaṇa-manana-paripāka-rūpaḥ | tat-parāyaṇā ity anena vairāgya-prakarṣaṃ ity uttarottarasya pūrva-pūrva-hetutvaṃ draṣṭavyam | ukta-viśeṣaṇā yatayo gacchanty apunar-āvṛttiṃ punar-deha-sambandhābhāva-rūpāṃ muktiṃ prāpnuvanti | sakṛn muktānām api punar deha-sambandhaḥ kuto na syād iti tatrāha jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣāḥ jñānena nirdhūtaṃ samūlam unmūlitaṃ punar-deha-sambandha-kāraṇaṃ kalmaṣaṃ puṇya-pāpātmakaṃ karma yeṣāṃ te tathā | jñānenānādy-ajñāna-nivṛttyā tat-kārya-karma-kṣaye tan-mūlakaṃ punar deha-grahaṇaṃ kathaṃ bhaved iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


kintu vidyā jīvātma-jñānam eva prakāśayati, na tu paramātma-jñānaṃ bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | tasmāt paramātma-jñānārthaṃ jñānibhir api punar viśeṣato bhaktiḥ kāryā ity ata āha tad-buddhaya iti | tat-padena pūrvam upakrānto vibhuḥ parāmṛśyate | tasmin parameśvara eva buddhir yeṣām te tam-manana-parā ity arthaḥ | tad-ātmānas tan-manaskās tam eva dhyāyanta ity arthaḥ | tan-niṣṭhāḥ jñānaṃ mayi saṃnyaset iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | dehādy-atiriktātmma-jñāne ‚pi sāttvike niṣṭhāṃ parityajya tad-eka-niṣṭhāḥ | tat-parāyaṇās tadīya-śravaṇa-kīrtana-parāḥ | yad vakṣyate –

bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ |
tato māṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tad-anantaram || [Gītā 18.55] iti |

jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣā jñānena vidyāyaiva pūrvam eva dhvasta-samastāvidyāḥ

 

Baladeva


paramātmany avaiṣamyādi-dhyāyatāṃ phalam āha tad iti | tasmiṃs tad-avaiṣamyādike guṇa-gaṇe buddhir niścayātmikā yeṣāṃ te | tad-ātmānas tasmin niviṣṭa-manasaḥ tan-niṣṭhās tat-tātparyavantas tat-parāyaṇās tat-samāśrayāḥ | evam abhyastena tad-vaiṣamyādi-guṇa-jñānena nirdhūta-kalmaṣā vinaṣṭa-tad-vaimukhyāḥ santa apunar-āvṛttiṃ muktiṃ gacchantīti

 
 

BhG 5.18

vidyā-vinaya-saṃpanne brāhmaṇe gavi hastini
śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ

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syntax


vidyā-vinaya-sampanne (in one endowed with knowledge and good conduct) brāhmaṇe (in a brahmin), gavi (in a cow), hastini (in an elephant), śuni ca eva (and even in a dog), śva-pāke ca (and in a dog-eater) sama-darśinaḥ (those who see the same) paṇḍitāḥ (the wise men).

 

grammar

vidyā-vinaya-saṁpanne vidyā-vinaya-saṁpanna 7n.1 m.; vidyayā ca vinayena ca sampanne iti – in one endowed with knowledge and good conduct (from: vid – to know, to understand, vidyā – knowledge, wisdom; vi- – to lead, vinaya – good conduct, training, modesty; sam-pad – to attain, [PP] saṁpanna – endowed with);
brāhmaṇe brāhmaṇa 7n.1 m.in a brahmin (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas);
gavi go 7n.1 f.in a cow;
hastini hastin 7n.1 m.in an elephant (from: hasta – hand);
śuni śvan 7n.1 m.in a dog;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
śva-pāke śva-pāka 7n.1 m. yaḥ śunaḥ pacati tasminin one who cooks dogs (from: śvan – dog; pać – to cook, pāka – cooking);
ca av.and;
paṇḍitāḥ paṇḍita 1n.3 m.the learned, wise (paṇḍā wisdom, knowledge);
sama-darśinaḥ sama-darśin 1n.3 m.ye samaṁ paśyanti te those who see the same (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; dṛś – to see, darśa – view, appearance, darśin – one who sees, seer);

 
 



Śāṃkara


yeṣāṃ jñānena nāśitam ātmano’jñānaṃ te paṇḍitāḥ kathaṃ tattvaṃ payantīty ucyate—

vidyā-vinaya-saṃpanne vidyā ca vinayaś ca vidyā-vinayau, vinaya upāmaḥ, tābhyāṃ vidyā-vinayābhyāṃ saṃpanno vidyā-vinaya-saṃpanno vidvān vinītaś ca yo brāhmaṇas tasmin brāhmaṇe gavi hastini śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ | vidyā-vinaya-saṃpanne uttama-saṃskāravati brāhmaṇe sāttvike, madhyamāyāṃ ca rājasyāṃ gavi, saṃskāra-hīnāyām atyantam eva kevala-tāmase hasty-ādau ca, sattvādi-guṇais taj-jaiś ca saṃskārais tathā rājasais tathā tāmasaiś ca saṃskārair atyantam evāspṛṣṭāṃ samam ekam avikriyaṃ tad brahma draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


vidyāvinayasaṃpanne, kevalabrāhmaṇe, gohastiśvaśvapacādiṣu atyantaviṣamākāratayā pratīyamāneṣu ātmasu paṇḍitāḥ ātmayāthātmyavidaḥ, jñānaikākāratayā sarvatra samadarśinaḥ viṣamākāras tu prakṛteḥ, nātmanaḥ; ātmā tu sarvatra jñānaikākāratayā sama iti paśyantītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kīdṛśās te jñānino ye ‚punar-āvṛttiṃ gacchantīty apekṣāyām āha vidyā-vinaya-saṃpanna iti | viṣameṣv api samaṃ brahmaiva draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te paṇḍitāḥ | jñānina ity arthaḥ | atra vidyā-vinayābhyāṃ yukte brāhmaṇe ca | śuno yaḥ pacati tasmin śvapāke ca iti karmaṇā vaiṣamyam | gavi hastini śuni ceti jātito vaiṣamyaṃ darśitam

 

Madhusūdana


deha-pātād ūrdhvaṃ videha-kaivalya-rūpaṃ jñāna-phalam uktvā prārabdha-karma-vaśāt saty api dehe jīvan-mukti-rūpaṃ tat-phalam āha vidyeti | vidyā vedārtha-parijñānaṃ brahma-vidyā vā | vinayo nirahaṅkāratvam anauddhatyam iti yāvat | tābhyāṃ saṃpanne brahma-vidi vinīte ca brāhmaṇe sāttvike sarvottame | tathā gavi saṃskāra-hīnāyāṃ rājasyāṃ madhyamāyāṃ | tathā hastini śuni śvapāke cātyanta tāmase sarvādhame ‚pi | sattvādi-guṇais taj-jaiś ca saṃskārair aspṛṣṭam eva samaṃ brahma draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te sama-darśinaḥ | paṇḍitā jñāninaḥ | yathā gaṅgā-toye taḍāge surāyāṃ mūtre vā pratibimbitasyādityasya na tad-guṇa-doṣa-sambandhas tathā brahmaṇo ‚pi cid-ābhāsa-dvārā pratibimbitasya nopādhi-gata-guṇa-doṣa-sambandha iti pratisandadhānāḥ sarvatra sama-dṛṣṭyaiva rāga-dveṣa-rāhityena paramānanda-sphūrtyā jīvan-muktim anubhavantīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca guṇātītānāṃ teṣāṃ guṇa-maye vastu-mātra eva tāratamya-mayaṃ viśeṣam ajighṛkṣūṇāṃ sama-buddhir eva syād ity āha vidyeti | brāhmaṇe gavīti sāttvika-jātitvāt | hastini madhyame | śuni ca śvapāke ceti tāmas-jātitvād adhame ‚pi tat-tad-viśeṣāgrahaṇāt sama-darśinaḥ paṇḍitā guṇātītāḥ | viśeṣāgrahaṇam eva samaṃ guṇātītaṃ brahma | tad draṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te

 

Baladeva


tān stauti vidyeti | tādṛśe brāhmaṇe śvapāke ceti karmaṇaitau viṣamau gavi hastini śuni ceti jātyaite viṣamāḥ | evaṃ viṣamatayā sṛṣṭeṣu brāhmaṇādiṣu ye paramātmānaṃ samaṃ paśyanti, ta eva paṇḍitāḥ | tat-karmānusāriṇī tena teṣāṃ tathā tathā sṛṣṭiḥ, na tu rāga-dveṣānusāriṇīti parjanyavat sarvatra samaḥ paramātmeti

 
 


BhG 5.19

ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṃ sāmye sthitaṃ manaḥ
nirdoṣaṃ hi samaṃ brahma tasmād brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ

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syntax


yeṣām (of those whose) manaḥ (the mind) sāmye (in oneness) sthitam (situated),
iha eva (just here) taiḥ (by them) sargaḥ (creation) jitaḥ hi (indeed conquered).
brahma (brahman) samam (the same) nirdoṣam (faultless) [asti] (it is),
tasmāt (therefore) te (they) brahmaṇi eva (in brahman only) sthitāḥ (situated).

 

grammar

iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
taiḥ tat sn. 3n.3 m.by them;
jitaḥ jita (ji – to conquer) [PP] 1n.1 m.conquered, defeated;
sargaḥ sarga 1n.1 m.emanation, creation (from: sṛj – to let go, to emit);
yeṣām yat sn. 6n.3 m.of those whose;
sāmye sāmya 7n.1 n.in equality, in evenness, in oneness (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent);
sthitam sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 n.standing, situated, firm;
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
nirdoṣam nirdoṣa 1n.1 n.without fault (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; duṣ – to become bad, to be defiled, to perish, doṣa – evil, fault, guilt);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
samam sama 1n.1 n.the same, equal, equivalent;
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
brahmaṇi brahman 7n.1 n.in spirit, in the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
sthitāḥ sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.3 m.standing, situated;

 

textual variants


tair jitaḥnirjitaḥ (won);
sargo → svargo (heaven);
sāmye → sāme / sāṁkhyaiḥ (in sameness / by the followers of sāṁkhya);
 
 


Śāṃkara


nanv abhojyānnās te doṣavantaḥ, samāsamābhyāṃ viṣama-same pūjātaḥ [guṇautama-dharma-sūtra 2.8.20] iti smṛteḥ | na te doṣavantaḥ | kathaṃ ?—

ihaiva jīvadbhireva taiḥ samadarśibhiḥ paṇḍitair jito vaīkṛtaḥ sargo janma, yeṣāṃ sāmye sarva-bhūteṣu brahmaṇi samabhāve sthitaṃ ni calībhūtaṃ mano’ntaḥkaraṇam | nirdoṣaṃ yadyapi doṣavatsu vapākādiṣu mūḍhais taddoṣair doṣavat iva vibhāvyate, tathāpi taddoṣair aspṛṣṭām iti nirdoṣaṃ doṣavarjitaṃ hi yasmāt | nāpi svaguṇabhedabhinnam, nirguṇatvāt caitanyasya | vakṣyati ca bhagavān icchādīnāṃ kṣetradharmatvam, anāditvānnirguṇatvāt iti ca | nāpy antyā viśeṣāḥ ātmano bhedakāḥ santi, pratiśarīraṃ teṣāṃ sattve pramāṇānupapatteḥ | ataḥ samaṃ brahma ekaṃ ca | tasmāt brahmaṇi eva te sthitāḥ | tasmāt na doṣagandhamātramapi tān spṛati, dehādisaṃghātātma-darśanābhimānābhāvāt teṣām | dehādisaṃghātātma-darśanābhimānavadviṣayaṃ tu tat sūtraṃ samāsamābhyāṃ viṣamasame pūjātaḥ iti, pūjāviṣayatvena viśeṣaṇāt | dṛśyate hi brahmavit ṣaḍāṅgavit caturvedavit iti pūjādānādau guṇaviśeṣasaṃbandhaḥ kāraṇam | brahma tu sarvaguṇadoṣasaṃbandhavarjitamityatar brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ iti yuktam | karmaviṣayaṃ ca samāsamābhyām ity ādi | idaṃ tu sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaviṣayaṃ prastutam, sarva-karmāṇi manasā ityārabhya ādhyāyaparisamāpteḥ

 

Rāmānuja


ihaiva sādhanānuṣṭhānadaśāyām eva taiḥ sargo jitaḥ saṃsāro jitaḥ; yeṣām uktarītyā sarveṣv ātmasu sāmye sthitaṃ manaḥ / nirdoṣaṃ hi samaṃ brahma / prakṛtisaṃsargadoṣaviyuktatayā samam ātmavastu hi bramha / ātmasāmye sthitāś ced brahmaṇi sthitā eva te; brahmaṇi sthitir eva hi sṃsārajayaḥ / ātmasu jñānaikākāratayā sāmyam evānusandhānā muktā evetyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


nanu viṣamesu sama-darśanaṃ niṣiddhaṃ kurvanto ‚pi kathaṃ te paṇḍitāḥ ? yathāha gautamaḥ samāsam ābhyāṃ viṣama-same pūjātaḥ iti | asyārthaḥ samāya pūjayā viṣame prakāre kṛte sati viṣamāya ca same prakāre kṛte sati sa pūjaka iha lokāt para-lokāc ca hīyata iti | tatrāha ihaiveti | ihaiva jīvadbhir eva taiḥ | sṛjyate iti sargaḥ saṃsāraḥ | jito nirastaḥ | kaiḥ ? yeṣāṃ manaḥ sāmye samatve sthitaṃ | tatra hetuḥ — hi yasmād brahma samaṃ nirdoṣaṃ ca tasmāt te sama-darśino brahmaṇy eva sthitāḥ | brahma-bhāvaṃ prāptā ity arthaḥ | gautamoktas tu doṣo brahma-bhāva-prāpteḥ pūrvam eva | pūjāta iti pūjakāvasthāśravaṇāt

 

Madhusūdana


nanu sāttvika-rājasa-tāmaseṣu svabhāva-viṣameṣu prāṇiṣu samatva-darśanaṃ dharma-śāstra-niṣiddham | tathā ca tasyānnam abhojyam ity upakramya gautamaḥ smarati samāsam ābhyāṃ viṣama-same pūjāta iti | samāsam ābhyām iti caturthī-dvi-vacanam | viṣama-sama iti dvandvaikavad bhāvena saptamy-eka-vacanam | catur-veda-pāragāṇām atyanta-sadācārāṇāṃ yādṛśo vastrālaṅkārānnādi-dāna-puraḥsaraḥ pūjā-viśesaḥ kriyate tat-samāyaivānyasmai caturveda-pāragāya sad-ācārāya viṣame tad-apekṣayā nyūne pūjā-prakāre kṛte | tathālpa-vedānāṃ hīnācārāṇāṃ yādṛśo hīna-sādhanaḥ pūjā-prakāraḥ kriyate tādṛśāyaivāsamāya pūrvokta-veda-pāraga-sad-ācāra-brāhmaṇāpekṣayā hīnāya tādṛśa-hīna-pūjādhike mukhya-pūjā-same pūjā-prakāre kṛte, uttamasya hīnatayā hīnasyottamatayā pūjāto hetos tasya pūjayitur annam abhojyaṃ bhavatīty arthaḥ | pūjayitā pratipatti-viśesam akurvan dhanād dharmāc ca hīyata iti ca doṣāntaram | yadyapi yatīnāṃ niṣparigrahāṇāṃ pākābhāvād dhanābhāvāc cābhojyānnatvaṃ dhana-hīnatvaṃ ca svata eva vidyate tathāpi dharma-hānir doso bhavaty eva | abhojyānnatvaṃ cāśucitvena pāptpatty-upalakṣaṇam | tapo-dhanānāṃ ca tapa eva dhanam iti tad-dhānir api dūṣaṇaṃ bhavaty eveti kathaṃ sama-darśinaḥ paṇḍitā jīvan-muktā iti prāpte pariharati ihaiveti |

taiḥ sama-darśibhiḥ paṇḍitair ihaiva jīvana-daśāyām eva jito ‚tikrāntaḥ sargaḥ sṛjyata iti vyutpattyā dvaita-prapañcaḥ | deha-pātād ūrdhvam atikramitavya iti kim u vaktavyam ? kaiḥ ? yeṣāṃ sāmye sarva-bhūteṣu viṣameṣv api vartamānasya brahmaṇaḥ sama-bhāve sthitaṃ niścalaṃ manaḥ | hi yasmān nirdoṣaṃ samaṃ sarva-vikāra-śūnyaṃ kūṭastha-nityam ekaṃ ca brahma tasmāt te brahmaṇy eva sthitāḥ |

ayaṃ bhāvaḥ | duṣṭatvam hi dvedhā bhavati aduṣṭasyāpi duṣṭa-sambandhāt svato duṣṭatvād vā | yathā gaṅgodakasya mūtra-garta-pātāt | svata eva vā yathā mūtrādeḥ | tatra doṣavatsu śvapākādiṣu sthitaṃ doṣair duṣyati brahmeti mūḍhair vibhāvyamānam api sarva-doṣāsaṃsṛṣṭam eva brahma vyomavad asaṅgatvāt | asaṅgo hy ayaṃ puruṣaḥ |

sūryo yathā sarva-lokasya cakṣur
na lipyate cākṣuṣair bāhya-doṣaiḥ |
ekas tathā sarva-bhūtāntarātmā
na lipyate loka-duḥkhena bāhyaḥ || iti śruteḥ |

nāpi kāmādi-dharmavattayā svata eva kaluṣitaṃ kāmāder antaḥkaraṇa-dharmatvasya śruti-smṛti-siddhatvāt | tasmān nirdoṣa-brahma-rūpā yatayo jīvan-muktā abhojyānnādi-doṣa-duṣṭāś ceti vyāhṛtam | smṛtis tv avidvad-gṛhastha-viṣayaiva | tasyānna-bhojyam ity upakramāt | pūjāta iti madhye nirdeśāt | dhanād dharmāc ca hīyata ity upasaṃhārāc ceti draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


sama-dṛṣṭitvaṃ stauti | ihaiva iha loka eva sṛjyata iti sargaḥ saṃsāro jitaḥ parābhūtaḥ

 

Baladeva


iheti | iha sādhana-daśāyām eva taiḥ sargaḥ saṃsāro jitaḥ parābhūtaḥ | kaiḥ ? yeṣāṃ manaḥ sāmye ‚vaiṣamyākhye brahma-dharme sthitaṃ niviṣṭam | kuto brahmāviṣamam ? tatrāha nirdoṣaṃ hīti | hi yato brahmaṇy avaiṣamyādikaṃ niścikyus tasmāt prapañce tiṣṭhanto ‚pi te brahmaṇy eva sthitāḥ muktis teṣāṃ sulabhety arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 5.20

na prahṛṣyet priyaṃ prāpya nodvijet prāpya cāpriyam
sthira-buddhir asaṃmūḍho brahma-vid brahmaṇi sthitaḥ

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syntax


[yaḥ] (he who) sthira-buddhiḥ (with steady intelligence) asaṁmūḍhaḥ (unbewildered) brahma-vit (knowing brahman) brahmaṇi (in brahman) sthitaḥ (situated) [asti] (it is),
[saḥ] (he) priyam (pleasant) prāpya (after obtaining) na prahṛṣyet (he should not rejoice),
apriyaṁ ca (and unpleasant) prāpya (after obtaining) na udvijet (he should not be agitated).

 

grammar

na av.not;
prahṛṣyet hṛṣ (to be excited) Pot. P 1v.1he should rejoice;
priyam priya 2n.1 n.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);
prāpya pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after obtaining;
na av.not;
udvijet ud-vij (to be agitated, to tremble, to fear) Pot. P 1v.1he should tremble, he should be agitated;
prāpya pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after obtaining;
ca av.and;
apriyam a-priya 2n.1 n.not liked, unpleasant (from: prī – to please);
sthira-buddhiḥ sthira-buddhi 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya buddiḥ sthirāsti saḥwhose intelligence is steady (from: sthā – to stand, sthira – firm, hard, steady; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
asaṁmūḍhaḥ a-saṁ-mūḍha (sam-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.1 m.unbewildered;
brahma-vit brahma-vit 1n.1 m.; yo brahma vetti saḥwho knows brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
brahmaṇi brahman 7n.1 n.in spirit, in the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
sthitaḥ sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 m.standing, situated;

 

textual variants


nodvijet → na dveṣti (does not hate);
cāpriyamvipriyam (unpleasant);
nodvijet prāpya cāpriyam → nāpriyaṁ prāpya codvijet (he should not be agitated after obtaining unpleasant);
sthitaḥ → sthitiḥ / sthitāḥ (position / those situated);
 
 


Śāṃkara


yasmāt nirdoṣaṃ samaṃ brahmātmā, tasmāt—

na prahṛṣeyet praharṣaṃ na kuryāt priyam iṣṭāṃ prāpya labdhvā | nodvijet prāpya cāpriyam aniṣṭāṃ labdhvā | deha-mātrātma-darśināṃ hi priyāpriya-prāptī harṣa-viṣādau kurvāte, na kevalātma-darśinaḥ, tasya priyāpriya-prāpty-asaṃbhavāt | kiṃ ca—sarva-bhūteṣv ekaḥ samo nirdoṣa ātmeti sthirā nirvicikitsā buddhir yasya sa sthira-buddhir asaṃmūḍhaḥ saṃmoha-varjitaś ca syāt yathokta-brahmavid brahmaṇi sthito’karma-kṛt sarva-karma-saṃnyāsīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yena prakāreṇāvathitasya karmayoginaḥ samadarśanarūpo jñanavipāko bhavati, taṃ prakāram upadiśati

yādṛśadehasthasya yadavasthasya prācīnakarmavāsanayā yat priyaṃ bhavati, yac cāpriyam, tadubhayaṃ prāpya harṣodvegau na kuryāt / katham? sthirabuddhiḥ sthire ātmani buddhir yasya saḥ sthirabuddhiḥ, asaṃmūḍho asthieṇa śarīreṇa sthiram ātmānam ekīkṛtya mohaḥ saṃmohaḥ; tadrahitaḥ / tac ca katham? brahmavid brahmaṇi sthitaḥ / upadeśena brahmavit san tasmin brahmaṇy abhyāsayuktaḥ / etad uktaṃ bhavati tattvavidām upadeśena ātmayāthātmyavid bhūtvā tatraiva yatamāno dehātmābhimānaṃ parityajya sthirarūpātmāvalokanapriyānubhave vyavasthitaḥ asthire prākṛte priyāpriye prāpya harṣodevegau na kuryād iti

 

Śrīdhara


brahma-prāptasya lakṣaṇam āha na prahṛṣyed iti | brahma-vid bhūtvā brahmaṇy eva yaḥ sthitaḥ sa priyaṃ prāpya na prahṛṣyet prakṛṣṭa-harṣavān syāt | apriyam prāpya ca nodvijet na viṣīdatīty arthaḥ | yataḥ sthira-buddhir sthirā niścalā buddhir yasya | tat kutaḥ ? yato ‚saṃmūḍho nivṛtta-mohaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yasmān nirdoṣaṃ samaṃ brahma tasmāt tad-rūpam ātmānaṃ sākṣātkurvann āha na prahṛṣyed iti | duḥkheṣv anudvigna-manāḥ sukheṣu vigata-spṛhaḥ ity atra vyākhyātaṃ pūrvārdham | jīvan-muktānāṃ svābhāvikaṃ caritam eva mumukṣubhiḥ prayatna-pūrvakam anuṣṭheyam iti vadituṃ liṅga-pratyayau | advitīyātma-darśana-śīlasya vyatirikta-priyāpriya-prāpty-ayogyāc ca tan-nimittau harṣa-viṣādāv ity arthaḥ |

advitīyātma-darśanam eva vivṛṇoti – sthira-buddhiḥ sthirā niścalā saṃnyāsa-pūrvaka-vedānta-vākya-vicāra-paripākeṇa sarva-saṃśaya-śūnyatvena nirvicikitsā niścitā brahmaṇi buddhir yasya sa tathā labdha-śravaṇa-manana-phala iti yāvat | etādṛśasya sarvāsaṃbhāvanā-śūnyatve ‚pi viparīta-bhāva-pratibandhāt sākṣātkāro nodetīti nididhyāsanam āha – asaṃmūḍhaḥ | nididhyāsanasya vijātīya-pratyayānantarita-sajātīya-pratyaya-pravāhasya paripākeṇa viparīta-bhāvanākhya-saṃmoha-rahitaḥ | tataḥ sarva-pratibandhāpagamād brahmavid brahma-sākṣātkāravān | tataś ca samādhi-paripākeṇa nirdoṣe same brahmaṇy eva sthito nānyatreti brahmaṇi sthito jīvan-muktaḥ sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | etādṛśasya dvaita-darśanābhāvāt praharṣodvegau na bhavata ity ucitam eva | sādhakena tu dvaita-darśane vidyamāne ‚pi viṣaya-doṣa-darśanādinā praharṣa-viṣādau tyājyāv ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ laukika-priyāpriyādiṣv api teṣāṃ sāmyam āha na prahṛṣyed iti | na prahṛṣyet na prahṛṣyati | nodvijet nodvijate | sādhana-daśāyām evam abhyased iti vivakṣayā vā liṅ | asaṃmūḍho harṣa-śokādīnām abhimāna-nibandhanatvena saṃmoha-mātratvāt

 

Baladeva


brahmaṇi sthitasya lakṣaṇam āha neti | vartamāne dehe sthitaḥ prārabdhākṛṣṭaṃ priyam apriyaṃ ca prāpya na prahṛṣyen na codvijet | kutaḥ ? sthirā svātmani buddhir yasya saḥ | asaṃmūḍho ‚nityena dehena nityam ātmānam ekīkṛtya mohaṃ na labdhaḥ | brahmavit tādṛśaṃ brahmānubhavan | evaṃlakṣaṇo brahmaṇi sthito bodhyaḥ

 
 

BhG 5.21

bāhya-sparśeṣv asaktātmā vindaty ātmani yat sukham
sa brahma-yoga-yuktātmā sukham akṣayam aśnute

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syntax


bāhya-sparśeṣu (in external perceptions) asaktātmā (whose self is unattached) ātmani (in the self) yat sukhaṁ (which pleasure) [tat] (that) vindati (he obtains).
saḥ (he) brahma-yoga-yuktātmā (whose self is engaged in yoga of brahman) akṣayam (indestructible) sukham (pleasure) aśnute (he attains).

 

grammar

bāhya-sparśeṣu bāhya-sparśa 7n.3 m.; [TP]: bāhyeṣu sparśeṣv itiin external perceptions (from: bahiḥ av. outside, bāhya – external; spṛś – to touch, sparśa – touch, sensation);
asaktātmā asakta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya ātmāsakto ‘sti saḥwhose self is unattached (from: sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, [PP] a-sakta – unattached; ātman – self);
vindati vid (to find) Praes. P 1v.1 he finds, he obtains;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
sukham sukha 2n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
brahma-yoga-yuktātmā brahma-yoga-yuktātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā brahmaṇo yoge yukto ‘sti saḥwhose self is engaged in yoga of brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with; ātman – self);
or: BV: yasyātmā brahmaṇi yogena yukto ‘sti saḥwhose self is joined with brahman by yoga;
sukham sukha 2n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
akṣayam a-kṣaya 2n.1 n.indestructible (from: kṣi – to decrease, PF kṣaya – diminution, destruction);
aśnute (to reach, to eat, to enjoy) Praes. Ā 1v.1he attains;

 

textual variants


bāhya-sparśeṣvbrāhma-sparśeṣv / bāhu-sparśeṣv (in perceptions of brahman / in many perceptions);
yat → yaḥ (he who);
brahma-yoga-yuktātmābrahma-loka-yuktātmā (whose self is joined with the world of brahman);
akṣayam → avyayam / akṣayyam (unchangeable / indestructible);
 
 


Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca, brahmaṇi sthitaḥ—

bāhya-sparśeṣu bāhyā ca te sparśāś ca bāhya-sparśāḥ | spṛśyante iti sparśāḥ śabdādayo viṣayās teṣu bāhya-sparśeṣu | asakta ātmā antaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya so’yam asaktātmā viṣayeṣu prīti-varjitaḥ san vindati labhate | ātmani yat sukhaṃ tad vindatīty etat | sa brahma-yoga-yuktātmā brahmaṇi yogaḥ samādhir brahma-yogas tena brahma-yogena yuktaḥ samāhitas tasmin vyāpṛta ātmā antaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya sa brahma-yoga-yuktātmā | sukham akṣayam aśnute vyāpnoti | tasmād bāhya-viṣaya-prīteḥ kṣaṇikāyā indriyāṇi nivartayed ātmany akṣaya-sukhārthīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


evamuktena prakāreṇa bāhyasparśeṣu ātmavyatiriktaviṣayānubhaveṣu, asaktātmā asaktamanāḥ antarātmany eva yaḥ sukhaṃ vindati labhate, sa prakṛtyabhyāsaṃ vihāya brahmayogayuktātmā brahmābhyāsayuktamanāḥ brahmānubhavarūpam akṣayaṃ sukhaṃ prāpnoti

 

Śrīdhara


moha-nivṛttyā buddhi-sthairye hetum āha bāhya-sparśeṣv iti | indriyaiḥ spṛśyanta iti sparśā viṣayāḥ | bāhyendriya-viṣayeṣv asaktātmānāsakta-cittaḥ | ātmani antaḥ-karaṇe yad upaśamātmakaṃ sāttvikaṃ sukham tad vindati labhate | sa copaśamaṃ sukhaṃ labdhvā brahmaṇi yogena samādhinā yuktas tadaikyaṃ prāpta ātmā yasya so ‚kṣayaṃ sukham aśnute prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


nanu bāhya-viṣaya-prīter aneka-janmānubhūtatvenātipracalatvāt tad-āsakta-cittasya katham alaukike brahmaṇi dṛṣṭa-sarva-sukha-rahite sthitiḥ syāt | paramānanda-rūpatvād iti cet, na | tad-ānandasyānanubhūta-caratvena citta-sthiti-hetutvābhāvāt | tad uktaṃ vārttike –

apy ānandaḥ śrutaḥ sākṣān mānenāviṣayīkṛtaḥ |
dṛṣṭānandābhilāṣaṃ sa na mandīkartum apy alam || iti |

tatrāha bāhyeti | indriyaiḥ spṛśyanta iti sparśāḥ śabdādayaḥ | te ca bāhyā anātma-dharmatvāt | teṣv asaktātmānāsakta-cittas tṛṣṇā-śūnyatayā viraktaḥ sann ātmani antaḥ-karaṇa eva bāhya-viṣaya-nirapekṣaṃ yad upaśamātmakaṃ sukhaṃ tad vindati labhate nirmala-sattva-vṛttyā | tad uktaṃ bhārate –

yac ca kāma-sukhaṃ loke yac ca divyaṃ mahat sukham |
tṛṣṇākṣaya-sukhasyaite nārhataḥ ṣoḍaśīṃ kalām || iti |

athavā pratyag-ātmani tvaṃ-padārthe yat sukhaṃ svarūpa-bhūtaṃ suṣuptāv anubhūyamānaṃ bāhya-viṣayāsakti-pratibandhād alambhamānaṃ tad eva tad-abhāvāl labhate |

na kevalaṃ tvaṃ-padārtha-sukham eva labhate kintu tat-padārthaikyānubhavena pūrṇa-sukham apīty āha sa tṛṣṇā-śūnyo brahmaṇi paramātmani yogaḥ samādhis tena yuktas tasmin vyāpṛta ātmāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya sa brahma-yoga-yuktātmā | athavā brahmaṇi tat-padārthe yogena vākyārthānubhava-rūpeṇa samādhinā yukta aikyaṃ prāpta ātmā tvaṃ-padārtha-svarūpaṃ yasya sa tathā | sukham akṣayam anantaṃ sva-svarūpa-bhūtam aśnute vyāpnoti sukhānubhava-rūpa eva sarvadā bhavatīty arthaḥ | nitye ‚pi vastuny avidyānivṛtty-abhiprāyeṇa dhātv-artha-yoga aupacārikaḥ | tasmād ātmany akṣaya-sukhānubhavārthī san bāhya-viṣaya-prīteḥ kṣaṇikāyā mahā-narakānubandhinyāḥ sakāśād indriyāṇi nivartayet tāvataiva ca brahmaṇi sthitir bhavatīty abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


sa ca bāhya-sparśeṣu viṣaya-sukheṣv asaktātmā anāsakta-manāḥ | tatra hetur ātmani jīvātmani paramātmānaṃ vindati sati prāpte yat sukhaṃ tad akṣayaṃ sukham | sa evāśnute prāpnoti, na hi nirantaram amṛtāsvādine mṛttikā rocata iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


paurvauttaryeṇa sva-parātmānāv anubhavatīty āha bāhyeti | bāhya-sparśeṣu śabdādi-viṣayānubhaveṣu asaktātmā san yadātmani sva-svarūpe ‚nubhūyamāne sukham tadādau vindati, tad uttaraṃ brahmaṇi paramātmani yogaḥ samādhis tad-yuktātmā san yad akṣayaṃ mahad-anubhava-lakṣaṇaṃ sukham tad aśnute labhate

 
 

BhG 5.22

ye hi saṃsparśa-jā bhogā duḥkha-yonaya eva te
ādy-antavantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
ye bhogāḥ (these luxuries which) saṁsparśa-jāḥ (born from perception),
te hi (indeed they) duḥkha-yonayaḥ eva (being only the sources of distress) ādy-antavantaḥ (having beginning and end) [santi] (they are).
teṣu [bhogeṣu] (in those luxuries) budhaḥ (the wise man) na ramate (he does not rejoice).

 

grammar

ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.these which;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
saṁsparśa-jāḥ saṁ-sparśa-ja 1n.3 m.born from perception (from: sam-spṛś – to touch, saṁsparśa – touch, sensation; jan – to be born; ja – suffix: born);
bhogāḥ bhoga 1n.3 m.enjoyments, luxuries, wealth (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy);
duḥkha-yonayaḥ duḥkha-yoni 1n.3 m.; [TP]: duḥkhasya yonaya itisources of distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness; yoni – womb, source, origin);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
ādy-antavantaḥ ādy-anta-vant 1n.3 m.which have beginning and end (from: ādi – beginning, source; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses)
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
na av.not;
teṣu tat sn. 7n.3 m.in those;
ramate ram (to play, to rejoice) Praes. Ā 1v.1he rejoices;
budhaḥ budha 1n.1 m.intelligent, clever, wise (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);

 

textual variants


hi → ca (and);
saṁsparśa-jā saṁsarga-jā (born from emanation);
bhogā → bhāvā (beings);
 
 


Śāṃkara


itaś ca nivartayet—

ye hi yasmāt saṃssparśajā viṣayendriya-saṃsparśebhyo jātā bhogā bhuktayo duḥkha-yonaya eva te, avidyā-kṛtatvāt | dṛśyante hy ādhyātmikādīni duḥkhāni tan-nimittāny eva | yathā iha-loke tathā para-loke’pīti gamyate eva-śabdāt | na saṃsāre sukhasya gandha-mātram apy astīti buddhvā viṣaya-mṛga-tṛṣṇikāyā indriyāṇi nivartayet | na kevalaṃ duḥkha-yonaya eva, ādy-anta-vantaś ca, ādir viṣayendriya-saṃyogo bhogānām antaś ca tad-viyoga eva | ataḥ ādy-anta-vanto’nityāḥ, madhya-kṣaṇa-bhāvitvāt ity arthaḥ | kaunteya, na teṣu bhogeṣu ramate budho viveky avagata-paramārtha-tattvaḥ | atyanta-mūḍhānām eva hi viṣayeṣu ratir dṛśyate, yathā paśu-prabhṛtīnām

 

Rāmānuja


prākṛtasya bhogasya sutyajatām āha

viṣayendriyasparśajāḥ ye bhogāḥ duḥkhayonayas te duḥkhodarkāḥ / ādyantavantaḥ alpakālavartino hi upalabhyante / na teṣu tadyāthātmyavid ramate

 

Śrīdhara


nanu priya-viṣaya-bhogānām api nivṛtteḥ kathaṃ mokṣaḥ puruṣārthaḥ syāt | tatrāha ye hīti | saṃsparśā viṣayās tebhyo jātā ye bhogāḥ sukhāni | te hi vartamāna-kāle ‚pi spardhāsūyādi-vyāptatvād duḥkhasyaiva yonayaḥ kāraṇa-bhūtāḥ | tathādimanto ‚ntavantaś ca | ato vivekī teṣu na ramate

 

Madhusūdana


nanu bāhya-viṣaya-prīti-nivṛttāv ātmany akṣaya-sukhānubhavas tasmiṃś ca sati tat-prasādād eva bāhya-viṣaya-prīti-nivṛttir itītaretarāśraya-vaśān naikam api sidhyed ity āśaṅkya viṣaya-doṣa-darśanābhyāsenaiva tat-prīti-nivṛttir bhavatīti parihāram āha ye hīti | hi yasmād ye saṃsparśajā viṣayendriya-sambandha-jā bhogāḥ kṣudra-sukha-lavānubhavā iha vā paratra vā rāga-dveṣādi-vyāptatvena duḥkha-yonaya eva te | te sarve ‚pi brahma-loka-paryantaṃ duḥkha-hetava eva | tad uktaṃ viṣṇu-purāṇe –

yāvataḥ kurute jantuḥ saṃbandhān manasaḥ priyān |
tāvanto ‚sya nisvanyante hṛdaye śoka-śaṅkavaḥ || iti |

etādṛśā aḸ na sthirāḥ kintu ādy-anta-vantaḥ | ādir viṣayendriya-saṃyogo ‚ntaś ca tad-viyoga evaṃ tau vidyete yeṣāṃ te pūrvāparayor asattvān madhye svapnavad āvirbhūtāḥ kṣaṇikā mithyā-bhūtāḥ | tad uktaṃ gauḍapādācāryaiḥ – ādāv ante ca yat tv asti vartamāne ‚pi tat tathā iti |

yasmād evaṃ tasmāt teṣu budho vivekī na ramate pratikūla-vedanīyatvāc ca prītim anubhavati | tad uktaṃ bhagavatā patañjalinā pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhair guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca duḥkham eva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ [YogS 2.15] iti | sarvam api viṣaya-sukhaṃ dṛṣṭam ānuśravikaṃ ca duḥkham eva pratikūla-vedanīyatvāt | vivekinaḥ parijñāta-kleśādi-svarūpasya na tv avivekinaḥ | akṣi-pātra-kalpo hi vidvān atyalpa-duḥkha-leśenāpy udvijate yathorṇa-tantur atisukumāro ‚py akṣi-pātre nyastaḥ sparśena duḥkhayati netareṣv aṅgeṣu tadvad vivekina eva madhu-viṣa-saṃpṛktānna-bhojanavat sarvam api bhoga-sādhanaṃ kāla-traye ‚pi kleśānubiddhatvād duḥkhaṃ na mūḍhasya bahuvidha-duḥkha-sahiṣṇor ity arthaḥ | tatra pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhair iti bhūta-vartamāna-bhaviṣyt-kāle ‚pi duḥkhānubiddhatvād aupādhikaṃ duḥkhatvaṃ viṣaya-sukhasyoktaṃ, guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc cety anena svarūpato ‚pi duḥkhatvam | tatra pariṇāmaś ca tāpaś ca saṃskāraś ca ta eva duḥkhāni tair ity arthaḥ | itthaṃ-bhūta-lakṣaṇe tṛtīyā | tathā hi – rāgānubiddha eva sarvo ‚pi sukhānubhavaḥ | na hi tatra na rajyati tena sukhī ceti sambhavati | rāga eva ca pūrvam udbhūtaḥ san viṣaya-prāptyā sukha-rūpeṇa pariṇamate | tasya ca pratikṣaṇaṃ vardhamānatvena sva-viṣayāprāpti-nibandhana-duḥkhasyāparihāryatvād duḥkha-rūpataiva | yā hi bhogeṣv indriyāṇām upaśāntiḥ paritṛptatvāt tat sukham | yā laulyād anupaśāntis tad duḥkham | na cendriyāṇāṃ bhogābhyāsena vaitṛṣṇyaṃ kartuṃ śakyam | yato bhogābhyāsam anu vivardhante rāgāḥ kauśalāni cendriyāṇāṃ | smṛtiś ca –

na jātu kāmaḥ kāmānām upabhogena śāmyati |
haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmaiva bhūya evābhivardhate || iti |

tasmād duḥkhātmaka-rāga-pariṇāmatvād viṣaya-sukham api duḥkham eva kārya-kāraṇayor abhedād iti pariṇāma-duḥkhatvam |

tathā sukhānubhava-kāle tat-pratikūlāni duḥkha-sādhanāni dveṣṭi | nānupahatya bhūtāny upabhogaḥ sambhavatīti bhūtāni ca hinasti | dveṣaś ca sarvāṇi duḥkha-sādhanāni me mā bhūvann iti saṅkalpa-viśeṣaḥ | na ca tāni sarvāṇi kaścid api parihartuṃ śaknoti | ataḥ sukhānubhava-kāle ‚pi tat-paripanthinaṃ prati dveṣasya sarvadaivāvasthitatvāt tāpa-duḥkhaṃ duṣparihāram eva | tāpo hi dveṣaḥ | evaṃ duḥkha-sādhanāni parihartum aśakto muhyati ceti moha-duḥkhatāpi vyākhyeyā | tathā coktaṃ yoga-bhāṣya-kāraiḥ – sarvasya dveṣānubiddhaś cetanācetana-sādhanādhīnas tāpānubhava iti | tatrāsti dveṣajaḥ karmāśayaḥ | sukha-sādhanāni ca prārthayamānaḥ kāyena vācā manasā ca parispandate | tataḥ param anugṛṇāty upahanti ceti parānuraha-pīḍābhyāṃ dharmādharmāv upacinoti | na karmāśayo lobhān mohāc ca bhavati ity eṣā tāpa-duḥkhatocyate | tathā vartamānaḥ sukhānubhavaḥ sva-vināśa-kāle saṃskāram ādhatte | sa ca sukha-smaraṇaṃ, tac ca rāgaṃ, sa ca manaḥ-kāya-vacana-ceṣṭāṃ, sā ca puṇyāpuṇya-karmāśayau, tau ca janmādīti saṃskāra-duḥkhatā | evaṃ tāpa-mohayor api saṃskārau vyākhyeyau |

evaṃ kāla-traye ‚pi duḥkhānuvedhād viṣaya-sukhaṃ duḥkham evety uktvā svarūpato ‚pi duḥkhatām āha guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca | guṇāḥ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsi sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakāḥ paraspara-viruddha-svabhāvā api taila-varty-agnaya iva dīpaṃ puruṣa-bhogopayuktatvena try-ātmakam ekaṃ kāryam ārabhante tatraikasya prādhānye dvayor guṇa-bhāvāt pradhāna-mātra-vyapadeśena sāttvikaṃ rājasaṃ tāmasam iti triguṇam api kāryam ekena guṇena vyapadiśyate | tatra sukhopabhoga-rūpo ‚pi pratyaya udbhūta-sattva-kāryatve ‚py anudbhūta-rajas-tamaḥ-kāryatvāt triguṇātmaka eva | tathā ca sukhātmakatvavad duḥkhātmakatvaṃ viṣādātmakatvaṃ ca tasya dhruvam iti duḥkham eva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ | na caitādṛśo ‚pi pratyayaḥ sthiraḥ | yasmāc calaṃ ca guṇa-vṛttam iti kṣipra-pariṇāmi cittam uktam |

nanv ekaḥ pratyayaḥ kathaṃ paraspara-viruddha-sukha-duḥkha-mohatvāny ekadā pratipadyata iti cet, na | udbhūtānudbhūtayor virodhābhāvāt | sama-vṛttikānām eva hi guṇānāṃ yugapad virodho na viṣama-vṛttikānām | yathā dharma-jñāna-vairāgyaiśvaryāṇi labdha-vṛttikāni labdha-vṛttikair evādharmājñānāvairāgyānaiśvaryaiḥ saha virudhyante na tu svarūpa-sadbhiḥ | pradhānasya pradhānena saha virodho na tu durbaleneti hi nyāyaḥ | evaṃ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsy api parasparaṃ prādhānya-mātraṃ yugapan na sahante na tu sad-bhāvam api |

etena pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkheṣv api rāga-dveṣa-mohānāṃ yugapat sad-bhāvo vyākhyātaḥ prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodāra-rūpeṇa kleśānāṃ catur-avasthatvāt | tathā hi – avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśāḥ pañca-kleśāḥ | avidyā kṣetram uttareṣāṃ prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodārāṇām | anityāśuci-duḥkhānātmasu nitya-śuci-sukhātma-khyātir avidyā | dṛg-darśana-śaktyor ekātmataivāsmitā | sukhanuśayī rāgaḥ | duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ | svarasa-vāhī viduṣo ‚pi tathārūḍho ‚bhiniveśaḥ | te pratiprasava-heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ | dhyāna-heyās tad-vṛttayaḥ | kleśa-mūlaḥ karmāśayo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ | sati mūle tad-vipāko jātyāyur bhogāḥ [YogS 2.3-13] iti pātañjalāni sūtrāṇi | tatrātasmiṃs tad-buddhir viparyayo mithyā-jñānam avidyeti paryāyāḥ | tasyā viśeṣaḥ saṃsāra-nidānam | tatrānitye nitya-buddhir yathā – dhruvā pṛthivī dhruvā sa-candra-tārakā dyaur amṛtā divaukasa iti | aśucau parama-bībhatse kāye śuci-buddhir yathā naveva śaśāṅkalekhā kamanīyeyaṃ kanyā madhv-amṛtāvayava-nirmiteva candraṃ bhittvā niḥsṛteva jñāyate nīlotpala-patrāyatākṣī hāvagarbhābhyāṃ locanābhyāṃ jīva-lokam āśvāsayatīveti kasya kena sambandhaḥ |

sthānād bījād upaṣṭambhān
niṣyandān nidhanād api |
kāyam ādheya-śaucatvāt
paṇḍitā hy aśuciṃ viduḥ || iti ca vaiyāsaki-ślokaḥ |

etenāpuṇye puṇya-pratyayo ‚narthe cārtha-pratyayo vyākhyātaḥ | duḥkhe sukha-khyātir udāhṛtā pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkhair guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca duḥkham eva sarvaṃ vivekina iti | anātmany ātma-khyātir yathā śarīre manuṣyo ‚ham ity ādiḥ | iyaṃ cāvidyā sarva-kleśa-mūla-bhūtā tama ity ucyate | buddhi-puruṣayor abhedābhimāno ‚smitā mohaḥ | sādhana-rahitasyāpi sarvaṃ sukha-jātīyaṃ me bhūyād iti viparyaya-viśeṣo rāgaḥ | sa eva mahā-mohaḥ | duḥkha-sādhane vidyamāne ‚pi kim api duḥkham me mā bhūd iti viparyaya-viśeṣo dveṣaḥ | sa tāmisraḥ | āyur-abhāve ‚py etaiḥ śarīrendriyādibhir anityair api viyogo me mā bhūd ity āvidvad-aṅganā-bālaṃ svābhāvikaḥ sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇo maraṇa-trāsa-rūpo viparyaya-viśeṣo ‚bhiniveśaḥ | so ‚ndha-tāmisraḥ | tad uktaṃ purāṇe-

tamo moho mahā-mohas tāmisro hy andha-saṃjñitaḥ |
avidyā pañca-parvaiṣā prādurbhūtā mahātmanaḥ || iti |

ete ca kleśāś catur avasthā bhavanti | tatrāsato ‚nutpatter anabhivyakta-rūpeṇāvasthānaṃ suptāvasthā | abhivyaktasyāpi saha-kārya-lābhāt kāryājanakatvaṃ tanv-avasthā | abhivyaktasya janita-kāryasyāpi kenacid balavatābhibhavo vicchedāvasthā | abhivyaktasya prāpta-sahakāri-sampatter apratibandhena sva-kārya-karatvam udārāvasthā | etādṛg avasthā-catuṣṭaya-viśiṣṭānām asmitādīnāṃ caturṇāṃ viparyaya-rūpāṇāṃ kleśānām avidyaiva sāmānya-rūpā kṣetraṃ prasava-bhūmiḥ | sarveṣām api viparyaya-rūpatvasya darśitatvāt | tenāvidyā-nivṛttyaiva kleśānāṃ nivṛttir ity arthaḥ | te ca kleśāḥ prasuptā yathā prakṛti-līnānāṃ, tanavaḥ pratipakṣa-bhāvanayā tanūkṛtā yathā yoginām | ta ubhaye ‚pi sūkṣmāḥ pratiprasavena mano-nirodhenaiva nirbīja-samādhinā heyāḥ | ye tu sūkṣma-vṛttayas tat-kārya-bhūtāḥ sthūlā vicchinnā udāhārāś ca vicchidya vicchidya tena tenātmanā punaḥ prādurbhavantīti vicchinnāḥ | yathā rāga-kāle krodho vidyamāno ‚pi na prādurbhūta iti vicchinna ucyate | evam ekasyāṃ striyāṃ caitro rakta iti nānyāsu viraktaḥ kintv ekasyāṃ rāgo labdha-vṛttir anyāsu ca bhaviṣyad-vṛttir iti sa tadā vicchinna ucyate, ye yadā viṣayeṣu labdha-vṛttayas te tadā sarvātmanā prādurbhūtā udārā ucyante, ta ubhaye ‚py atisthūlatvāc chuddha-sattva-bhavena bhagavad-dhyānena heyā na mano-niodham apekṣante | nirodha-heyās tu sūkṣmā eva | tathā ca pariṇāma-tāpa-saṃskāra-duḥkheṣu prasupta-tanu-vicchinna-rūpeṇa sarve kleśāḥ sarvadā santi | udāratā tu kadācit kasyacid iti viśeṣaḥ | ete ca bādhanā-lakṣaṇaṃ duḥkham upajanayantaḥ kleśa-śabda-vācyā bhavanti | yataḥ karmāśayo dharmādharmākhyaḥ kleśa-mūlaka eva | sati ca mūla-bhūte kleśe tasya karmāśayasya vipākaḥ phalaṃ janmāyur bhogaś ceti | sa ca karmāśaya iha paratra ca sva-vipākārambhakatvena dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ | evaṃ kleśa-santatir ghaṭī-yantravad aniśam āvartate | ataḥ samīcīnam uktaṃ ye hi saṃsparśajā bhogā duḥkha-yonaya eva te ādyantavanta iti | duḥkha-yonitvaṃ pariṇāmādibhir guṇa-vṛtti-virodhāc ca ādyantavattvaṃ guṇa-vṛttasya calatvād iti yoga-mate vyākhyā |

aupaniṣadānāṃ tu anādi bhāva-rūpam ajñānam avidyā | ahaṃkāra-dharmy-adhyāso ‚smitā | rāga-dveṣābhiniveśās tad-vṛtti-viśeṣā ity avidyā-mūlatvāt sarve ‚py avidyātmakatvena mithyā-bhūtā rajju-bhujaṅgādhyāsavan mithyātve ‚pi duḥkha-yonayaḥ svapnādivad dṛṣṭi-sṛṣṭi-mātratvenādyantavantaś ceti budho ‚dhiṣṭhāna-sākṣātkāreṇa nivṛtta-bhramas teṣu na ramate, mṛga-tṛṣṇikā-svarūpa-jñānavān iva tatrodakārthī na pravartate | na saṃsāre sukhasya gandha-mātram apy astīti buddhvā tataḥ sarvāṇīndriyāṇi nivartayed ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


vivekavān eva vastuto viṣaya-sukhenaiva sajjatīty āha ye hīti

 

Baladeva


adṛṣṭākṛṣṭeṣu viṣaya-bhogeṣv anityatva-viniścayān na sajjatīty āha ye hīti | saṃsparśajā viṣaya-janyā bhogāḥ sukhāni | sphuṭam anyat

 
 


BhG 5.23

śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṃ prāk śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt
kāma-krodhodbhavaṃ vegaṃ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) iha eva (just here) śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt prāk (before liberation from the body) kāma-krodhodbhavaṁ (born from desire and anger) vegam (the urge) soḍhum (to tolerate) śaknoti (he is able),
saḥ naraḥ (such a person) yuktaḥ (engaged) [asti] (is),
saḥ (he) sukhī (happy) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

śaknoti śak (to be able to) Praes. P 1v.1he is able;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
soḍhum sah (to overcome, to tolerate) [inf.] – to tolerate;
prāk av.before (from: prāñc – directed to, being in front, opposite, before – requires ablative);
śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt śarīra-vimokṣaṇa 5n.1 n.; [TP]: śarīrasya vimokṣaṇād iti [before] liberation from the body / [before] death (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body; vi-muc – to liberate, vimokṣaṇa – liberation, deliverance, casting away);
kāma-krodhodbhavam kāma-krodha-udbhava 2n.1 m.; DV/BV: yasya kāmāt krodhāc codbhavo ‘sti tamwhich is brn from desire and anger (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; krudh – to be angry, krodha – anger, wrath; ud-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, udbhava – springing from, production);
vegam vega 2n.1 m.force, impulse, urge (from: vij – to speed);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
sukhī sukhin 1n.1 m.who is happy (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
naraḥ nara 1n.1 m.a man, a person (from: nṛ man, mankind);

 

textual variants


śarīra-vimokṣaṇātśarīra-vimocanāt ([before] liberation of the body);
kāma-krodhodbhavaṁ vegaṁkāmottha-vegānuroddhaḥ (who stopped the impulse born of desire);
sa yuktaḥ → sa yogī / saṁyuktaḥ (such a yogī / well engaged);
sa sukhī → parmo / susukhī (supreme / very happy);
naraḥ → mataḥ (it is thought);
 
 


Śāṃkara


ayaṃ ca śreyo-mārga-pratipakṣī kaṣṭatamo doṣaḥ sarvānartha-prāpti-hetur durnivāraś ceti tat-parihāre yatnādhikyaṃ kartavyam ity āha bhagavān—

śaknoty utsahata ihaiva jīvann eva yaḥ soḍhuṃ prasahituṃ prāk pūrvaṃ śarīravimokṣaṇāt ā maraṇāt ity arthaḥ | maraṇa-sīmā-karaṇaṃ jīvato’vayaṃbhāvi hi kāma-krodhodbhavo vegaḥ, anantanimittavān hi saḥ iti yāvat maraṇaṃ tāvat na visrāmbhaṇīya ity arthaḥ | kāmaḥ indriyagocaraprāpte iṣṭo viṣaye śrūyamāṇe smaryamāṇe vā anubhūte sukhahetau yā gajñāṃdhas tṛṣṇā sa kāmaḥ | krodhaś cātmanaḥ pratikūleṣu duḥkha-hetuṣu dṛyamāneṣu śrūyamāṇeṣu smaryamāṇeṣu vā yo dveṣaḥ sa krodhaḥ | tau kāma-krodhāv udbhavo yasya vegasya sa kāma-krodhodbhavo vegaḥ | romāñcana-prahṛṣṭa-netra-vadanādi-liṅgo’ntaḥ-karaṇa-prakṣobha-rūpaḥ kāmodbhavo vegaḥ | gātra-prakampa-prasveda-saṃdaṣṭauṣṭha-puṭa-rakta-netrādi-liṅgaḥ krodhodbhavo vegaḥ | taṃ kāma-krodhodbhavaṃ vegaṃ ya utsahate prasahate soḍhuṃ prasahitum, so yukto yogī sukhī ceha loke naraḥ

 

Rāmānuja


śarīravimokṣaṇāt prāk ih+eva sādhanānuṣṭhānadaśāyam eva ātmānubhavaprītyā kāmakrodhodbhavaṃ vegaṃ soḍhuṃ niroddhuṃ yaḥ śaknoti, sa yuktaḥ ātmānubhavāyārhaḥ / sa eva śarīravimokṣottarakālam ātmānubhavaikasukhas saṃpatsyate

 

Śrīdhara


yasmān mokṣa eva paramaḥ puruṣārthaḥ | tasya ca kāma-krodha-vego ‚tipratipakṣaḥ | atas tat-sahana-samartha eva mokṣa-bhāg ity āha śaknotīti | kāmāt kordhāc codbhavati yo vego mano-netrādi-kṣobhādi-lakṣaṇaḥ | tam ihaiva tad-uttara-samaya eva yo naraḥ soḍhuṃ pratiroddhuṃ śaknoti, tad api na kṣaṇa-mātram | kintu śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt prāk, yāvad-deha-pātam ity arthaḥ | ya evaṃbhūtaḥ sa eva yuktaḥ samāhitaḥ sukhī ca bhavati | nānyaḥ | yad vā maraṇād ūrdhvaṃ vilapantībhir yuvatībhir āliṅgyamāno ‚pi putrādibhir dahyamāno ‚pi yathā prāṇa-śūnyaḥ kāma-krodha-vegaṃ sahate tathā maraṇāt prāg api jīvann eva yaḥ sahate sa eva yuktaḥ sukhī cety arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ vaśiṣṭhena –

prāṇe gate yathā dehaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ na vindati |
tathā cet prāṇa-yukto ‚pi sa kaivalyāśrayo bhavet || iti

 

Madhusūdana


sarvānartha-prāpti-hetur durnivāro ‚yaṃ śreyo-mārga-pratipakṣaḥ kaṣṭatamo doṣo mahatā yatnena mumukṣuṇā nivāraṇīya iti yatnādhikya-vidhānāya punar āha śaknotīti | ātmano ‚nukūleṣu sukha-hetuṣu dṛśyamāneṣu smaryamāṇeṣu vā tad-guṇānusandhānābhyāsena yo raty-ātmako gardho ‚bhilāṣas tṛṣṇā lobhaḥ sa kāmaḥ | strī-puṃsayoḥ paraspara-vyatikarābhilāṣe tv atyanta-nirūḍhaḥ kāma-śabdaḥ | etad-abhilāṣeṇa kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobha ity atra dhana-tṛṣṇā lobhaḥ strī-vyatikara-tṛṣṇā kāma iti kāma-lobhau pṛthag uktau | iha tu tṛṣṇā-sāmānyābhiprāyeṇa kāma-śabdaḥ prayukta iti lobhaḥ pṛthaṅ noktaḥ | evam ātmanaḥ pratikūleṣu duḥkha-hetuṣu dṛśyamāneṣu śrūyamāṇeṣu vā tad-doṣānusandhānābhyāsena yaḥprajvalanātmako dveṣo manyuḥ sa krodhaḥ | tayor utkaṭāvasthā loka-veda-virodha-pratisandhāna-pratibandhakatayā loka-veda-viruddha-pravṛtty-unmukhatva-rūpā nadī-vega-sāmyena vega ity ucyate | yathā hi nadyā vego varṣāsv atiprabalatayā loka-veda-virodha-pratisandhānenānicchantam api garte pātayitvā majjayati cādho nayati ca, tathā kāma-krodhayor vego viṣayābhidhyānābhyāsena varṣā-kāla-sthānīyenātiprabalo loka-veda-virodha-pratisandhānenānicchantam api viṣaya-garte pātayitvā saṃsāra-samudre majjayati cādho mahā-narakān nayati ceti vega-pada-prayogeṇa sūcitam | etac cātha kena prayukto ‚yam ity atra nivṛttam |

tam etādṛśaṃ kāma-krodhodbhavaṃ vegam antaḥkaraṇa-prakṣobha-rūpaṃ stambha-svedādy-aneka-bāhya-vikāra-liṅgam ā-śarīra-vimokṣaṇāc charīra-vimokṣaṇa-paryantam aneka-nimitta-vaśāt sarvadā sambhāvyamānatvenāvisrambhaṇīyam antar utpanna-doṣa-darśanābhyāsajena vaśīkāra-saṃjñaka-vairāgyeṇa soḍhuṃ tad-anurūpa-kāryāsampādanenānarthakaṃ kartuṃ śaknoti samartho bhavati, sa eva yukto yogī, sa eva sukhī, sa eva naraḥ pumān puruṣārtha-sampādanāt | tad-itaras tv āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunādi-paśu-dharma-mātra-ratatvena manuṣyākāraḥ paśur eveti bhāvaḥ |

ā-śarīra-vimokṣaṇād ity atrānyad vyākhyānam – yathā maraṇād ūrdhvaṃ vilapantībhir yuvatībhir āliṅgyamāno ‚pi putrādibhir dahyamāno ‚pi prāṇa-śūnyatvāt kāma-krodha-vegaṃ sahate, tathā maraṇāt prāg api jīvann eva yaḥ sahate sa yukta ity ādi | atra yadi maraṇavaj jīvane ‚pi kāma-krodhānutpatti-mātraṃ brūyāt tadaitad yujyate | yathoktaṃ vaśiṣṭhena –

prāṇe gate yathā dehaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ na vindati |
tathā cet prāṇa-yukto ‚pi sa kaivalyāśrame vaset || iti |

iha tūpannayoḥ kāma-krodhayor vega-sahane prastute tayor anutpatti-mātraṃ na dārṣṭānta iti kim atinirbandhena

 

Viśvanātha


saṃsāra-sindhau patito ‚py eṣa eva yogī eṣa eva sukhīty āha śaknotīti

 

Baladeva


śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṃ prāk śarīra-vimokṣaṇāt | kāma-krodhodbhavaṃ vegaṃ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ

 
 

BhG 5.24

yo ntaḥ-sukho ntar-ārāmas tathāntar-jyotir eva yaḥ
sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇaṃ brahma-bhūto dhigacchati

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yaḥ (he who) antaḥ-sukhaḥ (whose happiness is within) tathā (so) antar-ārāmaḥ (whose delight is within),
yaḥ (he who) antar-jyotiḥ eva (whose only light is within),
saḥ yogī (that yogī) brahma-bhūtaḥ (being brahman) brahma-nirvāṇam (extinction in brahman) adhigacchati (he obtains).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
antaḥ-sukhaḥ antaḥ-sukha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya sukham antar asti saḥwhose happiness is within (from: anta – end, limit, boundary, inside, nature, av. antaḥ – inside, within; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth; or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
antar-ārāmaḥ antaḥ-ārāma 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyārāmo ‘ntar asti saḥwhose delight is within (from: anta – end, limit, boundary, inside, nature, av. antaḥ – inside, within; ā-ram – to desist, to rejoice, ā-rāma – delight, pleasure);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
antar-jyotiḥ antaḥ-jyotiḥ 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya jyotir antar asti saḥwhose light is within (from: anta – end, limit, boundary, inside, nature, av. antaḥ – inside, within; jyotiḥ – light, brightness, fire, eye);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.jogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
brahma-nirvāṇam brahma-nirvāṇa 2n.1 n.; [TP]: brahmaṇi nirvāṇam itiextinction in brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; nir- – to blow out, to extinguish, to soothe, nirvāṇa – extinction, perfect calm, death, final liberation);
brahma-bhūtaḥ brahma-bhūta 1n.1 m..; [TP]: brahmaṇi bhūta itibeing in brahman / being brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
adhigacchati adhi-gam (to cross over, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


yo ntaḥ-sukhoantaḥ-sukho / yuktaḥ sukho / yo ‘taḥ sukho (happy within / engaged and happy / he who happy by that);
sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇaṁ → sa pārtha paramaṁ yogaṁ (O son of Pṛthā, he that supreme yoga);
 
 


Śāṃkara


kathaṃ-bhūtaś ca brahmaṇi sthito brahma prāpnoti ? ity āha bhagavān—

yo’ntaḥ-sukho’ntar ātmani sukhaṃ yasya so’ntaḥ-sukhaḥ, tathāntar evātmany ārāma āramaṇam ākrīḍā yasya so’ntar-ārāmaḥ | tathaivāntar eva ātmany eva jyotiḥ prakāśo yasya so’ntar-jyotir eva, ya īdṛśaḥ so yogī brahma-nirvāṇaṃ brahmaṇi nirvṛtiṃ mokṣam iha jīvann eva brahma-bhūtaḥ sann adhigacchati prāpnoti

 

Rāmānuja


yo bāhyaviṣayānubhavaṃ sarvaṃ vihāya antassukhaḥ ātmānubhavaikasukhaḥ, antarārāmaḥ ātmaikodyānaḥ svaguṇair ātmaiva sukhavardhako yasya sa tathoktaḥ, tathāntarjyotiḥ ātmaikajñāno yo vartate, sa brahmabhūto yogī brahmanirvāṇam ātmānubhavasukhaṃ prāpnoti

 

Śrīdhara


na kevalaṃ kāma-krodha-vega-saṃharaṇa-mātreṇa mokṣaṃ prāpnoti | api tu yo ‚ntaḥ-sukha iti | antarātmany eva sukhaṃ yasya | na viṣayeṣu | antar evārāma ākrīḍā yasya na bahiḥ | antar eva jyotir dṛṣṭir yasya | na gīta-nṛtyādiṣu | sa evaṃ brahmaṇi bhūtaḥ sthitaḥ san brahmaṇi nirvāṇaṃ layam adhigacchati prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


kāma-krodha-vega-sahana-mātreṇaiva mucyante iti na, kintu yo ‚ntar iti |
antar-bāhya-viṣaya-nirapekṣam eva svarūpa-bhūtaṃ sukhaṃ yasya so ‚ntaḥ-sukho bāhya-viṣaya-janita-sukha-śūnya ity arthaḥ | kuto bāhya-sukhābhāvas tatrāha antar ātmany eva na tu stry-ādi-viṣaye bāhya-sukha-sādhana ārāma āramaṇaṃ krīḍā yasya so ‚ntar-ārāmas tyakta-sarva-parigrahatvena bāhya-sukha-sādhana-śūnya ity arthaḥ |

nanu tyakta-sarva-parigrahasyāpi yater yadṛcchopanataiḥ kokilādi-madhura-śabda-śravaṇa-manda-pavana-sparśana-candrodaya-mayūra-nṛtyādi-darśanāti-madhura-śītala-gaṅgodaka-pāna-ketakī-kusuma-saurabhādy-avaghrāṇādibhir grāmyaiḥ sukhotpatti-sambhavāt kathaṃ bāhya-sukha-tat-sādhana-śūnyatvam iti tatrāha tathāntar-jyotir eva yaḥ | yathāntar eva sukhaṃ na bāhyair viṣayais tathāntar evātmani jyotir vijñānaṃ na bāhyair indriyair yasya so ‚ntar-jyotiḥ śrotrādi-janya-śabdādi-viṣaya-vijñāna-rahitaḥ | eva-kāro viśeṣaṇa-traye ‚pi sambadhyate | samādhi-kāle śabdādi-pratibhāsābhāvād vyutthāna-kāle tat-pratibhāse ‚pi mithyātva-niścayān na bāhya-viṣayais tasya sukhotpatti-sambhava ity arthaḥ |

ya evaṃ yathokta-viśeṣaṇa-sampannaḥ sa yogī samāhito brahma-nirvāṇaṃ brahma paramānanda-rūpaṃ kalpita-dvaitopaśama-rūpatvena nirvāṇaṃ tad eva, kalpita-bhāvasyādhiṣṭhānātmakatvāt | avidyāvaraṇa-nivṛttyādhigacchati nitya-prāptam eva prāpnoti | yataḥ sarvadaiva brahma-bhūto nānyaḥ | brahmaiva san brahmāpy eti iti śruteḥ | avasthiter iti kāśa-kṛtsnaḥ iti nyāyāc ca

 

Viśvanātha


yas tu saṃsārātītas tasya tu brahmānubhava eva sukham ity āha ya iti | antarātmany eva sukhaṃ yasya saḥ | yato ‚ntarātmany eva ramate, ato ‚ntarātmany eva jyotir dṛṣṭir yasya saḥ

 

Baladeva


yat prītyā taṃ soḍhuṃ śaktas tad āha yo ‚ntar iti | antarvartinānubhūtenātmanā sukhaṃ yasya saḥ, tenaivārāmaḥ krīḍā yasya saḥ | tasminn eva jyotir dṛṣṭir yasya saḥ | īdṛśo yogī niṣkāma-karmī brahma-bhūto labdha-śuddha-jaiva-svarūpo brahmādhigacchati paramātmānaṃ labhate | nirvāṇaṃ mokṣa-rūpaṃ tenaiva tal-lābhāt

 
 

BhG 5.25

labhante brahma-nirvāṇam ṛṣayaḥ kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ
chinna-dvaidhā yatātmānaḥ sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ

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kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ (whose sins are destroyed) chinna-dvaidhāḥ (whose doubt is cut) yatātmānaḥ (whose self is restrained) sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ (who rejoice in the welfare of all beings) ṛṣayaḥ (the seers) brahma-nirvaṇaṁ (extinction in brahman) labhante (they obtain).

 

grammar

labhante labh (to obtain) Praes. Ā 1v.3they obtain;
brahma-nirvāṇam brahma-nirvāṇa 2n.1 n.; [TP]: brahmaṇi nirvāṇam itiextinction in brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; nir- – to blow out, to extinguish, to soothe, nirvāṇa – extinction, perfect calm, death, final liberation);
ṛṣayaḥ ṛṣi 1n.3 m.sages, seers;
kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ kṣīṇa-kalmaṣa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ kalmaṣāni kṣīṇāni santi te whose sins are destroyed (from: kṣi – to destroy, kṣīṇa – perished, lost; karma+so – destroying good acts, kalmaṣa – dirt, stain, sin);
chinna-dvaidhāḥ chinna-dvaidha 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ dvaidhaṁ chinnam asti te whose doubt is cut (from: chid – to cut, [PP] chinna – cut, destroyed; dvai-dha – duality, doubt, uncertainty);
yatātmānaḥ yatātman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā yato ‘sti te – whose self is restrained (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; ātman – self);
sarva-bhūta-hite sarva-bhūta-hita 7n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ bhūtānāṁ hita iti in the welfare of all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; dhā – to put, [PP] hita – set, beneficial, useful, friendly);
ratāḥ rata (ram – to play, to rejoice) [PP] 1n.3 m. having rejoiced (requires locative);

 

textual variants


kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ → kṣīṇa-kilbiṣāḥ (whose sins are destroyed);
chinna-dvaidhā → chinna-dvidhā (whose duality is cut);
yatātmānaḥ jitātmānaḥ (whose self is conquered);
chinna-dvaidhā yatātmānaḥ → bhinnadvaitā mahātmānaḥ (whose duality is broken, those of powerful self);

The fourth pada of verse 5.25 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 12.4.

 
 


Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

labhante brahma-nirvāṇaṃ mokṣam ṛṣayaḥ samyag-darśinaḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ kṣīṇa-pāpā nirdoṣāś chinna-dvaidhāḥ chinna-saṃśayā yatātmānaḥ saṃyatendriyāḥ sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ hite ānukūlye ratā ahiṃsakā ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


cchinnadvaidhāḥ śītoṣṇādidvandvair vimuktāḥ, yatātmānaḥ ātmany eva niyamitamanasaḥ, sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ ātmavat sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ hiteṣv eva niratāḥ, ṛṣayaḥ draṣṭāraḥ ātmāvalokanaparāḥ, ya evambhūtās te kṣīṇāśeṣātmaprāptivirodhikalmaṣāḥ brahmanirvāṇaṃ labhante

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca labhanta iti | ṛṣayaḥ samyag-darśinaḥ | kṣīṇaṃ kalmaṣaṃ yeṣām | sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ hite ratāḥ kṛpalavaḥ | te brahma-nirvāṇaṃ mokṣaṃ labhante

 

Madhusūdana


mukti-hetor jñānasya sādhanāntarāṇi vivṛṇvann āha labhanta iti | prathamaṃ yajñādibhiḥ kṣīṇa-kalmaṣāḥ | tato ‚ntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhayā ṛṣayaḥ sūkṣma-vastu-vivecana-samarthāḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ | tataḥ śravaṇādi-paripākeṇa cchinna-dvaidhā nivṛtta-sarva-saṃśayāḥ | tato nididhyāsana-paripākeṇa saṃyatātmānaḥ paramātmany evaikāgra-cittāḥ | etādṛśāś ca dvaitādarśitvena sarva-bhūta-hite ratā hiṃsā-śūnyā brahma-vido brahma-nirvāṇaṃ labhante |

yasmin sarvāṇi bhūtāni ātmaivābhūd vijānataḥ |
tatra ko mohaḥ kaḥ śoka ekatvam anupaśyataḥ || iti śruteḥ |

bahu-vacanam, tad yo devānāṃ ity ādi-śruty-uktāniyama-pradarśanārtham

 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ bahava eva sādhana-siddhā bhavantīty āha labhanta iti

 

Baladeva


evaṃ sādhana-siddhā bahava bhavantīty āha labhanta iti | ṛṣayas tattva-draṣṭāraḥ | chinna-dvaidhā vinaṣṭ-saṃśayāḥ | sphuṭam anyat

 
 


BhG 5.26

kāma-krodha-viyuktānāṃ yatīnāṃ yata-cetasām
abhito brahma-nirvāṇaṃ vartate viditātmanām

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kāma-krodha-viyuktānām (of those free from desire and anger) yata-cetasām (of those whose mind is restrained) viditātmanām (of those whose self is known) yatīnām (of ascetics) abhitaḥ (near) brahma-nirvāṇam (extinction in brahman) vartate (there is).

 

grammar

kāma-krodha-viyuktānām kāma-krodha-viyukta 6n.3 m.; [TP]/DV: kāmena ca krodhena ca viyuktānām iti of those disjoined from desire and anger (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure; krudh – to be angry, krodha – anger, wrath; vi-yuj – to disjoin, to abandon, [PP] viyukta – disjoined, disunited);
yatīnām yati 6n.3 m.of those endeavouring, of ascetics (from: yat – to place in order, to endeavour);
yata-cetasām yata-cetas 6n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ ceto yatam asti teṣām of those whose mind is restrained (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
abhitas av.near to, entirely, quickly (from: abhi – to, towards; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
brahma-nirvāṇam brahma-nirvāṇa 1n.1 n.; [TP]: brahmaṇi nirvāṇam itiextinction in brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; nir- – to blow out, to extinguish, to soothe, nirvāṇa – extinction, perfect calm, death, final liberation);
vartate vṛt (to move, to happen, to act) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is;
viditātmanām vidita-ātman 6n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā vidito ‘sti teṣāmof those whose self is known (from: vid – to know, to understand, [PP] vidita – known; ātman – self);

 

textual variants


kāma-krodha-viyuktānāṁkāma-krodha-vimuktānāṁ (liberated from desire and anger);
abhito → sarvato (everywhere);
viditātmanām → viditātmavān / vijitātmanām (having knowing self / of those whose self is won);
 
 


Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

kāma-krodha-viyuktānāṃ kāmaś ca krodhaś ca kāma-krodhau tābhyāṃ viyuktānāṃ yatīnāṃ saṃnyāsināṃ yata-cetasāṃ saṃyatāntaḥ-karaṇānām abhita ubhayato jīvatāṃ mṛtānāṃ ca brahma-nirvāṇaṃ mokṣo vartate viditātmanāṃ vidito jñāta ātmā yeṣāṃ te viditātmanāṃ teṣāṃ viditātmanāṃ samyag-darśinām ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


uktalakṣaṇānāṃ brahma atyantasulabham ity āha

kāmakrodhviyuktānāṃ yatīnāṃ yatanaśīlānāṃ yatacetasāṃ niyamitamanasāṃ vijitātmanāṃ vijitamanasāṃ, brahmanirvāṇam abhito vartate / evaṃbhūtānāṃ hastasthaṃ brahmanirvāṇam ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca kāmety ādi | kāma-krodhābhyāṃ viyuktānām | yatīnāṃ saṃnyāsinām | saṃyata-cittānāṃ jñātātma-tattvānām abhita ubhayato jīvatāṃ mṛtānāṃ ca | na dehānta eva teṣāṃ brahmaṇi layaḥ, api tu jīvatām api vartata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


pūrvaṃ kāma-krodhayor utpannayor api vegaḥ soḍhavya ity uktam adhunā tu tayor utpatti-pratibandha eva kartavya ity āha kāmeti | kāma-krodhayor viyogas tad-anutpattir eva tad-yuktānāṃ kāma-krodha-viyuktānām | ataeva yata-cetasāṃ saṃyata-cittānāṃ yatīnāṃ yatna-śīlānāṃ saṃnyāsināṃ viditātmanāṃ sākṣāt-kṛta-paramātmanām abhita ubhayato jīvatāṃ mṛtānāṃ ca teṣāṃ brahma-nirvāṇaṃ mokṣo vartate nityatvāt, na tu bhaviṣyati sādhyatvābhāvāt

 

Viśvanātha


jñātas tvaṃ-padārtha-nāma-prāpta-paramātma-jñānānāṃ kiyatā kālena brahma-nirvāṇa-sukhaṃ syād ity apekṣāyām āha kāmeti | yata-cetasām uparata-manasāṃ kṣīṇa-liṅga-śarīrāṇām iti yāvat, abhitaḥ sarvato-bhāvenaiva vartata eveti brahma-nirvāṇe tasya naivātivilambam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


īdṛśān paramātmāpy anuvartata ity āha kāmeti | yatīnāṃ prayatnavatāṃ tān abhito brahma vartata ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ –

darśana-dhyāna-saṃsparśair matsya-kūrma-vihaṅgamāḥ |
svāny apatyāni puṣṇanti tathāham api padmaja || iti

 
 

BhG 5.27-28

sparśān kṛtvā bahir bāhyāṃś cakṣuś caivāntare bhruvoḥ
prāṇāpānau samau kṛtvā nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau

yatendriya-mano-buddhir munir mokṣa-parāyaṇaḥ
vigatecchā-bhaya-krodho yaḥ sadā mukta eva saḥ

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syntax


bāhyān (external) sparśān (perceptions) bahiḥ (outside) kṛtvā (after doing),
cakṣus ca eva (and just the sight) bhruvoḥ (of the eyebrows) antare (inside) [kṛtvā] (after doing),
nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau (moving inside the nose) prāṇāpānau (the airs going up and down) samau (equal) kṛtvā (after doing),
yaḥ (he who) muniḥ (sage) yatendriya-mano-buddhiḥ (whose senses, mind and intelligence are restrained) mokṣa-parāyaṇaḥ (for whom liberation is the highest goal) vigatecchā-bhaya-krodhaḥ (whose desire, fear and anger are gone),
saḥ (he) sadā (always) muktaḥ eva (indeed liberated) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

sparśān sparśa 2n.3 m.perceptions, touches (from: spṛś – to touch);
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
bahiḥ av.outside;
bāhyān bāhya 2n.3 m.external (from: bahiḥ av. outside);
cakṣuḥ cakṣuḥ 2n.1 n.sight, look, eye (from: cakṣ – to see, to look at);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
antare antara 7n.1 n.inside;
bhruvoḥ bhrū 6n.2 f.of two eyebrows;
prāṇāpānau prāṇāpāna 2n.2 m.; DV: prāṇaś ca apānaś ceti breath out and breath in (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – breath, the air going upwards; ap-an – to breath downwards, apāna – the air going downwards);
samau sama 2n.2 m.the same, equal, equivalent;
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau nāsā-abhy-antara-cārin 2n.2 m.; [TP]: nāsāyā abhyantare cāriṇāv iti which are moving inside the nose (from: nāsā – nose; abhi – to, towards; antara – inside; car – to move, to go, cārin – which moves);

*****

yatendriya-mano-buddhiḥ yata-indriya-mano-buddhi 1n.1 m.; BV/DV: yasyendriyāṇi ca manaś ca buddhiś ca yatāḥ santi saḥwhose senses, mind and intelligence are restrained (from: yam – to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; man – to think, manas – the mind; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi– intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
muniḥ muni 1n.1 m.sage, saint, seer (from: man – to think, to imagine);
mokṣa-parāyaṇaḥ mokṣa-parāyaṇa 1n.3 m.; BV: yasya mokṣaḥ parāyaṇam asti saḥfor whom liberation is the highest goal (from: muc – to liberate, mokṣa – liberation, deliverance, casting away; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; ayana – a path; parāyaṇa – supreme path, the final goal; in compounds: fully dedicated to);
vigatecchā-bhaya-krodhaḥ vigata-icchā-bhaya-krodha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya icchā ca bhayaṁ ca krodhaś ca vigatāḥ santi saḥ whose desire, fear and anger are gone (from: vi-gam – to go away, [PP] vigata – gone; iṣ – to desire, icchā – desire; bhī – to scare, bhaya – fear; krudh – to be angry, krodha – anger, wrath);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
sadā av.always;
muktaḥ mukta (muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.1 m.liberated;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;

 

textual variants


bāhyāṃś → bāhyāś (external);
yatendriya-mano-buddhir jiteṁdriya-mano-buddhir (whose senses, mind and intelligence are conquered);
vigatecchā-bhaya-krodho → vigatecchā-bhaya-dveṣo (whose desire, fear and hatred are gone);

 
 



Śāṃkara


sparśān śabdādīn kṛtvā bahir bāhyān śrotrādi-dvāreṇāntar-buddhau praveśitāḥ śabdādayo viṣayās tān acintayato śabdādayo bāhyā bahir eva kṛtā bhavanti | tān evaṃ bahiḥ kṛtvā cakṣuś caivāntare bhruvoḥ kṛtvety anuṣajyate | tathā prāṇāpānau nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau samau kṛtvā | yatendriya-mano-buddhir yatāni saṃyatānīndriyāṇi mano buddhiś ca yasya sa yatendriya-mano-buddhiḥ | mananāt muniḥ saṃnyāsī | mokṣa-parāyaṇa evaṃ deha-saṃsthānān mokṣa-parāyaṇo mokṣa eva param ayanaṃ parā gatir yasya so’yaṃ mokṣa-parāyaṇo munir bhavet | vigatecchā-bhaya-krodha icchā ca bhayaṃ ca krodhaś cecchā-bhaya-krodhās te vigatāḥ yasmāt sa vigatecchā-bhaya-krodhaḥ | ya evaṃ vartate sadā saṃnyāsī, mukta eva saḥ | na tasya mokṣo’nyaḥ kartavyo’sti

 

Rāmānuja


uktaṃ karmayogaṃ svalakṣyabhūtayogaśiraskam upasaṃharati

bāhyān viṣayasparśān bahiḥ kṛtvā bāhyendriyavyāpāraṃ sarvam upasaṃhṛtya, yogayogyāsane ṛjukāya upaviśya cakṣuṣī bhruvor antare nāsāgre vinyasya nāsābhyantaracāriṇau prāṇāpānau samau kṛtvā ucchvāsaniśvāsau samagatī kṛtvā ātmāvalokanād anyatra pravṛttyanarhendriyamanobuddhiḥ, tata eva vigatecchābhayakrodhaḥ, mokṣaparāyaṇaḥ mokṣaikaprayojanaḥ, muniḥ ātmāvalokanaśīlaḥ yaḥ, saḥ sadā mukta eva sādhyadaśāyām iva sādhanadaśāyām api mukta evetyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇam ity ādiṣu yogī mokṣam avāpnotīty uktam | tam eva yogaṃ saṅkṣepeṇāha sparśān iti dvābhyām | bāhyā eva sparśā rūpa-rasādayo viṣayāś cintitāḥ santo ‚ntaḥ praviśanti | tāṃs tac-cintā-tyāgena bahir eva kṛtvā | cakṣur bhruvor antare bhrū-madhya eva kṛtvātyantaṃ netrayor nimīlane hi nidrayā mano līyate | unmīlane ca bahiḥ prasarati | tad-ubhaya-doṣa-parihārārtham ardha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye dṛṣṭiṃ nidhāyety arthaḥ | ucchvāsa-niḥśvāsa-rūpeṇa nāsikayor abhyantare carantau prāṇāpānāv ūrdhvādho-gati-rodhena samau kṛtvā, kumbhakaṃ kṛtvety arthaḥ | yad vā prāṇo ‚yaṃ yathā na bhair niryāti yathā cāpāno ‚ntar na praviśati, kintu nāsā-madhya eva dvāv api yathā caratas tathā mandābhyām ucchvāsa-niḥśvāsābhyāṃ samau kṛtveti |

yateti | anenopāyena yatāḥ saṃyatā indriya-mano-buddhayo yasya | mokṣa eva param ayanaṃ prāpyaṃ yasya | ataeva vigatā icchā-bhaya-krodhā yasya | evaṃbhūto yo muniḥ sa sadā jīvann api mukta evety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


pūrvam īśvarārpita-sarva-bhāvasya karma-yogenāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhis tataḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsas tataḥ śravaṇādi-parasya tattva-jñānaṃ mokṣa-sādhanam udetīty uktam | adhunā sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇam ity atra sūcitaṃ dhyāna-yogaṃ samyag-darśana-syāntaraṅga-sādhanaṃ vistareṇa vaktuṃ sūtra-sthānīyāṃs trīn ślokān āha bhagavān | eteṣām eva vṛtti-sthānīyaḥ kṛtsnaḥ ṣaṣṭho ‚dhyāyo bhaviṣyati | tatrāpi dvābhyāṃ saṅkṣepeṇa yoga ucyate | tṛtīyena tu tat-phalaṃ paramātma-jñānam iti vivekaḥ |

sparśān śabdādīn bāhyān bahir bhavān api śrotrādi-dvārā tat-tad-ākārāntaḥ-karaṇa-vṛttibhir antaḥ-praviṣṭān punar bahir eva kṛtvā para-vairāgya-vaśena tat-tad-ākārāṃ vṛttim anutpādyety arthaḥ | yady eta āntarā bhaveyus tadopāya-sahasreṇāpi bahir na syuḥ svabhāva-bhaṅga-prasaṅgāt | bāhyānāṃ tu rāga-vaśād antaḥ-praviṣṭānāṃ vairāgyeṇa bahir gamanaṃ sambhavatīti vadituṃ bāhyān iti viśeṣaṇam | tad anena vairāgyam uktvābhyāsam āha cakṣuś caivāntare bhruvoḥ kṛtvety anuṣajyate | atyanta-nimīlane hi nidrākhyā layātmikā vṛttir ekā bhavet | prasāreṇa tu pramāṇa-viparyaya-viveka-vikalpa-smṛtayaś catasro vikṣepātmikā vṛttayo bhaveyuḥ | pañcāpi tu vṛttayo niroddhavyā iti ardha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye cakṣuṣo nidhānam | tathā prāṇāpānau samau tulyāv ūrdhvādho-gati-vicchedena nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau kumbhakeṇa kṛtvā, anenopāyena yatāḥ saṃyatā indriya-mano-buddhayo yasya sa tathā | mokṣa-parāyaṇaḥ sarva-viṣaya-virakto munir manana-śīlo bhavet | vigatecchā-bhaya-krodha iti vīrta-rāga-bhaya-krodha ity atra vyākhyātam | etādṛśo yaḥ saṃnyāsī sadā bhavati mukta eva saḥ | na tu tasya mokṣaḥ kartavyo ‚sti | athavā ya etādṛśaḥ sa sadā jīvann api mukta eva

 

Viśvanātha


tad evam īśvarārpita-niṣkāma-karma-yogenāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhiḥ | tato jñānaṃ tvaṃ-padārtha-viṣayakam | tatas tat-padārtha-jñānārthaṃ bhaktiḥ | tad-uttha-jñānena guṇātītena brahmānubhava ity uktam | idānīṃ niṣkāma-karma-yogena śuddhāntaḥkaraṇasyāṣṭāṅga-yogaṃ brahmānubhava-sādhanaṃ jñāna-yogād apy utkṛṣṭatvena ṣaṣṭhādhyāye vaktuṃ tat-sūtra-rūpaṃ śloka-trayam āha sparśān iti | bāhyā eva śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhāḥ sparśa-śabda-vācyāḥ | manasi praviśya ye vartante tān, tasmān manasaḥ sakāśād bahiṣkṛtya viṣayebhyo manaḥ pratyāhṛtyety arthaḥ | cakṣuṣī ca bhruvor antare madhye kṭvā netrayoḥ sampūrṇa-nimīlane nidrayā mano līyata unmīlanena bahiḥ prasarati | tad-ubhaya-doṣa-parihārārtham ardha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye dṛṣṭiṃ nidhāyocchvāsa-niśvāsa-rūpeṇa nāsikayor abhyantare carantau prāṇāpānāv ūrdhvādho-gati-nirodhena samau kṛtvā | yatā vaśīkṛtā indriyādayo yena saḥ

 

Baladeva


atha karmaṇā niṣkāmeṇa viśuddha-manāḥ samuditātma-jñānas tad-darśanāya samādhiṃ kuryād iti sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ sūcayann āha sparśān iti | sparśā śabdādayo viṣayās te bāhyā eva smṛtāḥ santo manasi praviśanti | tāṃs tat-smṛti-parityāgena bahiṣkṛtya viṣayebhyo manaḥ pratyāhṛtyety arthaḥ | bhruvor antare madhye cakṣuś ca kṭvā netrayoḥ saṃnimīlane nidrayā manaso layaḥ | pronmīlane ca bahis tasya prasāraḥ syāt | tad-ubhaya-vinivṛttaye ‚rdha-nimīlanena bhrū-madhye dṛṣṭiṃ nidhāyety arthaḥ | tathā nāsābhyantara-cāriṇau prāṇāpānāv ūrdhvādho-gati-nirodhena samau tulyau kṛtvā kumbhayitvety arthaḥ | etenopāyena yatā ātmāvalokanāya sthāpitā indriyādayo yena saḥ | munir ātma-manana-śīlaḥ | mokṣa-parāyaṇo mokṣaika-prayojanaḥ | ato vigatecchādiḥ | īdṛśo yaḥ sarvadā phala-kālavat sādhana-kāle ‚pi mukta eva

 
 


BhG 5.29

bhoktāraṃ yajña-tapasāṃ sarva-loka-maheśvaram
suhṛdaṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ jñātvā māṃ śāntim ṛcchati

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syntax


[yaḥ] (he who) mām (me) yajña-tapasām (of sacrifices and austerities) bhoktāram (who enjoys) sarva-loka-maheśvaram (the great ruler of all the worlds) sarva-bhūtānām (of all beings) suhṛdam (well-wisher) jñātvā (after knowing)
[saḥ] (he) śāntim (tranquility) ṛcchati (he reaches).

 

grammar

bhoktāram bhoktṛ 2n.1 m.one who eats, who enjoys (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy);
yajña-tapasām yajña-tapas 6n.3 n.; DV: yajñānāṁ tapasāṁ ceti of the sacrifices and austerities (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
sarva-loka-maheśvaram sarva-loka-mahā-īśvara 2n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ lokānāṁ mahāntam īśvaram iti the great ruler of all the worlds (from: sarva – all, whole; loka – world; mah – to magnify, mahant – great; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
suhṛdam su-hṛd 2n.1 m.well-wisher (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; hṛd – heart);
sarva-bhūtānām sarva-bhūta 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ bhūtānām itiof all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
śāntim śānti 2n.1 f.tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
ṛcchati (to go, to reach) or ṛcch (to become stiff, to go) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he reaches;

 

textual variants


sarva-loka-maheśvaramsarva-bhūta-maheśvaram / sarva-loka-maheśvaraḥ (the great ruler of all the creatures / the great ruler of all the worlds);
mām → mā (me);
ṛcchati → icchati (he wants);

 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ samāhita-cittena kiṃ vijñeyam ity ucyate | bhoktāraṃ yajña-tapasāṃ yajñānāṃ tapasāṃ ca kartṛ-rūpeṇa devatā-rūpeṇa ca, sarva-loka-maheśvaraṃ sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaraṃ suhṛdaṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ sarva-prāṇināṃ pratyupakāra-nirapekṣatayā upakāriṇaṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ hṛdayeśayaṃ sarva-karma-phalādhyakṣaṃ sarva-pratyaya-sākṣiṇaṃ māṃ nārāyaṇaṃ jñātvā śāntiṃ sarva-saṃsāroparatim ṛcchati prāpnoti

 

Rāmānuja


uktasya nityanaimittikakarmetikartavyatākasya karmayogasya yogaśiraskasya suśakatām āha

yajñatapasāṃ bhoktāraṃ sarvalokamaheśvaraṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ suhṛdaṃ māṃ jñātvā śāntim ṛcchati, karmayogakaraṇa eva sukham ṛcchati / sarvalokamaheśvaraṃ sarveṣāṃ lokeśvarāṇām apīśvaram; „tam īśvarāṇāṃ paramaṃ maheśvaram” iti hi śrūyate / māṃ sarvalokamaheśvaraṃ sarvasuhṛdaṃ jñātvā madārādhanarūpaḥ karmayoga iti sukhena tatra pravartata ityarthaḥ; suhṛda ārādhanāya hi sarve pravartante

 

Śrīdhara


nanv evam indriyādi-saṃyamana-mātreṇa kathaṃ muktiḥ syāt ? na tan-mātreṇa, kintu jñāna-dvāreṇety āha bhoktāram iti | yajñānāṃ tapasāṃ caiva mama bhaktaiḥ samarpitānāṃ yadṛcchayā bhoktāraṃ pālakam iti vā | sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaram | sarva-bhūtānāṃ suhṛdaṃ nirapekṣopakāriṇam | antaryāmiṇaṃ māṃ jñātvā mat-prasādena śāntiṃ mokṣam ṛcchati prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ yoga-yuktaḥ kiṃ jñātvā mucyata iti tadāha bhoktāram iti | sarveṣāṃ yajñānāṃ tapasāṃ ca kartṛ-rūpeṇa devatā-rūpeṇa ca bhoktāraṃ bhoga-kartāraṃ pālakam iti vā | bhuja pālanābhyavahārayoḥ iti dhātuḥ | sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaraṃ hiraṇyagarbhādīnām api niyantāram | sarveṣāṃ prāṇināṃ suhṛdaṃ pratyupakāra-nirapekṣatayopakāriṇaṃ sarvāntgaryāmiṇaṃ sarva-bhāsakaṃ paripūrṇa-sac-cid-ānanadaika-rasaṃ paramārtha-satyaṃ sarvātmānaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ māṃ jñātvātmatvena sākṣātkṛtya śāntiṃ sarva-saṃsāroparatiṃ muktim ṛcchati prāpnotīty arthaḥ | tvāṃ paśyann api kathaṃ nāhaṃ mukta ity āśaṅkyānirākaraṇāya viśeṣaṇāni | ukta-rūpeṇaiva mama jñānaṃ mukti-kāraṇam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


evambhūtasya yogino ‚pi jñānina iva bhakty-utthena paramātma-jñānenaiva mokṣa ity āha bhoktāram iti | yajñānāṃ karmi-kṛtānāṃ tapasāṃ ca jñāni-kṛtānāṃ bhoktāraṃ pālayitāram iti karmiṇāṃ jñānināṃ copāsyam | sarva-lokānāṃ maheśvaraṃ mahā-niyantāram antaryāminaṃ yoginām upāsyam | sarva-bhūtānāṃ suhṛdaṃ kṛpayā sva-bhakta-dvārā sva-bhakty-upadeśena hita-kāriṇam iti bhaktānām upāsyaṃ māṃ jñātveti sattva-guṇa-maya-jñānena nirguṇasya mamānubhavāsambhavāt bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ iti mad-ukteḥ | nirguṇayā bhaktyaiva yogī svopāsyaṃ paramātmānaṃ mām aparokṣānubhava-gocarīkṛtya śāntiṃ mokṣam ṛcchati prāpnoti

 

Baladeva


evaṃ samādhi-sthaḥ kṛta-svātmāvalokanaḥ paramātmānam upāsyam ucyata ity āha bhoktāram iti | yajñānāṃ tapasāṃ ca bhoktāraṃ pālakam | sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ vidhi-rudrādīnām api maheśvaram | tam īśvarāṇāṃ paramaṃ maheśvaraṃ [ŚvetU 6.7] ity ādi śravaṇāt | sarva-bhūtānāṃ suhṛdaṃ nirapekṣopakārakam | īdṛśaṃ māṃ jñātvā svārādhyatayānubhūya śāntiṃ saṃsāra-nivṛttim ṛcchati labhate | sarveśvarasya suhṛdaś ca samārādhanaṃ khalu sukhāvahaṃ sukha-sādhanam iti

 
 


BhG 5.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi saptaviṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation

Thus [ends] the twenty-seventh chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants

iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde yoga-garbho / saṃnyāsa-yogo / jñāna-yogo / karma-saṃnyāsa-yogo / prakṛti-yogo / sāṃkhya-yogo / bhakti-yogo / prakṛti-garbho nāma pañcamo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the fifth chapter entitled: The Source of Yoga / The Yoga of Austerity / The Yoga of Knowledge / The Yoga of Activity and Austerity / The Yoga of Nature / The Yoga of Sāṁkhya / The Yoga of Worship / The Source of Nature.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


vikalpa-śaṅkāpohena yenaivaṃ sāṅkhya-yogayoḥ |
samuccayaḥ krameṇoktaḥ sarvajñaṃ naumi taṃ harim ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
saṃnyāsa-yogo nāma pañcamo ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


aneka-sādhanābhyāsa-niṣpannaṃ hariṇeritam |
sva-svarūpa-parijñānaṃ sarveṣāṃ mukti-sādhanam |

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām sva-svarūpa-parijñānaṃ nāma
pañcamo ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


niṣkāma-karmaṇā jñānī yogī cātra vimucyate |
jñātvātma-paramātmānāv ity adhyāyārtha īritaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-darśinyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu pañcamo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṃgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||

 

Baladeva


niṣkāma-karmaṇā yoga-śiraskena vimucyate |
sa-niṣṭho jñāna-garbheṇety eṣa pañcama-nirṇayaḥ ||