atha ṣaṣṭho ‘dhyāyaḥ – dhyāna-yogaḥ

Now the sixth chapter: “The Yoga of Contemplation”

Śāṃkara


atītānantarādhyāyānte dhyāna-yogasya samyag darśanaṃ praty antaraṅgasya sūtra-bhūtāḥ ślokāḥ sparśān kṛtvā bahiḥ [gītā 5.27] ity ādaya upadiṣṭaḥ | teṣāṃ vṛtti-sthānīyo’yaṃ ṣaṣṭho’dhyāya ārabhyate | tatra dhyāna-yogasya bahiraṅgaṃ karmeti yāvad dhyāna-yogārohaṇa-samarthas tāvad gṛhasthenādhikṛtena kartavyaṃ karma ity atas tat stauti |

nanu kim-arthaṃ dhyāna-yogārohaṇa-sīmā-karaṇam, yāvatānuṣṭheyam eva vihitaṃ karma yāvajjīvam | na, ārurukṣor muner yogaṃ karma kāraṇam ucyate [gītā 3.3] iti viśeṣaṇāt | ārūḍhasya ca śamenaiva saṃbandha-karaṇāt | ārurukṣor ārūḍhasya ca śamaḥ karmaś cobhayaṃ kartavyatvenābhipretaṃ cet syāt tadārurukṣor ārūḍhasya ceti śama-karma-viṣaya-bhedena viśeṣaṇaṃ vibhāga-karaṇaṃ cānarthakaṃ syāt |

tatrāśramiṇāṃ kaścid yogam ārurukṣur bhavati | ārūḍhaś ca kaścit | anye nārurukṣavaḥ | na cārūḍhāḥ | tān apekṣyārurukṣor ārūḍhasya ceti viśeṣaṇaṃ vibhāga-karaṇaṃ copapadyata eveti cet, na | tasyaiveti vacanāt | punar yoga-grahaṇāc ca yogārūḍhasyeti | ya āsīt pūrvaṃ yogam ārurukṣus tasyaivārūḍhasya śama eva kartavyaḥ | kāraṇaṃ yoga-phalaṃ pratyucyateti | ato na yāvaj-jīvaṃ kartavyatva-prāptiḥ kasyacid api karmaṇaḥ | yoga-vibhraṣṭa-vacanāc ca |

gṛhasthasya cet karmiṇo yogo vihitaḥ ṣaṣṭhe’dhyāye, sa yoga-vibhraṣṭo’pi karma-gatiṃ karma-phalaṃ prāpnotīti tasya nāśāśaṅkānupapannā syāt | avaśyaṃ hi kṛtaṃ karma kāmyaṃ nityaṃ vā mokṣasya nityatvād anārabhyatve svaṃ phalam ārabhata eva | nityasya ca karmaṇo veda-pramāṇāvabuddhatvāt phalena bhavitavyam ity avocāma | anyathā vedasyānarthārthatva-prasaṅgād iti |

na ca karmaṇi saty ubhaya-vibhraṣṭa-vacanam arthavat | karmaṇo vibhraṃśa-kāraṇānupapatteḥ | karma kṛtam īśvare saṃnyasyety ataḥ kartari karma phalaṃ nārabhateti cen, na | īśvare saṃnyāsasyādhikatara-phala-hetutvopapatteḥ | mokṣāyaiveti cet, sva-karmaṇāṃ kṛtānām īśvare nyāso mokṣāyaiva, na phalāntarāya yoga-sahitaḥ |

yogāc ca vibhraṣṭa ity atas taṃ prati nāśa-śaṅkā yuktaiveti cet, na | ekākī yata-cittātmā nirāśīr aparigrahaḥ [gītā 6.10] brahmacāri-vrate sthitaḥ [gītā 6.14] iti karma-saṃnyāsa-vidhānāt | na cātra gṛhasthasya nirāśīr aparigrahaḥ ity ādi-vacanam anukūlam | ubhaya-vibhraṣṭa-praśnānupapatteś ca |

anāśrita ity anena karmiṇa eva saṃnyāsitvaṃ yogitvaṃ coktam, pratiṣiddhaṃ ca niragneḥ akriyasya ca saṃnyāsitvaṃ yogitvaṃ ceti cet, na | dhyāna-yogaṃ prati bahiraṅgasya sataḥ karmaṇaḥ phalākāṅkṣā-saṃnyāsa-stuti-paratvāt |

na kevalaṃ niragnir akriya eva saṃnyāsī yogī ca | kiṃ tarhi ? karmy api, karma-phalāsaṅgaṃ saṃnyasya karma-yogam anutiṣṭhan sattva-śuddhy-arthaṃ, sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca bhavatīti stūyate | na caikena vākyena karma-phalāsaṅga-saṃnyāsa-stutiś caturthāśrama-pratiṣedhaś copapadyate | na ca prasiddhaṃ niragner akriyasya paramārtha-saṃnyāsinaḥ śruti-smṛti-purāṇetihāsa-yoga-śāstreṣu vihitaṃ saṃnyāsitvaṃ yogitvaṃ ca pratiṣedhati bhagavān | sva-vacana-virodhāc ca—sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya… naiva kurvan na kārayan āste [gītā 5.13] maunī saṃtuṣṭo yena kenacit… aniketaḥ sthira-matiḥ [gītā 12.19] vihāya kāmān yaḥ sarvān pumāṃś carati niḥspṛhaḥ [gītā 2.71] sarvārambha-parityāgī [gītā 12.16] iti ca tatra tatra bhagavatā sva-vacanāni darśitāni | tair virudhyetaś caturthāśrama-pratiṣedhaḥ | tasmān muner yogam ārurukṣoḥ pratipanna-gārhasthyasyāgnihotrādi-karma phala-nirapekṣam anuṣṭhīyamānaṃ dhyāna-yogārohaṇa-sādhanatvaṃ sattva-śuddhi-dvāreṇa pratipadyata iti sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ceti stūyate—

 

Śrīdhara


citte śuddhe ‚pi na dhyānaṃ vinā saṃnyāsa-mātrataḥ |
muktiḥ syād iti ṣaṣṭhe ‚smin dhyāna-yogo vitanvate ||

 

Madhusūdana


yoga-sūtraṃ tribhiḥ ślokaiḥ pañcamānte yad īritam |
ṣaṣṭhas tv ārabhyate ‚dhyāyas tad-vyākhyānāya vistarāt ||

 

Viśvanātha


ṣaṣṭheṣu yogino yoga-prakāra-vijitātmanaḥ |
manasaś cañcalasyāpi naiścalyopāya ucyate ||

 

Baladeva


ṣaṣṭhe yoga-vidhiḥ karma-śuddhasya vijitātmanaḥ |
sthairyopāyaś ca manaso ‚sthirasyāpīti kīrtyate ||

 
 

BhG 6.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
anāśritaḥ karma-phalaṃ kāryaṃ karma karoti yaḥ
sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca na niragnir na cākriyaḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
yaḥ (he who) karma-phalam (the fruit of activity) anāśritaḥ (is not leaned on) kāryam karma (prescribed activity) karoti (he does),
saḥ (he) sannyāsī ca (and renunciant) yogī ca (and yogī) [asti] (is),
niragniḥ (who has no fire) [sannyāsī ca yogī ca] (renunciant and yogī) na [asti] (is not).
akriyaḥ ca (and inactive) [sannyāsī ca yogī ca] (renunciant and yogī) na [asti] (is not).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
anāśritaḥ an-ā-śrita (ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.1 m.not leaned on, not sheltered;
karma-phalam karma-phala 2n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ phalam iti the fruit of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result);
kāryam kārya (kṛ to do) PF 2n.1 n.to be done, work, duty, especially religious one;
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
karoti kṛ (to do) Praes. P 1v.1he does;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
saṁnyāsī saṁnyāsin 1n.1 m. renunciant (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, saṁnyāsa laying aside, resignation, renunciation, -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
ca av.and;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
ca av.and;
na av.not;
niragniḥ nir-agni 1n.1 m.who has no fire (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; ag – to move tortuously, agni – fire;);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
akriyaḥ a-kriya 1n.1 m.inactive (from: kṛ – to do, kriyā – act, work, especially religious one);

 

textual variants


yaḥ → saḥ / ca (he / and);
ca yogī → sa yogī (he is a yogī);
cākriyaḥ → niṣkriyaḥ (inactive);

 
 



Śāṃkara


anāśrito —nāśrito’nāśritaḥ | kiṃ ? karma-phalaṃ karmaṇāṃ phalaṃ karma-phalaṃ yat tad-anāśritaḥ, karma-phala-tṛṣṇā-rahita ity arthaḥ | yo hi karma-phale tṛṣṇāvān sa karma-phalam āśrito bhavati | ayaṃ tu tad-viparītaḥ, ato’nāśritaḥ karma-phalam | evaṃbhūtaḥ san kāryaṃ kartavyaṃ nityaṃ kāmya-viparītam agnihotrādikaṃ karma karoti nirvartayati | yaḥ kaścid īdṛśaḥ karmī sa karmy antarebhyo viśiṣyate | ity evam artham āha—sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ceti | saṃnyāsaḥ parityāgaḥ sa yasyāsti sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca | yogaś citta-samādhānaṃ sa yasyāsti sa yogī ceti evaṃguṇa-saṃpanno’yaṃ mantavyaḥ | na kevalaṃ niragnir akriya eva saṃnyāsī yogī ceti mantavyaḥ | nirgatāḥ agnayaḥ karmāṅga-bhūtā yasmāt sa niragniḥ | akriyaś cānagni-sādhanāpy avidyamānāḥ kriyās tapo-dānādikā yasyāsāv akriyaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


uktaḥ karmayogaḥ saparikaraḥ, idānīṃ jñānayogakarmayogasādhyātmāvalokanarūpayogābhyāsavidhir ucyate / tatra karmayogasya nirapekṣayogasādhanatvaṃ draḍhayituṃ jñānākāraḥ karmayogo yogaśirasko ‚nūdyate / karmaphalaṃ svargādikam anāśritaḥ, kāryaṃ karmānuṣṭhānam eva kāryam, sarvātmanāsmatsuhṛdbhūtaparamapuruṣārādhanarūpatayā karmaiva mama prayojanam, na tatsādhyaṃ kiṃcid iti yaḥ karma karoti; sa saṃnyāsī ca jñānayoganiṣṭhaś ca; yogī ca karmayoganiṣṭhaś ca; ātmāvalokanarūpayogasādhanabhūtobhayaniṣṭha ityarthaḥ / na niragnir na cākriyaḥ na coditayajñādikarmasv apravṛttaḥ, na ca kevalajñānaniṣṭhaḥ / tasya hi jñananiṣṭhaiva, karmayoganiṣṭhasya tūbhayam astītyabhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


pūrvādhyāye saṃkṣepeṇoktaṃ yogaṃ prapañcayituṃ ṣaṣṭhādhyāyārambhaḥ | tatra tāvat sarva-karmāṇi manasā saṃnyasya [Gītā 5.13] ity ārabhya saṃnyāsa-pūrvikāyā jñāna-niṣṭhāyās tātparyenābhidhānād duḥkha-rūpatvāc ca karmaṇaḥ sahasā saṃnyāsātiprasaṅgaṃ prāptaṃ vārayituṃ saṃnyāsād api śreṣṭhatvena karma-yogaṃ stauti anāśrita iti dvābhyām | karma-phalam anāśrito ‚napekṣamāṇaḥ sann avaśya-kāryatayā vihitaṃ karma yaḥ karoti, sa eva saṃnyāsī yogī ca na tu niragnir agni-sādhyeṣṭākhya-karma-tyāgī | na cākriyo ‚nagni-sādhya-pūrtākhya-karma-tyāgī

 

Madhusūdana


tatra sarva-karma-tyāgena yogaṃ vidhāsyaṃs tyājyatvena hīnatvam āśaṅkya karma-yogaṃ stauti anāśrita iti dvābhyām | karmaṇāṃ phalam āśrito ‚napekṣamāṇaḥ phalābhisaṃdhi-rahitaḥ san kāryaṃ kartavyatayā śāstreṇa vihitaṃ nityam agnihotrādi karma karoti yaḥ sa karmy api san saṃnyāsī ca yogī ceti stūyate |

sannyāso hi thyāgaḥ | citta-gata-vikṣepābhāvaś ca yogaḥ | tau cāsya vidyete phala-tyāgāt phala-tṛṣṇā-rūpa-citta-vikṣepābhāvāc ca | karma-phala-tṛṣṇā-tyāga evātra gauṇyā vṛttyā saṃnyāsa-yoga-śabdābhyām abhidhīyate sakāmānapekṣya prāśastya-kathanāya | avaśyambhāvinau hi niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhātur mukhyau saṃnyāsa-yogau | tasmād ayaṃ yadyapi na niragnir agni-sādhya-śrauta-karma-tyāgī na bhavati, na cākriyo ‚gni-nirapekṣa-smārta-kriyā-tyāgī ca na bhavati | tathāpi saṃnyāsī yogī ceti mantavyaḥ |

athavā na niragnir na cākriyaḥ saṃnyāsī yogī ceti mantavyaḥ | kintu sāgniḥ sakriyaś ca niṣkāma-karmānuṣṭhāyī saṃnyāsī yogī ceti mantavya iti stūyate | apaśavo vā anye go-aśvebhyaḥ paśavo go-aśvān ity atreva praśaṃsā-lakṣaṇayā nañ-anvayopapattiḥ | atra cākriya ity anenaiva sarva-karma-saṃnyāsini labdhe niragnir iti vyarthaṃ syād ity agni-śabdena sarvāṇi karmāṇy upalakṣya niragnir iti saṃnyāsī kriyā-śabdena citta-vṛttīr upalakṣyākriya iti niruddha-citta-vṛttir yogī ca kathyate | tena na niragniḥ saṃnyāsī mantavyo na cākriyo yogī mantavya iti yathā-saṅkhyam ubhaya-vyatireko darśanīyaḥ | evaṃ sati nañ-dvayam apy upapannam iti draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


aṣṭāṅga-yogābhyāse pravṛttenāpi citta-śodhakaṃ niṣkāma-karma na tyājyam ity āha karma-phalam āśrito ‚napekṣamāṇaḥ kāryam avaśya-kartavyatvena śāstra-vihitaṃ karma yaḥ karoti, sa eva karma-phala-saṃnyāsāt saṃnyāsī, sa eva viṣaya-bhogeṣu cittābhāvād yogī cocyate | na ca niragnir agnihotrādi-karma-mātra-tyāgavān eva sannyāsy ucyate | na cākriyo na daihika-ceṣṭā-śūnyo ‚rdha-nimīlita-netra eva yogī cocyate

 

Baladeva


proktaṃ karma-yogam aṣṭāṅga-yoga-śiraskam upadekṣyann ādau tau tad-upāyatvāt taṃ karma-yogam stauti bhagavān anāśrita iti dvābhyām | karma-phalam paśv-anna-putra-svargādi-kāmanāśrito ‚nicchan kāryam avaśya-kartavyatayā vihitaṃ karma yaḥ karoti, sa saṃnyāsī jñāna-yoga-niṣṭhaḥ, yogī cāṣṭāṅga-yoga-niṣṭhaḥ sa eva | karma-yogenaiva tayoḥ siddhir iti bhāvaḥ | na niragnir agnihotrādi-karma-tyāgī yati-veśaḥ sannyāsī na cākriyaḥ śarīra-karma-tyāgī ardha-mudrita-netro yogī | atra yogam aṣṭāṅgaṃ cikīrṣūṇāṃ sahasā karma na tyājyam iti matam

 
 

BhG 6.2

yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhur yogaṃ taṃ viddhi pāṇḍava
na hy asaṃnyasta-saṃkalpo yogī bhavati kaś-cana

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syntax


he pāṇḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!),
yam saṁnyāsam iti (that which a renunciation) prāhuḥ (they declared),
tam yogam (that yoga) viddhi (you must know),
asaṁnyasta-saṅkalpaḥ (who did not renounce desires) kaścana (no) yogī (yogī) na hi bhavati (does not become indeed).

 

grammar

yam yat sn. 2n.1 m.that which;
saṁnyāsam saṁnyāsa 2n.1 m. laying aside, resignation, renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
prāhuḥ pra-ah (to declare) [Perf.] P 1v.3they declared (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
pāṇḍava pāṇḍava 8n.1 m.O son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);
na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
asaṁnyasta-saṁkalpaḥ a-saṁnyasta-saṁkalpa 1n.1 m.; yena saṁnyastaḥ saṁkalpo nāsti saḥ by whom desire is not renounced (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, [PP] saṁnyasta – laid aside, renounced; sam-kḷp – to be ready, to wish, saṁkalpa – idea, desire);
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1he becomes;
kaś-cana kim-cana sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cana – indefinitive particle);

 

textual variants


saṁnyāsam iti → sannyāsa iti (it is a rennunciation);
hi asaṁnyasta-saṅkalpo → hi asaṁnaddha-saṅkalpo (whose desires are not bound);
yogī bhavati kaś-cana → yogo bhavati duḥkhahā (yoga is a distress);

 
 


Śāṃkara


nanu ca niragneḥ akriyasyaiva śruti-smṛti-yoga-śāstreṣu saṃnyāsitvaṃ yogitvaṃ ca prasiddham | katham iha sāgneḥ sa-kriyasya ca saṃnyāsitvaṃ yogitvaṃ cāprasiddham ucyata iti | naiṣa doṣaḥ, kayācid guṇa-vṛttyā ubhayasya saṃpipādayiṣitatvāt | tat kathaṃ ? karma-phala-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāsāt saṃnyāsitvam, yogāṅgatvena ca karmānuṣṭhānāt karma-phala-saṃkalpasya ca citta-vikṣepa-hetoḥ parityāgād yogitvaṃ ceti gauṇam ubhayam | na punar mukhyaṃ saṃnyāsitvaṃ yogitvaṃ cābhipretam ity etam arthaṃ darśayitum āha—

yaṃ sarva-karma-tat-phala-parityāga-lakṣaṇaṃ paramārtha-saṃnyāsaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhuḥ śruti-smṛti-vidaḥ, yogaṃ karmānuṣṭhāna-lakṣaṇaṃ taṃ paramārtha-saṃnyāsaṃ viddhi jānīhi he pāṇḍāva | karma-yogasya pravṛtti-lakṣaṇasya tad-viparītena nivṛtti-lakṣaṇena paramārtha-saṃnyāsena kīdṛśaṃ sāmānyam aṅgīkṛtya tad-bhāva ucyate ity apekṣāyām idam ucyate—asti hi paramārtha-saṃnyāsena sādṛśyaṃ kartṛ-dvārakaṃ karma-yogasya | yo hi paramārtha-saṃnyāsī sa tyakta-sarva-karma-sādhanatayā sarva-karma-tat-phala-viṣayaṃ saṃkalpaṃ pravṛtti-hetu-kāma-kāraṇaṃ saṃnyasyati | ayam api karma-yogī karma kurvāṇa eva phala-viṣayaṃ saṃkalpaṃ saṃnyasyatīti | etam arthaṃ darśayiṣyann āha—na hi yasmād asaṃnyasta-saṃkalpo’saṃnyasto’parityaktaḥ saṅkalpo’bhisandhir yena so’saṃnyasta-saṅkalpaḥ kaścana kaścid api karmī yogī samādhānavān bhavati | na saṃbhavatīty arthaḥ | phala-saṃkalpasya citta-vikṣepa-hetutvāt | tasmād yaḥ kaścana karmī saṃnyasta-phala-saṃkalpo bhavet sa yogī samādhānavān avikṣipta-citto bhavet | citta-vikṣepa-hetoḥ phala-saṃkalpasya saṃnyastatvād ity abhiprāyaḥ | yogāṅgatvena karmānuṣṭhānāt karma-phala-saṅkalpasya vā citta-vikṣepa-hetoḥ parityāgāt yogitvaṃ ceti saṃnyāsitvaṃ cety abhipretam ucyate

 

Rāmānuja


uktalakṣaṇakarmayoge jñānam apy astīty āha

yaṃ saṃnyāsa iti jñānayoga iti, ātmayāthātmyajñānam iti prāhuḥ, taṃ karmayogam eva viddhi / tad upapādayati na hy asaṃnyastasaṃkalpo yogī bhavati kaścana / ātmayāthātmyānusandhānena anātmani prakṛtau ātmasaṅkalpaḥ saṃnyastaḥ parityakto yena sa saṃnyastasaṅkalpaḥ; anevaṃbhūtaḥ asaṃnyastasaṅkalpaḥ / na hy ukteṣu karmayogiṣv anevaṃbhūtaḥ kaścana karmayogī bhavati; „yasya sarve samārambhāḥ kāmasaṅkalpavarjitāḥ” iti hy uktam

 

Śrīdhara


kuta ity apekṣāyāṃ karma-yogasyaiva saṃnyāsatvaṃ pratipādayann āha yam iti | saṃnyāsam iti prāhuḥ prakarṣeṇa śreṣṭhatvenāhuḥ | nyāsa evāty arecayat ity ādi śruteḥ | kevalāt phala-saṃnyasanād dhetor yogam eva taṃ jānīhi | kuta ity apekṣāyām iti śabdokto hetur yoge ‚py astīty āha na hīti | na saṃnyastaḥ phala-saṃkalpo yena sa karma-niṣṭho jñāna-niṣṭho vā kaścid api na hi yogī bhavati | ataḥ phala-saṅkalpa-tyāga-sāmyāt saṃnyāsī ca phala-saṅkalpa-tyāgād eva citta-vikṣepābhāvād yogī ca bhavaty eva sa ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


asaṃnyāse ‚pi saṃnyāsa-śabda-prayoge nimitta-bhūtaṃ guṇa-yogaṃ darśayitum āha yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti | yaṃ sarva-karma-tat-phala-parityāgaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhuḥ śrutayaḥ nyāsa evāty arecayat, brāhmaṇāḥ puatraiṣaṇāyāś ca vittaiṣaṇāyāś ca lokaiṣaṇāyāś ca vyutthāyātha bhikṣā-caryaṃ caranti ity ādyāḥ | yogaṃ phala-tṛṣṇā-kartṛtvābhimānayoḥ parityāgena vihita-karmānuṣṭhānaṃ taṃ saṃnyāsaṃ viddhi he pāṇḍava | abrahma-dattaṃ brahma-dattam ity āha taṃ vayaṃ manyāmahe brahma-datta-sadṛśo ‚yam iti nyāyāt para-śabdaḥ paratra prayujyamānaḥ sādṛśyaṃ bodhayati gauṇyā vṛttyā tad-bhāvāropeṇa vā | prakṛte tu kiṃ sādṛśyam ? iti tad āha nahīti | hi yasmād asaṃnyasta-saṃkalpo ‚tyakta-phala-saṅkalpaḥ kaścana kaścid api yogī na bhavati | api tu sarvo yogī tyakta-phala-saṅkalpa eva bhavatīti phala-tyāga-sāmyāt tṛṣṇā-rūpa-vitta-vṛtti-nirodha-sāmyāc ca gauṇyā vṛttyā karmy eva saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca bhavatīty arthaḥ | tathā hi – yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrā-smṛtaya [YogaS 1.6] iti vṛttayaḥ pañca-vidhāḥ | tatra pratyakṣānumāna-śāstropamānārthāpatty-abhāvākhyāni pramāṇāni ṣaḍ iti vaidikāḥ | pratyakṣānumānāgamāḥ pramāṇāni [YogaS 1.7] trīṇīti yogāḥ | antarbhāva-bahir-bhāvābhyāṃ saṅkoca-vikāsau draṣṭavyau | ataeva tārkikādīnāṃ mata-bhedāḥ | viparyayo mithyā-jñānam tasya pañca bhedā avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśaḥ [YogaS 2.3] ta eva ca kleśāḥ | śabda-jñānānupātī vastu-śūnyo vikalpaḥ [YogaS 1.9] pramā-bhrama-vilakṣaṇo ‚sad-artha-vyavahāraḥ śaśa-viṣāṇam asat-puruṣasya catanyam ity ādiḥ | abhāva-pratyayālambanā vṛttir nidrā [YogaS 1.10] na tu jñānādy-abhāva-mātram ity arthaḥ | anubhūta-viṣayāsaṃpramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ [YogaS 1.11] pūrvānubhava-saṃskārajaṃ jñānam ity arthaḥ | sarva-vṛtti-janyatvād ante kathanam | lajjādi-vṛttīnām api āñcasv evāntarbhāvo draṣṭavyaḥ | etādṛśāṃ sarvāsāṃ citta-vṛttīnāṃ norodho yoga iti ca samādhir iti ca kathyate | phala-saṅkalpas tu rāgākhyas tṛtīyo viparyaya-bhedas tan-nirodha-mātram api gauṇyā vṛttyā yoga iti saṃnyāsa iti cocyata iti na virodhaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


karma-phala-tyāga eva saṃnyāsa-śabdārthaḥ | vastutas tathā viṣayebhyaś citta-naiścalyam eva yoga-śabdārthaḥ | tasmāt saṃnyāsa-yoga-śabdayor aikyārtham evāgatam ity āha yam iti | asaṃnyasto na saṃnyastas tyaktaḥ saṅkalpaḥ phalākāṅkṣā viṣaya-bhoga-spṛhā yena saḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu sarvendriya-vṛtti-virati-rūpāyāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhāyāṃ saṃnyāsa-śabdaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhe yoga-śabdaś ca paṭhyate | sa ca sarvendriya-vyāpārātmake karma-yoge sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ceti bruvatā bhavatā kayā vṛttyā nīyata iti cet tatrāha yam iti | yaṃ karma-yogam artha-tātparya-jñāḥ saṃnyāsṃ prāhus tam eva taṃ yogam aṣṭāṅgaṃ viddhi | he pāṇḍava !

nanu siṃho mānavakaḥ ity ādau śauryādi-guṇa-sādṛśyena tathā prayogaḥ | prakṛteḥ kiṃ sādṛśyam iti cet tatrāha na hīti | asaṃnyasta-saṃkalpaḥ kaścana kaścid jñāna-yogy aṣṭāṅga-yogī ca na bhavaty api tu saṃnyasta-saṃkalpa eva bhavatīty arthaḥ | saṃnyastaḥ parityaktaḥ saṅkalpaḥ phalecchā ca yena saḥ | tathā phala-tyāga-sādṛśyāt tṛṣṇā-rūpa-citta-vṛtti-nirodha-sādṛśyāc ca karma-yoginas tad-ubhayatvena prayogo gauṇa-vṛttyeti

 
 

BhG 6.3

ārurukṣor muner yogaṃ karma kāraṇam ucyate
yogārūḍhasya tasyaiva śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyate

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syntax


yogam (yoga) ārurukṣoḥ (of one who desires to attain) muneḥ (of a sage) karma (activity) kāraṇam (the means) ucyate (it is called).
tasya eva (just of him) yogārūḍhasya (of one who attained yoga) śamaḥ (tranquility) kāraṇam (the means) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

ārurukṣoḥ ārurukṣu (ā-ruh – to ascend, to rise ) des. 6n.1 m.of one who desires to ascend, to attain;
muneḥ muni 6n.1 m.of a sage, of a saint, of a seer (from: man – to think, to imagine);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
kāraṇam kāraṇa 1n.1 n.cause, motive, principle, the means (from: kṛ – to do, karaṇa – deed, direct cause, instrument, helper);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;
yogārūḍhasya yoga-ārūḍha 6n.1 m.; [TP]: yogam āruḍhasyetiof one who attained yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; ā-ruh – to ascend, to rise, [PP] ārūḍha – który się wspiął);
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.his;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
śamaḥ śama 1n.1 m.tranquility, calmness (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
kāraṇam kāraṇa 1n.1 n.cause, motive, principle, the means (from: kṛ – to do, karaṇa – deed, direct cause, instrument, helper);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


yogārūḍhasya → āruḍhasya tu (but of one who ascended);
 
 

Śāṃkara


evaṃ paramārtha-saṃnyāsa-karma-yogayoḥ kartṛ-dvārakaṃ saṃnyāsa-sāmānyam apekṣya yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhur yogaṃ taṃ viddhi pāṇḍāva [gītā 6.2] iti karma-yogasya stuty-arthaṃ saṃnyāsatvam uktam | dhyāna-yogasya phala-nirapekṣaḥ karma-yogo bahiraṅgaṃ sādhanam iti taṃ saṃnyāsatvena stutvādhunā karma-yogasya dhyāna-yoga-sādhanatvaṃ darśayati—

ārurukṣor āroḍhum icchataḥ, anārūḍhasya, dhyāna-yoge’vasthātum aśaktasyaivety arthaḥ | kasya tasyārurukṣoḥ ? muneḥ, karma-phala-saṃnyāsina ity arthaḥ | kim ārurukṣoḥ ? yogam | karma kāraṇaṃ sādhanam ucyate | yogārūḍhasya punas tasyaiva śamar upaśamaḥ sarva-karmabhyo nivṛttiḥ kāraṇaṃ yogārūḍhasya sādhanam ucyate ity arthaḥ | yāvad yāvat karmabhya uparamate, tāvat tāvat nirāyāsasya jitendriyasya cittaṃ samādhīyate | tathā sati sa jhaṭiti yogārūḍho bhavati | tathā coktaṃ vyāsena—

naitādṛśaṃ brāhmaṇasyāsti vittaṃ
yathaikatā samatā satyatā ca |
śīlaṃ sthitir daṇḍa-nidhānam ārjavaṃ
tatas tataś coparamaḥ kriyābhyaḥ || [mātrbh 12.175.37] iti

 

Rāmānuja


karmayoga evāpramādena yogaṃ sādhayatīty āha

yogam ātmāvalokanaṃ prāptum icchor mumukṣoḥ karmayoga eva kāraṇam ucyate / tasyaiva yogārūḍhasya pratiṣṭhitayogasyaiva, śamaḥ karmanivṛttiḥ kāraṇam ucyate / yāvad ātmāvalokanarūpamokṣāvāpti karma kāryam ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tarhi yāvaj-jīvaṃ karma-yoga eva prāpta ity āśaṅkya tasyāvadhim āha ārurukṣor iti | jñāna-yogam āroḍhuṃ prātum icchoḥ puṃsas tad-ārohe kāraṇaṃ karmocyate | citta-śuddhi-karatvāt | jñāna-yogam ārūḍhasya tu tasyaiva dhyāna-niṣṭhasya śamaḥ samādhiś citta-vikṣepaka-karmoparamo jñāna-paripāke kāraṇam ucyate

 

Madhusūdana


tat kiṃ praśastatvāt karma-yoga eva yāvaj-jīvam anuṣṭheya iti nety āha ārurukṣor iti | yogam antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-rūpaṃ vairāgyam ārurukṣor āroḍhum icchor na tvārūḍhasya muner bhaviṣyataḥ karma-phala-tṛṣṇā-tyāginaḥ karma śāstra-vihitam agnihotrādi nityaṃ bhagavad-arpaṇa-buddhyā kṛtaṃ kāraṇaṃ yogārohaṇe sādhanam anuṣṭheyam ucyate veda-mukhena mayā | yogārūḍhasya yogam antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-rūpaṃ vairāgyaṃ prāptavatas tu tasyaiva pūrvaṃ karmiṇo ‚pi sataḥ śamaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa eva kāraṇam anuṣṭheyatayā jñāna-paripāka-sādhanam ucyate

 

Viśvanātha


nanu tarhy aṣṭāṅga-yogino yāvaj-jīvam eva niṣkāma-karma-yogaḥ prāpta ity āśaṅkya tasyāvadhim āha ārurukṣor iti | muner yogābhyāsino yogaṃ niścala-dhyāna-yogam āroḍhuṃ icchos tad-ārohe kāraṇaṃ karma cocyate citta-śuddhi-karatvāt | tatas tasya yogaṃ dhyāna-yogam ārūḍhasya dhyāna-niṣṭhā-prāptaḥ śamaḥ vikṣepaka-sarva-karmoparamaḥ kāraṇam | tad evaṃ samyak-citta-śuddhi-rahito yogārurukṣuḥ

 

Baladeva


nanv evam aṣṭāṅga-yogino yāvaj jīvaṃ karmānuṣṭhānaṃ prāptam iti cet tatrāha ārurukṣor iti | muner yogābhyāsino yogaṃ dhyāna-niṣṭhām ārurukṣos tad-ārohe karma kāraṇaṃ hṛd-viśuddhi-kṛttvāt | tasyaiva yogārūḍhasya dhyāna-niṣṭhasya tad-dāḍhye śamo vikṣepaka-karmoparatiḥ kāraṇam

 
 

BhG 6.4

yadā hi nendriyārtheṣu na karmasv anuṣajjate
sarva-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāsī yogārūḍhas tadocyate

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syntax


yadā hi (indeed when) indriyārtheṣu (in the objects of the senses) karmasu [ca] (and in activities) na anuṣajjate (he is not attached),
sarva-saṁkalpa-saṁnyāsī (renunciant of all desires) tadā (then) yogārūḍhaḥ (one who attained yoga) ucyate (is called).

 

grammar

yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
na av.not;
indriyārtheṣu indriya-artha 7n.3 m.; [TP]: indriyāṇām artheṣv itiin the objects of the senses (from: ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth);
na av.not;
karmasu karman 7n.3 n.in activities (from: kṛ – to do);
anuṣajjate anu-sañj (to attach, to stick, to embrace) Praes Ā 1v.1he clings to, is attached;
sarva-saṁkalpa-saṁnyāsī sarva-saṁkalpa-saṁnyāsin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ saṁkalpānāṁ sanyāsītirenunciant of all desires (from: sarva – all, whole; sam-kḷp – to be ready, to wish, saṁ-kalpa – idea, desire; sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, [PP] saṁnyasta – laid aside, renounced, saṁnyāsin – an ascetic, renunciant; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
yogārūḍhaḥ yoga-ārūḍha 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yogam āruḍha itiwho attained yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; ā-ruh – to ascend, to rise, [PP] ārūḍha – who attained);
tadā av.at that time, then;
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1 it is said;

 

textual variants


anuṣajjateanusajjate / anurajyate / anuṣajyate (he clings / is shining / is attached);
karmasv anuṣajjate → sarva-karmasv ṣajjate (he clings to all activities);
tadocyate → tad ucyate / tatocyate (that is called / O my dear, it is called);

 
 

Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ kadā yogārūḍho bhavatīty ucyate—

yadā samādhīyamāna-citto yogī hīndriyārtheṣv indriyāṇām arthāḥ śabdādayas teṣv indriyārtheṣu karmasu ca nitya-naimittika-kāmya-pratiṣiddheṣu prayojanābhāva-buddhyā nānuṣajjate’nuṣaṅgaṃ kartavyatā-buddhiṃ na karotīty arthaḥ | sarva-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāsī sarvān saṃkalpān ihāmutrārtha-kāma-hetūna saṃnyasituṃ śīlam asyeti sarva-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāsī | yogārūḍhaḥ prāpta-yoga ity etat, tadā tasmin kāla ucyate | sarva-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāsīti vacanāt sarvāṃś ca kāmān sarvāṇi ca karmāṇi saṃnyasyed ity arthaḥ | saṃkalpa-mūlā hi sarve kāmāḥ—saṃkalpa-mūlaḥ kāmo vai yajñāḥ saṃkalpa-saṃbhavāḥ [mātranu 2.3]

kāma jānāmi te mūlaṃ saṃkalpāt tvaṃ hi jāyase |
na tvāṃ saṃkalpayiṣyāmi tena me na bhaviṣyasi || [mātrabh 12.177.25] ity ādi-smṛteḥ |

sarva-kāma-parityāge ca sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaḥ siddho bhavati | sa yathā-kāmo bhavati tat-kratur bhavati yat kratur bhavati tat karma kurute [bhāvātmauttaṃ 4.4.5] ity ādi śrutibhyaḥ | yad yad dhi kurute jantus tat tat kāmasya ceṣṭitaṃ [mātranu 2.4] ity ādi-smṛtibhyaś ca | nyāyāc ca—na hi sarva-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāse kaścit spanditum api śaktaḥ | tasmāt sarva-saṃkalpa-saṃnyāsīti vacanāt sarvān kāmān sarvāṇi karmāṇi ca tyājayati bhagavān

 

Rāmānuja


kadā pratiṣṭhitayogo bhavatīty atrāha

yadāyaṃ yogī tv ātmaikānubhavasvabhāvatayā indriyārtheṣu ātmavyatiriktaprākṛtaviṣayeṣu, tatsaṃbandhiṣu ca karmasu nānuṣajjate na saṅgam arhati, tadā hi sarvasaṅkalpasamnyāsī yogārūḍha ity ucyate / tasmād ārurukṣor viṣayānubhavārhatayā tadananuṣaṅgābhyāsarūpaḥ karmayoga eva yoganiṣpattikāraṇam / ato viṣayānanuṣaṅgābhyāsarūpaṃ karmayogam eva ārurukṣuḥ kuryāt

 

Śrīdhara


kīdṛśo ‚yaṃ yogārūḍho yasya śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyata iti ? atrāha yadeti | indriyārtheṣv indriya-bhogyeṣu śabdādiśu tat-sādhaneṣu ca karmasu yadā nānuṣajjate āsaktiṃ na karoti | tatra hetuḥ āsakti-mūla-bhūtān sarvā bhoga-viṣayān karma-viṣayāṃś ca saṅkalpān saṃnyasituṃ tyaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ | tadā yogārūḍha ucyate

 

Madhusūdana


kadā yogārūḍho bhavatīty ucyate yadeti | yadā yasmiṃś citta-samādhāna-kāla indriyārtheṣu śabdādiśu karmasu ca nitya-naimittika-kāmya-laukika-pratiṣiddheṣu nānuṣajjate teṣāṃ mithyātva-darśanenātmano ‚kartr-abhoktṛ-paramānanadādvaya-svarūpa-darśanena ca prayojanābhāva-buddhyāham eteṣāṃ kartā mamaite bhogyā ity abhiniveśa-rūpam anuṣaṅgaṃ na karoti | hi yasmāt tasmāt sarva-saṅkalpa-saṃnyāsī sarveṣāṃ saṅkalpānām idaṃ mayā kartavyam etat phalaṃ bhoktavyam ity evaṃ rūpāṇāṃ mano-vṛtti-viśeṣāṇāṃ tad-viṣayāṇāṃ ca kāmānāṃ tat-sādhanānāṃ ca karmaṇāṃ tyāga-śīlaḥ | tadā śabdādiṣu karmasu cānuṣaṅgasya tad-dhetoś ca saṅkalpasya yogārohaṇa-pratibandhakasyābhāvād yogaṃ samādhim ārūḍho yogārūḍha ity ucyate

 

Viśvanātha


samyak-śuddha-cittas tu yogārūḍhas taj-jñāpakaṃ lakṣaṇam āha yadeti | indriyārtheṣu śabdādiṣu karmasu tat-sādhaneṣu

 

Baladeva


yogārūḍhatva-jñāpakaṃ cihnam āha yadeti | indriyārtheṣu śabdādiṣu tat-sādhaneṣu karmasu ca yadātmānanda-rasikaḥ san na sajjate | tatra hetuḥ sarveti | sarvān bhoga-viṣayān karma-viṣayāś ca saṅkalpānāsattimūla-bhūtān saṃnyasituṃ parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ

 
 

BhG 6.5

uddhared ātmanātmānaṃ nātmānam avasādayet
ātmaiva hy ātmano bandhur ātmaiva ripur ātmanaḥ

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syntax


ātmanā (with the self) ātmānam (self) uddharet (he should raise),
ātmānam (self) na avasādayet (he should not lower).
ātmā eva hi (indeed only the self) ātmanaḥ (of the self) bandhuḥ (a friend) [asti] (is).
ātmā eva (only the self) ātmanaḥ (of the self) ripuḥ (an enemy) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

uddharet ud-hṛ (to carry up) Pot. P 1v.1he should carry up;
or: ud-dhṛ (to raise) Pot. P 1v.1he should raise;
ātmanā ātman 3n.1 m.with the self;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
na av.not;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
avasādayet ava-sad (to sink down) Pot. caus. P 1v.1he should sink down, he should lower;
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
bandhuḥ bandhu 1n.1 m.relative, friend (bandh – to bind, to fetter);
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ripuḥ ripu 1n.1 m.enemy, cheater;
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;

 

textual variants


nātmānam avasādayetātmānam avasādhayet (he should perfect the self);
bandhur → buddhir (is intelligence);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yadaivaṃ yogārūḍhaḥ, tadā tena ātmā udbhṛto bhavati saṃsārād anartha-jātāt | ataḥ—

uddharet saṃsāra-sāgare nimagnam ātmanātmānaṃ tata ut ūrdhvaṃ hared uddharet, yogārūḍhatām āpādayed ity arthaḥ | nātmānam avasādayet nādho nayeta, nādho gamayet | ātmaiva hi yasmād ātmano bandhuḥ | na hy anyaḥ kaścit bandhuḥ, yaḥ saṃsāra-muktaye bhavati | bandhur api tāvat mokṣaṃ prati pratikūla eva, snehādi-bandhanāyatanatvāt | tasmāt yuktam avadhāraṇam ātmaiva hy ātmano bandhur iti | ātmaiva ripuḥ śatruḥ | yo’nyo’pakārī bāhyaḥ śatruḥ so’pi ātma-prayukta eveti yuktam evāvadhāraṇam ātmaiva ripur ātmana iti

 

Rāmānuja


tad evāha

ātmanā manasā; viṣayānanuṣaktena ātmānam uddharet / tadviparītena manasā ātmānaṃ nāvasādayet / ātmaiva mana eva hy ātmano bandhuḥ; tad evātmano ripuḥ

 

Śrīdhara


ato viṣayāsakti-tyāge mokṣaṃ tad-āsaktau ca bandhaṃ paryālocya rāgādi-svabhāvaṃ tyajed ity āha uddhared iti | ātmanā viveka-yuktenātmānaṃ saṃsārād uddharet | na tv avasādayed adho na nayet | hi yata ātmaiva manaḥ-saṅgādy-uparata ātmanaḥ svasya bandhur upakārakaḥ | ripur apakārakaś ca

 

Madhusūdana


yo yadaivaṃ yogārūḍho bhavati tadā tenātmanaivātmoddhṛto bhavati saṃsārānartha-vrātāt | ata uddhared iti | ātmanā viveka-yuktena manasātmānaṃ svaṃ jīvaṃ saṃsāra-samudre nimagnaṃ tata uddharet | ut ūrdhvaṃ haret | viṣayāsaṅga-parityāgena yogārūḍhatām āpādayed ity arthaḥ | na tu viṣayāsaṅgenātmānam avasādayet saṃsāra-samudre majjayet | hi yasmād ātmaivātmano bandhur hitakārī saṃsāra-bandhanān mocana-hetur nānyaḥ kaścil laukikasya bandhor api snehānubandhena bandha-hetutvāt | ātmaiva nānyaḥ | kaścit ripuḥ śatru-rahita-kāri-viṣaya-bandhanāgāra-praveśāt kośakāra ivātmanaḥ svasya | bāhyasyāpi ripor ātma-prayuktatvād yuktam avadhāraṇam ātmaiva ripur ātmana iti

 

Viśvanātha


yasmād indriyārthāsaktyaivātmā saṃsāra-kūpe patitas taṃ yatnenoddhared iti | ātmanā viṣayāsakti-rahitena manasātmānaṃ jīvam uddharet | viṣayāsakti-sahitena manasā tv ātmānaṃ nāvasādayet na saṃsāra-kūpe pātayet | tasmād ātmā mana eva bandhur mana eva ripuḥ

 

Baladeva


indriyārthādy-anāsaktau hetu-bhāvenāha uddhared iti | viṣayādy-āsakta-manaskatayā saṃsāra-kūpe nimagnam ātmānaṃ jīvam ātmanā viṣayāsakti-rahitena manasā tasmād uddhared ūrdhvaṃ haret | viṣayāsaktena manasātmānaṃ nāvasādayet tatra na nimajjayet | hi niścaye naivam ātmaiva mana evātmanaḥ svasya bandhus tad eva ripuḥ | smṛtiś ca –

mana eva manuṣyāṇāṃ kāraṇaṃ bandha-mokṣayoḥ |
bandhāya viṣayāsaṅgo muktyai nirviṣayaṃ manaḥ || iti

 
 

BhG 6.6

bandhur ātmātmanas tasya yenātmaivātmanā jitaḥ
anātmanas tu śatrutve vartetātmaiva śatru-vat

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yena eva (by whom only) ātmanā eva (by the self) ātmā (self) jitaḥ (conquered) [asti] (is),
tasya (of his) ātmā (self) ātmanaḥ (of the self) bandhuḥ (a friend) [asti] (is).
anātmanaḥ tu (but of one who has no self) ātmā (self) śaru-vat eva (like an enemy only) śatrutve (in enmity) varteta (it would act).

 

grammar

bandhuḥ bandhu 1n.1 m.relative, friend (bandh – to bind, to fetter);
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.his;
yena yat sn. 3n.1 m.by whom;
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ātmanā ātman 3n.1 m.by the self;
jitaḥ jita (ji – to conquer) [PP] 1n.1 m.conquered, defeated;
anātmanaḥ an-ātman 6n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā [jito] nāsti saḥof one who did not [conquered] the  self; of one to whom the self does not belong (from: ātman – self);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
śatrutve śatru-tva abs. 7n.1 n.in enmity (from: śad – to fall, to disperse, to kill; śatru – enemy, rival);
varteta vṛt (to move, to happen, to act) Pot. Ā 1v.1it would act;
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
śatru-vat av.like an enemy (from: śad – to fall, to disperse, to kill; śatru – enemy, rival; -vat – suffix: as, like);

 

textual variants


yenātmaivātmanā jitaḥparamātmaivātmanā jitaḥ (with the self the supreme self only conquered);
anātmanas tuajitātmanas tu (but of one who did not conquere the self);
śatru-vat → śatru-jit (who conquered the enemies);

 
 

Śāṃkara


ātmaiva bandhur ātmaiva ripur ātmana ity uktam | tatra kiṃ-lakṣaṇa ātmā ātmano bandhuḥ, kiṃ-lakṣaṇo vā ātmātmano ripur ity ucyate—

bandhur ātmātmanas tasya, tasyātmanaḥ sa ātmā bandhur yenātmanātmaiva jitaḥ | ātmā kārya-karaṇa-saṃghāto yena vaśīkṛtaḥ, jitendriya ity arthaḥ | anātmanas tv ajitātmanas tu śatrutve śatru-bhāve varteta ātmaiva śatruvat, yathānātmā śatrur ātmano’pakārī, tathātmā ātmano’pakāre varteta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yena puruṣeṇa svenaiva svamano viṣayebhyo jitam, tanmanas tasya bandhuḥ / anātmanaḥ ajitamanasaḥ svakīyam eva manaḥ svasya śatruvac śatrutve varteta svaniśśreyasaviparīte vartetetyarthaḥ / yathoktaṃ bhagavatā parāśareṇāpi, „mana eva manuṣyāṇāṃ kāraṇaṃ bandhamokṣayoḥ / bandhāya viṣayāsaṅgi muktyaiva nirviṣayaṃ manaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


katham-bhūtasyātmaiva bandhuḥ ? katham-bhūtasya cātmaiva ripur ity apekṣāyām āha bandhur iti | yenātmanaivātmā kārya-kāraṇa-saṅghāta-rūpo jito vaśīkṛtasya tathābhūtasyātmana ātmaiva bandhuḥ | anātmano ‚jitātmanas tv ātmaivātmanaḥ śatrutve śatruvad apakāra-kāritve varteta

 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ kiṃ-lakṣaṇa ātmātmano bandhuḥ kiṃ-lakṣaṇo vātmano ripur ity ucyate bandhur iti | ātmā kārya-karaṇa-saṃghāto yena jitaḥ sva-vaśīkṛta ātmanaiva viveka-yuktena manasaiva na tu śastrādinā | tasyātmā svarūpam ātmano bandhur ucchṛṅkhala-sva-pravṛtty-abhāvena sva-hita-karaṇāt | anātmanas tv ajitātmana ity etat | śatrutve śatru-bhāve vartetātmaiva śatruvat | bāhya-śatrur ivocchṛṅkhala-pravṛttyā svasya svenāniṣṭācaraṇāt

 

Viśvanātha


kasya sa bandhuḥ ? kasya sa ripur ity apekṣāyām āha bandhur iti | yenātmanā jīvenātmā mano jitas tasya jīvasya sa ātmā mano bandhuḥ | anātmano ‚jita-manasas tv ātmaiva mana eva śatruvat śatrutve ‚pakārakatve varteta

 

Baladeva


kīdṛśasya sa bandhuḥ ? kīdṛśasya sa ripur ity apekṣāyām āha bandhur iti | yenātmanā jīvenātmā mana eva jitas tasya jīvasya sa ātmā mano bandhus tad-upakārī | anātmano ‚jita-manasas tu jīvasyātmaiva mana eva śatruvat śatrutve ‚pakārakatve varteta

 
 

BhG 6.7

jitātmanaḥ praśāntasya paramātmā samāhitaḥ
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu tathā mānāvamānayoḥ

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jitātmanaḥ (of one whose self is conquered) praśāntasya (of the pacified) paramātmā (the supreme self) śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu (in cold and heat, in pleasure and distress) tathā (in that manner) mānāvamānayoḥ (in honour and dishonour) samāhitaḥ (established) [asti] (is).

 

grammar

jitātmanaḥ jita-ātman 6n.1 m.; BV: yenātmā jito ‘sti tasyaof one whose self is conquered (from: ji – to conquer, [PP] jita – conquered, defeated; ātman – self);
praśāntasya praśānta (pra-śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy) [PP] 6n.1 m.of the pacified, calm;
paramātmā parama-ātman 1n.1 m.the supreme self (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest; ātman – self;
or param ātmanthe ancient self;
samāhitaḥ sam-ā-hita (sam-ā-dhā – to put) [PP] 1n.1 m.put, composed, established;
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu śīta-uṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha 7n.3 n.; DV: śīte coṣṇe ca sukhe ca duḥkhe cetiin cold and heat, in pleasure and distress (from: śīta – cold, frigid; uṣ – to burn, uṣṇa – hot, warm; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not; or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
mānāvamānayoḥ māna-avamāna 7n.2 m.; DV: māne ca avamāne cetiin honour and dishonour (from: man – to think, māna – respect, honour, pride; ava-man – to despise, avamāna – disrespect, dishonour);

 

textual variants


jitātmanaḥjitātmānaḥ;
paramātmā samāhitaḥparātmasu samā matiḥ / parātmasu samā gatiḥ / paramātmā samā matiḥ (in the supreme self the same thought / in the supreme self the same goal / the supreme self is thought of as the same);
mānāvamānayoḥmānāpamānayoḥ (in honour and dishonour);

The third and fourth pada of verse 6.7 are the same as the third and second pada of verse BhG 12.18.

 
 

Śāṃkara


jitātmanaḥ kārya-karaṇa-saṃghāta ātmā jito yena sa jitātmā tasya jitātmanaḥ, praśāntasya prasannāntaḥ-karaṇasya sataḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ paramātmā samāhitaḥ sākṣād-ātma-bhāvena vartate ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu tathā māne’pamāne ca mānāpamānayoḥ pūjā-paribhavayoḥ samaḥ syāt

 

Rāmānuja


yogārambhayogyā avasthocyate

śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkheṣu mānāvamānayoś ca jitātmanaḥ jitamanasaḥ vikārarahitamanasaḥ praśāntasya manasi paramātmā samāhitaḥ samyagāhitaḥ / svarūpeṇāvasthitaḥ pratyagātmātra paramātmety ucyate; tasyaiva prakṛtatvāt / tasyāpi pūrvapūrvāvasthāpekṣayā paramātmatvāt / ātmā paraṃ samāhita iti vānvayaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


jitātmanaḥ svasmin bandhutvaṃ sphuṭayati jitātmana iti | jita ātmā yena tasya praśāntasya rāgādi-rahitasyaiva | paraṃ kevalam ātmā śītoṣṇādiṣu satsv api samāhitaḥ svātma-niṣṭho bhavati nānyasya | yad vā tasya hṛdi paramātmā samāhitaḥ sthito bhavati

 

Madhusūdana


jitātmanaḥ sva-bandhutvaṃ vivṛṇoti jitātmana iti | śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu citta-vikṣepa-kareṣu satsv api tathā mānāpamānayoḥ pūjā-paribhavayoś citta-vikṣepa-hetvoḥ sator iti teṣu samatveneti vā | jitātmanaḥ prāg-uktasya jitendriyasya praśāntasya sarvatra sama-buddhayā rāga-dveṣa-śūnyasya paramātmā sva-prakāśa-jñāna-svabhāva ātmā samāhitaḥ samādhi-viṣayo yogārūḍho bhavati | param iti vā cchedaḥ | jitātmanaḥ praśāntasyaiva paraṃ kevalam ātmā samāhito bhavati nānyasya | tasmāj jitātmā praśāntaś ca bhaved ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


atha yogārūḍhasya cihnāni darśayati tribhiḥ | jitātmano jita-manasaḥ praśāntasya rāgādi-rahitasya yoginaḥ param atiśayena samāhitaḥ samādhi-stha ātmā bhavet | śītādiṣu satsv api mānāpamānayoḥ prāptayor api

 

Baladeva


yogārambha-yogyām avasthām āha jiteti tribhiḥ | śītoṣṇādiṣu mānāpamānayoś ca jitātmano ‚vikṛta-manasaḥ praśāntasya rāgādi-śūnyasyātmā param atyarthaṃ samāhitaḥ samādhistho bhavati

 
 

BhG 6.8

jñāna-vijñāna-tṛptātmā kūṭa-stho vijitendriyaḥ
yukta ity ucyate yogī sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ

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jñāna-vijñāna-tṛptātmā (whose self is satisfied with knowledge and wisdom) kūṭa-sthaḥ (who is situated on top) vijitendriyaḥ (who conquered the senses) sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ (for whom earth, stone and gold are the same)
[sa] (he) yogī (a yogī) yuktaḥ iti (engaged) ucyate (is called).

 

grammar

jñāna-vijñāna-tṛptātmā jñāna-vijñāna-tṛpta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā jñānena vijñānena ca tṛpto ‘sti saḥwhose self is satisfied with knowledge and wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; vi-jñāna – comprehension, understanding, wisdom; tṛp – to be satisfied, [PP] tṛpta – satisfied; ātman – self);
kūṭa-sthaḥ kūṭa-stha 1n.1 m.; yaḥ kūṭe tiṣṭhati saḥwho is situated on top (from: kūṭa – summit, peak, heap; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
vijitendriyaḥ vijita-indriya 1n.1 m.; BV: yenendriyāṇi vijitāni santi saḥwhose sense are conquered (from: vi-ji – to conquer, [PP] vi-jita – conquered; ind – to be powerful; indriya – the senses);
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is said;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ sama-loṣṭa-aśma-kāñcana 1n.1 m.; DV / BV: yasya loṣṭaṁ ca aśmaṁ ca kāñcanaṁ ca samāni santi saḥone for whom earth, stone and gold are the same (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; – to cut, to gather, loṣṭa – a lump of earth; aśma – stone; kāñcana – gold, wealth);

 

textual variants


The fourth pada of verse 6.8 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 14.24.

 
 

Śāṃkara


jñāna-vijñāna-tṛptātmā jñānaṃ śāstrokta-padārthānāṃ parijñānam, vijñānaṃ tu śāstrato jñātānāṃ tathaiva svānubhava-karaṇam, tābhyāṃ jñāna-vijñānābhyāṃ tṛptaḥ saṃjātālaṃ-pratyayaḥ ātmāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya sa jñāna-vijñāna-tṛptātmā, kūṭāstho’prakampyaḥ, bhavatīty arthaḥ | vijitendriyaś ca | ya īdṛśaḥ, yuktaḥ samāhita iti sa ucyate kathyate | sa yogī sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ loṣṭāśma-kāñcanāni samāni yasya saḥ sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


jñānavijñānatṛptātmā ātmasvarūpaviṣayeṇa jñānena, tasya ca prakṛtivisajātīyākāraviṣayeṇa jñānena ca tṛptamanāḥ kūṭasthaḥ devādyavasthāsv anuvartamānasarvasādhāraṇajñānaikākārātmani sthitaḥ, tata eva vijitendriyaḥ, samaloṣṭāśmakāñcanaḥ prakṛtiviviktasvarūpaniṣṭhatayā prākṛtavastuviśeṣeṣu bhogyatvābhāvāl loṣṭāśmakāñcaneṣu samaprayojanaḥ yaḥ karmayogī, sa yukta ity ucyate ātmāvalokanarūpayogābhyāsārha ity ucyate

 

Śrīdhara


yogārūḍhasya lakṣaṇaṃ śraiṣṭhyaṃ coktam upapādya upasaṃharati jñāneti | jñānam aupadeśikaṃ vijñānam aparokṣānubhavaḥ tābhyāṃ tṛpto nirākāṅkṣa ātmā cittaṃ yasya | ataḥ kūṭastho nirvikāraḥ | ataeva vijitānīndriyāṇi yena | ataeva samāni loṣṭādīni yasya | mṛt-piṇḍa-pāṣāṇa-suvarṇeṣu heyopādeya-buddhi-śūnyaḥ | sa yukto yogārūḍha ity ucyate

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca jñāneti | jñānaṃ śāstroktānāṃ padārthānām aupadeśikaṃ jñānaṃ vijñānaṃ tad-aprāmāṇya-śaṅkā-nirākaraṇa-phalena vicāreṇa tathaiva teṣāṃ svānubhavenāparokṣīkaraṇaṃ tābhyāḥ tṛptaḥ saṃjātālaṃ-pratyaya ātmā cittaṃ yasya sa tathā | kūṭāstho viṣaya-saṃnidhāv api vikāra-śūnyaḥ | ataeva vijitāni rāga-dveṣa-pūrvakād viṣaya-grahaṇādvayāvartitānīndriyāṇi yena saḥ | ataeva heyopādeya-buddhi-śūnyatvena samāni mṛt-piṇḍa-pāṣāṇa-kāñcanāni yasya saḥ | yogī paramahaṃsa-parivrājakaḥ para-vairāgya-yukto yogārūḍha ity ucyate

 

Viśvanātha


jñānam aupadeśikaṃ vijñānam aparokṣānubhavas tābhyāṃ tṛpto nirākāṅkṣa ātmā cittaṃ yasya saḥ | kūṭastha ekenaiva svabhāvena sarva-kālaṃ vyāpya sthitaḥ sarva-vastuṣv anāsaktatvāt | samāni loṣṭādīni yasya saḥ | loṣṭaṃ mṛt-piṇḍaḥ

 

Baladeva


jñāneti | jñānam śāstrajaṃ vijñānam viviktātmānubhavas tābhyāṃ tṛptātmā pūrṇa-manāḥ | kūṭastha eka-svabhāvatayā sarva-kālaṃ sthitaḥ | ato vijitendriyaḥ prakṛti-viviktātma-mātra-niṣṭhatvāt | prākṛteṣu loṣṭrādiṣu | loṣṭaṃ mṛt-piṇḍaḥ | īdṛśo yogī niṣkāma-karmī yukta ātma-darśana-rūpa-yogābhyāsa-yogya ucyate

 
 

BhG 6.9

suhṛn-mitrāry-udāsīna-madhyastha-dveṣya-bandhuṣu
sādhuṣv api ca pāpeṣu sama-buddhir viśiṣyate

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syntax


suhṛn-mitrāry-udāsīna-madhya-stha-dveṣya-bandhuṣu (in a well-wisher, in a friend, in an enemy, in one standing aside, in neutral, in one hating and in a relative) sādhuṣu api (and even in the saints) pāpeṣu ca (and in the sinners) sama-buddhiḥ (whose intelligence is equal) viśiṣyate (he is distinguished).

 

grammar

suhṛn-mitrāry-udāsīna-madhyastha-dveṣya-bandhuṣu suhṛn-mitra-ary-udāsīna-madhya-stha-dveṣya-bandhu 7n.3 m.; DV: suhṛdi ca mitre ca arau ca udāsīne ca madhyasthe ca dveṣye ca bandhau cetiand in a well-wisher, and in a friend, and in an enemy, and in one standing aside, and in neutral, and in one hating, and in a relative (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; hṛt – heart, su-hṛt – well-wisher; mitra – friend, companion; – to grant, a-ri – jealous, enemy; ud-ās – to sit away, udāsīna – indifferent, neutral; madhya – middle, sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in, madhya-stha – being in the middle, mediator, neutral; dviṣ – to hate, dveṣya – hatred, enmity, foe; bandh – to bind, to fetter, bandhu – relative, friend);
sādhuṣu sādhu 7n.3 m.in the noble men, in the saints (from: sādh – to succeed);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
pāpeṣu pāpa 7n.3 m.in evil, in the sinners;
sama-buddhiḥ sama-buddhi 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya buddhiḥ samāsti saḥ whose intelligence is equal (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
viśiṣyate vi-śiṣ (to distinguish) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is distinguished, the best;

 

textual variants


suhṛn-mitrāry-udāsīna-madhya-stha-dveṣya-bandhuṣu → suhṛn-mitrāv udāsīna-madhyasthau dveṣya-bandhuṣu (in a well-wisher and in a friend, in a mediator and in one neutral, in enemies and relatives);
api → atha (moreover);
sama-buddhir → sama-dṛṣṭir (seeing equally);
viśiṣyate → vimucyate (he is liberated);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

suhṛd ity ādi lokārdham ekaṃ padam | suhṛt iti pratyupakāram anapekṣya upakartā, mitraṃ snehavān, ariḥ śatruḥ, udāsīno na kasyacit pakṣaṃ bhajate, madhya-stho yo viruddhayor ubhayoḥ hitaiṣī, dveṣya ātmano’priyaḥ, bandhuḥ saṃbandhī ity eteṣu sādhuṣu śāstrānuvartiṣu api ca pāpeṣu pratiṣiddha-kāriṣu sarveṣv eteṣu sama-buddhiḥ | kaḥ kiṃ-karmā ity avyāpṛta-buddhir ity arthaḥ | viśiṣyate, vimucyate iti vā pāṭhāntaram | yogārūḍhānāṃ sarveṣām ayam uttama ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


tathā ca

vayoviśeṣānaṅgīkāreṇa svahitaiṣiṇaḥ suhṛdaḥ; savayaso hitaiṣiṇo mitrāṇi, arayo nimittato ‚narthecchavaḥ; ubhayahetvabhāvād ubhayarahitā udāsīnāḥ; janmata evobhayarahitā madhyasthāḥ; janmata evānicchecchavo dveṣyāḥ; janmata eva hitaiṣiṇo bandhavaḥ, sādhavo dharmaśīlāḥ; pāpāḥ pāpaśīlāḥ; ātmaikaprayojanatayā suhṛnmitrādibhiḥ prayojanābhāvād virodhābhāvāc ca teṣu
samabuddhir yogābhyāsārhatve viśiṣyate

 

Śrīdhara


suhṛn-mitrādiṣu sama-buddhi-yuktas tu tato ‚pi śreṣṭha ity āha suhṛd iti | suhṛt svabhāvenaiva hitāśaṃsī | mitraṃ sneha-vaśenopakārakaḥ | arir ghātakaḥ | udāsīno vivadamānayor apy upekṣakaḥ | madhya-stho vivadamānayor ubhayor api hitāśaṃsī | dveṣyo dveṣa-viṣayaḥ | bandhuḥ saṃbandhī | sādhavaḥ sad-ācārāḥ | pāpā durācārāḥ | eteṣu samā rāga-dveṣādi-śūnyā buddhir yasya sa tu viśiṣṭaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


suhṛn-mitrādiṣu sama-buddhis tu sarva-yogi-śreṣṭha ity āha suhṛd iti | suhṛt pratyupakāram anapekṣya pūrva-snehaṃ sambandhaṃ ca vinaivopakartā | mitraṃ snehenopakārakaḥ | ariḥ svakṛtāpakāram anapekṣya svabhāva-krauryeṇāpakartā | udāsīno vivadamānayor ubhayor apy upekṣakaḥ | madhya-stho vivadamānayor ubhayor api hitaiṣī | dveṣyaḥ sva-kṛtāpakāram apekṣyāpakartā | bandhuḥ saṃbandhenopakartā | eteṣu sādhuṣu śāstra-vihita-kāriṣu pāpeṣu śāstra-pratiṣiddha-kāriṣv api | ca-kārād anyeṣu ca sarveṣu sama-buddhiḥ kaḥ kīdṛk-karmety avyāpṛta-buddhiḥ sarvatra rāga-dveṣa-śūnyao viśiṣyate sarvatra utkṛṣṭo bhavati | vimucyate iti vā pāṭhaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


suhṛt svabhāvenaiva hitāśaṃsī | mitraṃ kenāpi snehena hita-kārī | arir ghātakaḥ | udāsīno vivadamānayor upekṣakaḥ | madhya-stho vivadamānayor vivādāpahārārthī | dveṣyo ‚pakārakatvāt dveṣārhaḥ | bandhuḥ saṃbandhī | sādhavo dhārmikāḥ | pāpā adhārmikāḥ | eteṣu sama-buddhis tu viśiṣyate | sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanāt sakāśād api śreṣṭhaḥ

 

Baladeva


suhṛd iti | yaḥ suhṛd-ādiṣu sama-buddhiḥ, sa sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanād api yoginaḥ sakāśād viśiṣyate śreṣṭho bhavati | tatra suhṛt svabhāvena hitecchuḥ | mitraṃ kenāpi snehena hita-kṛt | arir nirmitrato ‚narthecchuḥ | udāsīno vivadamānayor anapekṣakaḥ | madhya-sthas tayor vivādāpahārārthī | dveṣo ‚pakārikatvāt dveṣārhaḥ | bandhuḥ saṃbandhena hitecchuḥ | sādhavo dhārmikāḥ | pāpā adhārmikāḥ

 
 

BhG 6.10

yogī yuñjīta satatam ātmānaṃ rahasi sthitaḥ
ekākī yata-cittātmā nirāśīr apari-grahaḥ

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syntax


yogī (a yogī) rahasi (in seclusion) sthitaḥ (situated) ekākī (alone) yata-cittātmā (who restrained mind and self) nirāśīḥ (desireless) aparigrahaḥ (having no property) ātmānam (self) satatam (constantly) yuñjīta (he should engage).

 

grammar

yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
yuñjīta yuj (to yoke, to join, to engage) Pot. Ā 1v.1he should engage;
satatam av.constantly (from: sa-tata – constant, uninterrupted);
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
rahasi rahas 7n.1 n.in seclusion, in secret (from: rah – to separate,to leave);
sthitaḥ sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 m.standing, situated, firm;
ekākī ekākin 1n.1 m.who is alone (from: eka – one);
yata-cittātmā yata-citta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV/DV: yasya cittam ātmā ca yatau staḥ saḥ whose mind and self are restrained (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness; ātman – self);
nirāśīḥ nir-āśis 1n.1 m.one without desires (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; ā-śās – to desire, ā-śis – desire, blessing);
apari-grahaḥ a-pari-graha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya parigrahaḥ nāsti saḥwho has no property (from: pari-grah – to take hold, to embrace, parigraha – taking, attaining, household, property);

 

textual variants


yogī → dhyāyī (oone who contemplates);
ekākī → nirāśīr (desireless);
yata-cittātmā → jita-cittātmā (who conquered mind and self);
nirāśīr apari-grahaḥ → caikākī niṣpari-grahaḥ / nirāśīr hy apari-grahaḥ (and alone, without property / with no desires indeed, with no property);

 
 

Śāṃkara


ata evam uttama-phala-prāptaye—

yogī dhyāyī yuñjīta samādadhyāt satataṃ sarvadātmānam antaḥ-karaṇaṃ rahasi ekānte giri-guhādau sthitaḥ san ekākī asahāyaḥ | rahasi sthitaḥ ekākī ceti viśeṣaṇāt saṃnyāsaṃ kṛtvā ity arthaḥ | yata-cittātmā cittam antaḥ-karaṇam ātmā dehaś ca saṃyatau yasya sa yata-cittātmā, nirāśīr vīta-tṛṣṇo’parigrahaḥ parigraha-rahitaś cety arthaḥ | saṃnyāsitve’pi tyakta-sarva-parigrahaḥ san yuñjīta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yogī uktaprakārakarmayoganiṣṭhaḥ, satatam aharaharyogakāle ātmānaṃ yuñjīta ātmānaṃ yuktaṃ kurvīta / svadarśananiṣṭhaṃ kurvītetyarthaḥ; rahasi janavarjite niśśabde deśe sthitaḥ, ekākī tatrāpi na sadvitīyaḥ, yatacittātmā yatacittamanaskaḥ, nirāśīḥ ātmavyatirikte kṛtsne vastuni nirapekṣaḥ aparigrahaḥ tadvyatirikte kasmiṃścid api mamatārahitaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ yogārūḍhasya lakṣaṇam uktvedānīṃ tasya sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vidhatte yogīty ādinā sa yogī paramo mata ity antena granthena yogīti | yogī yogārūḍhaḥ | ātmānaṃ manaḥ | yuñjīta samāhitaṃ kuryāt | satataṃ nirantaram | rahasy ekānte sthitaḥ san | ekākī saṅga-śūnyaḥ | yataṃ saṃyataṃ cittam ātmā dehaś ca yasya | nirāśīr nirākāṅkṣaḥ | aparigrahaḥ parigraha-śūnyaś ca

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ yogārūḍhasya lakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ coktvā tasya sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vidhatte yogīty ādibhiḥ sa yogī paramo mata ity antais trayoviṃśatyā ślokaiḥ | tatraivam uttama-phala-prāptaye yogīti | yogī yogārūḍha ātmānaṃ cittaṃ satataṃ nirantaraṃ yuñjīta kṣiptam ūḍha-vikṣipta-bhūmi-parityāgenaikāgra-nirodha-bhūmibhyāṃ samāhitaṃ kuryāt | rahasi giri-guhādau yoga-pratibandhaka-durjanādi-varjite deśe sthita ekākī tyakta-sarva-gṛha-parijanaḥ saṃnyāsī | cittam antaḥ-karaṇam ātmā dehaś ca saṃyatau yoga-pratibandhaka-vyāpāra-śūnyau yasya sa yata-cittātmā | yato nirāśīr vairāgya-dārḍhyena vigata-tṛṣṇaḥ | ataeva cāparigrahaḥ śāstrābhyanujñātenāpi yoga-pratibandhakena parigraheṇa śūnyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


atha sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vidhatte yogīty ādinā sa yogī paramo mata ity atas tena | yogī yogārūḍha ātmānaṃ mano yuñjīta samādhi-yuktaṃ kuryāt

 

Baladeva


atha tasya sāṅgaṃ yogam upadiśati yogīty ādi trayoviṃśatyā | yogī niṣkāma-karmī | ātmānaṃ manaḥ satatam aharahar yuñjīta samādhi-yuktaṃ kuryāt | rahasi nirjane niḥśabde deśe sthitaḥ | tatrāpy ekākī dvitīya-śūnyas tatrāpi yata-cittātmā yatau yoga-pratikūla-vyāpāra-varjitau citta-dehau yasya saḥ | yato nirāśīr dṛḍha-vairāgyatayetaratra nispṛhaḥ | aparigraho nirāhāraḥ

 
 

BhG 6.11-12

śucau deśe pratiṣṭhāpya sthiram āsanam ātmanaḥ
nāty-ucchritaṃ nāti-nīcaṃ cailājina-kuśottaram

tatraikāgraṃ manaḥ kṛtvā yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥ
upaviśyāsane yuñjyād yogam ātma-viśuddhaye

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syntax


[yogī] (a yogī) śucau deśe (in a clean place) nāty-ucchritam (not too raised) nāti-nīcam (not too low) cailājina-kuśottaram (which on top of the kuśa grass has cloth and skin) ātmanaḥ (own) sthiram (steady) āsanam (seat) pratiṣṭhāpya (after establishing),
tatra (there) āsane (on a seat) upaviśya (after sitting down),
manaḥ (the mind) ekāgram (one-pointed) kṛtvā (after doing),
yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥ (whose activities of mind and senses are restrained) ātma-śuddhaye (for purification of the self) yogam (yoga) yuñjyāt (he should engage).

 

grammar

śucau śuci 7n.1 m.in clean (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet);
deśe deśa 7n.1 m.in a place, in a country (from: diś – to show);
pratiṣṭhāpya prati-sthā (to stand firmly) absol.after etablishing;
sthiram sthira 2n.1 n.firm, hard, solid (from: sthā – to stand);
āsanam āsana 2n.1 n.a seat (from: ās – to sit, to exist);
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
nātyucchritam na-aty-ucchrita 2n.1 n.not too much raised (from: ati – prefix: excessively, na-ati – in compounds: not too  much; ut- prefix: up; śri – to lean on, to rest on, [PP] śrita – resorted to, attached to; uc-chrita – raised, increased);
nātinīcam na-ati-nīca 2n.1 n.not very low (from: ati – prefix: excessively, na-ati – in compounds: not too  much; ni – prefix: w dół, ku tyłowi, añc – to bend, nīca – low, deep);
cailājina-kuśottaram caila-ajina-kuśa-uttara 2n.1 n.; DV/BV: yasmin kuśebhya uttare cailaṁ ca ajinaṁ ca staḥ saḥ which on top of the kuśa grass has cloth and skin (from: cela – cloth, garment, caila – made of cloth; ajina – skin of an antelope; kuśa – grass Poa cynosuroides; uttara – higher, north, better, comparative of: ud – upwards, above);

*****

tatra av.there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
ekāgram eka-agra 2n.1 n.having one goal, being one-pointed (from: eka – one; agra – foremost, first, summit, goal);
manaḥ manas 2n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥ yata-citta-indriya-kriya 1n.1 m.; DV/BV: yasya cittasya ca indriyāṇāṁ ca kriyā yatāḥ santi saḥ whose activities of mind and senses are restrained (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; kṛ – to do, kriyā – act, work, especially religious one);
upaviśya upa-viś (to sit down, to enter) absol.after sitting down;
āsane āsana 7n.1 n.on na seat (from: ās – to sit, to exist);
yuñjyāt yuj (to yoke, to join, to engage) Pot. P 1v.1he should engage;
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
ātma-viśuddhaye ātma-viśuddhi 4n.1 f.; [TP]: ātmno viśuddhaya iti for purification of the self (from: ātman – self; vi-śudh – to become pure, viśuddhi – purification, sanctifying);

 

warianty tekstu


sthiram āsanamsthira-mānasa (whose activities of mind are steady);
nāty-ucchritaṁnāty-ucchrite (on not too raised);
cailājina-kuśottaram → celājina-kuśottaram (which on top of the grass has cloth and skin);
yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥyata-citteṁdriyaḥ kriyaḥ / yata-cittendriya-kriyāḥ / jita-citteṁdriya-kriyaḥ (whose activities of mind and senses are restrained / whose activities of mind and senses are conquered);
yuñjyāt → yujyāt (he should engage);

 
 

Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ yogaṃ yuñjataḥ āsanāhāra-vihārādīnāṃ yoga-sādhanatvena niyamo vaktavyaḥ, prāpta-yogasya lakṣaṇaṃ tat-phalādi ca, ity ata ārabhyate | tatrāsanam eva tāvat prathamam ucyate—

śucau śuddhe vivikte svabhāvataḥ saṃskārato vā, deśe sthāne pratiṣṭhāpya sthiram acalam ātmana āsanaṃ nātyucchritaṃ nātīva ucchritaṃ nāpy atinīcam, tac ca cailājina-kuśottaraṃ cailam ajinaṃ kuśāś cottare yasminn āsane tad āsanaṃ cailājina-kuśottaram | pāṭha-kramād viparīto’tra kramaś cailādīnām

pratiṣṭhāpya, kiṃ ?

tatra tasminn āsana upaviśya yogaṃ yuñjyāt | kathaṃ ? sarva-viṣayebhya upasaṃhṛtya ekāgraṃ manaḥ kṛtvā yata-cittendriya-kriyaś cittaṃ cendriyāṇi ca cittendriyāṇi teṣāṃ kriyāḥ saṃyatā yasya sa yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥ | sa kim-arthaṃ yogaṃ yuñjyād ity āha—ātma-viśuddhaye’ntaḥ-karaṇasya viśuddhy-artham ity etat

 

Rāmānuja


śucau deśe aśucibhiḥ puruṣair anadhiṣṭhite aparigṛhīte ca aśucibhir vastubhir aspṛṣṭe ca pavitrabhūte deśe, dārvādinirmitaṃ nātyucchritaṃ nātinīcaṃ celājinakuśottaraṃ āsanaṃ pratiṣṭhāpya tasmin manaḥprasādakare sāpāśraye upaviśya yogaikāgraṃ manaḥ kṛtvā yatacittendriyakriyaḥ sarvātmanopasaṃhṛtacittendriyakriyaḥ ātmaviśuddhaye bandhanivṛttaye yogaṃ yuñjyād atmāvalokanaṃ kurvīta

 

Śrīdhara


āsana-niyamaṃ darśayann āha śucāv iti dvābhyām | śuddhe sthāne ātmanaḥ svasya āsanaṃ sthāpayitvā | kīdṛśam? sthiram acalam | nātyucchritaṃ nātīvonnatam | na cātinīcam | celaṃ vastram | ajinaṃ vyāghrādi-carma | celājine kuśebhya uttare yasya | kuśānām upari carma tad upari vastram āstīryetety arthaḥ |

tatreti | tatra tasminn āsana upaviśyaikāgraṃ vikṣepa-rahitaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā yogaṃ yuñjyād abhyaset | yatāḥ saṃyatāś cittasyendriyāṇāṃ ca kriyā yasya saḥ | ātmano manaso viśuddhaya upaśāntaye

 

Madhusūdana


tatrāsana-niyamaṃ darśayann āha śucau deśa iti dvābhyām | śucau svabhāvataḥ saṃskārato vā śuddhe jana-samudāya-rahite nirbhaye gaṅgā-taṭa-guhādau deśe sthāne pratiṣṭhāpya sthiram niścalam nātyucchritaṃ nātyuccaṃ nāpy atinīcam cailājina-kuśottaraṃ cailaṃ mṛdu-vastram ajinaṃ mṛdu-vyāghrādi-carma te kuśebhya uttare uparitane yasmiṃs tat | āsyate ‚sminn ity āsanaṃ kuśamaya-vṛṣy-upari mṛdu-carma tad-upari mṛdu-vastra-rūpam ity arthaḥ | tathā cāha bhagavān patañjaliḥ sthira-sukham āsanam iti | ātmana iti parāsana-vyāvṛtty-arthaṃ tasyāpi parecchā-niyamābhāvena yoga-vikṣepa-paratvāt |

evam āsanaṃ pratiṣṭhāpya kim kuryād iti tatrāha tatraikāgram iti | tatra tasminn āsana upaviśyaiva na tu śayānas tiṣṭhan vā | āsīnaḥ sambhavāt iti nyāyena | yatāḥ saṃyatā uparatāś cittasyendriyāṇāṃ ca kriyā vṛttayo yena sa yata-cittendriya-kriyaḥ san yogaṃ samādhiṃ yuñjītābhyaset | kim-artham ? ātma-viśuddhaya ātmano ‚ntaḥ-karaṇasya sarva-vikṣepa-śūnyatvenātisūkṣmatayā brahma-sākṣātkāra-yogyatāyai | dṛśyate tv agryayā buddhyā sūkṣmayā sūkṣma-darśibhiḥ [KaṭhU 1.3.12] iti śruteḥ |

kiṃ kṛtvā yogam abhyased iti tatrāha ekāgraṃ rājasatāmasa-vyutthānākhya-prāg-ukta-bhūmi-traya-parityāgenaika-viṣayaka-dhārāvāhikāneka-vṛtti-yuktam udrikta-sattvaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā dṛḍha-bhūmikena prayatnena sampādyaikāgratā-vivṛddhy-arthaṃ yogaṃ samprajñāta-samādhim abhyaset | sa ca brahmākāra-mano-vṛtti-pravāha eva nididhyāsanākhyaḥ | tad uktam –

brahmākāra-mano-vṛtti-pravāho ‚haṅkṛtiṃ vinā |
saṃprajñāta-samādhiḥ syād dhyānābhyāsa-prakarṣataḥ || iti |

etad evābhipretya dhyānābhyāsa-prakarṣaṃ vidadhe bhagavān – yogī yuñjīta satataṃ [Gītā 6.10] yuñjyād yogam ātma-viśuddhaye [Gītā 6.12] | yukta āsīta mat-para [Gītā 6.14]ity ādi bahu-kṛtvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


pratiṣṭhāpya stthāpayitvā | celājina-kuśottaram iti kuśāsanopari mṛga-carmāsanam | tad upari vastrāsanaṃ nidhāyety arthaḥ | ātmano ‚ntaḥ-karaṇasya viśuddhatve vikṣepa-śūnyatvenātisūkṣmatayā brahma-sākṣātkāra-yogyatāyai dṛśyate tv agryayā buddhyā [KaṭhU 1.3.12] iti śruteḥ

 

Baladeva


āsanam āha śucāv iti dvābhyām | śucau svataḥ saṃskārataś ca śuddhe gaṅgā-taṭa-giri-guhādau deśe sthiraṃ niścalam | nātyucchritaṃ nātyuccam | nātinīcam dārvādi-nirmitam āsanaṃ pratiṣṭhāpya saṃsthāpya | cailājine kuśebhya uttare yatra tat | cailaṃ mṛdu-vastram | ajinaṃ mṛdu-mṛgādi-carma | kuśopari vastram āstīryetety arthaḥ | ātmana iti parāsanasya vyāvṛttaye parecchāyau aniyatatvena tasya yoga-pratikūlatvāt | tatreti tasmin pratiṣṭhāpite āsane upaviśya, na tu tiṣṭhan śayāno vety arthaḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ — āsīnaḥ sambhavāt [Vs 4.1.7] iti | yatā niruddhāś cittādi-kriyā yasya saḥ mana ekāgram avyākulaṃ kṛtvā yogaṃ yuñjīta samādhim abhyaset | ātmano ‚ntaḥkaraṇasya viśuddhaye atinairmalyena saukṣmyeṇātma-darśana-yogyatāyai dṛśyate tv agryayā buddhyā sūkṣmayā sūkṣma-darśibhiḥ [KaṭhU 1.3.12] iti śravaṇāt

 
 

BhG 6.13-14

samaṃ kāya-śiro-grīvaṃ dhārayann acalaṃ sthiraḥ
saṃprekṣya nāsikāgraṃ svaṃ diśaś cānavalokayan
praśāntātmā vigatabhīr brahmacāri-vrate sthitaḥ
manaḥ saṃyamya mac-citto yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ

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syntax


kāya-śiro-grīvam (body, head and neck) samam (straight) acalam (motionless) dhārayan (holding),
sthiraḥ (steady) svam (own) nāsikāgram (tip of a nose) saṁprekṣya (staring at),
diśaḥ ca (and into directions) anavalokayan (not looking),
praśāntātmā (whose self is pacified) vigatabhīḥ (whose fear is gone) brahmacāri-vrate (in the vow of a student) sthitaḥ (situated)
manaḥ (the mind) saṁyamya (after restraning)
mac-cittaḥ (whose mind is in me) mat-paraḥ (devoted to me) yuktaḥ (engaged) āsīta (he should stay).

 

grammar

samam sama 2n.1 n.the same, equal, equivalent;
kāya-śiro-grīvam kāya-śiro-grīva 2n.1 n.; DV: kāyaṁ ca śiraś ca grivāṁ cetibody, head and neck (from: kāya – body; śiras – head; grīvā – neck);
dhārayan dhārayant (dhṛ – to hold) caus. PPr 1n.1 m.[while] holding;
acalam a-cala 2n.1 n.motionless (from: cal – to move, to shake, cala – moving, shaking);
sthiraḥ sthira 1n.1 m.firm, hard, steady (from: sthā – to stand);
saṁprekṣya sam-pra-īkṣ (to look at, to stare) absol.after staring;
nāsikāgram nāsikā-agra 2n.1 n.; [TP]: nāsikāyā agram iti tip of a nose (from: nāsā – nose, nāsikā – nose; agra – foremost, first, summit, goal);
svam sva sn. 2n.1 n.own;
diśaḥ dik 2n.3 f.directions (from: diś – to show);
ca av.and;
anavalokayan an-ava-lokayant (ava-lok – to look at, to behold) caus. PPr 1n.1 m.[while] not seeing;

*****

praśāntātmā praśānta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā praśānto ‘sti saḥwhose self is pacified (from: pra-śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy, [PP] praśānta – pacified, calm; ātman – self);
vigatabhīḥ vigata-bhī 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya bhīr vigatāsti saḥwhose fear is gone (from: vi-gam – to go away, [PP] vigata – gone; bhī – to fear, bhī – in compounds: fear);
brahmacāri-vrate brahmacāri-vrata 7n.1 n.; [TP]: brhmacāriṇaḥ vrata itiin the vow of a student (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; car – to move, to go, cārin – moving; brahma-cārin – student, in the vow of celibacy; vṛ – to choose, to like or vṛ – to cover, to restrain, vrata – austerity, a vow);
sthitaḥ sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 m.staying, situated;
manaḥ manas 2n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
saṁyamya sam-yam (to restrain) absol.after restraining;
mac-cittaḥ mac-citta 1n.1 m.yasya cittaṁ mayi asti saḥwhose mind is in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness);
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
āsīta ās (to sit) Pot. Ā 1v.1he should sit, he should stay;
mat-paraḥ mat-para 1n.1 m.yasyāhaṁ paro ‘smi saḥfor whom I am the supreme, devoted to me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; suffix: para – devoted, engaged in, mat-para – devoted to me);

 

textual variants


samaṁ kāya-śiro-grīvaṁsama-kāya-śiro-grīvaṁ / samaḥ kāya-śiro-grīvaṁ (who has body, head and neck straight / equal, body, head and neck);
dhārayann acalaṁ sthiraḥdhārayann acalaḥ sthitaḥ / dhārayann acalaṁ sthiraṁ / dhārayann acala-sthiraḥ / dhārayann acalaṁ manaḥ / dhārayann acalaṁ sthitaṁ / dhārayann acala-sthitaḥ (holding, motionless, situated / holding motionless steady / holding, steady and motionless / holding the motionless mind / holding motionless and steady / holding motionless and steady);
saṁprekṣya → saṁpaśyan (seeing);
svaṁ → ca (and);
cānavalokayan → cānavalokayet (and he should not see);
brahmacāri-vratebrahmacārī vrate (student, in a vow);

The fourth pada of verse 6.14 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 2.61;

 
 

Śāṃkara


bāhyam āsanam uktam | adhunā śarīra-dhāraṇaṃ katham ity ucyate—

samaṃ kāya-śiro-grīvaṃ kāyaś ca śiraś ca grīvā ca kāya-śiro-grīvaṃ tat samaṃ dhārayan acalaṃ ca | samaṃ dhārayataś calanaṃ saṃbhavati | ato viśinaṣṭi—acalam iti | sthiraḥ sthiro bhūtvā ity arthaḥ | svaṃ nāsikāgraṃ saṃprekṣya samyak prekṣaṇaṃ darśanaṃ kṛtvaiveti | iva-śabdo lupto draṣṭavyaḥ | na hi sva-nāsikāgra-saṃprekṣaṇam iha vidhitsitam | kiṃ tarhi ? cakṣuṣo dṛṣṭi-saṃnipātaḥ | sa cāntaḥ-karaṇa-samādhānāpekṣo vivakṣitaḥ | sva-nāsikāgra-saṃprekṣaṇam eva ced vivakṣitam, manas tatraiva samādhīyeta, nātmani | ātmani hi manasaḥ samādhānaṃ vakṣyati ātma-saṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtveti | tasmād iva-śabda-lopenākṣṇor dṛṣṭi-saṃnipāta eva saṃprekṣya ity ucyate | diśaś cānavalokayan diśāṃ cāvalokanam antarā kurvan ity etat

kiṃ ca—

praśāntātmā prakarṣeṇa śāntaḥ ātmāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya so’yaṃ praśāntātmā, vigata-bhīḥ vigata-bhayaḥ, brahmacāri-vrate sthitaḥ | brahmacāriṇo vrataṃ brahmacaryaṃ guru-śuśrūṣā-bhikṣānna-bhukty-ādi tasmin sthitaḥ | tad-anuṣṭhātā bhaved ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca, manaḥ saṃyamya manaso vṛttīr upasaṃhṛtya ity etat, mac-citto mayi parameśvare cittaṃ yasya so’yaṃ mac-cittaḥ, yuktaḥ samāhitaḥ sann āsīta upaviśet | mat-paro’haṃ paro yasya so’yaṃ mat-paro bhavati | kaścit rāgī strī-cittaḥ, na tu striyam eva paratvena gṛhṇāti | kiṃ tarhi ? rājānaṃ mahā-devaṃ vā | ayaṃ tu mac-citto mat-paraś ca

 

Rāmānuja


kāyaśirogrīvaṃ samam acalaṃ sāpāśrayatayā sthiraṃ dhārayan, diśaś cānavaloakayan, svanāsikāgraṃ saṃprekṣya, praśāntātmā atyantanirvṛtamanāḥ, vigatabhīr brahmacaryayukto manaḥ saṃyamya maccitto yuktaḥ avahito matpara āsīta mām eva cintyan āsīta

 

Śrīdhara


cittaikāgryāpayoginīṃ dehādhikāriṇāṃ darśayann āha samam iti dvābhyām | kāya iti dehasya madhya-bhāgo vivakṣitaḥ | kāyaś ca śiraś ca grīvā ca kāya-śiro-grīvam | mūlādhārād ārabhya mūrdhāgra-paryantaṃ samam avakram | acalaṃ niścalam | dhārayan | sthiro dṛḍha-prayatno bhūtvety arthaḥ | svīyaṃ nāsikāgraṃ samprekṣya ity ardha-nimīlita-netra ity arthaḥ | itas tato diśaś cānavalokayan āsīta ity uttareṇānvayaḥ |

praśānteti | praśānta ātmā cittaṃ yasya | vigatā bhīr bhayaṃ yasya | brahmacāri-vrate brahmacarye sthitaḥ san | manaḥ saṃyamya pratyāhṛtya | mayy eva cittaṃ yasya | aham eva paraṃ puruṣārtho yasya sa mat-paraḥ | evaṃ yukto bhūtvāsīta tiṣṭhet

 

Madhusūdana


tad-arthaṃ bāhyam āsanam uktvādhunā tatra kathaṃ śarīra-dhāraṇam ity ucyate samam iti | kāyaḥ śarīra-madhyaṃ sa ca śiraś ca grīvā ca kāya-śiro-grīvaṃ mūlādhārād ārabhya mūrdhānta-paryantaṃ samam avakram acalam akampaṃ dhārayann eka-tattvābhyāsena vikṣepa-saha-bhāvya-aṅgam ekayattvābhāvaṃ sampādayan sthiro dṛḍha-prayatno bhūtvā | kiṃ ca svaṃ svīyaṃ nāsikāgraṃ saṃprekṣyaiva laya-vikṣepa-rāhityāya viṣaya-pravṛtti-rahito ‚nimīlita-netra ity arthaḥ | diśaś cānavalokayann antarāntarā diśāṃ cāvalokanam akurvan yoga-pratibandhakatvāt tasya | evambhūtaḥ sann āsīnety uttareṇa sambandhaḥ |

kiṃ ca praśāntātmeti | nidāna-nivṛtti-rūpeṇa prakarṣeṇa śānto rāgādi-doṣa-rahita ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ yasya sa praśāntātmā śāstrīya-niścaya-dārḍhyād vigatā bhīḥ | sarva-karma-parityāgena yuktavāyuktatva-śaṅkā yasya sa vigata-bhīḥ | brahmacāri-vrate brahmacarya-guru-śuśrūṣā-bhikṣānna-bhojanādau sthitaḥ san | manaḥ saṃyamya viṣayākāra-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ kṛtvā | mayi parameśvare pratyak-citi sa-guṇe nirguṇe vā cittaṃ yasya sa mac-citto mad-viṣayaka-dhārāvāhika-citta-vṛttimān | putrādau priye cintanīye sati katham evaṃ syād ata āha mat-paraḥ | aham eva paramānanda-rūpatvāt paraḥ puruṣārthaḥ priyo yasya sa tathā | tad etat preyaḥ putrāt preyo vittāt preyo ‚nyasmāt sarvasmād antarataraṃ yad ayam ātmā [BAU 1.4.8] iti śruteḥ | evaṃ viṣayākāra-sarva-vṛtti-nirodhena bhagavad-ekākāra-citta-vṛtti-yuktaḥ samprajñāta-samādhimān āsītopaviśed yathā-śakti, na tu svecchayā vyuttiṣṭhed ity arthaḥ |

bhavati kaścid rāgī strī-citto na tu striyam eva paratvenārādhyatvena gṛhṇāti | kiṃ tarhi ? rājānaṃ vā devaṃ vā | ayaṃ tu mac-citto mat-paraś ca sarvārādhyatvena mām eva manyata iti bhāṣya-kṛtāṃ vyākhyā |

vyākhyātṛtve ‚pi me nātra bhāṣya-kāreṇa tulyatā |
guñjāyāḥ kiṃ nu hemnaika-tulārohe ‚pi tulyatā ||

 

Viśvanātha


kāyo deha-madhya-bhāgaḥ samam avakram acalaṃ niścalaṃ dhārayan kurvan manaḥ saṃyamya pratyāhṛtya mac-citto māṃ caturbhujaṃ sundarākāraṃ cintayan | mat-paro mad-bhakti-parāyaṇaḥ

 

Baladeva


āsane tasminn upaviṣṭasya śarīra-dhāraṇa-vidhim āha samam iti | kāyo deha-madhya-bhāgaḥ | kāyaś ca śiraś ca grīvā ca teṣāṃ samāhāraḥ prāṇy-aṅgatvāt | samam avakram | acalam akampam dhārayan kurvan | sthiro dṛḍha-prayatno bhūtvā sva-nāsikāgraṃ samprekṣya sampaśyan mano-laya-vikṣepa-nivṛttaye bhrū-madhya-dṛṣṭiḥ sann ity arthaḥ | antarāntarā diśaś cānavalokayan | evambhūtaḥ sann āsītety uttareṇa sambandhaḥ | praśāntātmā akṣubdha-manāḥ | vigatā bhīr nirbhayaḥ | brahmacāri-vrate brahmacarye sthitaḥ | manaḥ saṃyamya viṣayebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya | mac-cittaś caturbhujaṃ sundarāṅgaṃ māṃ cintayan | mat-paro mad-eka-puruṣārthaḥ | yukto yogī

 
 

BhG 6.15

yuñjann evaṃ sadātmānaṃ yogī niyata-mānasaḥ
śāntiṃ nirvāṇa-paramāṃ mat-saṃsthām adhigacchati

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syntax


evam sadā (thus always) ātmānam (self) yuñjan (engaging) niyata-mānasaḥ (who restrained the mind) yogī (a yogī) nirvāṇa-paramām (the highest extinction) mat-saṁsthām (my residence) śāntim (tranquility) adhigacchati (he obtains).

 

grammar

yuñjan yuñjant (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) PPr 1n.1[while] engaging;
evam av.thus;
sadā av.always;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
niyata-mānasaḥ niyata-mānasa 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya mānasaṁ niyatam asti saḥwho restrained the functions of the mind (from: ni-yam – to hold back, [PP] niyata – held back; man – to think, manas – the mind, mānasa – pertaining to the mind);
śāntim śānti 2n.1 f.tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
nirvāṇa-paramām nirvāṇa-paramā 2n.1 f.; BV: yasyāṁ nirvāṇaṁ paramam asti sāin which the extinction is the highest (from: nir- – to blow out, to extinguish, to soothe, nir-vāṇa – extinction, perfect calm, death, final liberation; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest);
mat-saṁsthām mat-saṁsthā 2n.1 f.; [TP]: mama saṁsthām itimy residence (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; sam-sthā – to stand together, to meet, to prosper, saṁsthā – shape, property, nature, death);
adhigacchati adhi-gam (to cross over, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


yuñjann evaṁevaṁ yuñjan / yuñjann eva (thus engaging / only engaging);
yogī niyata-mānasaḥ → mad-bhakto ‘nanya-mānasaḥ (my devotee with a concentrated mind);

 
 

Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ yoga-phalam ucyate—

yujan samādhānāṃ kurvann evaṃ yathoktena vidhānena sadātmanāṃ sarvadā yogī niyata-mānaso niyataṃ saṃyataṃ mānasaṃ mano yasya so’yaṃ niyata-mānasaḥ, śāntim uparatiṃ nirvāṇa-paramāṃ nirvāṇaṃ mokṣas tat paramā niṣṭhā yasyāḥ śānteḥ sā nirvāṇa-paramā tāṃ nirvāṇa-paramām. mat-saṃsthāṃ mad-adhīnām adhigacchati prāpnoti

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ mayi parasmin brahmaṇi puruṣottame manasaś śubhāśraye sadā ātmānaṃ manaḥ yuñjan niyatamānasaḥ matsparśavitrīkṛtamānasatayā niścalamānasaḥ, mām eva cintayan matsaṃsthāṃ nirvāṇaparamāṃ śāntim adhigacchati nirvāṇakāṣṭhārūpāṃ matsaṃsthāṃ mayi saṃsthitāṃ śāntim adhigacchati

 

Śrīdhara


yogābhyāsa-phalam āha yuñjann evam iti | evam ukta-prakāreṇa sadātmānaṃ mano yuñjan samāhitaṃ kurvan | niyataṃ niruddhaṃ mānasaṃ cittaṃ yasya saḥ | śāntiṃ saṃsāroparamaṃ prāpnoti | kathambhūtam ? nirvāṇaṃ paramaṃ prāpyaṃ yasyāṃ tām | mat-saṃsthāṃ mad-rūpeṇāvasthitām

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ saṃprajñāta-samādhināsīnasya kiṃ syād ity ucyate yuñjann iti | evaṃ raho ‚vasthānādi-pūrvokta-niyamenātmānaṃ mano yuñjann abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ samāhitaṃ kurvan yogī sadā yogābhyāsa-paro ‚bhāysātiśayena niyataṃ niruddhaṃ mānasaṃ mano yena niyatā niruddhā mānasā mano-vṛtti-rūpā vikārā yeneti vā niyata-mānasaḥ san, śāntiṃ sarva-vṛtty-uparati-rūpāṃ praśāntavāhitāṃ nirvāṇa-paramāṃ tattva-sākṣātkārotpatti-dvāreṇa sakāryāvidyān-nivṛtti-rūpa-mukti-paryavasāyinīṃ mat-saṃsthāṃ mat-svarūpa-paramānanda-rūpāṃ niṣṭhām adhigacchati, na tu sāṃsārikāṇy aiśvaryāṇi anātma-viṣaya-samādhi-phalāny adhigacchati, teṣām apavargopayogi-samādhy-upasargatvāt |

tathā ca tat-tat-samādhi-phalāny uktvāha bhagavān patañjaliḥ — te samādhāv upasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ [YogaS 3.37] iti, sthāny-upanimantraṇe saṅga-smayākaraṇaṃ punaḥ aniṣṭa-prasaṅgāt [YogaS 3.51] iti ca | sthānino devāḥ | tathā coddālako devair āmantrito ‚pi tatra saṅgam ādaraṃ smayaṃ garvaṃ cākṛtvā devān avajñāya punar aniṣṭa-prasaṅga-nivāraṇāya nirvikalpakam eva samādhim akarod iti vasiṣṭhenopākhyāyate |

mumukṣubhir heyaś ca samādhiḥ sūtritaḥ patañjalinā — vitarka-vicārānandāsmitā-rūpānugamāt saṃprajñātaḥ [YogaS 1.17] | samyak saṃśaya-viparyayānadhyavasāya-rahitatvena prajñāyate prakarṣeṇa viśeṣa-rūpeṇa jñāyate bhāvyasya rūpaṃ yena sa samprajñātaḥ samādhir bhāvanā-viśeṣaḥ | bhāvanā hi bhāvyasya viṣayāntara-parihāreṇa cetasi punaḥ punar niveśanam | bhāvyaṃ ca trividhaṃ grāhya-grahaṇa-grahītṛ-bhedāt | grāhyam api dvividhaṃ sthūla-sūkṣma-bhedāt | tad uktaṃ — kṣīṇa-vṛtter abhijātasyeva maṇer grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu tat-stha-tad-añjanatā-samāpattiḥ [YogaS 1.41] | kṣīṇā rājasa-tāmasa-vṛttayo yasya tasya cittasya grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣv ātmendriya-viṣayeṣu tat-sthatā tatraivaikāgratā | tad-añjanatā tan-mayatā nyag-bhūte citte bhāvyamānasya evotkarṣaṃ iti yāvat | tathā-vidhā-samāpattis tad-rūpaḥ pariṇāmo bhavati | yathābhijātasya nirmalasya sphaṭika-maṇes tat-tad-upāśraya-vaśāt tat-tad-rūpāpattir evaṃ nirmalasya cittasya tat-tad-bhāvanīya-vastūparāgāt tat-tad-rūpāpattiḥ samāpattiḥ samādhir iti ca paryāyaḥ | yadyapi garhītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣv ity uktaṃ tathāpi bhūmikā-krama-vaśād grāhya-grahaṇa-grahītṛṣv iti boddhavyam | yataḥ prathamaṃ grāhya-niṣṭha eva samādhir bhavati tato grahaṇa-niṣṭhas tato grahītṛ-niṣṭha iti | grahītrādi-kramo ‚py agre vyākhyāsyate |

tatra yadā sthūlaṃ mahā-bhūtendriyātmaka-ṣoḍaśa-vikāra-rūpaṃ viṣayam ādāya pūrvāparānusandhānena śabdārthollekhena ca bhāvanā kriyate tadā sa-vitarkaḥ samādhiḥ | asminn evālambate pūrvāparānusandhāna-śabdārthollekha-śūnyatvena yadā bhāvanā pravartate tadā nirvitarkaḥ | etāv ubhāv apy atra vitarka-śabdenoktau | tan-mātrāntaḥ-karaṇa-lakṣaṇaṃ sūkṣmaṃ viṣayam ālambya tasya | deśa-kāla-dharmāvacchedena yadā bhāvanā pravartate tadā sa-vicāraḥ | asminn evālambane deśa-kāla-dharmāvacchedaṃ vinā dharmi-mātrāvabhāsitvena yadā bhāvanā pravartate tadā nirvicāraḥ | etāv uabhāv apy atra vicāra-śabdenoktau | tathā ca bhāṣyaṃ vitarkaś cittasya sthūla ālambana ābhogaḥ sūkṣme vicāra iti | iyaṃ grāhya-samāpattir iti vyapadiśyate | yadā rajas-tamo-leśānubiddham antaḥ-karaṇa-sattvaṃ bhāvyate tadā guṇa-bhāvāc cic-chakteḥ sukha-prakāśamayasya sattvasya bhāvayamānasyodrekātmānanadaḥ samādhir bhavati | asminn eva samādhau ye baddha-dhṛtayas tattvāntaraṃ pradhāna-puruṣa-rūpaṃ na paśyanti te vigata-dehāhaṅkāratvād videha-śabdenocyate | iyaṃ grahaṇa-sampattiḥ | tataḥ paraṃ rajas-tamo-leśānabhibhūtaṃ śuddhaṃ sattvam ālambanīkṛtya yā bhāvanā pravartate tasyāṃ grāhyasya sattvasya nyag-bhāvāc citi-śakter udrekāt sattā-mātrāvaśeṣatvena samādhiḥ sāsmita ity ucyate | na cāhaṅkārāsmitayor abhedaḥ śaṅkanīyaḥ | yato yatrāntaḥkaraṇam ahim ity ullekhena viṣayān vedayate so ‚haṅkāraḥ | yatra tv antarmukhatayā pratiloma-pariṇāmena prakṛti-līne cetasi sattā-mātram avabhāti so ‚smitā | asminn eva samādhau ye kṛta-paritoṣās te paraṃ puruṣam apaśyantaś cetasaḥ prakṛtau līnatvāt prakṛti-layā ity ucyante | seyaṃ grahītṛ-samāpattir asmitā-mātra-rūpa-grahītṛ-niṣṭhatvāt | ye tu paraṃ puruṣaṃ vivicya bhāvanāyāṃ pravartante teṣām api kevala-puruṣa-viṣayā viveka-khyātir grahītṛ-samāpattir api na sāsmitaḥ samādhir vivekenāsmitāyās tyāgāt |

tatra grahītṛ-bhāna-pūrvakam eva grahaṇa-bhānaṃ tat-pūrvakaṃ ca sūkṣma-grāhya-bhānaṃ tat-pūrvakaṃ ca sthūla-grāhya-bhānam iti sthūla-viṣayo dvi-vidho ‚pi vitarkaś catuṣṭayānugataḥ | dvitīyo vitarka-vikalas tritayānugataḥ | tṛtīyo vitarka-vicārābhyāṃ vikalo dvitayānugataḥ | caturtho vitarka-vicārānandair vikalo ‚smitā-mātra iti caturavastho ‚yaṃ samprajñāta iti | evaṃ sa-vitarkaḥ sa-vicāraḥ sānandaḥ sāsmitaś ca samādhir antardhānādi-siddhi-hetutayā mukti-hetu-samādhi-virodhitvād dheya eva mumukṣubhiḥ | grahītṛ-grahaṇayor api citta-vṛtti-viṣayatā-daśāyāṃ grāhya-koṭau nikṣepād dheyopādeya-vibhāga-kathanāya grāhya-samāpattir eva vivṛtā sūtra-kāreṇa | catur-vidhā hi grāhya-samāpattiḥ sthūla-grāhya-gocarā dvividhā sa-vitarkā nirvitarkā ca | sūkṣma-grāhya-gocarāpi dvivdihā sa-vicārā nirvikārā ca | tatra śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpaiḥ saṃkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ [YogaS 1.42] śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpa-sambhinnā sthūlārthāvabhāsa-rūpā savitarkā samāpattiḥ sthūla-gocarā savikalpaka-vṛttir ity arthaḥ |

smṛti-pariśuddhau svarūpa-śūnyevārtha-mātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā [YogaS 1.43] tasminn eva sthūla ālambane śabdārtha-smṛti-pravilaye pratyudita-spaṣṭa-grāhyākāra-pratibhāsitayā nyag-bhūta-jñānāṃśatvena svarūpa-śūnyeva nirvitarkā samāpattiḥ sthūla-gocarā nirvikalpaka-vṛttir ity arthaḥ | etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣma-viṣayā vyākhyātā [YogaS 1.44] sūkṣmas tan-mātrādir viṣayo yasyāḥ sā sūkṣma-viṣayā samāpattir dvividhā sa-vicārā nirvicārā ca savikalpaka-nirvikalpaka-bhedena | etayaiva savitarkayā nirvitarkayā ca sthūla-viṣayayā samāpattyā vyākhyātā | śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpa-sahitatvena deśa-kāla-dharmādy-avacchinnaḥ sūkṣmo ‚rthaḥ pratibhāti yasyāṃ sā sa-vicārā | sa-vicāra-nirvicārayoḥ sūkṣma-viṣayatva-viśeṣaṇāt savitarka-nirvitarkayoḥ sthūla-viṣayatvam arthād vyākhyātam | sūkṣma-viṣayatvaṃ cāliṅga-paryavasānam [YogaS 1.45] sa-vicārāyā nirvicārāyāś ca samāpatter yat sūkṣma-viṣayatvam uktaṃ tad-aliṅga-paryantaṃ draṣṭavyam | tena sānanda-sāsmitayor grahitṛ-grahaṇa-samāpattyor api grāhya-samāpattāv evāntar-bhāva ity arthaḥ | tathā hi – pārthivasyāṇor gandha-tanmātraṃ sūkṣmo viṣayaḥ | āpasyāpi rasa-tanmātraṃ, taijasasya rūpa-tanmātram, vāyavīyasya sparśa-tanmātraṃ, nabhasaḥ śabda-tanmātraṃ, teṣām ahaṅkāras tasya liṅga-mātraṃ mahat-tattvaṃ tasyāpy aliṅgaṃ pradhānaṃ sūkṣmo viṣayaḥ | saptānām api prakṛtīnāṃ pradhāna eva sūkṣmatā-viśrāntes tat-paryantam eva sūkṣma-viṣayatvam uktam | yadyapi pradhānād api puruṣaḥ sūkṣmo ‚sti tathāpy anvayi-kāraṇatvābhāvāt tasya sarvānvayi-kāraṇe pradhāna eva niratiśayaṃ saukṣmyaṃ vyākhyātam | puruṣas tu nimitta-kāraṇaṃ sad api nānanvayi-kāraṇatvena sūkṣmatām arhati | anvayi-kāraṇatva-vivakṣāyāṃ tu puruṣo ‚pi sūkṣmo bhavaty eveti draṣṭavyam | tā eva sa-bījaḥ samādhiḥ [YogaS 1.46] tāś catasraḥ samāpattayo grāhyeṇa bījena saha vartanta iti sa-bījaḥ samādhir vitarka-vicārānandāsmitānugamāt samprajñāta iti prāg uktaḥ | sthūle ‚rthe sa-vitarko nirvitarkaḥ | sūkṣme ‚rthe sa-vicāro nirvicāra iti |

tatrāntimasya phalam ucyate — nirvicāra-vaiśāradye ‚dhyātma-prasādaḥ [YogaS 1.47] sthūla-viṣayatve tulye ‚pi sa-vitarkaṃ śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpa-saṅkīrṇam apekṣya tad-rahitasya nirvikalpaka-rūpasya nirvitarkasya prādhānyam | tataḥ sūkṣma-viṣayasya sa-vikalpaka-pratibhāsa-rūpasya sa-vicārasya | tato ‚pi sūkṣma-viṣayasya nirvikalpaka-pratibhāsa-rūpasya nirvicārasya prādhānyam | tatra pūrveṣāṃ trayāṇāṃ nirvicārārthatvān nirvicāra-phalenaiva phalavattvam | nirvicārasya tu prakṛṣṭābhyāsa-balād vaiśāradye rajas-tamo-nabhibhūta-sattvodreke saty adhyātma-prasādaḥ kleśa-vāsanā-rahitasya cittasya bhūtārtha-viṣayaḥ kramānanurodhī sphuṭaḥ prajñālokaḥ prādurbhavati | tathā ca bhāṣyam –

prajñā-prasādam āruhya aśocyaḥ śocato janān |
bhūmiṣṭhān iva śailasthaḥ sarvān prājño ‚nupaśyati || iti |

ṛtaṃbharā tatra prajñā [YogaS 1.48] tatra tasmin prajñā-prasāde sati samāhita-cittasya yogino yā prajñā jāyate sā ṛtam-bharā | ṛtaṃ satyam eva bibharti na tatra viparyāsa-gandho ‚py astīti yogikyeveyaṃ samākhyā | sā cottamo yogaḥ | tathā ca bhāṣyam –

āgamenānumānena dhyānābhyāsa-rasena ca |
tridhā prakalpayan prajñāṃ labhate yogam uttamam || iti |

sā tu śrutānumāna-prajñābhyām anya-viṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt [YogaS 1.49] | śrutam āgama-vijñānānaṃ tat-sāmānya-viṣayam eva | na hi viśeṣeṇa saha kasyacic chabdasya saṅgatir grahītuṃ śakyate | tathānumānaṃ sāmānya-viṣayam eva | na hi viśeṣeṇa saha kasyacid vyāptir grahītuṃ śakyate | tasmāc chrutānumāna-viṣayo na viśeṣaḥ kaścid asti | na cāsya sūkṣma-vyavahita-viprakṛṣṭasya vastuno loka-pratyakṣeṇa grahaṇam asti | kiṃ tu samādhi-prajñā-nirgrāhya eva sa viśeṣo bhavati bhūta-sūkṣma-gato vā puruṣa-gato vā | tasmān nirvicāra-vaiśāradya-samudbhavāyāṃ śrutānumāna-vilakṣaṇāyāṃ sūkṣma-vyavahita-prakṛṣṭa-sarva-viśeṣa-viṣayāyāmṛtaṃbharāyām eva prajñāyāṃ yoginā mahān prayatna āstheya ity arthaḥ |

nanu kṣipta-mūḍha-vikṣiptākhya-vyutthāna-saṃskārāṇām ekāgratāyām api sa-vitarka-nirvitarka-sa-vicāra-janānāṃ saṃskārāṇāṃ sad-bhāvāt taiś cālyamānasya cittasya kathaṃ nirvicāra-vaiśāradya-pūrvakādhyātma-prasāda-labhya-rtambharā prajñā pratiṣṭhitā syād ata āha — taj-jaḥ saṃskāro ‚nya-saṃskāra-pratibandhī [YogaS 1.50] tayā ṛtambharayā prajñayā janito yaḥ saṃskāraḥ sa tattva-viṣayayā prajñayā janitatvena balavattvād anyān vyutthānajān samādhijāṃś ca saṃskārān atattva-viṣaya-prajñā-janitatvena durbalān pratibadhnāti sva-kāryākṣamān karoti nāśyatīti vā | teṣāṃ saṃskārāṇām abhibhavāt tat-prabhavāḥ pratyayā na bhavanti | tataḥ samādhir upatiṣṭhate | tataḥ samādhijā prajñā | tataḥ prajñā-kṛtāḥ saṃskārā iti navo navaḥ saṃskārāśayo vardhate | tataś ca prajñā | taataś ca saṃskārā iti |

nanu bhavatu vyutthāna-saṃskārāṇām atattva-viṣaya-prajñā-janitānāṃ tattva-mātra-viṣaya-samprajñāta-samādhi-prajñā-prabhavaiḥ saṃskāraiḥ pratibandhas teṣāṃ tu saṃskārāṇāṃ pratibandhakābhāvād ekāgra-bhūmāv eva sa-bījaḥ samādhiḥ syān na tu nirbījo nirodha-bhūmāv iti tatrāha — tasyāpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhān nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ [YogaS 1.51] tasya samprajñātasya samādher ekāgra-bhūmijasya | api-śabdāt kṣipta-mūḍha-vikṣiptānām api nirodhe yogi-prayatna-viśeṣeṇa vilaye sati sarva-nirodhāt samādheḥ samādhijasya saṃskārasyāpi nirodhān nirbījo nirālambano ‚saṃprajñāta-samādhir bhavati | sa ca sopāyaḥ prāk sūtritaḥ — virāma-pratyayābhyāsa-pūrvaḥ saṃskāra-śeṣo ‚nyaḥ [YogaS 1.18] iti | viramyate ‚neneti virāmo vitarka-vicārānandāsmitādi-rūpa-cintā-tyāgaḥ | tasya pratyayaḥ kāraṇaṃ paraṃ vairāgyam iti yāvat | virāmaś cāsau pratyayaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣa iti vā | tasyābhyāsaḥ paunaḥpunyena cetasi niveśanaṃ tad eva pūrvaṃ kāraṇaṃ yasya sa tathā saṃskāra-mātra-śeṣaḥ sarvathā nivṛttiko ‚nyaḥ pūrvoktāt sa-bījād vilakṣaṇo nirbījo ‚saṃprajñāta-samādhir ity arthaḥ | asamprajñātasya hi samādher dvāv upāyāv uktāv abhyāso vairāgyaṃ ca | tatra sālambanatvād abhyāsasya na nirālambana-samādhi-hetutvaṃ ghaṭata iti nirālambanaṃ paraṃ vairāgyam eva hetutvenocyate |

abhyāsas tu samprajñāta-samādhi-dvārā praṇāḍyopayujyate | tad uktaṃ — trayam antaraṅgaṃ pūrvebhyaḥ [YogaS 3.7] | dhāraṇā-dhyāna-samādhi-rūpaṃ sādhana-trayaṃ yama-niyamāsana-prāṇāyāma-pratyāhāra-rūpa-sādhana-pañcakāpekṣayā sa-bījasya samādher antaraṅgaṃ sādhanam | sādhana-koṭau ca samādhi-śabdenābhyāsa evocyate | mukhyasya samādheḥ sādhyatvāt | tad api bahiraṅgaṃ nirbījasya [YogaS 3.8] | nirbījasya tu samādhes tad api trayaṃ bahiraṅgaṃ paramparayopakāri tasya tu paraṃ vairāgyam evāntaraṅgam ity arthaḥ |

ayam api dvividho bhava-pratyaya upāya-pratyayaś ca | bhava-pratyayo videha-prakṛti-layānām [YogaS 1.19] | videhānāṃ sānandānāṃ prakṛti-layānāṃ ca sāsmitānāṃ daivānāṃ prāg-vyākhyātānāṃ janma-viśeṣād auṣadhi-viśeṣān mantra-viśeṣāt tapo-viśeṣād vā yaḥ samādhiḥ sa bhava-pratyayaḥ | bhavaḥ saṃsāra ātmānātma-vivekābhāva-rūpaḥ pratyayaḥ kāraṇaṃ yasya sa tathā | janma-mātra-hetuko vā pakṣiṇām ākāśa-gamanavat | punaḥ saṃsāra-hetutvān mumukṣubhir heya ity arthaḥ | śraddhā-vīrya-smṛti-samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka itareṣām [YogaS 1.20] | janmauṣadhi-mantra-tapaḥ-siddha-vyatiriktānām ātmānātma-viveka-darśināṃ tu yaḥ samādhiḥ sa śraddhā-pūrvakaḥ | śraddhādayaḥ pūrva upāyā yasya sa tathā | upāya-pratyaya ity arthaḥ |

teṣu śraddhā yoga-viṣaye cetasaḥ prasādaḥ | sā hi jananīva yoginaṃ pāti | tataḥ śraddadhānasya vivekārthino vīryam utsāha upajāyate | samupajāta-vīryasya pāścātyāsu bhūmiṣu smṛtir utpadyate | tat-smaraṇāc ca cittam anākulaṃ sat samādhīyate | samādhir atraikāgratā | samāhita-cittasya prajñā bhāvya-gocarā vivekena jāyate | tad-abhyāsāt parāc ca vairāgyād bhavaty asamprajñātaḥ samādhir mumukṣūṇām ity arthaḥ | pratikṣaṇa-pariṇāmino hi bhāvā ṛte citi-śakteḥ iti nyāyena tasyām api sarva-vṛtti-nirodhāvasthāyāṃ citta-pariṇāma-pravāhas taj-janya-saṃskāra-pravāhaś ca bhavaty evety abhipretya saṃskāra-viśeṣa ity uktam |

tasya ca saṃskārasya prayojanam uktam — tataḥ praśānta-vāhitā saṃskārāt [YogaS 3.10] iti | praśānta-vāhitā nāmāvṛttikasya cittasya nirindhanāgnivat pratiloma-pariṇāmenopaśamaḥ | yathā samid-ājyādy-āhuti-prakṣepe vahnir uttarottara-vṛddhyā prajvalati, samid-ādi-kṣaye tu prathama-kṣaṇe kiṃcic chāmyati | uttarottara-kṣaṇeṣu tv adhikam adhikaṃ śāmyatīti krameṇa śāntir vardhate | tathā niruddha-cittasyottarottarādhikaḥ praśamaḥ pravahati | tatra pūrva-praśama-janitaḥ saṃskāra evottarottara-praśamasya kāraṇam | tadā ca nirindhanāgnivac cittaṃ krameṇopaśāmyad-vyutthāna-samādhi-nirodha-saṃskāraiḥ saha svasyāṃ prakṛtau līyate | tadā ca samādhi-paripāka-prabhavena vedānta-vākyajena samyag-darśanenāvidyāyāṃ nivṛttāyāṃ tad-dhetuka-dṛg-dṛśya-saṃyogābhāvād vṛttau pañca-vidhāyām api nivṛttāyāṃ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhaḥ puruṣaḥ śuddhaḥ kevalo mukta ity ucyate |

tad uktaṃ — tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe ‚vasthānam [YogaS 1.3] iti | tadā sarva-vṛtti-nirodhe | vṛtti-daśāyāṃ tu nityāpariṇāmi-caitanya-rūpatvena tasya sarvadām śuddhatve ‚py anādinā dṛśya-saṃyogenāvidyakenāntaḥkaraṇa-tādātmyādhyāsād antaḥkaraṇa-vṛtti-sārūpyaṃ prāpnuvan nabhoktāpi bhokteva duḥkhānāṃ bhavati |

tad uktaṃ — vṛtti-sārūpyam itaratra [YogaS 4] | itaratra vṛtti-prādurbhāve | etad eva vivṛttaṃ draṣṭṛ-dṛśyoparaktaṃ cittaṃ sarvārtham [YogaS 4.23] cittam eva draṣṭṛ-dṛśyoparaktaṃ viṣayi-viṣaya-nirbhāsaṃ cetanācetana-svarūpāpannaṃ viṣayātmakam apy aviṣayātmakam ivācetanam api cetanam iva sphaṭika-maṇi-kalpaṃ sarvārtham ity ucyate | tad anena citta-sārūpyeṇa bhrāntāḥ kecit tad eva cetanam ity āhuḥ | tad asaṃkhyeya-vāsanā-citram api parārthaṃ saṃhatya-kāritvāt [YogaS 4.24] | yasya bhogāpavargārthaṃ tat sa eva paraś cetano ‚saṃhataḥ puruṣo na tu ghaṭādivat saṃhatya-kāri cittaṃ cetanam ity arthaḥ | evaṃ ca viśeṣa-darśina ātma-bhāva-bhāvanā-vinivṛttiḥ [YogaS 4.25] | evaṃ yo ‚ntaḥ-karaṇa-puruṣayor viśeṣa-darśī tasya yāntaḥ-karaṇe prāg-aviveka-vaśād ātma-bhāva-bhāvanāsīt sā nivartate | bheda-darśane saty abheda-bhramānupapatteḥ |

sattva-puruṣayor viśeṣa-darśanaṃ ca bhagavad-arpita-niṣkāma-karma-sādhyam | tal-liṅgaṃ ca yoga-bhāṣye darśitam | yathā prāvṛṣi tṛṇāṅkurasyodbhedena tad-bīja-sattānumīyate thatā mokṣa-mārga-śravaṇena siddhānta-ruci-vaśād yasya lomaharṣāśru-pātau dṛśyete tatrāpy asti viśeṣa-darśana-bījam apavarga-mārgīyaṃ karmābhinirvartitam ity anumīyate | yasya tu tādṛśaṃ karma-bījaṃ nāsti tasya mokṣa-mārga-śravaṇe pūrva-pakṣa-yuktiṣu rucir bhavaty aruciś ca siddhānta-yuktiṣu | tasya ko ‚ham āsaṃ katham aham āsam ity ādir ātma-bhāva-bhāvanā svābhāvikī pravartate | sā tu viśeṣa-darśino nivartata iti |

evaṃ sati kiṃ syād iti tad āha — tadā viveka-nimnaṃ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṃ cittam [YogaS 4.26] | nimnaṃ jala-pravahaṇa-yogyo nīca-deśaḥ | prāg-bhāras tad-ayogya ucca-pradeśaḥ | cittaṃ ca sarvadā pravartamāna-vṛtti-pravāheṇa pravahaj-jala-tulyaṃ tat prāg-ātmānātmāviveka-rūpa-vimārga-vāhi-viṣaya-bhoga-paryantam asyāsīt | adhunā tv ātmānātma-viveka-mārga-vāhi-kaivalya-paryantaṃ sampadyata iti | asmiṃś ca viveka-vāhini citte ye ‚ntarāyās te sa-hetukā nivartanīyā ity āha sūtrābhyām — tac-chidreṣu pratyayāntarāṇi saṃskārebhyaḥ | hānam eṣāṃ kleśavad uktam [YogaS 4.27-8] | tasmin viveka-vāhini citte chidreṣv antarāleṣu pratyayāntarāṇi vyutthāna-rūpāṇy ahaṃ mamety evaṃrūpāṇi vyutthānānubhavajebhyaḥ saṃskārebhyaḥ kṣīyamāṇbhyo ‚pi prādurbhavanti | eṣāṃ ca saṃskārāṇāṃ kleśānām iva hānam uktam | yathā kleśā avidyādayo jñānāgninā dagdha-bīja-bhāvā ca punaś citta-bhūmau prarohaṃ prāpnuvanti tathā jñānāgninā dagdha-bīja-bhāvāḥ saṃskārāḥ pratyayāntarāṇi na praroḍhum arhanti | jñānāgni-saṃskārās tu yāvac cittam anuśerata iti |

evaṃ ca pratyayāntarānudayena viveka-vāhini citte sthirībhūte sati prasaṃkhyāne ‚py akusīdasya sarvathāviveka-khyāter dharma-meghaḥ samādhiḥ [YogaS 4.29] prasaṅkhyānaṃ sattva-puruṣānyatā-khyātiḥ śuddhātma-jñānam iti yāvat | tatra buddheḥ sāttvike pariṇāme kṛta-saṃyamasya sarveṣāṃ guṇa-pariṇāmānāṃ svāmivad ākramaṇaṃ sarvādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṃ teṣām eva ca śāntoditāvyapadeśya-dharmitvena sthitānāṃ yathāvad viveka-jñānaṃ sarva-jñātṛtvaṃ ca viśokā nāma siddhiḥ phalaṃ tad-vairāgyāc ca kaivalyam uktaṃ — sattva-puruṣānyatā-khyāti-mātrasya sarva-bhāvādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṃ sarva-jñātṛtvaṃ ca [YogaS 3.49] sattva-puruṣayoḥ śuddhi-sāmye kaivalyam [YogaS 3.55] iti sūtrābhyām | tad etad ucyate tasmin prasaṅkhyāne saty apy akusīdasya phalam alipsoḥ pratyayāntarāṇām anudaye sarva-prakārair viveka-khyāteḥ paripoṣād dharma-meghaḥ samādhir bhavati |

ijyācāra-damāhiṃsā-dāna-svādhyāya-karmaṇām |
ayaṃ tu paramo dharmo yad yogenātma-darśanam || iti smṛteḥ ||

dharmaṃ pratyag-brahmaikya-sākṣātkāraṃ mehati siñcatīti dharma-meghas tattva-sākṣātkāra-hetur ity arthaḥ | tataḥ kleśa-karma-nivṛttiḥ | tato dharma-meghāt samādher dharmād vā kleśānāṃ pañca-vidhānām avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśānāṃ karmaṇāṃ ca kṛṣṇa-śuklakṛṣṇa-śukla-bhedena trividhānām avidyā-mūlānām avidyā-kṣaye bīja-kṣayād ātyantikī nivṛttiḥ kaivalyaṃ bhavati | kāraṇa-nivṛttyā kārya-nivṛtter ātyantikyā ucitatvād ity arthaḥ |

evaṃ sthite yuñjann eva sadātmānam ity anena samprajñātaḥ samādhir ekāgra-bhūmāv uktaḥ | niyata-mānasa ity anena tat-phala-bhūto ‚samprajñāta-samādhir nirodha-bhūmāv uktaḥ | śāntim iti nirodha-samādhija-saṃskāra-phala-bhūtā praśānta-vāhitā | nirvāṇa-paramam iti dharma-meghasya samādhes tattva-jñāna-dvārā kaivalya-hetutvaṃ, mat-saṃsthām ity anenaupaniṣadābhimataṃ kaivalyaṃ darśitam | yasmād evaṃ mahā-phalo yogas tasmāt taṃ mahatā prayatnena sampādayed ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


ātmānaṃ mano yuñjan dhyāna-yoga-yuktaṃ kurvan | yato niyata-mānaso viṣayoparata-cittaḥ | nirvāṇo mokṣa eva paramaḥ prāpyo yasyāṃ mayy eva nirviśeṣa-brahmaṇi samyak sthā sthitir yasyāṃ tāṃ śāntiṃ saṃsāroparatiṃ prāpnoti

 

Baladeva


evam āsīnasya kiṃ syāt tad āha yuñjann iti | yogī sadā pratidinam ātmānaṃ yuñjann arpayan | niyata-mānasaḥ mat-sparśa-pariśuddhatayā niyataṃ niścalaṃ mānasaṃ cittaṃ yasya sa, mat-saṃsthāṃ mad-adhīnāṃ nirvāṇa-paramāṃ śāntim adhigacchati labhate | tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 3.8] ity ādi śravaṇāt | nirvāṇa-paramāṃ mokṣāvadhikām iti siddhayo ‚pi yoga-phalānīty uktam

 
 

BhG 6.16

nāty-aśnatas tu yogo sti na caikāntam anaśnataḥ
na cāti-svapna-śīlasya jāgrato naiva cārjuna

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
aty-aśnataḥ tu (of one who eats excessively) yogaḥ (yoga) na asti (there is not),
anaśnataḥ ca (and of one who does not eat) ekāntam (concentration) na [asti] (there is not),
ati-svapna-śīlasya ca (and of one who sleeps too much) jāgrataḥ (waking) na [asti] (there is not),
eva ca (and just) na [asti] (there is not).

 

grammar

na av.not;
aty-aśnataḥ ati-aśnant ( – to reach, to eat, to enjoy) PPr 6n.1 m.of one who eats excessively (from: ati – prefix: excessively; aśnant – who eats);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
ekāntam ekānta 1n.1 m.exclusiveness, concentration on one point (from: eka – one; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
anaśnataḥ an-aśnant ( –to reach, to eat, to enjoy) PPr 6n.1 m.of one who does not eat;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
ati-svapna-śīlasya ati-svapna-śīlasya 6n.1 m.; BV: yasyāti-svaptuṁ śīlam asti saḥof one who sleeps too much (from: ati – prefix: excessively; svap – to sleep, svapna – sleep; śīla – habit, conduct, nature, suffix: having habit of);
jāgrataḥ jāgrata (jāgṛ – to be awake, be aware) [PP] 1n.1 m.waking;
na av.not;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;

 

textual variants


nāty-aśnatas tu yogo sti → yogo ‘sti naivāty-aśato (ther is no yoga of one who eats excessively);
jāgrato naiva cārjuna → nāti jāgarato ‘rjuna (O Arjuna, and not of one waked too much);

 
 

Śāṃkara


idānīṃ yoginaḥ āhārādi-niyama ucyate—

nātyaśnata ātma-saṃmitam anna-parimāṇam atītyāśnato’tyaśnato na yogo’sti | na caikāntam anaśnato yogo’sti | yad u ha vā ātma-saṃmitam annaṃ tad avati tan na hinasti yad bhūyo hinasti tad yat kanīyo’nnaṃ na tad avati [śāstratapathabhāv 9.2.1.2] iti śruteḥ | tasmāt yogī na ātma-saṃmitād annād adhikaṃ nyūnaṃ vāśnīyāt | athavā, yogino yoga-śāstre paripaṭhitād anna-parimāṇād atimātram aśnato yogo nāsti | uktaṃ hi—

ardhaṃ sa-vyañjanānnasya tṛtīyam udakasya ca |
vāyoḥ saṃcaraṇārthaṃ tu caturtham avaśeṣayet || ity ādi parimāṇam |

tathā—na cātisvapna-śīlasya yogo bhavati naiva cātimātraṃ jāgrato bhavati cārjuna

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 6.17

 

Śrīdhara


yogābhyāsa-niṣṭhasyāhārādi-niyamam āha nātyaśanata iti dvyābhyām | atyantam adhikaṃ bhuñjānasya ekāntam atyantam abhuñjānasyāpi yogaḥ samādhir na bhavati | tathātinidrā-śīlasyātijāgrataś ca yogo naivāsti

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ yogābhyāsa-niṣṭhasyāhārādi-niyamam āha nātyaśanata iti dvyābhyām | yad bhuktaṃ sajjīryati śarīrasya ca kārya-kṣamatāṃ sampādayati tad-ātma-saṃmitam annaṃ tad atikramya lobhenādhikam aśnato na yogo ‚sti ajīrṇa-doṣeṇa vyādhi-pīḍitatvāt | na caikāntam anaśnato yogo ‚sti | anāhārād atyalpāhārād vā rasa-poṣaṇābhāvena śarīrasya kāryākṣamatvāt | yad u ha vā ātma-saṃmitam annaṃ tad avati tan na hinasti yad bhūyo hinasti tad yat kanīyo ‚nnaṃ na tad avati [ŚatapathaB 9.2.1.2] iti śatapatha-śruteḥ | tasmād yogī nātma-saṃmitād annād adhikaṃ nyūnaṃ vāśnīyād ity arthaḥ |

athavā –
pūrayed aśanenārdhaṃ tṛtīyam udakena tu |
vāyoḥ saṅcaraṇārthaṃ tu caturtham avaśeṣayet ||

ity ādi yoga-śāstrokta-parimāṇād adhikaṃ nyūnaṃ vāśnato yogo na sampadyata ity arthaḥ | tathātinidrā-śīlasyātijāgrataś ca yogo naivāsti he ‚rjuna sāvadhāo bhavety abhiprāyaḥ | yathā mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇe –

nādhmātaḥ kṣudhitaḥ śrānto na ca vyākula-cetanaḥ |
yuñjīta yogaṃ rājendra yogī siddhy-artham ātmanaḥ ||
nātīśīte na caivoṣṇe na dvandve nānilānvite |
kāleṣv eteṣu yuñjīta na yogaṃ dhyāna-tat-paraḥ || ity ādi

 

Viśvanātha


yogābhyāsa-niṣṭhasya niyamam āha nātyaśanata iti dvyābhyām | atyaśnato ‚dhikaṃ bhuñjānasya | yad uktaṃ –

pūrayed aśanenārdhaṃ tṛtīyam udakena tu |
vāyoḥ saṅcaraṇārthaṃ tu caturtham avaśeṣayet || iti

 

Baladeva


yogam abhyasyato bhojanādi-niyamam āha nātīti dvyābhyām | atyaśanam anatyaśanaṃ ca, atisvāpo ‚tijāgaraś ca, yoga-virodhy-ativihārādi cottarāt

 
 

BhG 6.17

yuktāhāra-vihārasya yukta-ceṣṭasya karmasu
yukta-svapnāvabodhasya yogo bhavati duḥkha-hā

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syntax


yuktāhāra-vihārasya (whose eating and recreation are regulated) karmasu (in activities) yukta-ceṣṭasya (of one whose actions are regulated) yukta-svapnāvabodhasya (of one whose sleep and waking are regulated) yogaḥ (yoga) duḥkha-hā (destroing the distress) bhavati (it becomes).

 

grammar

yuktāhāra-vihārasya yukta-āhāra-vihāra 6n.1 m.; DV/BV: yasyāhāraś ca vihāraś ca yuktau staḥ tasyawhose eating and recreation are regulated (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with; ā-hṛ – to fetch, to carry near, āhāra – carrying near, fetching, taking food; vi-hṛ – to put asunder, to spend [time], vihāra – walking, amusement, pleasure);
yukta-ceṣṭasya yukta-ceṣṭa 6n.1 m.; BV: yasya ceṣtā yuktāsti tasyaof one whose actions are regulated (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with; ceṣṭ – to move, to endeavour, to act, ceṣṭā – gesture, activity, behaviour, endeavour);
karmasu karman 7n.3 n.in activities (from: kṛ – to do);
yukta-svapnāvabodhasya yukta-svapna-avabodha 6n.1 m.; DV/BV: yasya svapnaś cāvabodhaś ca yuktau staḥ tasyaof one whose sleep and waking are regulated (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with; svap – to sleep, svapna – sleep; ava-budh – to be awake, ava-bodha – being awake);
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it becomes;
duḥkha-hā duḥkha-han 1n.1 m.destroyer of distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally:  bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness; han – to kill, han – suffix: killer, destroyer);

 

textual variants


yukta-svapnāvabodhasyayuktaḥ svapnāvabodhasya / yukta-svapnāvaghorasya (it is yoga of one who sleeps and is awake / of one who has terrible regulated sleep);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kathaṃ punar yogo bhavatīty ucyate—

yuktāhāra-vihārasya āhriyata ity āhāro’nnam, viharaṇaṃ vihāraḥ pāda-kramaḥ, tau yuktau niyata-parimāṇau yasya sa yuktāhāra-vihāras tasya, tathā yukta-ceṣṭasya yuktā niyatā ceṣṭā yasya karmasu tasya | tathā yukta-svapnāvabodhasya yuktau svapnaś cāvabodhaś ca tau niyata-kālau yasya tasya, yuktāhāra-vihārasya yukta-ceṣṭasya karmasu yukta-svapnāvabodhasya yogino yogo bhavati duḥkhahā duḥkhāni sarvāṇi hantīti duḥkhahā, sarva-saṃsāra-duḥkha-kṣaya-kṛd yogo bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


atyaśanānaśane yogavirodhinī; ativihārāvihārau ca tathātimātrasvapnajāgarye; tathā cātyāyāsānāyāsau / mitāhāravihārasya mitāyāsasya mitasvapnāvabodhasya sakaladuḥkhahā bandhanāśanaḥ yogaḥ saṃpanno bhavati

 

Śrīdhara


tarhi kathambhūtasya yogo bhavatīti ? ata āha – yuktāhāreti | yukto niyata āhāro vihāraś ca gatir yasya | karmasu kāryeṣu yuktā niyatā ceṣṭā yasya | yuktau niyatau svapnāvabodhau nidrā-jāgarau yasya | tasya duḥkha-nivartako yogo bhavati sidhyati

 

Madhusūdana


evam āhārādi-niyama-virahiṇo yoga-vyatirekam uktvā tan-niyamavato yogānvayam āha yuktāhāra iti | āhriyata ity āhāro ‚nnam | viharaṇaṃ vihāraḥ pāda-kramaḥ | tau yuktau niyata-parimāṇau yasya | tathānyeṣv api praṇava-japopaniṣad-āvartanādiṣu karmasu yuktā niyata-kālā ceṣṭā yasya | tathā svapno nidrā avabodho jāgaraṇaṃ tau yuktau niyata-kālau yasya tasya yogo bhavati | sādhana-pāṭavād ātma-samādhiḥ sidhyati nānyasya | evaṃ prayanta-viśeṣeṇa sampādito yogaḥ kiṃ-phala iti tatrāha duḥkhaheti | sarva-saṃsāra-duḥkha-kāraṇāvidyonmūlana-hetu-brahma-vidyotpādakatvāt sa-mūla-sarva-duḥkha-nivṛtti-hetur ity arthaḥ | atrāhārasya niyatatvam |

ardham aśanasya sa-vyañjanasya tṛtīyam udakasya tu |
vāyoḥ saṃcāraṇārthaṃ tu caturtham avaśeṣayet ||

ity ādi prāg uktam | vihārasya niyatatvaṃ yoganān na paraṃ gacched ity ādi | karmasu ceṣṭāyā niyatatvaṃ vāg-ādi-cāpala-parityāgaḥ | rātrer vibhāga-trayaṃ kṛtvā prathamānyayor jāgaraṇaṃ madhye svapanam iti svapnāvabodhayor niyata-kālatvam | evam anye ‚pi yoga-śāstroktā niyamā draṣṭavyāḥ

 

Viśvanātha


yukto niyata evāhāro bhojanaṃ vihāro gamanaṃ ca yasya tasya karmasu vyavahārika-pāramārthika-kṛtyeṣu yuktā niyatā eva ceṣṭā vāg-vyāpārādyā yasya tasya

 

Baladeva


yukteti | mitāhāra-vihārasya karmasu laukika-pāramārthika-kṛtyeṣu mita-vāgādi-vyāpārasya mita-svāpa-jāgarasya ca sarva-duḥkha-nāśako yogo bhavati tasmād yogī tathā tathā vartate

 
 

BhG 6.18

yadā viniyataṃ cittam ātmany evāvatiṣṭhate
niḥspṛhaḥ sarva-kāmebhyo yukta ity ucyate tadā

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syntax


yadā (when) viniyatam (regulated) cittam (the mind) ātmani eva (only in the self) avatiṣṭhate (it stays),
tadā (then) sarva-kāmebhyaḥ (from all desires) nispṛhaḥ (abstaining from) yukta iti (engaged) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
viniyatam vi-ni-yata (ni-yam – to hold back, to regulate) [PP] 1n.1 n.regulated, restrained;
cittam citta (cit – to perceive, to think) [PP] 1n.1 n.thought; mind, consciousness;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
avatiṣṭhate ava-sthā (to go down, to stay) Praes. Ā 1v.1it stays;
niḥspṛhaḥ nir-spṛha 1n.1 m.without hankering, abstaining from (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; spṛh – to desire to obtain, to long for, spṛhā – eager desire, longing, envy; niḥspṛha – abstaining from, requires ablative);
sarva-kāmebhyaḥ sarva-kāma 5n.3 n.; sarvebhyaḥ kāmebhya itifrom all desires (from: sarva – all, whole; kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire);
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;
tadā av.at that time, then;

 

textual variants


avatiṣṭhate → avatiṣṭhati (it stays);

 
 

Śāṃkara


athādhunā kadā yukto bhavati ? ity ucyate—

yadā viniyataṃ viśeṣeṇa niyataṃ saṃyatam ekāgratām āpannaṃ cittaṃ hitvā bāhyārtha-cintām ātmany eva kevale’vatiṣṭhate, svātmani sthitiṃ labhate ity arthaḥ | niḥspṛhaḥ sarva-kāmebhyo nirgatā dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-viṣayebhyaḥ spṛhā tṛṣṇā yasya yoginaḥ sa yuktaḥ samāhita ity ucyate tadā tasmin kāle

 

Rāmānuja


yadā prayojanaviṣayaṃ cittam ātmany eva viniyatam viśeṣeṇa niyataṃ niratiśayaprayojanatayā tatraiva niyataṃ niścalam avatiṣṭhate, tadā sarvakāmebhyo nisspṛhas san yukta ity ucyate yogārha ity ucyate

 

Śrīdhara


kadā niṣpanna-yogaḥ puruṣo bhavatīty apekṣāyām āha yadeti | viniyataṃ viśeṣeṇa niruddhaṃ sac-cittam ātmany eva yadā niścalaṃ tiṣṭhati | kiṃ ca sarva-kāmebhya aihikāmuṣmika-bhogebhyo niḥspṛho vigata-tṛṣṇo bhavati | tadā muktaḥ prāpta-yoga ity ucyate

 

Madhusūdana


evam ekāgra-bhūmau samprajñātaṃ samādhim abhidhāya nirodha-bhūmāv asamprajñātaṃ samādhiṃ vaktum upakramate yadeti | yadā yasmin kāle para-vairāgya-vaśād viniyataṃ viśeṣeṇa niyataṃ sarva-vṛtti-śūnyatām āpāditaṃ cittaṃ vigata-rajas-tamaskam antaḥkaraṇa-sattvaṃ svacchatvāt sarva-viṣayākāra-grahaṇa-samartham api sarvato-niruddha-vṛttikatvād ātmany eva pratyak citi anātmānuparakte vṛtti-rāhitye ‚pi svataḥ-siddhasyātmākārasya vārayitum aśakyatvāc citer eva prādhānyān nyag-bhūtaṃ sad avatiṣṭhate niścalaṃ bhavati | tadā tasmin sarva-vṛtti-nirodha-kāle yuktaḥ samāhita ity ucyate | kaḥ ? yaḥ sarva-kāmebhyo niḥspṛhaḥ | nirgatā doṣa-darśanena sarvebhyo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-viṣayebhyaḥ kāmebhyaḥ spṛhā tṛṣṇā yasyeti paraṃ vairāgyam asamprajñāta-samādher antaraṅgaṃ sādhanam uktam | tathā ca vyākhyātaṃ prāk

 

Viśvanātha


yogī niṣpanna-yogaḥ kadā bhaved ity ākāṅkṣāyām āha yadeti | viniyataṃ niruddhaṃ cittam ātmani svasminn evāvatiṣṭhate niścalī-bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


yogī niṣpanna-yogaḥ kadā syād ity apekṣāyām āha yadeti | yogam abhyasyato yoginaś cittam yadā viniyataṃ niruddhaṃ sadātmany eva svasminn evāvasthitaṃ sthiraṃ bhavati, tad-ātmetara-sarva-spṛhā-śūnyo yukto niṣpanna-yogaḥ kathyate

 
 

BhG 6.19

yathā dīpo nivāta-stho neṅgate sopamā smṛtā
yogino yata-cittasya yuñjato yogam ātmanaḥ

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yathā (as) nivāta-sthaḥ (situated iin a windless place) dīpaḥ (a lamp) na iṅgate (it does not flicker),
[tathā] (so) ātmanaḥ (of the self) yogam yuñjataḥ (of one engaging in yoga) yata-cittasya (of one who restrained the mind) yoginaḥ (of a yogī).
sā upamā (that comparison) smṛtā (it is given).

 

grammar

yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
dīpaḥ dīpa 1n.1 m.a lamp (from: dīp – to blaze, to shine);
nivāta-sthaḥ nivāta-stha 1n.1 m.; yo nivāte tiṣṭhati saḥwhich is situated in a windless place (from: ni = niḥ – out of, away from, without; – to blow, [PP] ni-vāta – windless; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
na av.not;
iṅgate iṅg (to flicker) Praes. Ā 1v.1it flickers;
tat sn. 1n.1 f.that;
upamā upamā 1n.1 f.comparison, similarity (from: upa- – to measure, to compare);
smṛtā smṛtā (smṛ – to think, to remember) [PP] 1n.1 f.remembered, preserved [in tradition];
yoginaḥ yogin 6n.1 m.of a yogī, of engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
yata-cittasya yata-citta 6n.1 m.; BV: yasya cittaṁ yato ‘sti tasya of one whose mind is restrained (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness);
yuñjataḥ yuñjant (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) PPr 6n.1of one engaging;
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m. of the self;

 

textual variants


yathāyadā (when);
yata-cittasyajita-cittasya (whose mind is conquered);
yuñjatoyuṁjate (in one engaged);
ātmanaḥ → ātmani (in the self);
 
 

Śāṃkara


tasya yoginaḥ samāhitaṃ yat cittaṃ tasyopamocyate—

yathā dīpaḥ pradīpo nivāta-stho nivāte vāta-varjite deśe sthito neṅgate na calati, sopamā upamīyate’nayety upamā yogajñaiś citta-pracāra-darśibhiḥ smṛtā cintitā yogino yata-cittasya saṃyatāntaḥ-karaṇasya yuñjato yogam anutiṣṭhata ātmanaḥ samādhim anutiṣṭhata ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


nivātastho dīpo yathā neṅgate na calati; acalas saprabhas tiṣṭhati; yatacittasya nivṛttasakaletaramanovṛtteḥ yoginaḥ ātmani yogaṃ yuñjataḥ ātmasvarūpasya sopamā; nivātasthatayā niścalasaprabhadīpavan nivṛttasakalamanovṛttitayā niścalo jñānaprabha ātmā tiṣṭhaītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


ātmaikyākāratayāvasthitasya cittasyopamānam āha yatheti | vāta-śūnye deśe sthito dīpo yathā neṅgate na vicalati | sopamā dṛṣṭāntaḥ | kasya ? ātma-viṣayaṃ yogaṃ yuñjato ‚bhyasyato yoginaḥ | yataṃ niyataṃ cittaṃ yasya tasya niṣkampatayā prakāśakatayā cācañcalaṃ tac cittaṃ tadvat tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


samādhau nivṛttikasya cittasyopamānam āha yatheti | dīpa-calana-hetunā vātena rahite deśe sthito dīpo yathā calana-hetv-abhāvān neṅgate na calati, sopamā smṛtā sa dṛṣṭāntaś cintito yogajñaiḥ | kasya ? yogina ekāgra-bhūmau samprajñāta-samādhi-mato ‚bhyāsa-pāṭavād yata-cittasya niruddha-sarva-citta-vṛtter asamprajñāta-samādhi-rūpaṃ yogaṃ nirodha-bhūmau yuñjato ‚nutiṣṭhato ya ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ tasya niścalatayā sattvodrekeṇa prakāśakatayā ca niścalo dīpo dṛṣṭānta ity arthaḥ|

ātmano yogaṃ yuñjata iti vyākhyāne dārṣṭāntikālābhaḥ sarvāvasthasyāpi cittasya sarvadātmākāratayātma-pada-vaiyarthyaṃ ca | na hi yogenātmākāratā cittasya sampādyate, kintu svata evātmākārasya sato ‚nātmākāratā nivartyata iti | tasmād dārṣṭāntika-pratipādanārtham evātma-padam | yata-cittasyeti bhāva-paro nirdeśaḥ karma-dhārayo vā yatasya cittasyety arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nivāta-stho nirvāta-deśa-sthito dīpo neṅgate na calati yaḥ sa eva dīpa upamā yathā yathāvad ity arthaḥ | so ‚ci lope cet pāda-pūraṇam [Pāṇ 6.1.134] iti sandhiḥ | kasyopamā ity ata āha yogina iti

 

Baladeva


tadā yogī kīdṛśo bhavatīty apekṣāyām āha yatheti | nirvāta-deśa-stho dīpo neṅgate na calati niścalaḥ sa-prabhas tiṣṭhati sa dīpo yathā yathāvad upamā yogajñaiḥ smṛtā cintitā | sopamety atra so ‚ci lope cet pāda-pūraṇam [Pāṇ 6.1.134] iti sūtrāt sandhiḥ | upamā-śabdenopamānaṃ bodhyam | kasyety āha yogina iti | yata-cittasya niruddha-sarva-citta-vṛtter ātmano yogaṃ dhyānaṃ yuñjato ‚nutiṣṭhataḥ | nivṛtta-sakaletara-citta-vṛttir abhyudita-jñāna-yogī niścala-sa-pradīpa-sadṛśo bhavatīti

 
 

BhG 6.20-23

yatroparamate cittaṃ niruddhaṃ yoga-sevayā
yatra caivātmanātmānaṃ paśyann ātmani tuṣyati
sukham ātyantikaṃ yat tad buddhi-grāhyam atīndriyam
vetti yatra na caivāyaṃ sthitaś calati tattvataḥ

yaṃ labdhvā cāparaṃ lābhaṃ manyate nādhikaṃ tataḥ
yasmin sthito na duḥkhena guruṇāpi vicālyate

taṃ vidyād duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyogaṃ yoga-saṃjñitam
sa niścayena yoktavyo yogo nirviṇṇa-cetasā

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syntax


yatra (when) yoga-sevayā (by pracice of yoga) niruddham (restrained) cittam (mind) uparamate (it stops),
yatra ca (and when) ātmanā eva (by the self only) ātmānam (self) paśyan (seeing) ātmani (in the self) tuṣyati (he is pleased),
[yatra] (when) ayam (he) yat (that which) buddhi-grāhyam (to be grasped by intelligence) atīndriyam (beyond the senses) ātyantikam (endless) tat (that) sukham (happiness) vetti (he knows),
yatra ca eva (and when only) sthitaḥ (situated) tattvataḥ (truly) na calati (he does not move),
yam ca (and that which) labdhvā (after obtaining) tataḥ (after that) aparam (other) lābham (gain) adhikam (superior) na manyate (he does not think),
yasmin (in which) sthitaḥ (situated) guruṇā (by heavy) duḥkhena api (even by distress) na vicālyate (he is not shaken),
tam duḥkha-saṁyoga-viyogam (that separation from contact with distress) yoga-saṁjñitam (called yoga) vidyāt (he should know).
anirviṇṇa-cetasā (with the undepressed mind) saḥ (that) yogaḥ (yoga) niścayena (certainly) yoktavyaḥ (to be practiced) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

yatra av.where, in which place, when (correlative of: tatra);
uparamate upa-ram (to desist) Praes. Ā 1v.1it stops;
cittam citta (cit – to perceive, to think) [PP] 1n.1 n.thought; mind, consciousness;
niruddham niruddha (ni-rudh – to hold back, to restrain) [PP] 1n.1 n.restrained;
yoga-sevayā yoga-sevā 3n.1 f.; [TP]: yogasya sevayetiby practice of yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; sev – to serve, sevā – service, attendance, worship);
yatra av.where, in which place, when (correlative of: tatra);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ātmanā ātman 3n.1 m.with the self;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
paśyan paśyant (dṛś – to see) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] seeing;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
tuṣyati tuṣ (to become calm, to be pleased) Praes. P 1v.1he is pleased;

*****

sukham sukha 2n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
ātyantikam ātyantika 2n.1 n.perpetual, infinite, endless (from: aty-anta – beyond the end, perpetual, very great);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
buddhi-grāhyam buddhi-grāhya 2n.1 n.; [TP]: buddhyā grāhyam itito be grasped by intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; grah – to take, PF grāhya – to be taked);
atīndriyam ati-indriya 1n.2 n.beyond the senses (from: ati – prefix: beyond; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses);
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
yatra av.where, in which place, when (correlative of: tatra);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
sthitaḥ sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 m.staying, situated;
calati cal (to move, to shake) Praes. P 1v.1he moves;
tattvataḥ av.truly (from: tat – to, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);

*****

yam yat sn. 2n.1 m.that which;
labdhvā labh (to obtain, to gain) absol.after obtaining;
ca av.and;
aparam a-para 2n.1 m.other, later, different;
lābham lābha 2n.1 m.gain, profit (from: labh – to obtain, to gain);
manyate man (to think) Praes. Ā 1v.1he thinks;
na av.not;
adhikam adhika 2n.1 m.additional, subsequent, superior;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
yasmin yat sn. 7n.1 m. in which;
sthitaḥ sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 m.staying, situated;
na av.not;
duḥkhena duḥkha 3n.1 n.by distress, by pain; (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness);
guruṇā guru 3n.1 m.by heavy, by great;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
vicālyate vi-cal (to move, to shake) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is shaken;

*****

tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
vidyāt vid (to know, to understand) Pot. P 1v.1he should know;
duḥkha-saṁyoga-viyogam duḥkha-saṁyoga-viyoga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: duḥkhasya saṁyogena viyogam itiseparation from contact with distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness; sam-yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, saṁyoga – connection, union; vi-yuj – to disjoin, to abandon, viyoga – separation);
yoga-saṁjñitam yoga-saṁjñita 2n.1 m.called yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; sam-jñā – to be of one opinion, to understand, caus. [PP] saṁjñita – made known, communicated, called);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
niścayena av. (3n.1 m.) certainly (from: niś-ci – to ascertain, to determine, niś-caya – certainty, fixed opinion);
yoktavyaḥ yoktavya (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) PF. 1n.1 m.to be engaged, to be practiced;
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
anirviṇṇa-cetasā a-nirviṇṇa-cetas 3n.1 m.; KD: anirviṇṇena cetasetiwith an undepressed mind (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; vid – to obtain, to get, [PP] vinna – acquired; nir-viṇṇa – despondent, depressed; cit – to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);

 

textual variants


yoga-sevayāyoga-sevanāt (from practice of yoga);
yatra → tatra (there) in the third pada;
tuṣyati → tiṣṭhati / paśyati (he stays / he sees);
yat tad → yatra / yat tu (when / but which);
sthitaś → sthiraś (steady);
calati → cyavati (he shakes);
labdhvā → dṛṣṭvā (after seeing);
cāparaṁ lābhaṁ cādhikaṁ lābhaṁ / nāparaṁ lābhaṁ / cāparo lābho (and perfect gain / no other gain / and other gain);
nāparaṁ → nādhikaṁ (not prefect) in the second pada;
vicālyate → vimucyate (he is liberated);
vidyātviṁdyāt (he should find);
duḥkha-saṁyoga-viyogamduḥkha-saṁyogaḥ viyogam / duḥkha-saṁyogaṁ viyogam (contacted with distress, separation / contact with distress, separation);
yogo nirviṇṇa-cetasā → yogo nirviṇṇa-cetasā (yoga, with depressed mind);

 
 

Śāṃkara


evaṃ yogābhyāsa-balād ekāgrībhūtaṃ nivāta-pradīpa-kalpaṃ sat—

yatra yasmin kāle uparamate cittam uparatiṃ gacchati niruddhaṃ sarvato nivārita-pracāraṃ yoga-sevayā yogānuṣṭhānena, yatra caiva yasmiṃś ca kāla ātmanā samādhi-pariśuddhenāntaḥ-karaṇenātmānaṃ paraṃ caitanyaṃ jyotiḥ-svarūpaṃ paśyann upalabhamānaḥ sva evātmani tuṣyati tuṣṭiṃ bhajate

kiṃ ca—

sukham ātyantikam atyantam eva bhavatīty ātyantikam anantam ity arthaḥ, yat tat buddhi-grāhyaṃ buddhyaiva indriya-nirapekṣayā gṛhyate iti buddhi-grāhyam atīndriyam indriya-gocarātītam aviṣaya-janitam ity arthaḥ, vetti tad īdṛśaṃ sukham anubhavati yatra yasmin kāle, na caivāyaṃ vidvān ātma-svarūpe sthitas tasmān naiva calati tattvatas tattva-svarūpān na pracyavata ity arthaḥ

kiṃ ca—

yaṃ labdhvā yam ātma-lābhaṃ labdhvā prāpyaś cāparam anyal lābhaṃ lābhāntaraṃ tato’dhikam astīti na manyate na cintayati | kiṃ ca, yasmin ātma-tattve sthito duḥkhena śastra-nipātādi-lakṣaṇena guruṇā mahatāpi na vicālyate

yatroparamate ity ādyārabhya yāvadbhir viśeṣaṇair viśiṣṭa ātmāvasthā-viśeṣo yoga uktaḥ—

taṃ vidyād vijānīyād duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyogaṃ duḥkhaiḥ saṃyogo duḥkha-saṃyogaḥ, tena viyogo duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyogaḥ, taṃ duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyogaṃ yoga ity eva saṃjñitaṃ viparīta-lakṣaṇena vidyād vijānīyād ity arthaḥ | yoga-phalam upasaṃhṛtya punar anvārambheṇa yogasya kartavyatocyate niścayānirvedayor yoga-sādhanatva-vidhānārtham | sa yathokta-phalo yogo niścayenādhyavasāyena yoktavyo’nirviṇṇa-cetasā na nirviṇṇam anirviṇṇam | kiṃ tat ? cetas tena nirveda-rahitena cetasā cittenety arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yogasevayā hetunā sarvatra niruddhaṃ cittaṃ yatra yoge uparamate atiśayitasukham idam iti ramate, yatra ca yoge ātmanā manasā ātmānaṃ paśyan anyanirapekṣam ātmany eva tuṣyati, yat tad atīndriyam ātmabuddhyekagrāhyam ātyantikaṃ sukhaṃ yatra ca yoge vetti anubhavati, yatra ca yoge sthitaḥ sukhātirekeṇa tattvataḥ tadbhāvān na calati, yaṃ yogaṃ labdhvā yogād viratas tam eva kāṅkṣamāṇo nāparaṃ lābhaṃ tato ‚dhikaṃ manyate, yasmiṃś ca yoge sthito virato ‚pi guṇavat putraviyogādinā guruṇāpi duḥkhena na vicālyate, taṃ duḥkhasaṃyogaviyogaṃ duḥkhasaṃyogapratyanīkākāraṃ yogaśabdābhidheyaṃ vidyāt / sa evaṃrūpo yoga iti ārambhadaśāyāṃ niścayena anirviṇṇacetasā hṛṣṭacetasā yogo yoktavyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhur yogaṃ taṃ viddhi pāṇḍava [Gītā 6.2] ity ādau karmaiva yoga-śabdenoktam | nātyaśnatas tu yogo ‚sti [Gītā 6.16] ity ādau tu samādhir yoga-śabdenoktaḥ | tatra mukhyo yogaḥ ka ity apekṣāyāṃ samādhim eva svarūpataḥ phalataś ca lakṣayan sa eva mukhyo yoga ity āha yatreti sārdhais tribhiḥ | yatra yasmin avasthā-viśeṣe yogābhyāsena niruddhaṃ cittam uparataṃ bhavatīti yogasya svarūpa-lakṣaṇam uktam | tathā ca pātañjalaṃ sūtram yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti | iṣṭa-prāpti-lakṣaṇena phalena tam eva lakṣayati | yatra ca yasminn avasthā-viśeṣe | ātmanā śuddhena manasā ātmānam eva paśyati na tu dehādi | paśyaṃś cātmany eva tuṣyati | na tu viṣayeṣu | yatrety ādīnāṃ yac-chandānāṃ taṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyād iti caturthena ślokenānvayaḥ

ātmany eva toṣe hetum āha sukham iti | yatra yasminn avasthā-viśeṣe yat tat kim api niratiśayam ātyantikaṃ nityaṃ sukhaṃ vetti | nanu tadā viṣayendriya-sambandhābhāvāt kutaḥ sukhaṃ syāt ? tatrāha atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-sambandhātītam | kevalaṃ buddhyaivātmākāratayā grāhyam | ataeva ca yatra sthitaḥ saṃs tattvata ātma-svarūpān naiva calati

acalatvam evopapādayati yam iti | yam ātma-sukha-rūpaṃ lābhaṃ labdhvā tato ‚dhikam aparaṃ lābhaṃ na manyate | tasyaiva niratiśaya-sukhatvāt | yasmiṃś ca sthito mahatāpi śītoṣṇādi-duḥkhena na vicālyate nābhibhūyate | etenāniṣṭa-nivṛtti-phalenāpi yogasya lakṣaṇam uktaṃ draṣṭavyam

tam iti | ya evaṃ-bhūto ‚vasthā-viśeṣas taṃ duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyogaṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyāt | duḥkha-śabdena duḥkha-miśritaṃ vaiṣayikaṃ sukham api gṛhyate | duḥkhasya saṃyogena saṃsparśa-mātreṇāpi viyogo yasmin tam avasthā-viśeṣaṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ yoga-śabda-vācyaṃ jānīyāt | paramātmānā kṣetrajñasya yojanaṃ yogaḥ | yad vā duḥkha-saṃyogena viyoga eva śūre kātara-śabda-vad viruddha-lakṣaṇayā yoga ucyate | karmaṇi tu yoga-śabdas tad-upāyatvād aupacārika eveti bhāvaḥ |

yasmād evaṃ mahā-phalo yogas tasmāt sa eva yatnato ‚bhyasanīya ity āha tam iti sārdhena | sa yogo niścayena śāstrācāryopadeśa-janitena nirveda-rahitena cetasā yoktavyaḥ | duḥkha-buddhyā prayatna-śaithilyaṃ nirvedaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ sāmānyena samādhim uktvā nirodha-samādhiṃ vistareṇa vivarītum ārambhate yatreti | yatra yasmin pariṇāma-viśeṣe yoga-sevayā yogābhyāsa-pāṭavena jāte sati niruddham eka-viṣayaka-vṛtti-pravāha-rūpām ekāgratāṃ tyaktvā nirindhanāgnivad upaśāmyan nirvṛttikatayā sarva-vṛtti-nirodha-rūpeṇa pariṇataṃ bhavati | yatra ca yasmiṃś ca pariṇāme sati ātmanā rajas-tamo ‚nabhibhūta-śuddha-sattva-mātreṇāntaḥ-karaṇenātmānaṃ pratyak-caitanyaṃ paramātmābhinnaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-ghanam anantam advitīyaṃ paśyan vedānta-pramāṇajayā vṛttyā sākṣātkurvann ātmany eva paramānanda-ghane tuṣyati, na dehendriya-saṃghāte, na vā tad-bhogye ‚nyatra | paramātma-darśane saty atuṣṭi-hetv-abhāvāt tuṣyaty eveti vā | tam antaḥ-karaṇa-pariṇāmaṃ sarva-citta-vṛtti-nirodha-rūpaṃ yogaṃ vidyād iti pareṇānvayaḥ | yatra kāla iti tu vyākhyānam asādhu tac-chabdānanvayāt

ātmany eva toṣe hetum āha sukham iti | yatra yasminn avasthā-viśeṣa ātyantikam anantaṃ niratiśayaṃ brahma-svarūpam atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-saṃyogānabhivyaṅgyaṃ buddhi-grāhyaṃ buddhyaiva rajas-tamo-mala-rahitayā sattva-mātra-vāhinyā grāhyaṃ sukhaṃ yogī vetti anubhavati | yatra ca sthito ‚yaṃ vidvāṃs tattvata ātma-svarūpān naiva calati | taṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyād iti pareṇānvayaḥ samānaḥ |

atrātyantikam iti brahma-sukha-svarūpa-kathanam | atīndriyam iti viṣaya-sukha-vyāvṛttiḥ | tasya viṣayendriya-saṃyoga-sāpekṣatvāt | buddhi-grāhyam iti sauṣupta-sukha-vyāvṛttiḥ suṣuptau buddher līnatvāt | samādhau nirvṛttikāyās tasyāḥ sattvāt | tad uktaṃ gauḍa-pādaiḥ – līyate tu suṣuptau tan nigṛhītaṃ na līyate iti | tathā ca śrūyate –

samādhi-nirdhūta-malasya cetaso
niveśitasyātmani yat sukhaṃ bhavet |
na śakyate varṇayituṃ girā tadā
yad etad antaḥ-karaṇena gṛhyate || iti |

antaḥkaraṇena niruddha-sarva-vṛttikenety arthaḥ | vṛttyā tu sukhāsvādanaṃ gauḍācāryais tatra pratiṣiddham – nāsvādayet sukhaṃ tatra niḥsaṅgaṃ prajñayā bhavet iti | mahad idaṃ samādhau sukham anubhavāmīti sa-vikalpa-vṛtti-rūpā prajñā sukhāsvādaḥ | taṃ vyutthāna-rūpatvena samādhi-virodhitvād yogī na kuryāt | ataevaitādṛśyā prajñayā saha saṅgaṃ parityajet tāṃ nirundhyād ity arthaḥ | nirvṛttikena tu cittena svarūpa-sukhānubhavas taiḥ pratipāditaḥ | svasthaṃ śāntaṃ sa-nirvāṇa-kathyaṃ sukham uttamam iti spaṣṭaṃ caitad upariṣṭhāt kariṣyate

yatra na caivāyaṃ sthitaś calati tattvata ity uktam upapādayati yaṃ labdhveti | yaṃ ca niratiśayātmaka-sukha-vyañjakaṃ nirvṛttika-cittāvasthā-viśeṣaṃ labdhvā santatābhyāsa-paripākena sampādyāparaṃ lābhaṃ tato ‚dhikaṃ na manyate | kṛtaṃ kṛtyaṃ prāptaṃ prāpaṇīyam ity ātma-lābhāc ca paraṃ vidyate iti smṛteḥ | evaṃ viṣaya-bhoga-vāsanayā samādher vicalanaṃ nāstīty uktvā śīta-vāta-maśakādy-upadrava-nivāraṇārtham api tan nāstīty āha yasmin paramātma-sukha-maye nirvṛttika-cittāvasthā-viśeṣe sthito yogī guruṇā mahatā śastra-nipātādi-nimittena mahatāpi duḥkhena na vicālyate kim uta kṣudreṇety arthaḥ

yatroparamata ity ārabhya bahubhir viśeṣaṇair yo nivṛttikaḥ paramānandābhivyañjakaś cittāvasthā-viśeṣa uktas taṃ citta-vṛtti-nirodhaṃ citta-vṛtti-maya-sarva-duḥkha-virodhitvena duḥkha-viyogam eva santaṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ viyoga-śabdārtham api virodhi-lakṣaṇayā yoga-śabda-vācyaṃ vidyāj jānīyāc ca tu yoga-śabdānurodhāt kaṃcit sambandhaṃ pratipadyetety arthaḥ | tathā ca bhagavān patañjalir asūtrayat yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti | yogo bhavati duḥkhahā [6.17] iti yat prāg uktaṃ tad etad upasaṃhṛtam |

evaṃ-bhūte yoge niścayānirvedayoḥ sādhanatva-vidhānāyāha sa niścayeneti | sa

yathokta-phalo yogo niścayena śāstrācārya-vacana-tātparya-viṣayo ‚rthaḥ satya evety adhvayasāyena yoktavyo ‚bhyasanīyaḥ | anirviṇṇa-cetasā etāvatāpi kālena yogo na siddhaḥ kim ataḥ paraṃ kaṣṭam ity anutāpo nirvedas tad-rahitena cetasā | iha janmani janmāntare vā setsyati kiṃ tvarayety evaṃ dhairyam uktena manasety arthaḥ | tad etad gauḍa-pādā udājahruḥ –

utseka udadher yadvat kuśāgreāika-bindunā |
manaso nigrahas tadvad bhaved aparikhedataḥ || iti |

utseka utsecanaṃ śoṣaṇādhvasyāyena jaloddharaṇam iti yāvat | atra sampradāya-vida ākhyāyikām ācakṣate | kasyacit kila pakṣiṇo ‚ṇḍāni tīra-sthāni taraṅga-vegena sumudro ‚pajahāra | sa ca samudraṃ śoṣayiṣāmy eveti pravṛttaḥ sva-mukhāgreṇaikaikaṃ jala-bindum upari pracikṣepa | tadā ca bahubhiḥ pakṣibhir bandhu-vargair vāryamāṇo ‚pi naivopararāma | yadṛcchayā ca tatrāgatena nāradena nivārito ‚py asmin janmani janmāntare vā yena kenāpy upāyena samudraṃ śoṣayiṣyāmy eveti pratijajñe | tataś ca daivānukūlyāt kṛpālur nārado garuḍaṃ tat-sāhāyyāya preṣayāmāsa | samudras tvaj-jñāti-droheṇa tvām avamanyata iti vacanena | tato garuḍa-pakṣa-vātena śuṣyan samudro bhītas tāny aṇḍāni tasmai pakṣiṇe pradadāv iti | evam akhedena mano-nirodhe parama-dharme pravartamānaṃ yoginam īśvaro ‚nugṛhṇāti | tataś ca pakṣiṇa iva tasyābhimataṃ sidhyatīti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nātyaśnatas tu yogo ‚stīty ādau yoga-śabdena samādhir uktaḥ | sa ca saṃprajñāto ‚saṃprajñātaś ca | sa-vitarka-sa-vicāra-bhedāt saṃprajñāto bahu-vidhaḥ | asaṃprajñāta-samādhi-rūpo yogaḥ kīdṛśa ity apekṣāyām āha yatrety-ādi-sārdhais tribhiḥ | yatra samādhau sati cittam uparamate vastu-mātram eva na spṛśatīty arthaḥ | tatra hetuḥ niruddham iti | tathā ca pātañjala-sūtram – yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti | yatrety-ādi-padānāṃ yoga-saṃjñitaṃ vidyād iti caturthenānvayaḥ | ātmanā paramātmākārāntaḥkaraṇenātmānaṃ paśyan tasmin tuṣyati | tatratyaṃ sukhaṃ prāpnoti | yad ātyantikaṃ sukhaṃ prasiddham | atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-samparka-rahitam | ataeva yatra sthitaḥ san tattvata ātma-svarūpān naiva calati, ataeva yaṃ lābhaṃ labdhvā tataḥ sakāśād aparaṃ lābham adhikaṃ na manyate | duḥkhasya saṃyogena sparśa-mātreṇāpi viyogo yasmin taṃ yoga-saṃjñtaṃ yoga-saṃjñāṃ prāptaṃ samādhiṃ vidyāt | yadyapi śīghraṃ na sidhyati tad apy ayaṃ me yogaḥ saṃsetsyaty eveti yo niścayas tena | anirviṇṇa-cetasaitāvatāpi kālena yogo na siddhaḥ | kim ataḥ paraṃ kaṣṭenety anutāpo nirvedas tad-rahitena cetasā | iha janmani janmāntare vā sidhyatu, kiṃ me tvarayeti dhairya-yuktena manasety arthaḥ | tad etad gauḍa-pādā udājahruḥ –

utseka udadher yadvat kuśāgreāika-bindunā |
manaso nigrahas tadvad bhaved aparikhedataḥ || iti |

utseka utsecanam | śoṣaṇādhyavasāyena jaloddharaṇam iti yāvat | atra kācid ākhyāyikāsti | kasyacit kila pakṣiṇo ‚ṇḍāni tīra-sthitāni taraṅga-vegena sumudro jahāra | sa ca samudraṃ śoṣayiṣāmīty eveti pratijñāya sva-mukhāgreṇaikaikaṃ jala-bindum upari pracikṣepa | taṃ ca bahubhiḥ pakṣibhir bandhubhir yuktyā vāryamāṇo ‚pi naivopararāma | yadṛcchayā ca tatrāgatena nāradena nivārito ‚py asmin janmani janmāntare vā samudraṃ śoṣayiṣyāmy eveti tad-agre ‚pi punaḥ pratijajñe | tataś ca daivānukūlyāt kṛpālur nārado garuḍaṃ tat-sāhāyyāya preṣayāmāsa | samudras tvadīya-jñāti-droheṇa tvām avamanyata iti vākyena | tato garuḍa-pakṣa-vātena śuṣyan samudro ‚tibhītas tāny aṇḍāni tasmai pakṣiṇe dadāv iti |

evam eva śāstra-vacanāstikyena yoge jñāne bhaktau vā pravartamānam utsāhavantam adhyavasāyinaṃ janaṃ bhagavān evānugṛhṇātīti niścetavyam

 

Baladeva


nātyaśnata ity ādau yoga-śabdenoktaṃ samādhiṃ svarūpataḥ phalataś ca lakṣayati yatrety-ādi-sārdha-trayeṇa | yac-chabdānāṃ taṃ vidyād yoga-saṃjñitam ity uttareṇānvayaḥ | yogaysa sevayābhyāsena niruddhaṃ nivṛttetara-vṛttikaṃ cittaṃ yatroparamate mahat sukham etad iti sajjati | na tu dehādi paśyan viṣayeṣv iti citta-vṛtti-nirodhena svarūpeṇeṣṭa-prāpti-lakṣaṇena phalena ca yogo darśitaḥ | sukham iti | yatra samādhau yat tat prasiddham ātyantikaṃ nityaṃ sukhaṃ vetty anubhavati | atīndriyaṃ viṣayendriya-sambandha-rahitaṃ, buddhyātmākārayā grāhyam | ataeva yatra sthitas tattvata ātma-svarūpān naiva calati, yaṃ yogaṃ labdhvaiva tato ‚paraṃ lābham adhikaṃ na manyate | guruṇā guṇavat putra-vicchedādinā na vicāyate tam iti | duḥkha-saṃyogasya viyogaḥ pradhvaṃso yatra taṃ yoga-saṃjñtaṃ samādhim

 
 

BhG 6.24-25

saṃkalpa-prabhavān kāmāṃs tyaktvā sarvān aśeṣataḥ
manasaivendriya-grāmaṃ viniyamya samantataḥ
śanaiḥ śanair uparamed buddhyā dhṛti-gṛhītayā
ātma-saṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiṃ-cid api cintayet

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syntax


saṅkalpa-prabhavān (born from desires) sarvān kāmān (all lust) aśeṣataḥ (completely) tyaktvā (after abandoning),
manasā eva (only with the mind) samantataḥ (wholly) indriya-grāmam (group of the senses) viniyamya (after restraining),
dhṛti-gṛhītayā (by one grasped by determination) buddhyā (by intelligence) manaḥ (the mind) ātma-saṁstham (established in the self) kṛtvā (after doing)
śanaiḥ śanaiḥ (gradually) uparamet (he should stop),
kiñcit api (whatever else) na cintayet (he should not think).

 

grammar

saṁkalpa-prabhavān saṁkalpa-prabhava 2n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ saṅkalpāt prabhavo sti tān these which are born from desire (from: sam-kḷp – to be ready, to wish, saṁkalpa – idea, desire; pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce; prabhava – birth, source);
kāmān kāma 2n.3 m.wishes, desires, pleasures (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for);
tyaktvā tyaj (to abandon, to give up) absol.after abandoning;
sarvān sarva sn. 2n.3 m.all;
aśeṣataḥ av.completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
manasā manas 3n.1 n.with the mind (from: man – to think);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
indriya-grāmam indriya-grāma 2n.1 m.; [TP]: indriyāṇāṁ grāmam itigroup of the senses (from: ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; grāma – collection, multitude, village);
viniyamya vi-ni-yam (to restrain) absol.after restraining;
samantataḥ av. from every side, wholly (from: sam-anta – having the ends together, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);

*****

śanaiḥ śanaiḥ av. (3n.3)– quietly, softly, gradually (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy, śana – quiet, soft; repetitio as continuity);
uparamet upa-ram (to desist) Pot. P 1v.1he should stop;
buddhyā buddhi 3n.1 f. with intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
dhṛti-gṛhītayā dhṛti-gṛhītā 3n.1 f.; [TP]: dhṛtyā gṛhītayeti by one grasped by determination (from: dhṛ – to hold, dhṛti – firmness, determination; grah – to take, to grasp, [PP] gṛhīta – taken);
ātma-saṁstham ātma-saṁstha 2n.1 n.; yad ātmani samyak tiṣṭhati tat established in the self (from: sam-sthā – to stand together, to meet, to prosper, saṁstha – to be in, to depend on, to be present in, suffix: established);
manaḥ manas 2n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
na av.not;
kiṁ-cit kiṁ-cit sn. 2n.1 m.whatever (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
cintayet cint (to think, to consider) Pot. P 1v.1he should think;

 

textual variants


sarvān → kāmān / dharmān (desires / the laws);
dhṛti-gṛhītayā → diti-gṛhītayā / rati-gṛhītayā (by one grasped by dividing / by one grasped by love);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

saṃkalpa-prabhavān saṃkalpaḥ prabhavo yeṣāṃ kāmānāṃ te saṃkalpa-prabhavāḥ kāmās tān tyaktvā parityajya sarvān aśeṣato nirlepena | kiṃ ca, manasaiva viveka-yuktena indriya-grāmam indriya-samudāyaṃ viniyamya niyamanaṃ kṛtvā samantataḥ samantāt

śanaiḥ śanair na sahasoparamed uparatiṃ kuryāt | kayā ? buddhyā | kiṃ-viśiṣṭayā ? dhṛti-gṛhītayā dhṛtyā dhairyeṇa gṛhītayā dhṛti-gṛhītayā dhairyeṇa yuktayā ity arthaḥ | ātma-saṃstham ātmani saṃsthitam ātmaiva sarvaṃ na tato’nyat kiṃcid astīty evam ātma-saṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiṃcid api cintayet | eṣa yogasya paramo vidhiḥ

 

Rāmānuja


sparśajāḥ saṅkalpajāś ceti dvividhāḥ kāmāḥ, sparśajāḥ śītoṣṇādayaḥ, saṅkalpajāḥ putrakṣetrādayaḥ / tatra saṅkalpaprabhavāḥ svarūpeṇaiva tyaktuṃ śakyāḥ / tān sarvān manasaiva tadanvayānusandhānena tyaktvā sparśajeṣv avarjanīyeṣu tannimittaharṣodvegau tyaktvā samantataḥ sarvasmād viṣayāt sarvam indriyagrāmaṃ viniyamya śanaiś śanair dhṛtigṛhītayā vivekaviṣayayā buddhyā sarvasmād ātmavyatiriktād uparamya ātmasaṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiñcid api cintayet

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca saṅkalpeti | saṃkalpāt prabhavo yeṣāṃ tān yoga-pratikūlān sarvān kāmān aśeṣataḥ sa-vāsanāṃs tyaktvā manasaiva viṣaya-doṣa-darśinā sarvataḥ prasarantam indriya-samūhaṃ viśeṣeṇa niyamya | yogo yoktavya iti pūrveṇānvayaḥ

yadi tu prāktana-karma-saṃskāreṇa mano vicalet tarhi dhāraṇayā sthirīkuryād ity āha śanair iti | dhṛtir dhāraṇā | tayā gṛhītayā vaśīkṛtayā buddhyā | ātma-saṃstham ātmany eva samyak sthitaṃ niścalaṃ manaḥ kṛtvoparamet | tac ca śanaiḥ śanair abhyāsa-krameṇa | na tu sahasā | uparama-svarūpam āha na kiṃcid api cintayet | niścale manasi svayam eva prakāśamāna-paramānanda-svarūpo bhūtvātma-dhyānād api nivartetety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca kṛtvā yogo ‚bhyasnīyaḥ ? saṅkalpo duṣṭeṣv api viṣayeṣv aśobhanatvādarśanena śobhanādhyāsaḥ | tasmāc ca saṅkalpād idaṃ me syād idaṃ me syād ity evaṃ-rūpāḥ kāmāḥ prabhavanti | tān śobhanādhyāsa-prabhavān viṣayābhilāṣān vicāra-janyāśobhanatva-niścayena śobhanādhyāsa-bādhād dṛṣṭeṣu srak-candana-vanitādiṣv adṛṣṭeṣu cendra-loka-pārijātāpsaraḥ-prabhṛtiṣu śva-vānta-pāyasavat svata eva sarvān brahma-loka-paryantān aśeṣato niravaśeṣān savāsanāṃs tyaktvā, ataeva kāma-pūrvakatvād indirya-pravṛttes tad-apāye sati viveka-yuktena manasaivendriya-prāptaṃ cakṣur-ādi-karaṇa-samūhaṃ viniyamya samantataḥ sarvebhyo viṣayebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya śanaiḥ śanair uparamed ity anvayaḥ

bhūmikā-jaya-krameṇa śanaiḥ śanair uparamet | dhṛti-dhairyam akhinnatā tayā gṛhītā yā buddhir avaśya-kartavyatā-niścaya-rūpā tayā yadā kadācid avaśyaṃ bhaviṣyaty eva yogaḥ kiṃ tvarayety evaṃ-rūpayā śanaiḥ śanair gurūpadiṣṭa-mārgeṇa mano nirundhyāt | etenānirveda-niścayau prāg uktau darśitau | tathā ca śrutiḥ –

yacched vāṅ-manasī prājñas
tad yacchej jñāna ātmani |
jñānam ātmani mahati niyacchet
tad yacchec chānta ātmani || [KaṭhU 1.3.13] iti |

vāg iti vācaṃ laukikīṃ vaidikīṃ ca manasi vyāpāravati niyacchet | nānudhyāyād bahūn śabdān vāco viglāpanaṃ hi tat [BAU 4.4.21] iti śruteḥ | vāg-vṛtti-nirodhena mano-vṛtti-mātra-śeṣo bhaved ity arthaḥ | cakṣur-ādi-nirodho ‚py etasyāṃ bhūmau draṣṭavyaḥ | manasīti cchāndasaṃ dairghyam | tan manaḥ karmedriya-jñānendriya-sahakāri nana-vidha-vikalpa-sādhanaṃ karaṇaṃ jñāne jānātīti jñānam iti vyutpattyā jñātary ātmani jñātṛtvopādhāv ahaṅkāre niyacchet | mano-vyāpārān parityajyāhaṅkāra-mātraṃ pariśeṣayet | tac ca jñānaṃ jñātṛtvopādhim ahaṅkāram ātmani mahati mahat-tattve sarva-vyāpake niyacchet | dvividho hy ahaṅkāro viśeṣa-rūpaḥ sāmānya-rūpaś ceti | ayam aham etasya putra ity evaṃ vyaktam abhimanyamāno viśeṣa-rūpo vyaṣṭy-ahaṅkāraḥ | asmīty etāvan-mātram abhimanyamānaḥ sāmānya-rūpaḥ samaṣṭy-ahaṅkāraḥ | sa ca hiraṇyagarbho mahān ātmeti ca sarvānusyūtatvād ucyate | tābhyām ahaṅkārābhyāṃ vivikto nirupādhikaḥ śāntātmā sarvāntaś cid-eka-rasas tasmin mahāntam ātmānaṃ samaṣṭi-buddhiṃ niyacchet | evaṃ tat-kāraṇam avyaktam api niyacchet | tato nirupādhikas tvaṃ-pada-lakṣyaḥ śuddha ātmā sākṣātkṛtau bhavati |

śuddhe hi cid-eka-rase pratyag-ātmani jaḍa-śakti-rūpam anirvācyam avyaktaṃ prakṛtir upādhiḥ | sā ca prathamaṃ sāmānyāhaṅkāra-rūpaṃ mahat tattvaṃ nāma dhṛtvā vyaktībhavati | tato bahir viśeṣāhaṅkāra-rūpeṇa | tato bahir mano-rūpeṇa | tato bahir vāg-ādīn indriya-rūpeṇa | tad etac chrutyābhihitam –

indriyebhyaḥ parā hy arthā arthebhyaś ca paraṃ manaḥ |
manasas tu parā buddhir buddher ātmā mahān paraḥ ||
mahataḥ parama-vyaktam avyaktāt puruṣaḥ paraḥ |
puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcit sā kāṣṭhā sā parā gatiḥ || [KaṭhU 1.3.10-1] iti |

tatra gavādiṣv iva vāṅ-nirodhaḥ prathamā bhūmiḥ | bāla-mugdhādiṣv iva nirmanastvaṃ dvitīyā | tandryām ivāhaṅkāra-rāhityaṃ tṛtīyā | suṣuptāv iva mahat-tattva-śāntātmanor madhye mahat-tattvopādānam avyākṛtākhyaṃ tattvaṃ śrutyodāhāri, tathāpi tatra mahat-tattvasya niyamanaṃ nābhyadhāyi | suṣuptāv iva svarūpa-laya-prasaṅgāt | tasya ca karma-kṣaye sati puruṣa-prayatnam antareṇa svata eva siddhatvāt tattva-darśanānupayogitvāc ca | dṛśyate tvam agrayā buddhyā sūkṣmayā sūkṣma-darśibhiḥ iti pūrvam abhidhāya sūkṣmatva-siddhaye nirodha-samādher abhidhānāt | sa ca tattva-didṛkṣor darśana-sādhanatvena dṛṣṭa-tattvasya ca jīvan-mukti-rūpa-kleśa-kṣayāyāpekṣitaḥ |

nanu śāntātmany avaruddhasya cittasya vṛtti-rahitatvena suṣuptivan na darśana-hetutvam iti cet, na | svataḥ-siddhasya darśanasya nivārayitum aśakyatvāt | tad uktaṃ –

ātmānātmākāraṃ svabhāvato ‚sthitaṃ sadā cittam |
ātmaikākāratayā tiraskṛtānātma-dṛṣṭiṃ vidadhīta ||

yathā ghaṭa utpadyamānaḥ svato viyat-pūrṇaṃ evotpadyate | jala-taṇḍulādi-pūraṇaṃ tūtpanne ghaṭe paścāt puruṣa-prayatnena bhavati | tatra jalādau niḥsārite ‚pi viyan-niḥsārayituṃ na śakyate | mukha-pidhāne ‚py antarviyad avatiṣṭhata eva tathā cittam utpadyamānaṃ caitanya-pūrṇam evotpadyate | utpanne tu tasmin mūṣāniṣikta-druta-tāmravad ghaṭa-duḥkhādi-rūpatvaṃ bhoga-hetu-dharmādharma-sahakṛta-sāmagrī-vaśād bhavati | tatra ghaṭa-duḥkhādy-anātmākāre virāma-pratyayābhyāsena nivārite ‚pi nirnimittaś cid-ākāro vārayituṃ na śakyate | tato nirodha-samādhinā nirvṛttikena cittena saṃskāra-mātra-śeṣatayātisūkṣmatvena nirupādhika-cid-ātma-mātrābhimukhatvād vṛttiṃ vinaiva nirvighnam ātmānubhūyate | tad etad āha ātma-saṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiṃcid api cintayed iti | ātmani nirupādhike pratīci saṃsthā samāptir yasya tad-ātma-saṃsthaṃ sarva-prakāra-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ svabhāva-siddhātmākāra-mātra-viśiṣṭaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā dhṛti-gṛhītayā viveka-buddhyā sampādyāsaṃprajñāta-samādhi-sthaḥ san kiṃcid api anātmānam ātmānaṃ vā na cintayet, na vṛttyā viṣayīkuryāt | anātmākāra-vṛttau hi vyutthānam eva syāt | ātmākāra-vṛttau ca samprajñātaḥ samādhir ity asamprajñāta-samādhi-sthairyāya kām api citta-vṛttiṃ notpādayed ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etādṛśa-yogābhyāse pravṛttasya prāthamikaṃ kṛtyam antyaṃ ca kṛtyam āha saṅkalpeti dvābhyām | kāmāṃs tyaktveti prāthamikaṃ kṛtyam | na kiṃcid api cintayed ity antyaṃ kṛtyam

 

Baladeva


sa yogaḥ prārambha-daśāyāṃ niścayena prayatne kṛte saṃsetsyaty evety adhyavasāyena yoktavyo ‚nuṣṭheyaḥ | ātmany ayogatva-mananaṃ nirvedas tad-rahitena cetasā hṛtāṇḍārṇava-śoṣakat-pakṣivat sotsāhenety arthaḥ | etādṛśaṃ yogam ārabhamāṇasya prāthamikaṃ kṛtyam āha saṅkalpeti | saṅkalpāt prabhavo yeṣāṃ tān yoga-virodhinaḥ kāmān viṣayān aśeṣataḥ sa-vāsanāṃs tyaktvā | sphuṭam anyat | manasā viṣaya-doṣa-darśinā

antimaṃ kṛtyam āha dhṛti-gṛhītayā dhāraṇāvaśīkṛtyā buddhyā mana ātma-saṃsthaṃ kṛtvātmānaṃ dhyātvā samādhāv uparameta tiṣṭhet | ātmano ‚nyat kiṃcid api na cintayet | etac ca śanaiḥ śanair abhyāsa-krameṇa, na tu haṭhena

 
 

BhG 6.26

yato yato niścarati manaś cañcalam asthiram
tatas tato niyamyaitad ātmany eva vaśaṃ nayet

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syntax


cañcalam (flickering) asthiram (unstedy) manaḥ (the mind) yataḥ yataḥ (from where) niścarati (it moves)
tataḥ tataḥ (from there) etat (that) niyamya (after restraining)
ātmani eva (only in the self) vaśam (under control) nayet (he should lead).

 

grammar

yataḥ yataḥ av.from which; from whichever (from: yat – który; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas; distributive use);
niścarati niḥ-car (to move, to go) Praes. P 1v.1 it moves;
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
cañcalam cañcala 1n.1 n.flickering, unsteady, shaking (from: cal – to move, to shake, intens. cañcal – to move strongly);
asthiram a-sthira 2n.1 n.unsteady, uncertain (from: sthā – to stand);
tataḥ tataḥ av.from that; from whatever (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas; distributive use);
niyamya ni-yam (to restrain) absol.after restraining;
etat etat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
vaśam vaśa 2n.1 m. under control (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command);
nayet (to lead) Pot. P 1v.1he should lead;

 

textual variants


niścarati → niḥsarati / niścalati / nivartate (it follows / it stays / it stops);
manaś cañcalam → manaś ca calam (and mind flickering);
vaśam → śamaṁ (tranquility);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tatra evam ātma-saṃsthaṃ manaḥ kartuṃ pravṛtto yogī—

yato yato yasmād yasmān nimittāt śabdāder niścarati nirgacchati svabhāva-doṣān manaś cañcalam atyarthaṃ calam, ata evāsthiram, tatas tatas tasmāt tasmāt śabdāder nimittān niyamya tat-tan-nimittaṃ yāthātmya-nirūpaṇena śabdādeḥ nimittān niyamya tat-tan-namittaṃ yāthātmya-nirūpaṇena ābhāsīkṛtya vairāgya-bhāvanayā ca etat mana ātmany eva vaśaṃ nayet ātma-vaśyatām āpādayet | evaṃ yogābhyāsa-balāt yogina ātmany eva praśāmyati manaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


calasvabhāvatayātmany asthiraṃ manaḥ yato yato viṣayaprāvaṇyahetoḥ bahiḥ niścarati, tatas tato yatnena mano niyamya ātmany eva atiśayitasukhabhāvanayā vaśaṃ nayet

 

Śrīdhara


evam api rajo-guṇa-vaśād yadi manaḥ pracalet tarhi punaḥ pratyāhāreṇa vaśīkuryād ity āha yato yata iti | svabhāvataś cañcalaṃ dhāryamāṇam apy asthiraṃ mano yaṃ yaṃ viṣayaṃ prati nirgacchati, tatas tataḥ pratyāhṛtyātmany eva sthiraṃ kuryāt

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ nirodha-samādhiṃ kurvan yogī śabdādīnāṃ citta-vikṣepa-hetūnāṃ madhye yato yato yasmād yasmān nimittāc chabdāder viṣayād rāga-dveṣādeś ca cañcalaṃ vikṣepābhimukhaṃ san mano niścarati vikṣiptaṃ sad viṣayābhimukhīṃ pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-smṛtīnām anyatamām api samādhi-virodhinīṃ vṛttim utpādayati, tathā laya-hetūnāṃ nidrāśeṣa-bahv-aśana-śramādīnāṃ madhye yato yato nimittād asthiraṃ layābhimukhaṃ san mano niścarati līnaṃ sat samādhi-virodhinīṃ nidrākhyāṃ vṛttim utpādayati, tatas tato vikṣepa-nimittāl laya-nimittāc ca niyamyaitan mano nirvṛttikaṃ kṛtvātmany eva sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-ghane vaśaṃ nayen nirundhyāt | yathā na vikṣipyeta na vā līyeteti | eva-kāro ‚nātma-gocaratvaṃ samādher vārayati | etac ca vivṛtaṃ gauḍācārya-pādaiḥ-

upāyena nigṛhṇīyād vikṣiptaṃ kāma-bhogayoḥ |
suprasannaṃ laye caiva yathā kāmo layas tathā ||
duḥkhaṃ sarvam anusmṛtya kāma-bhogān nivartayet |
ajaṃ sarvam anusmṛtya jātaṃ naiva tu paśyati ||
laye sambodhayec cittaṃ vikṣiptaṃ śamayet punaḥ |
sakaṣāyaṃ vijānīyāt sama-prāptaṃ na cālayet ||
nāsvādayet sukhaṃ tatra niḥsaṅgaḥ prajñayā bhavet |
niścalaṃ nicśarac cittam ekīkuryāt prayatnataḥ ||
yadā na līyate cittaṃ na ca vikṣipyate punaḥ |
aniṅganam anābhāsaṃ niṣpannaṃ brahma tat tadā || iti pañcabhiḥ ślokaiḥ |

upāyena vakṣyamāṇena vairāgyābhyāsena kāma-bhogayor vikṣiptaṃ pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-smṛtīnām anyatamayāpi vṛttyā pariṇataṃ mano nigṛhṇīyān nirundhyād ātmany evety arthaḥ | kāma-bhogayor iti cintyamānāvasthā-bhujyamānāvasthā-bhedena dvi-vacanam | tathā līyate ‚sminn iti layaḥ suṣuptaṃ tasmin suprasannam āyāsa-varjitam api mano nigṛhṇīyād eva | suprasannaṃ cet kuto nigṛhyate ? tatrāha – yathā kāmo viṣaya-gocara-pramāṇādi-vṛtty-utpādanena samādhi-virodhī tathā layo ‚pi nidrākhya-vṛtty-utpādanena samādhi-virodhī | sarva-vṛtti-nirodho hi samādhiḥ | ataḥ kāmādi-kṛta-vikṣepād iva śramādi-kṛta-layād api mano niroddhavyam ity arthaḥ |

upāyena nigṛhṇīyāt kena ? ity ucyate sarvaṃ dvaitam avidyā-vijṛmbhitam alpaṃ duḥkham evety anusmṛtya — yo vai bhūmā tat sukhaṃ, nālpe sukham asti | [ChāU 7.23.1] atha yad alpaṃ tan martyaṃ [ChāU 7.23.1] tad duḥkham iti śruty-arthaṃ gurūpadeśād anu paścāt paryālocya kāmāṃś cintyamānāvasthān viṣayān bhogān bhujyamānāvasthāṃś ca viṣayān nivartayet | manasaḥ sakāśād iti śeṣaḥ | kāmaś ca bhogaś ca kāma-bhogaṃ tasmān mano nivartayed iti vā | evaṃ dvaita-smaraṇa-kāle vairāgya-bhāvanopāya ity arthaḥ | dvaita-vismaraṇaṃ tu paramopāya ity āha ajaṃ brahma sarvaṃ na tato ‚tiriktaṃ kiṃcid astīti śāstrācāryopadeśād anantaram anusmṛtya tad-viparītaṃ dvaita-jātaṃ na paśyaty eva | adhiṣṭhāne jñāne kalpitasyābhāvāt | pūrvopāyāpekṣayā vailakṣaṇya-sūcanārthas tu-śabdaḥ |

evaṃ vairāgya-bhāvanā-tattva-darśanābhyāṃ viṣayebhyo nivartyamānaṃ cittaṃ yadi dainandina-layābhyāsa-vaśāl layābhimukhaṃ bhavet tadā nidrā-śeṣājīrṇa-bahv-aśana-śramāṇāṃ laya-kāraṇānāṃ nirodhena cittaṃ samyak prabodhayed utthāna-prayatnena | yadi punar evaṃ prabodhyamānaṃ dainandina-prabodhābhyāsa-vaśāt kāma-bhogayor vikṣiptaṃ syāt tadā vairāgya-bhāvanayā tattva-sākṣātkāreṇa ca punaḥ śamayet | evaṃ punaḥ punar abhyasyato layāt sambodhitaṃ viṣayebhyaś ca vyāvartitam | nāpi samaprāptam antarālāvasthaṃ cittaṃ stabdhībhūtaṃ, sa-kaṣāyaṃ rāga-dveṣādi-prabala-vāsanā-vaśena stabdhībhāvākhyena kaṣāyeṇa doṣeṇa yuktaṃ vijānīyāt samāhitāc cittād vivekena jānīyāt |

tataś ca nedaṃ samāhitam ity avagamya laya-vikṣepābhyām iva kaṣāyād api cittaṃ nirundhyāt | tataś ca laya-vikṣepa-kaṣāyeṣu parihṛteṣu pariśeṣāc cittena samaṃ brahma prāpyate | tac ca samaprāptaṃ cittaṃ kaṣāya-laya-bhrāntyā na cālayet, viṣayābhimukhaṃ na kuryāt | kintu dhṛti-gṛhītayā buddhyā laya-kaṣāya-prāpter vivicya tasyām eva sama-prāptāv atiyatnena sthāpayet | tatra samādhau parama-sukha-vyañjake ‚pi sukhaṃ nāsvādayet | etāvantaṃ kālam ahaṃ sukhīti sukhāsvāda-rūpāṃ vṛttiṃ na kuryāt samādhi-bhaṅga-prasaṅgāt iti prāg eva kṛta-vyākhyānam | prajñayā yad upalabhyate sukhaṃ tad apy avidyā-parikalpitaṃ mṛṣaivety evaṃ-bhāvanayā niḥsaṅgo nispṛhaḥ sarva-sukheṣu bhavet |

athavā prajñayā sa-vikalpa-sukhākāra-vṛtti-rūpayā saha saṅgaṃ parityajet | na tu svarūpa-sukham api nirvṛttikena cittena nānubhavet svabhāva-prāptasya tasya vārayitum aśakyatvāt | evaṃ sarvato nivartya niścalaṃ prayatna-vaśena kṛtaṃ cittaṃ svabhāva-cāñcalyād viṣayābhimukhatayā niścarad bahir nirgacchad ekīkuryāt prayatnataḥ, nirodha-prayatnena same brahmaṇy ekatāṃ nayet |

sama-prāptaṃ cittaṃ kīdṛśam ? ity ucyate yadā na līyate nāpi stabdhībhavati tāmasatva-sāmyena laya-śabdenaiva stabdhībhāvasyopalakṣaṇāt | na ca vikṣipyate punaḥ, na śabdādy-ākāra-vṛttim anubhavati | nāpi sukham āsvādayati, rājasatva-sāmyena sukhāsvādasyāpi vikṣepa-śabdenopalakṣaṇāt | pūrvaṃ bheda-nirdeśas tu pṛthak-prayatna-karaṇāya | evaṃ laya-kaṣāyābhyāṃ vikṣepa-sukhāsvādābhyāṃ ca rahitam aniṅganam iṅganaṃ calanaṃ sa-vāta-pradīpaval layābhimukhya-rūpaṃ tad-rahitaṃ nivāta-pradīpa-kalpam | anābhāsaṃ na kenacid viṣayākāreṇābhāsata ity etat | kaṣāya-sukhāsvādayor ubhayāntarbhāva ukta eva | yadaivaṃ doṣa-catuṣṭaya-rahitaṃ cittaṃ bhavati tadā tac cittaṃ brahma niṣpannaṃ samaṃ brahma prāptaṃ bhavatīty arthaḥ |

etādṛśaś ca yogaḥ śrutyā pratipāditaḥ –

yadā pañcāvatiṣṭhante jñānāni manasā saha |
buddhiś ca na viceṣṭeta tām āhuḥ paramāṃ gatim ||
tāṃ yogam iti manyante sthirām indriya-dhāraṇām |
apramattas tadā bhavati yogo hi prabhavāpyayau || [KaṭhU 2.3.11-2] iti |

etan-mūlakam eva ca yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.2] iti sūtram | tasmād yuktaṃ tatas tato niyamyaitad ātmany evaṃ vaśaṃ nayed iti

 

Viśvanātha


yadi ca prāktana-doṣodgama-vaśād rajo-guṇa-spṛṣṭaṃ manaś cañcalaṃ syāt, tadā punar yogam abhyased ity āha yato yata iti

 

Baladeva


yadi kadācit prāktana-sūkṣma-doṣān manaḥ pracalet tadā tat pratyāhared ity āha yata iti | yaṃ yaṃ viṣayaṃ prati mano nirgacchati, tatas tata etan mano niyamya pratyāhṛtyātmany eva niratiśaya-sukhatva-bhāvanayā vaśaṃ kuryāt

 
 

BhG 6.27

praśānta-manasaṃ hy enaṃ yoginaṃ sukham uttamam
upaiti śānta-rajasaṃ brahma-bhūtam akalmaṣam

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uttamam (supreme) sukham (happiness) enam (to this) śānta-rajasam (whose rajas is pacified) praśānta-manasam (whose mind is pacified) akalmaṣam (sinless) brahma-bhūtam (being brahman) yoginam hi (indeed to a yogī) upaiti (it comes).

 

grammar

praśānta-manasam praśānta-manas 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya manaḥ praśāntam asti tamwhose mind is pacified (from: pra-śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy, [PP] praśānta – pacified, calm; man – to think, manas – the mind);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.to this;
yoginam yogin 2n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
sukham sukha 1n.1 n.happiness, pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
uttamam uttama 1n.1 n.uppermost, highest, most elevated (superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
upaiti upa-i (to go near, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1it comes;
śānta-rajasam śānta-rajas 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya rajaḥ śāntam asti tam whose rajas is pacified (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy, [PP] śānta – calm, tranquil; rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas – coloured, dust, passion);
brahma-bhūtam brahma-bhūta 2n.1 m.; [TP]: brahmaṇi bhūtam itibeing in brahman / being brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
akalmaṣam a-kalmaṣa 2n.1 m.spotless, sinless (from: karma+so – destroying good acts);

 

textual variants


yoginaṁ sukham uttamamyoginaṁ sukham uttaram / yasmād yoginam uttamaṁ (higher happiness, to a yogī / from which to a yogī highest);
upaiti → abhyeti (it comes);
śānta-rajasaṁ → śāṁti-rajasaṁ / śāṁta-manasam (having pacified rajas / having pacified mind);

 
 

Śāṃkara


praśāntamanasaṃ prakarṣeṇa śāntaṃ mano yasya saḥ praśāntamanās taṃ praśāntamanasaṃ hi enaṃ yoginaṃ sukham uttamaṃ nitiśayam upaiti upagacchati śānta-rajasaṃ prakṣīṇa-mohādi-kleśa-rajasam ity arthaḥ, brahma-bhūtaṃ jīvanmuktaṃ brahmaiva sarvam ity evaṃ niścayavantaṃ brahma-bhūtam akalmaṣaṃ dharmādharmādi-varjitam

 

Rāmānuja


praśāntamanasam ātmani niścalamanasam, ātmanyastamanasaṃ tad eva hetor dagdhāśeṣakalmaṣam, tata eva śāntarajasaṃ vinaṣṭarajoguṇam, tata eva brahmabhūtaṃ svasvarūpeṇāvasthitam enaṃ yoginam ātmasvarūpānubhavarūpam uttamaṃ sukham upaiti / hīti hetau; uttamasukharūpatvād ātmasvarūpasyetyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ pratyāhārādibhiḥ punaḥ punar mano vaśīkurvan rajo-guṇa-kṣaye sati yoga-sukhaṃ prāpnotīty āha praśānteti | evam ukta-prakāreṇa śāntaṃ rajo yasya tam | ataeva praśāntaṃ mano yasya tam enaṃ niṣkalmaṣam brahmatvaṃ prāptaṃ yoginaṃ uttamam sukhaṃ samādhi-sukhaṃ svayam evopaiti prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ yogābhyāsa-balād ātmany eva yoginaḥ praśāmyati manaḥ | tataś ca praśānteti | prakarṣeṇa śāntaṃ nirvṛttikatayā niruddhaṃ saṃskāra-mātra-śeṣaṃ mano yasya taṃ praśānta-manasaṃ vṛtti-śūnyatayā nirmanaskam | nirmanaskatve hetu-garbhaṃ viśeṣaṇa-dvayaṃ śānta-rajasaṃ akalmaṣam iti | śāntaṃ vikṣepakaṃ rajo yasya taṃ vikṣepa-śūnyam | tathā na vidyate kalmaṣam laya-hetus tamo yasya tam akalmaṣam laya-śūnyam | śānta-rajasam ity anenaiva tamo-guṇopalakṣaṇe ‚ kalmaṣam saṃsāra-hetu-dharmādharmādi-varjitam iti vā | brahma-bhūtaṃ brahmaiva sarvam iti niścayena samaṃ brahma prāptaṃ jīvan-muktam enaṃ yoginam | evam uktena prakāreṇeti śrīdharaḥ | uttamaṃ niratiśayaṃ sukham upaity upagacchati | manas tad-vṛttyor abhāve suṣuptau svarūpa-sukhāvirbhāva-prasiddhiṃ dyotayati hi-śabdaḥ | tathā ca prāg-vyākhyātaṃ sukham ātyantikaṃ yat tad ity atra

 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca pūrvavad eva tasya samādhisukhaṃ syād ity āha praśānteti | sukhaṃ kartṛ yoginam upaiti prāpnoti

 

Baladeva


evaṃ prayatamānasya pūrvavad eva samādhi-sukhaṃ syād ity āha praśānteti | praśāntam ātmany acalaṃ mano yasya tam | ataevākalmaṣaṃ dagdha-prāktana-sūkṣma-doṣam | ataeva śānta-rajasam | brahma-bhūtaṃ sākṣāt-kṛta-viviktāvirbhāvitāṣṭa-guṇakātma-svarūpaṃ yoginaṃ praty uttamam ātmānubhava-rūpaṃ mahat sukhaṃ kartā svayam evopaiti

 
 

BhG 6.28

yuñjann evaṃ sadātmānaṃ yogī vigata-kalmaṣaḥ
sukhena brahma-saṃsparśam atyantaṃ sukham aśnute

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evam vigata-kalmaṣaḥ (thus he whose sin is gone) sadā (always) ātmānam (self) yuñjan ([while] engaging) yogī (a yogī)
sukhena (easily) brahma-saṁsparśam (being a brahman perception) atyantam (unlimited) sukham (happiness) aśnute (he rejoices).

 

grammar

yuñjan yuñjant (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) PPr 1n.1[while] engaging;
evam av.thus;
sadā av.always;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
vigata-kalmaṣaḥ vigata-kalmaṣa 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya kalmaṣo vigato ‘sti saḥwhose sin is gone (from: vi-gam – to go away, [PP] vigata – gone; karma+so – destroying good acts, kalmaṣa – dirt, stain, sin);
sukhena av. (1n.3) – easily (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
brahma-saṁsparśam brahma-saṁsparśa 2n.1 n.; BV: yasmin brahmanaḥ saṁsparśo ‘sti tatin which there is brahman perception (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; sam-spṛś – to touch, saṁsparśa – touch, sensation);
atyantam aty-anta 2n.1 n.excessive, entire, unlimited (from: ati – prefix: beyond; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
sukham sukha 2n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
aśnute (to reach, to eat, to enjoy) Praes. Ā 1v.1he attains;

 

textual variants


yuñjann evaṁ → yujannevaṁ / evaṁ yuṁjan (thus [while] engaging);
yogī vigata-kalmaṣaḥyogī niyata-mānasaḥ / mad-bhaktau nānya-mānasaḥ (a yogī, whose mind is restrained / whose mind is focused on love to me);
brahma-saṁsparśam → brahma-saṁyogam (being in contact with brahman);
atyantaṁ sukham aśnute → atyaṁta-sukham aśnute / atyaṁtam adhigacchati (he obtains unlimited happiness / he goes till beyond the end);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yuñjann evaṃ yathoktena krameṇa yogī yogāntarāya-varjitaḥ sadā sarvadātmānaṃ vigata-kalmaṣo vigata-pāpaḥ, sukhenānāyāsena brahma-saṃsparśaṃ brahmaṇā pareṇa saṃsparśo yasya tat brahma-saṃsparrśaṃ sukham atyantam antam atītya vartata ity atyantam utkṛṣṭaṃ niratiśayam aśnute vyāpnoti

 

Rāmānuja


evam uktaprakāreṇātmānaṃ yuñjan tenaiva vigataprācīnasamastakalmaṣo brahmasaṃsparśaṃ brahmānubhavarūpaṃ sukham atyantam aparimitaṃ sukhena anāyāsena sadāśunute

 

Śrīdhara


tataś ca kṛtārtho bhavatīty āha yuñjann iti | evam anena prakāreṇa sarvadātmānaṃ mano yuñjan vaśīkurvan | viśeṣeṇa sarvātmanā | vigataṃ kalmaṣaṃ yasya saḥ | yogī sukhenānāyāsena brahmaṇaḥ saṃsparśo ‚vidyā-nivartakaḥ sākṣātkāras tad evātyantaṃ sukham aśnute | jīvanmukto bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


uktaṃ sukhaṃ yoginaḥ sphuṭīkaroti yuñjann iti | evam manasaivendriya-grāmam ity ādy-ukta-krameṇātmānaṃ manaḥ sadā yuñjan samādadhad yogī yogena nitya-sambandhī vigata-kalmaṣo vigata-malaḥ saṃsāra-hetu-dharmādharma-rahitaḥ sukhenānāyāseneśvara-praṇidhānāt sarvāntarāya-nivṛttyā brahma-saṃsparśaṃ samyaktvena viṣayāsparśena saha brahmaṇaḥ sparśas tādātmyaṃ yasmiṃs tad-viṣayāsaṃsparśi brahma-svarūpam ity etat | atyantaṃ sarvānantān paricchedān atikrāntaṃ niratiśayaṃ sukham ānandam aśnute vyāpnoti, sarvato-nirvṛttikena cittena laya-vikṣepa-vilakṣaṇam anubhavati, vikṣepe vṛtti-sattvāt, laye ca manaso ‚pi svarūpeṇāsattvāt | sarva-vṛtti-śūnyena sūkṣmeṇa manasā sukhānubhavaḥ samādhāv evety arthaḥ |

atra cānāyāsenety antarāya-nivṛttir uktā | te cāntarāyā darśitā yoga-sūtreṇa – vyādhi-styāna-saṃśaya-pramādālasyāvirati-bhrānti-darśanālabdha-bhūmikatvānavasthitatvāni citta-vikṣepās te ‚ntarāyāḥ [YogaS 1.30] | cittaṃ vikṣipanti yogād apanayantīti citta-vikṣepā yoga-pratipakṣāḥ | saṃśaya-bhrānti-darśane tāvad vṛtti-rūpatayā vṛtti-nirodhasya sākṣāt-pratipakṣau | vyādhy-ādayas tu sapta vṛtti-sahacaritatayā tat-pratipakṣā ity arthaḥ | vyādhir dhātu-vaiṣamya-nimitto vikāro jvarādiḥ | styānam akarmaṇyatā guruṇā śikṣyamāṇasyāpy āsanādi-karmānarhateti yāvat | yogaḥ sādhanīyo na vety ubhaya-koṭi-spṛg-vijñānaṃ saṃśayaḥ | sa cātad-rūpa-pratiṣṭhatvena viparyayāntargato ‚pi sann ubhaya-koṭi-sparśitvaika-koṭi-sparśitva-rūpāvāntara-viśeṣa-vivakṣayātra viparyayād bhedenoktaḥ | pramādaḥ samādhi-sādhanānām anuṣṭhāna-sāmarthye ‚py ananuṣṭhāna-śīlatā viṣayāntara vyāpratatayā yoga-sādhaneṣv audāsīnyam iti yāvat | ālasyaṃ satyām apy audāsīnya-pracyutau kaphādinā tamasā ca kāya-cittayor gurutvam | tac ca vyādhitvenāprasiddham api yoga-viṣaye pravṛtti-virodhi | aviratiś cittasya viṣaya-viśeṣa aikāntiko ‚bhilāṣaḥ | bhrānti-darśanaṃ yogāsādhane ‚pi tat-sādhanatva-buddhis tathā tat-sādhane ‚piy asādhanatva-buddhiḥ | alabdha-bhūmikatvaṃ samādhi-bhūmer ekāgratāyā alābhaḥ | kṣipta-mūḍha-vikṣipta-rūpatvam iti yāvat | anavasthitatvaṃ labdhāyām api samādhi-bhūmau prayatna-śaithilyāc cittasya tatrāpratiṣṭhitatvam | ta ete citta-vikṣepā nava yogamalā yoga-pratipakṣā yogāntarāyā iti cābhidhīyante |

duḥkha-daurmanasyāṅgam ejayatva-śvāsa-praśvāsā vikṣepa-saha-bhuvaḥ [YogaS 1.31] duḥkhaṃ cittasya rājasaḥ pariṇāmo bādhanālakṣaṇaḥ | tac cādhyātmikaṃ śārīraṃ mānasaṃ ca vyādhi-vaśāt kāmādi-vaśāc ca bhavati | ādhibhautikaṃ graha-pīḍādi-janitaṃ dveṣākhya-viparyaya-hetutvāt samādhi-virodhi | daurmanasyam icchā-vighātādi-balavad duḥkhānubhava-janitaś cittasya tāmasaḥ pariṇāma-viśeṣaḥ kṣobhā-para-paryāyaḥ stabdhībhāvaḥ | sa tu kaṣāyatvāl laya-vat samādhi-virodhī | aṅgam ejayatvam aṅga-kampanam āsana-sthairya-virodhi | prāṇena bāhyasya vāyor antaḥ-praveśanaṃ śvāsaḥ samādhy-aṅga-recaka-virodhī | prāṇana koṣṭhyasya vāyor bahir niḥsaraṇaṃ praśvāsaḥ samādhy-aṅga-pūraka-virodhī | samāhita-cittasyaite na bhavanti vikṣipta-cittasyaiva bhavantīti vikṣepa-sahabhuvo ‚ntarāyā eva | ete ‚bhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ niroddhavyāḥ | īśvara-praṇidhānena vā | tīvra-saṃvegānām āsanne [YogaS 1.21] samādhi-lābhe prastuta īśvara-praṇidhānād vā [YogaS 1.23] iti pakṣāntaram uktvā praṇidheyam īśvaraṃ kleśa-karma-vipākāśayair aparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvaraḥ | tatra niratiśayaṃ sarvajñatva-bījam | sa pūrveṣām api guruḥ kālenānavacchedāt [YogaS 1.24-6] iti tribhiḥ sūtraiḥ pratipādya tat-praṇidhānaṃ dvābhyām asūtrayat — tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ | taj-japas tad-artha-bhāvanam [YogaS 1.27-8] iti | tataḥ pratyak-cetanādhigamo ‚py antarāyābhāvaś ca [YogaS 1.29] tataḥ praṇava-japa-rūpāt tad-artha-dhyāna-rūpāc ceśvara-praṇidhānāt pratyak-cetanasya puruṣasya prakṛti-vivekenādhigamaḥ sākṣātkāro bhavati | uktānām antarāyāṇām abhāvo ‚pi bhavatīty arthaḥ |

abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyām antarāya-nivṛttau kartavyāyām abhyāsa-dārḍhyārtham āha — tat-pratiṣedhārtham eka-tattvābhyāsaḥ [YogaS 1.32] | teṣām antarāyāṇāṃ pratiṣedhārtahm ekasmin kasmiṃścid abhimate tattve ‚bhyāsaś cetasaḥ punaḥ punar niveśanaṃ kāryam | tathā — maitrī-karuṇā-muditopekṣaṇāṃ sukha-duḥkha-puṇyāpuṇya-viṣayāṇāṃ bhāvanātaś citta-prasādanam [YogaS 1.33] | maitrī sauhārdaṃ, karuṇā kṛpā, muditā harṣaḥ, upekṣaudāsīnyam, sukhādi-śabdais tadvantaḥ pratipādyante | sarva-prāṇiṣu sukha-sambhogāpanneṣu sādhv etan mama mitrāṇāṃ sukhitvam iti maitrīṃ bhāvayet | na tv īrṣyām | duḥkhiteṣu kathaṃ nu nāmaiṣā duḥkha-nivṛttiḥ syād iti kṛpām eva bhāvayet | nopekṣāṃ na vā harṣam | puṇyavatsu puṇyānumodanena harṣaṃ kuryān na tu vidveṣaṃ na copekṣām | apuṇyavatsu caudāsīnyam eva bhāvayen nānumodanaṃ na vā dveṣam | evam asya bhāvayataḥ śuklo dharma upajāyate | tataś ca vigata-rāga-dveṣādi-malaṃ cittaṃ prasannaṃ sad ekāgratā-yogyaṃ bhavati | maitry-ādi-catuṣṭayaṃ copalakṣaṇam abhayaṃ sattva-saṃśuddhir ity ādīnām amānitvam adambhitvam ity ādīnāṃ ca dharmāṇām, sarveṣām eteṣāṃ śubha-vāsanā-rūpatvena malina-vāsanā-nivartakatvāt | rāga-dveṣau mahā-śatrū sarva-puruṣārtha-pratibandhakau mahatā prayatnena parihartavyāv ity etat-sūtrārthaḥ |

evam anye ‚pi prāṇāyāmādaya upāyāś citta-prasādanāya darśitāḥ | tad etac citta-prasādanaṃ bhagavad-anugraheṇa yasya jātaṃ taṃ praty evaitad vacanam – sukheneti | anyathā manaḥ-praśamānupapatteḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca kṛtārtha eva bhavatīty āha yuñjann iti | sukham aśnute jīvan-mukta eva bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ svātma-sākṣātkārānantaraṃ paramātma-sākṣātkāraś ca labhata ity āha yuñjann iti | evam ukta-prakāreṇa ātmānaṃ svaṃ yuñjan yogenānubhavata tenaiva vigata-kalmaṣo dagdha-sarva-doṣo yogī sukhenānāyāsena brahma-saṃsparśaṃ paramātmānubhavam atyantam aparimitaṃ sukham aśnute prāpnoti

 
 

BhG 6.29

sarva-bhūta-stham ātmānaṃ sarva-bhūtāni cātmani
īkṣate yoga-yuktātmā sarvatra sama-darśanaḥ

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syntax


yoga-yuktātmā (whose self is engaged in yoga) sarvatra sama-darśanaḥ (everywhere having the same vision)
ātmānam (self) sarva-bhūta-stham (situated in all beings)
sarva-bhūtāni ca (and all creatures) ātmani (in the self) īkṣate (he sees).

 

grammar

sarva-bhūta-stham sarva-bhūta-stha 2n.1 m.yo sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhati tamwho is situated in all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
sarva-bhūtāni sarva-bhūta 2n.3 n.; KD: sarvāṇi bhūtānītiall beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
ca av.and;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
īkṣate īkṣ (to see) Praes. Ā 1v.1he sees;
yoga-yuktātmā yoga-yuktātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā yoge yukto ‘sti saḥwhose self is engaged in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with, ātman – self);
or: BV: yasyātmā yogena yukto ‘sti saḥwhose self is engaged by yoga;
sarvatra av.everywhere, in every case (from: sarva – all; indeclinable locative with an ending –tra);
sama-darśanaḥ sama-darśana 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya darśanaṁ samam asti saḥ who has equal vision (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; dṛś – to see, darśana – seeing, observing, vision);

 

textual variants


īkṣate → paśyate / ikṣeta / paśyato (he sees / he should see / they two see);
sama-darśanaḥsama-darśinaḥ (of one seeing equal);

The second pada of verse BhG 6.29 is similar to the third pada of verse: īśāvāsyopaniṣad 6;

 
 

Śāṃkara


idānīṃ yogasya yat phalaṃ brahmaikatva-darśanaṃ sarva-saṃsāra-viccheda-kāraṇaṃ tat pradarśayate—

sarva-bhūta-sthaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu sthitaṃ svam ātmānaṃ sarva-bhūtāni ca ātmani brahmādīni stamba-paryantāni ca sarva-bhūtāni ātmany ekatāṃ gatāni īkṣate paśyati yoga-yuktātmā samāhitāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ sarvatra sama-darśanaḥ sarveṣu brahmādi-sthāvarānteṣu viṣameṣu sarva-bhūteṣu samaṃ nirviśeṣaṃ brahmātmaikatva-viṣayaṃ darśanaṃ jñānaṃ yasya sa sarvatra sama-darśanaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


atha yogavipākadaśā catuṣprakārocyate

svātmanaḥ pareṣām ca bhūtānāṃ prakṛtiviyuktasvarūpāṇāṃ jñānaikākāratayā sāmyād vaiṣamyasya ca prakṛtigatatvād yogayuktātmā prakṛtiviyukteṣv ātmasu sarvatra jñānaikākāratayā samadarśanaḥ sarvabhūtasthaṃ svātmānaṃ sarvabhūtāni ca svātmanīkṣate sarvabhūtasamānākāraṃ svātmānaṃ svātmasamānākārāṇi ca sarvabhūtāni paśyatītyarthaḥ / ekasmin ātmani dṛṣṭe sarvasyātmavastunas tatsāmyāt sarvam ātmavastu dṛṣṭaṃ bhavatītyarthaḥ / „sarvatra samadarśanaḥ” iti vacanāt / „yo ‚yaṃ yogas tvayā proktaḥ sāmyena” ityanubhāṣaṇāc ca / „nirdoṣaṃ hi samaṃ brahma” iti vacanāc ca

 

Śrīdhara


brahma-sākṣātkāram eva darśayati sarva-bhūta-stham iti | yogenābhyasyamānena yuktātmā samāhita-cittaḥ | sarvatra samaṃ brahmaiva paśyatīti sama-darśanaḥ | tathā sa svam ātmānam avidyākṛta-dehādi-pariccheda-śūnyaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu brahmādi-sthāvarānteṣv avasthitaṃ paśyati | tāni cātmany abhedena paśyati

 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ nirodha-samādhinā tvaṃ-pada-lakṣye tat-pada-lakṣye ca śuddhe sākṣātkṛte tadaikya-gocarā tattvam asīti vedānta-vākya-janyā nirvikalpaka-sākṣātkāra-rūpā vṛttir brahma-vidyābhidhānā jāyate | tataś ca kṛtsnāvidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttyā brahma-sukham atyantam aśnuta ity upapādayati tribhiḥ ślokaiḥ | tatra prathamaṃ tva-pada-lakṣyopasthitim āha sarveti |

sarveṣu bhūteṣu sthāvara-jaṅgameṣu śarīreṣu bhoktṛtayā sthitam ekam eva vibhum ātmānaṃ pratyak-cetanaṃ sākṣiṇaṃ paramārtha-satyam ānanda-ghanaṃ sākṣyebhyo ‚nṛta-jaḍa-paricchinna-duḥkha-rūpebhyo vivekenekṣate sākṣātkaroti | tasmiṃś cātmani sākṣiṇi sarvāṇi bhūtāni sākṣyāṇy ādhyāsikena sambandhena bhogyatayā kalpitāni sākṣi-sākṣyayoḥ sambandhāntarānupapatter mithyā-bhūtāni paricchinnāni jaḍāni duḥkhātmakāni sākṣiṇo vivekenekṣate |

kaḥ ? yoga-yuktātmā yogena nirvikcāra-vaiśāradya-rūpeṇa yuktaṃ prasādaṃ prāpta ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ yasya sa tathā | tathā ca prāg evoktaṃ – nirvicāra-vaiśāradye ‚dhyātma-prasādaḥ [YogaS 1.47] ṛtaṃbharā tatra prajñā [YogaS 1.48] śrutānumāna-prajñābhyām anya-viṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt [YogaS 1.49] iti | tathā ca śabdānumānāgocara-yathārtha-viśeṣa-vastu-gocara-yoga-pratyakṣeṇa ṛtaṃbhara-saṃjñena yugapat sūkṣmaṃ vyavahitaṃ viprakṛṣṭaṃ ca sarvaṃ tulyam eva paśyatīti sarvatra samaṃ darśanaṃ yasyeti sarvatra sama-darśanaḥ sann ātmānam anātmānaṃ ca yoga-yuktātmā yathā-sthitam īkṣata iti yuktam |

athavā yo yoga-yuktātmā yo vā sarvatra-sama-darśanaḥ sa ātmānam īkṣata iti yogi-sama-darśināv ātmekṣaṇādhikāriṇāv uktau | yathā hi citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ sākṣi-sākṣātkāra-hetus tathā jaḍa-vivekena sarvānusyūta-caitanya-pṛthak-karaṇam api | nāvaśyaṃ yoga evāpekṣitaḥ | ata evāha vasiṣṭhaḥ –

dvau kramau citta-nāśasya yogo jñānaṃ ca rāghava |
yogo vṛtti-nirodho hi jñānaṃ samyag-avekṣaṇam ||
asādhyaḥ kasyacid yogaḥ kasyacit tattva-niścayaḥ |
prakārau dvau tato devo jagāda paramaḥ śivaḥ || iti |

citta-nāśasya sākṣiṇaḥ sakāśāt tad-upādhi-bhūta-cittasya pṛthak-karaṇāt tad-adarśanasya | tasyopāya-dvayam – eko ‚samprajñāta-samādhiḥ | samprajñāta-samādhau hi ātmaikākāra-vṛtti-pravāha-yuktam antaḥ-karaṇa-sattvaṃ sākṣiṇānubhūyate niruddha-sarva-vṛttikaṃ tūpaśāntatvān nānubhūyata iti viśeṣaḥ | dvitīyas tu sākṣiṇi kalpitaṃ sākṣyam anṛtatvān nāsty eva sākṣy eva tu paramārtha-satyaḥ kevalo vidyata iti vicāraḥ | tatra pratamam upāyaṃ prapañca-paramārthatā-vādino hairaṇyagarbhādayaḥ prapedire | teṣāṃ paramārthasya cittasyādarśanena sākṣi-darśane nirodhātiriktopāya-sambhavāt | śrīmac-chaṅkara-bhagavat-pūjya-pāda-matopajīvinas tv aupaniṣadāḥ prapañcānṛtatva-vādino dvitīyam evopāyam upeyuḥ | teṣāṃ hy adhiṣṭhāna-jñāna-dārḍhye sati tatra kalpitasya bādhitasya cittasya tad-dṛśyasya cādarśanam anāyāsenaivopapadyate | ataeva bhagavat-pūjya-pādāḥ kutrāpi brahma-vidāṃ yogāpekṣāṃ na vyutpādayāṃ babhūva | ataeva caupaniṣadāḥ paramahaṃsāḥ śraute vedānta-vākya-vicāra eva gurum upasṛtya pravartante brahma-sākṣātkārāya na tu yoge | vicāreṇaiva citta-doṣa-nirākaraṇena tasyānyathā-siddhatvād iti kṛtam adhikena

 

Viśvanātha


jīvan-muktasya tasya brahma-sākṣātkāraṃ darśayati sarva-bhūta-stham ātmānam iti | paramātmanaḥ sarva-bhūtādhiṣṭhātṛtvam ātmanīti paramātmanaḥ sarva-bhūtādhiṣṭhānaṃ ca | īkṣate aparokṣatayānubhavati | yoga-yuktātmā brahmākārāntaḥkaraṇaḥ | samaṃ brahmaiva paśyatīti sama-darśanaḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ niṣpaṇṇa-samādhiḥ pratyakṣita-sva-parātma-yogī parātmanaḥ sarvagatatvaṃ tad anyātmanāṃ druhiṇādīnāṃ sarveṣāṃ tad-āśrayatvaṃ tasyāviṣayamatvaṃ cānubhavatīty āha sarveti | yoga-yuktātmā siddha-samādhis tad ātmānaṃ ātatatvāc ca mātṛtvād ātmā hi paramo hariḥ iti smṛteḥ | yo mām iti vivaraṇāc ca paramātmānaṃ sarva-bhūta-stham nikhilaṃ jīvāntaryāmiṇam īkṣate | ātmani tasminn āśraya-bhūte sarva-bhūtāni ca tam eva sarva-jīvāśrayaṃ cekṣate | sa ity āha sarvatreti | tat tat-karmānuguṇyenoccāvacatayā sṛṣṭeṣu sarveṣu jīveṣu samam vaiṣamya-śūnyaṃ parātmānaṃ paśyatīti tathā

 
 

BhG 6.30

yo māṃ paśyati sarvatra sarvaṃ ca mayi paśyati
tasyāhaṃ na praṇaśyāmi sa ca me na praṇaśyati

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) sarvatra (everywhere) mām (me) paśyati (he sees),
sarvam ca (and all) mayi (in me) paśyati (he sees),
tasya (for him) aham (I) na praṇaśyāmi (do not disappear).
sa ca (and he) me (for me) na praṇaśyati (does not disappear).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
sarvatra av.everywhere, in every case (from: sarva – all; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
sarvam sarva sn. 2n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
ca av.and;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.his;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
na av.not;
praṇaśyāmi pranaś (to disappear, to be lost, to perish) Praes. P 1v.1I disappear;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
ca av.and;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
na av.not;
praṇaśyati pranaś (to disappear, to be lost, to perish) Praes. P 1v.1he disappears;

 

textual variants


sarvaṁ ca mayi paśyati → mayi paśyati cāpy ahaṁ (and even sees in me, I);
tasyāhaṁ na praṇaśyāmi sa ca me na praṇaśyati → na praṇasyāmi sa ca me mā praṇaśyati te ‘vyayam (I do not disappear, and he for me does not disappear, for you unchangeably);

 
 

Śāṃkara


etasyātmaikatva-darśanasya phalam ucyate—

yo māṃ paśyati vāsudevaṃ sarvasyātmānaṃ sarvatra sarveṣu bhūteṣu sarvaṃ ca brahmādi-bhūta-jātaṃ mayi sarvātmani paśyati, tasya evam ātmaikatva-darśino’ham īśvaro na praṇaśyāmi na parokṣatāṃ gamiṣyāmi | sa ca me na praṇaśyati sa ca vidvān me mama vāsudevasya na praṇaśyati na parokṣo bhavati, tasya ca mama caikātmakatvāt | svātmā hi nāmātmanaḥ priya eva bhavati | yasmāc cāham eva sarvātmaikatva-darśī

 

Rāmānuja


tato ‚pi vipākadaśāpanno mama sādharmyam upāgataḥ, „nirañjanaḥ paramaṃ sāmyam upaiti” ity ucyamānaṃ sarvasyātmavastuno vidhūtapuṇyapāpasya svarūpeṇāvasthitasya matsāmyaṃ paśyan yaḥ sarvatrātmavastuni māṃ paśyati, sarvam ātmavastu ca mayi paśyati anyonyasāmyād anyataradarśanena anyatarad apīdṛśam iti paśyati, tasya svātmasvarūpaṃ paśyato ‚haṃ tatsāmyān na praṇaśyāmi nādarśanam upayāmi; mamāpi māṃ paśyataḥ, matsāmyāt svātmānaṃ matsamam avalokayan sa nādarśanam upayāti

 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtātma-jñāne ca sarva-bhūtātmayā mad-upāsanaṃ mukhyaṃ kāraṇam ity āha yo mām iti | māṃ parameśvaraṃ sarvatra bhūta-mātre yaḥ paśyati | sarvaṃ ca prāṇi-mātraṃ mayi yaḥ paśyati | tasyāhaṃ na praṇaśyāmy adṛśyo na bhavāmi | sa ca mamādṛśyo na bhavati | pratyakṣo bhūtvā kṛpā-dṛṣṭyā taṃ vilokyānugṛhṇāmīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ śuddhaṃ tva-padārthaṃ nirūpya śuddhaṃ tat-padārthaṃ nirūpayati yo mām iti | yo yogī mām īśvaraṃ tat-padārtham aśeṣa-prapañca-kāraṇa-māyopādhikam upādhi-vivekena sarvatra prapañce sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇa cānusyūtaṃ sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṃ paramārtha-satyaam ānanda-ghanam anantaṃ paśyati yoga-jena pratyakṣeṇāparokṣīkaroti | tathā sarvaṃ ca prapañca-jātaṃ māyayā mayy āropitaṃ mad-bhinnatayā mṛṣātvenaiva paśyati | tasyaivaṃ-viveka-darśino ‚haṃ tat-padārtho bhagavān na praṇaśyāmi | īśvaraḥ kaścin mad-bhinno ‚stīti parokṣa-jñāna-viṣayo na bhavāmi, kintu yogajāparokṣa-jñāna-viṣayo bhavāmi | yadyappi vākyajāparokṣa-jñāna-viṣayatvaṃ tvaṃ-padārthābhedenaiva tathāpi kevalasyāpi tat-padārthasya yogajāparokṣa-jñāna-viṣayatvam upapadyata eva | evaṃ yogajena pratyakṣeṇa mām aparokṣīkurvan sa ca me na praṇaśyati parokṣo na bhavati | svātmā hi mama sa vidvān atipriyatvāt sarvadā mad-aparokṣa-jñāna-gocaro bhavati | ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham [Gītā 4.11] ity ukteḥ | tathiava śara-śayyā-stha-bhīṣma-dhyānasya yudhiṣṭhiraṃ prati bhagavatokteḥ | avidvāṃs tu svātmānam api santaṃ bhagavantaṃ na parśyati | ato bhagavān paśyann api taṃ na paśyati | sa enam avidito na bhunakti [BAU 1.4.15] iti śruteḥ | vidvāṃs tu sadaiva saṃnihito bhagavato ‚nugraha-bhājanam ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


evam aparokṣānubhavinaḥ phalam āha yo mām iti | tasyāhaṃ brahma na praṇaśyāmi nāpratyakṣībhavāmi | tathā mat-pratyakṣatāyāṃ śāśvatikyāṃ satyāṃ sa yogī me mad-upāsako na praṇaśyati na kadācid api bhraśyati

 

Baladeva


etad vivṛṇvan tathātva-darśinaḥ phalam āha yo mām iti | tasya tādṛśasya yogino ‚haṃ paramātmā na praṇaśyāmi nādṛśyo bhavāmi | sa ca yogī me na praṇaśyati nādṛśyo bhavati | āvayor mithaḥ-sākṣātkṛtiḥ sarvadā bhavatīty arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 6.31

sarva-bhūta-sthitaṃ yo māṃ bhajaty ekatvam āsthitaḥ
sarvathā vartamāno pi sa yogī mayi vartate

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) ekatvam āsthitaḥ (who resorted to oneness) sarva-bhūta-sthitam (situated in all beings) mām (me) bhajati (he worships),
sa (he) yogī (a yogī) sarvathā (in every way) vartamānaḥ api (although moving) mayi (in me) vartate (exists).

 

grammar

sarva-bhūta-sthitam sarva-bhūta-sthita 2n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣu bhūteṣu sthitam iti situated in all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; sthā – to stand, [PP] sthita – staying, situated);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
bhajati bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. P 1v.1he worships;
ekatvam eka-tva abst. 2n.1 n.oneness, identity (from: eka – one);
āsthitaḥ āsthita (ā-sthā – to resort, to go towards) [PP] 1n.1 m.one who resorted to, who attained;
sarvathā av.in every way, by all means, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole);
vartamānaḥ vartamāna (vṛt – to move, to happen, to act) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] moving, [while] existing;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
vartate vṛt (to move, to happen, to act) Praes. Ā 1v.1he moves, he exists;

 

textual variants


ekatvam → ekastham (situated in oneness);
sarvathā → sarveṣāṁ (in all);
vartamāno → āvartamāno (surrounding);
mayi vartate → na nivartate (does not exist);
sa yogī mayi vartate → mayy evāsau ca vartate (and that indeed in me exists);

 
 

Śāṃkara


ity etat pūrva-lokārthaṃ samyag darśanam anūdya tat-phalaṃ mokṣo’bhidhīyate—

sarvathā sarva-prakāraiḥ vartamāno’pi samyag-darśī yogī mayi vaiṣṇave parame pade vartate, nityam ukta eva saḥ, na mokṣaṃ prati kenacit pratibadhyate ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


tato ‚pi vipākadaśām āha

yogadaśāyāṃ sarvabhūtasthitaṃ mām asaṃkucitajñānaikākāratayā ekatvam āsthitaḥ prākṛtabhedaparityāgena sudṛḍhaṃ yo bhajate, sa yogī vyutthānakāle ‚pi yathā tathā vartamānaḥ svātmānaṃ sarvabhūtāni ca paśyan mayi vartate mām eva paśyati / svātmani sarvabhūteṣu ca sarvadā matsāmyam eva paśyatītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


na caivaṃ-bhūto vidhi-kiṅkaraḥ syād ity āha sarva-bhūta-sthitam iti | sarva-bhūteṣu sthitaṃ mām abhedam āsthita āśrito yo bhajati sa yogī jñānī sarvathā karma-parityāgenāpi vartamāno mayy eva vartate mucyate | na tu bhraśyatīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ tvaṃ-padārthaṃ tat-padārthaṃ ca śuddhaṃ nirūpya tattvam asīti vākyārthaṃ nirūpayati sarva-bhūtam iti | sarveṣu bhūteṣv adhiṣṭhānatayā sthitaṃ sarvānusyūta-san-mātraṃ mām īśvaraṃ tat-pada-lakṣyaṃ svena tvaṃ-pada-lakṣyeṇa sahaikatvam atyantābhedam āsthito ghaṭākāśo mahākāśa ity atrevopādhi-bheda-nirākaraṇena niścinvan yo bhajati ahaṃ brahmāsmīti vedānta-vākyajena sākṣātkāreṇāparokṣīkaroti so ‚vidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttyā jīvanmuktaḥ kṛta-kṛtya eva bhavati | yāvat tu tasya bādhitānuvṛttyā śarīrādi-darśanam anuvartate tāvat prārabhda-karma-prābalyāt sarva-karma-tyāgena vā yājñavalkyādivat | vihitena karmaṇā vā janakādivat, pratiṣiddhena karmaṇā vā dattātreyādivat | sarvathā yena kenāpi rūpeṇa vartamāno ‚pi vyavaharann aḸ sa yogī brahmāham asamīti vidvān mayi paramātmany evābhedena vartate | sarvathā tasya mokṣaṃ prati nāsti pratibandha-śaṅkā tasya ha na devāś canābhūtyā īśata ātmā hy eṣāṃ sa bhavati [BAU 1.4.10] iti śruteḥ | devā mahā-prabhāvā api tasya mokṣābhavanāya neśate kim utānye kṣudrā ity arthaḥ | brahma-vido niṣiddha-karmaṇi pravartakayo rāga-dveṣayor asambhavena niṣiddha-karmāsambhave ‚pi tad aṅgīkṛtya jñāna-stuty-artham idam uktaṃ sarvathā vartamāno ‚pīti hatvāpi sa imān lokān na hanti na nibadhyate [Gītā 18.17] itivat

 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ mad-aparokṣānubhavāt pūrva-daśāyām api sarvatra parātma-bhāvanayā bhajato yogino na vidhi-kaiṅkaryam ity āha sarveti | paramātmaiva sarva-karaṇatvād eko ‚stīty ekatvam āsthitaḥ san yo bhajati, śravaṇa-smaraṇādi-bhajana-yukto bhavati, sa sarvathā śāstroktaṃ karma kurvann akurvan vā vartamāno mayi vartate, na tu saṃsāre

 

Baladeva


sa yogī mamācintya-svarūpa-śaktim anubhavann atipriyo bhavatīty āśayavān āha sarveti | sarveṣāṃ jīvānāṃ hṛdayeṣu prādeśa-mātraś caturbāhur atasī-puṣpa-prabhaś cakrādidharo ‚haṃ pṛthak pṛthaṅ nivasāmi | teṣu bahūnāṃ mad-vigrahāṇām ekatvam abhedam āśrito yo māṃ bhajati dhyāyati, so yogī sarvathā vartamāno vyutthāna-kāle sva-vihitaṃ karma kurvann akurvan vā mayi vartate mamācintya-śaktikatva-dharmānubhava-mahimnā nirdagdha-kāma-cāra-doṣo mat-sāmīpya-lakṣaṇaṃ mokṣaṃ vindati, na tu saṃsāram ity arthaḥ | śrutiś ca harer acintya-śatkikatām āha eko ‚pi san bahudhā yo ‚vabhāti iti | smṛtiś ca –

eka eva paro viṣṇuḥ sarva-vyāpī na saṃśayaḥ |
aiśvaryād rūpam ekaṃ ca sūryavad bahudheyate || iti

 
 

BhG 6.32

ātmaupamyena sarvatra samaṃ paśyati yo rjuna
sukhaṃ vā yadi vā duḥkhaṃ sa yogī paramo mataḥ

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
yaḥ (he who) ātmaupamyena (by comparison with the self) sarvatra (everywhere) sukham vā (or happiness) yadi vā duḥkham (or distress) samam (equal) paśyati (he sees),
sa yogī (such a yogī) paramaḥ (the supreme) mataḥ (is considered).

 

grammar

ātmaupamyena ātma-aupamya 3n.1 n.; [TP]: ātmana aupamyenetiby comparison with the self (from: ātman – self; upa- – to measure, to compare, upamā – comparison, similarity, aupamya – the state of resemblance, anaolgy);
sarvatra av.everywhere, in every case (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
samam sama 2n.1 n.the same, equal, equivalent;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
sukham sukha 2n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
yadi av. if (correlative of: tarhi);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
duḥkham duḥkha 2n.1 n.distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth;
or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy,happiness);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
paramaḥ parama 1n.1 m. supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
mataḥ mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 m.regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;

 

warianty tekstu


yo → sa (he);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ cānyat—

ātmaupamyena ātmā svayam evopamīyate’nayety upamā | tasyā upamāyā bhāva aupamyaṃ tenātmaupamyena, sarvatra sarva-bhūteṣu samaṃ tulyaṃ paśyati yo’rjuna, sa ca kiṃ samaṃ paśyatīty ucyate—yathā mama sukham iṣṭaṃ tathā sarva-prāṇināṃ sukham anukūlam | vā-śabdaś cārthe | yadi vā yac ca duḥkhaṃ mama pratikūlam aniṣṭaṃ yathā tathā sarva-prāṇināṃ duḥkham aniṣṭaṃ pratikūlam ity evam ātmaupamyena sukha-duḥkhe’nukūla-pratikūle tulyatayā sarva-bhūteṣu samaṃ paśyati, na kasyacit pratikūlam ācarati, ahiṃsaka ity arthaḥ | yaḥ evam ahiṃsakaḥ samyag darśana-niṣṭhaḥ, sa yogī parama utkṛṣṭo mato’bhipretaḥ sarva-yogināṃ madhye

 

Rāmānuja


tato ‚pi kāṣṭhām āha

svātmanaś cānyeṣāṃ cātmanām asaṃkucitajñānaikākāratayopamyena svātmani cānyeṣu ca sarvatra vartamānaṃ putrajanmādirūpaṃ sukhaṃ tanmaraṇādirūpaṃ ca duḥkham asaṃbandhasāmyāt samaṃ yaḥ paśyati paraputrajanmamaraṇādisamaṃ svaputrajanmamaraṇādikaṃ yaḥ paśyatītyarthaḥ / sa yogī paramo mataḥ yogakāṣṭhām gato mataḥ

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ ca māṃ bhajatāṃ yogināṃ madhye sarva-bhūtānukampī śreṣṭha ity āha ātmaupamyeneti | ātmaupamyena sva-sādṛśyena | yathā mama sukhaṃ priyaṃ duḥkhaṃ cāpriyaṃ tathānyeṣāṃ apīti sarvatra samaṃ paśyan sukham eva sarveṣāṃ yo vāñchati | na tu kasyāpi duḥkham | sa yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evam utpanne ‚pi tatva-bodhe kaścin mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayayor abhāvāj jīvanmukti-sukhaṃ nānubhavati citta-vikṣepeṇa ca dṛṣṭa-duḥkham anubhavati so ‚paramo yogī deha-pāte kaivalya-bhāgitvāt | deha-sad-bhāva-paryantaṃ ca dṛṣṭa-duḥkhānubhavāt | tattva-jñāna-mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayāṇāṃ tu yugapad abhyāsād dṛṣṭa-duḥkha-nivṛtti-pūrvakaṃ jīvanmukti-sukham anubhavan prārabdha-karma-vaśāt samādher vyutthāna-kāle kiṃ syāt ? ity ucyata ātmaupamyeneti |

ātmaivaupamyam upamā tenātma-dṛṣṭāntena sarvatra prāṇi-jāte sukhaṃ vā yadi vā duḥkhaṃ samaṃ tulyaṃ yaḥ paśyati svasyāniṣṭaṃ yathā na sampādayati evaṃ parasyāpy aniṣṭaṃ yo na sampādayati pradveṣa-śūnyatvāt, sa nirvāsanatayopaśānta-manā yogī brahmavit paramaḥ śreṣṭho mataḥ pūrvasmāt, he arjuna | atas tattva-jñāna-mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayāṇām akramam abhyāsāya mahān prayatna āstheya ity arthaḥ |

tatredaṃ sarvaṃ dvaita-jātam advitīye cid-ānandātmani māyayā kalpitatvān mṛṣaivātmaivaikaḥ paramārtha-satyaḥ sac-cid-ānandādvayo ‚ham asmīti jñānaṃ tattva-jñānaṃ pradīpa-jvālā-santānavad vṛtti-santāna-rūpeṇa pariṇamamānam antaḥ-karaṇa-dravyaṃ mananātmakatvān mana ity ucyate | tasya nāśe nāma vṛtti-rūpa-pariṇāmaṃ parityajya sarva-vṛtti-nirodhinā nirodhākāreṇa pariṇāmaḥ | pūrvāpara-parāmarśam antareṇa sahasotpadyamānasya krodhādi-vṛtti-viśeṣasya hetuś citta-gataḥ saṃskāra-viśeṣo vāsanā pūrva-pūrvābhyāsena citte vāsyamānatvāt | tasyāḥ kṣayo nāma viveka-janyāyāṃ citta-praśama-vāsanāyāṃ dṛḍhāyāṃ saty api bāhye nimitte krodhādy-anutpattiḥ | tatra tattva-jñāne sati mithyā-bhūte jagati nara-viṣāṇādāv iva dhī-vṛtty-anudayād ātmanaś ca dṛṣṭatvena punar-vṛtty-anupayogān nirandhanāgnivan mano naśyati | naṣṭe ca manasi saṃskārodbodhakasya bāhyasya nimittasyāpratītau vāsanā kṣīyate | kṣīṇāyāṃ vāsanāyāṃ hetv-abhāvena krodhādi-vṛtty-anudayān mano naśyati | naṣṭe ca manasi śama-damādi-sampattyā tattva-jñānam udeti | evam utpanne tattva-jñāne rāga-dveṣādi-rūpā vāsanā kṣīyate | kṣīṇāyāṃ ca vāsanāyāṃ pratibandhābhāvāt tattva-jñānodaya iti paraspara-kāraṇatvaṃ darśanīyam |

ataeva bhagavān vasiṣṭha āha –

tattva-jñānaṃ mano-nāśo vāsanā-kṣaya eva ca |
mithaḥ kāraṇatāṃ gatvā duḥsādhyāni sthitāni hi ||
tasmād rāghava yatnena pauruṣeṇa vivekinā |
bhogecchāṃ dūratas tyaktvā trayam etat samāśraya || iti |
pauruṣo yatnaḥ kenāpy upāyenāvaśyaṃ sampādayiṣyāmīty evaṃ-vidhotsāha-rūpo nirbandhaḥ | viveko nāma vivicya niścayaḥ | tattva-jñānasya śravaṇādikaṃ sādhanaṃ mano-nāśasya yogaḥ vāsanā-kṣayasya pratikūla-vāsanotpādanam iti | etādṛśa-viveka-yuktena pauruṣeṇa prayatnena bhogecchāyāḥ svalpāyā api haviṣā kṛṣṇa-vartmeveti nyāyena vāsanā-vṛddhi-hetutvād dūrata ity uktam |

dvividho hi vidyādhikārī kṛtopāstir akṛtopāstiś ca | tatra ya upāsya-sākṣātkāra-paryantām upāstiṃ kṛtvā tattva-jñānāya pravṛttas tasya vāsanā-kṣaya-mano-nāśaayor dṛḍhataratvena jñānād ūrdhvaṃ jīvan-muktiḥ svata eva sidhyati | idānīṃtanas tu prāyeṇākṛtopāstir eva mumukṣur autsukya-mātrāt sahasā vidyāyāṃ pravartate | yogaṃ vinā cij-jaḍa-viveka-mātreṇaiva ca mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayau tātkālikau sampādya śama-damādi-sampattyā śravana-manana-nididhyāsanāni sampādayati | taiś ca dṛḍhābhyastaiḥ sarva-bandha-vicchedi tattva-jñānam udeti | avidyā-granthi-brahmatvaṃ hṛdaya-granthiḥ saṃśayāḥ karmāṇy asarva-kāmatvaṃ mṛtyuḥ punar janma cety aneka-vidho bandho jñānān nivartate | tathā ca śrūyate – yo veda nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ so ‚vidyā-granthiṃ vikiratīha somya [] brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati []

bhidyate hṛdaya-granthiś chidyante sarva-saṃśayāḥ |
kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi tasmin dṛṣṭe parāvare || [MuṇḍU 2.2.8]

satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahma | yo veda nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ parame vyoman | so ‚śnute sarvān kāmān saha [TaittU 1.1] tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 3.8]

yas tu vijñānavān bhavati sa-manaskaḥ sadā śuciḥ |
sa tu tat-padam āpnoti yasmād bhūyo na jāyate || [KaṭhU 1.3.8]

ya evaṃ vedāhaṃ brahmāsmīti sa idaṃ sarvaṃ bhavati [BAU 1.4.10] ity asarvatva-nivṛtti-phalam udāhāryam | seyaṃ videha-muktiḥ saty api dehe jñānotpatti-sama-kālīnā jñeyā | brahmaṇy avidyādhyāropitānām eteṣāṃ bandhānām avidyā-nāśe sati nivṛttau punar utpatty-asambhavāt | ataḥ śaithilya-hetv-abhāvāt tattva-jñānaṃ tasyānuvartate | mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayautu dṛḍhābhyāsābhāvād bhoga-pradena prārabdhena karmaṇā bādhyamānatvāc ca savāta-pradeśa-pradīpavat sahasā nivartete | ata idānīṃtanasya tattva-jñāninaḥ prāk-siddhe tattva-jñāne na prayatnāpekṣā | kiṃ tu mano-nāśa-vāsanā-kṣayau prayatna-sādhyāv iti | tatra mano-nāśao ‚samprajñāta-samādhi-nirūpaṇena nirūpitaḥ prāk | vāsanā-kṣayas tv idānīṃ nirūpyate |

tatra vāsanā-svarūpaṃ vasiṣṭha āha –

dṛḍha-bhāvanayā tyakta-pūrvāpara-vicāraṇam |
yad ādānaṃ padārthasya vāsanā sā prakīrtitā ||

atra ca sva-sva-deśācāra-kula-dharma-svabhāva-bheda-tad-gatāpaśabda-su-śabdādiṣu prāṇinām abhiniveśaḥ sāmānyenodāharaṇam | sā ca vāsanā dvividhā malinā śuddhā ca | śuddhā daivī sampat | śāstra-saṃskāra-prābalyāt tattva-jñāna-sādhanatvenaika-rūpaiva | malinā tu trividhā loka-vāsanā śāstra-vāsanā deha-vāsanā ceti | sarve janā yathā na nindanti tathaivācariṣyāmīty aśakyārthābhiniveśo loka-vāsanā | tasyāś ca ko lokam ārādhayituṃ samartha iti nyāyena sampādayitum aśakyatvāt puruṣārthānupayogitvāc ca malinatvam | śāstra-vāsanā tu trividhā pāṭha-vyasanaṃ bahu-śāstra-vyasanam anuṣṭhāna-vyasanaṃ ceti krameṇa bharadvājasya durvāsaso nidāghasya ca prasiddhā | malinatvaṃ cāsyāḥ kleśāvahatvāt puruṣārthānupayogitvād darpa-hetutvāj janma-hetutvāc ca | deha-vāsanāpi trividhā ātmatva-bhrāntir guṇādhāna-bhrāntir guṇādhāna-bhrāntir doṣāpanayana-bhrāntiś ceti | tatrātmatva-bhrāntir virocanādiṣu prasiddhā sārvalaukikī | guṇādhānaṃ dvividhaṃ laukikaṃ śāstrīyaṃ ca | samīcīna-śabdādi-viṣaya-sampādanaṃ laukikaṃ, gaṅgā-snāna-śālagrāma-tīrthādi-sampādanaṃ śāstrīyam | doṣāpanayanam api dvividhaṃ laukikaṃ śāstrīyaṃ ca | cikitsakoktair auṣadhair vyādhy-ādy-apanayanaṃ laukikaṃ, vaidika-snānācamanādibhir aśaucādy-apanayanaṃ vaidikam | etasyāś ca sarva-prakārāyā malinatvam aprāmāṇikatvād aśakyatvāt puruṣārthānupayogitvāt punar-janma-hetutvāc ca | tad etal-loka-śāstra-deha-vāsanā-trayam avivekanām upādeyatvena pratibhāsamānam api vividiṣor vedanotpatti-virodhitvād viduṣo jñāna-niṣṭhā-virodhitvāc ca vivekibhir heyam |

tad evaṃ bāhya-viṣaya-vāsanā trividhā nirūpitā | ābhyantara-vāsanā tu kāma-krodha-dambha-darpādy-āsura-sampad-rūpā sarvānartha-mūlaṃ mānasī vāsanety ucyate | tad evaṃ bāhyābhyantara-vāsanā-catuṣṭayasya śuddha-vāsanayā kṣayaḥ sampādanīyaḥ | tad uktaṃ vasiṣṭhena –

mānasīr vāsanāḥ pūrvaṃ tyaktvā viṣaya-vāsanāḥ |
maitryādi-vāsanā rāma gṛhāṇāmala-vāsanāḥ || iti |

tatra viṣaya-vāsanā-śabdena pūrvoktās tisro loka-śāstra-veda-vāsanā vivakṣitāḥ | mānasa-vāsanā-śabdena kāma-krodha-dambha-darpādy-āsura-sampad-vivakṣitā | yad vā śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhā viṣayāḥ | teṣāṃ bhujyamānatva-daśā-janyaḥ saṃskāro viṣaya-vāsanā | kāmyamānatva-daśā-janyaḥ saṃskāro mānasa-vāsanā | asmin pakṣe pūrvoktānāṃ catasṛṇām anayor evāntarbhāvaḥ | bāhyābhyanara-vyatirekeṇa vāsanāntarāsambhavāt | tāsāṃ vāsanānāṃ parityāgo nāma tad-viruddha-maitry-ādi-vāsanotpādanam | tāś ca maitry-ādi-vāsanā bhagavatā patañjalinā sūtritāḥ prāk saṃkṣepeṇa vyākhyātā api punar vyākhyāyante |

cittaṃ hi rāga-dveṣa-puṇya-pāpaiḥ kaluṣīkriyate | tatra sukhānuśayī rāgaḥ [YogaS 2.7] | mohād anubhūyamānaṃ sukham anuśete kaścid dhī-vṛtti-viśeṣo rājasaḥ sarvaṃ sukha-jātīyaṃ me bhūyād iti | tac ca dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-sāmagry-abhāvāt sampādayitum aśakyam | ataḥ sa rāgaś cittaṃ kaluṣīkaroti | yadā tu sukhiu prāṇiṣv ayaṃ maitrīṃ bhāvayet sarve ‚py ete sukhino madīyā iti tadā tat sukhaṃ svakīyam eva sampannam iti bhāvayatas tatra rāgo nivartate | yathā svasya rājya-nivṛttāv api putrādi-rājyam eva svakīyaṃ rājyaṃ tadvat | nivṛtte ca rāge varṣāvyapāye jalam iva cittaṃ prasīdati | tathā duḥkhānuśayī dveṣaḥ [YogaS 2.8] duḥkham anuśete kaścd dhī-vṛtti-viśeṣas tamo ‚nugata-rajaḥ-pariṇāma īdṛśaṃ sarvaṃ duḥkhaṃ sarvadā me mā bhūd iti | tac ca śatru-vyāghrādiṣu satsya na nivārayituṃ śakyam | na ca sarve te duḥkha-hetavo hantuṃ śakyante | ataḥ sa dveṣaḥ sadā hṛdayaṃ dahati | yadā tu svasyeva pareṣāṃ sarveṣām api duḥkham mā bhūd iti karuṇāṃ duḥkhiṣu bhāvayet tadā vairyādi-dveṣa-nivṛttau cittaṃ prasīdati | tathā ca smaryate –

prāṇā yathātmano ‚bhīṣṭā bhūtānām api te tathā |
ātmaupamyena bhūteṣu dayāṃ kurvanti sādhavaḥ || iti |

etad evehāpy uktam – ātmaupamyena sarvatrety ādi | tathā prāṇinaḥ svabhāvata eva puṇyaṃ nānutiṣṭhanti pāpaṃ tv anutiṣṭhanti | tad āhuḥ –

puṇyasya phalam icchanti puṇyaṃ necchanti mānavāḥ |
na pāpa-phalam icchanti pāpaṃ kurvanti yatnataḥ || iti |

te ca puṇya-pāpe akriyamāṇa-kriyamāṇe paścāt-tāpaṃ janayataḥ | sa ca śrutyānūditaḥ – kim ahaṃ sādhu nākaravaṃ kim ahaṃ pāpam akaravam iti | yady asau puṇya-puruṣeṣu muditāṃ bhāvayet tadā tad-vāsanāvān svayam evāpramatto ‚śukla-kṛṣṇe puṇye pravartate | tad uktaṃ karmāśukla-kṛṣṇaṃ yoginas trividham itareṣām ayogināṃ trividhaṃ śuklaṃ śubhaṃ kṛṣṇam aśubhaṃ śukla-kṛṣṇaṃ śubhāśubham iti | tathā pāpa-puruṣeṣūpekṣāṃ bhāvayan svayam api tad-vāsanāvān pāpān nivartate |

tataś ca puṇyākaraṇa-pāpa-karaṇa-nimittasya paścāt-tāpasyābhāve cittaṃ prasīdati | evaṃ sukhiṣu maitrīṃ bhāvayato na kevalaṃ rāgo nivartate kiṃtv asūyerṣyādayo ‚pi nivartante | para-guṇeṣu doṣāviṣkaraṇam asūyā | para-guṇānām asahanam īrṣyā | yadā maitrī-vaśāt para-sukhaṃ svīyam eva sampannaṃ tadā para-guṇeṣu katham asūyādikaṃ sambhavet | tathā duḥkhiṣu karuṇāṃ bhāvayataḥ śatru-vadhādikaro dveṣo yadā nivartate tadā duḥkhitva-pratiyogika-svasukhitva-prayukta-darpo ‚pi nivartate | evaṃ doṣāntara-nivṛttir apy ūhanīyā vāsiṣṭha-rāmāyaṇādiṣu |

tad evaṃ tattva-jñānaṃ mano-nāśo vāsanā-kṣayaś ceti trayam abhyasanīyam | tatra kenāpi dvāreṇa punaḥ punas tattvānusmaraṇaṃ tattva-jñānābhyāsaḥ | tad uktam –

tac-cintanaṃ tat-kathanam anyonyaṃ tat-prabodhanam |
etad eka-paratvaṃ ca brahmābhyāsaṃ vidur budhāḥ ||
sargādāv eva notpannaṃ dṛśyaṃ nāsty eva tat sadā |
idaṃ jagad ahaṃ ceti bodhābhyāsaṃ viduḥ param || iti |

dṛśyāvabhāsa-virodhi-yogābhyāso mano-nirodhābhyāsaḥ | tad uktam –

atyantābhāva-sampattau jñātur jñeyasya vastunaḥ |
yuktyā śāstrair yatante ye te ‚py atrābhyāsinaḥ sthitāḥ || iti |

jñātṛ-jñeyor mithyātva-dhīra-bhāva-sampattiḥ | svarūpeṇāpy apratītir atyantābhāva-sampattis tad-artham | yuktyā yogena |

dṛśyāsambhava-bodhena rāga-dveṣādi-tānave |
ratir ghanoditā yāsau brahmābhyāsaḥ sa ucyate ||

iti rāga-dveṣādi-kṣīṇatā-rūpa-vāsanā-kṣayābhyāsa uktaḥ | tasmād upapannam etat tattva-jñānābhyāsena mano-nāśābhyāsena vāsanā-kṣayābhyāsena ca rāga-dveṣa-śūnyatayā yaḥ sva-para-sukha-duḥkhādiṣu sama-dṛṣṭiḥ sa paramo yogī mato yas tu viṣama-dṛṣṭiḥ sa tattva-jñānavān apy aparamo yogīti

 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca, sādhana-daśāyāṃ yogī sarvatra samaḥ syād ity uktam | tatra mukhyaṃ sāmyaṃ vyacaṣṭe ātmaupamyeneti | sukhaṃ vā duḥkhaṃ veti yathā mama sukhaṃ priyaṃ duḥkham apriyaṃ, tathaivānyeṣām apīti sarvatra samaṃ paśyan sukham eva sarveṣāṃ yo vāñchati, na tu kasyāpi duḥkham, sa yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimataḥ

 

Baladeva


sarva-bhūta-hite rataḥ iti yat prāg uktaṃ, tad viśadayati ātmaupamyeneti | vyutthāna-daśāyām ātmaupamyena sva-sādṛśyena sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca yaḥ sarvatra samaṃ paśyati | svasyeva parasya sukham evecchati, na tu duḥkham, sa sva-para-sukha-duḥkha-sama-dṛṣṭiḥ sarvānukampī yogī mama paramaḥ śreṣṭho ‚bhimataḥ | tad-viṣama-dṛṣṭis tu tattva-jño ‚py aparama-yogīti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 6.33

arjuna uvāca
yo yaṃ yogas tvayā proktaḥ sāmyena madhusūdana
etasyāhaṃ na paśyāmi cañcalatvāt sthitiṃ sthirām

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arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he madhusūdana (O slayer of Madhu!),
sāmyena (with equality) yaḥ ayam yogaḥ (this yoga which) tvayā (by you) proktaḥ (spoken),
[manasaḥ] (of the mind) cañcalatvāt (because of the flickering) aham (I) etasya [yogasya] (of this yoga) sthirām (steady) sthitim (position) na paśyāmi (I do not see).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.this;
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
tvayā yuṣmat sn. 3n.1by you;
proktaḥ prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP]. 1n.1 m. spoken;
sāmyena sāmya 3n.1 n.with equality, with evenness (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent);
madhusūdana madhu-sūdana 8n.1 m.O slayer of Madhu (from: madhu – sweet, name of a demon; sūd – to put in order, to kill, sūdana – killing, destroying);
etasya etat sn. 6n.1 m.of this;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
na av.not;
paśyāmi dṛś (to see) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
cañcalatvāt cañcala-tva abst. 5n.1 n.because of unsteadiness (from: cal – to move, to shake, intens. cañcal – to move strongly; cañcala – flickering, unsteady, shaking);
sthitim sthiti 2n.1 f. staying, state, condition, existence (from: sthā – to stand);
sthirām sthirā 2n.1 f.steady (from: sthā – to stand, sthira – firm, hard, steady);

 

textual variants


yogas → bhogas (luxuries);
sāmyena → saumyena (with gentleness);
sthitiṁ → manaḥ (mind);
sthirām → parām (superior);
 
 

Śāṃkara


etasya yathoktasya samyag-darśana-lakṣaṇasya yogasya duḥkha-saṃpādyatām ālakṣya śuśruṣur dhruvaṃ tat-prāpty-upāyam arjuna uvāca—

yo’yaṃ yogas tvayā proktaḥ sāmyena samatvena he madhusūdana etasya yogasyāhaṃ na paśyāmi nopalabhe, cañcalatvān manasaḥ | kiṃ ? sthirām acalāṃ sthitim

 

Rāmānuja


komentarz wspólny przy wersecie BhG 6.34

 

Śrīdhara


ukta-lakṣaṇasya yogasyāsambhavaṃ manvāno ‚rjuna uvāca yo ‚yam iti | sāmyena manaso laya-vikṣepa-śūnyatayā kevalātmākārāvasthānena | yo ‚yaṃ yogas tvayā proktaḥ | etasya sthirāṃ dīrgha-kālāṃ sthitiṃ na paśyāmi | manasaś cañcalatvāt

 

Madhusūdana


uktam artham ākṣipan arjuna uvāca yo ‚yam iti | yo ‚yaṃ sarvatra samaṣṭi-lakṣaṇaḥ paramo yogaḥ sāmyena samatvena citta-gatānāṃ rāga-dveṣādīnāṃ viṣama-dṛṣṭi-hetūnāṃ nirākaraṇena tvayā sarvajñeneśvareṇoktaḥ | he madhusūdana ! sarva-vaidika-sampradāya-pravartaka ! etasya tvad-uktasya sarva-mano-vṛtti-nirodha-lakṣaṇasya yogasya sthitiṃ vidyamānatāṃ sthirāṃ dīrgha-kālānuvartinīṃ na paśyāmi na sambhāvayāmi aham asmad-vidho ‚nyo vā yogābhyāsa-nipuṇaḥ | kasmān na sambhāvayasi tatrāha cañcalatvāt, manasa iti śeṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


bhagavad-ukta-lakṣaṇasya sāmyasya duṣkaratvam ālakṣyovāca yo ‚yam iti | etasya sāmyena prāptasya yogasya sthirāṃ sārvadikīṃ sthitiṃ na paśyāmi | eṣa yogaḥ sarvadā na tiṣṭhati kintu tri-catura-dināny evety arthaḥ | kutaḥ ? cañcalatvāt | tathā hy ātma-duḥkha-sukha-samam eva sarva-jagad-varti-janānāṃ sukha-duḥkhaṃ paśyed iti sāmyam uktam | tatra ye bandhavas taṭasthāś ca teṣu sāmyaṃ bhaved api, ye ripavo ghātakā dveṣṭāro nindakāś ca teṣu na sambhaved eva | na hi mayā svasya yudhiṣṭhirasya duryodhanasya ca sukha-duḥkhe sarvathā tulye draṣṭuṃ śakyete | yadi ca svasya sva-ripūṇāṃ ca jīvātma-paramātma-prāṇendriya-daihika-bhūtāni samāny eveti vivekena prabalasyāticañcalasya manaso nigrahaṇāśakyatvāt | pratyuta viṣayāsaktena tena manasaiva vivekasya grasyamānatva-darśanād iti

 

Baladeva


uktam ākṣipann arjuna uvāca yo ‚yam iti | sāmyena sva-para-sukha-duḥkha-taulyena yo ‚yaṃ yogas tvayā sarvajñena proktas tasya sthirāṃ sārvadikīṃ sthitiṃ niṣṭhām apy ahaṃ na paśyāmi, kintu dvi-trāṇy eva dinānīty arthaḥ | kutaḥ ? cañcalatvāt | ayam arthaḥ – bandhuṣu udāsīneṣu ca tat sāmyaṃ kadācit syāt | na ca śatruṣu nindakeṣu ca kadācid api | yadi paramātmādhiṣṭhānatvaṃ sarvatrāviśeṣam iti vivekena tad grāhyaṃ, tarhi na tat sārvadikaṃ aticapalasya baliṣṭhasya ca manasas tena vivekena nigrahītum aśakyatvād iti

 
 

BhG 6.34

cañcalaṃ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavad dṛḍham
tasyāhaṃ nigrahaṃ manye vāyor iva suduṣkaram

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he kṛṣṇa (O Kṛṣṇa!),
manaḥ hi (indeed the mind) cañcalam (flickering) pramāthi (harassing) balavat (strong) dṛḍham (adamant) [asti] (it is),
[ataḥ] (therefore) aham (I) vāyoḥ iva (like of the wind) tasya (of this) nigraham (control) su-duṣkaram (very difficult to do) manye (I think).

 

grammar

cañcalam cañcala 1n.1 n.flickering, unsteady, shaking (from: cal – to move, to shake, intens. cañcal – to move strongly);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa 8n.1 m.O dark one, O Kṛṣṇa;
pramāthi pra-māthin 1n.1 n.harassing, tormenting (from: pra-math – to stir, to drag away, to torment);
balavat balavant 1n.1 n.who has strength (from: bala – strength, force; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
dṛḍham dṛḍha (dṛṁh – to make strong) [PP] 1n.1 n.firm, hard, not to be bent;
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.of that;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
nigraham nigraha 2n.1 m.restrain, control (from: ni-grah – to hold back, to control);
manye man (to think) Praes. Ā 3v.1I think;
vāyoḥ vāyu 6n.1 m.of the wind (from: – to blow);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
suduṣkaram su-duṣ-kara 3n.1 m. very difficult to do (from: su – prefix: dobry, bardzo; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kṛ – to do, kara – a a doer, cause);

 

textual variants


pramāthi → pramāthī (harassing m.);

 
 

Śāṃkara


asiddhaṃ tat—

cañcalaṃ hi manaḥ | kṛṣṇeti kṛṣater vilekhanārthasya rūpam | bhakta-jana-pāpādi-doṣākarṣāṇāt kṛṣṇaḥ, tasya saṃbuddhiḥ he kṛṣṇa | hi yasmāt manaś cañcalaṃ na kevalam atyarthaṃ cañcalam, pramāthi ca pramathana-śīlam, pramathnāti śarīram indriyāṇi ca vikṣipat sat para-vaśīkaroti | kiṃ ca—balavat prabalam, na kenacit niyantuṃ śakyam, durnivāratvāt | kiṃ ca—dṛḍhaṃ tantu-nāga-vad acchedyam | tasya evaṃbhūtasya manaso’haṃ nigrahaṃ nirodhaṃ manye vāyor iva yathā vāyor duṣkaro nigrahas tato’pi duṣkaraṃ manye ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


yo ‚yaṃ devamanuṣyādibhedena jīveśvarabhedena cātyatabhinnatayaitāvantaṃ kālam anubhūteṣu sarveṣv ātmasu jñānaikākāratayā parasparasāmyena akarmavaśyatayā ceśvarasāmyena sarvatra samadarśanarūpo yogas tvayā proktaḥ, etasya yogasya sthirāṃ sthitiṃ na paśyāmi, manasaś cañcalatvāt / tathā anavaratābhyastaviṣayeṣv api svata eva cañcalaṃ puruṣeṇaikatrāvasthāpayitum aśakyaṃ manaḥ puruṣaṃ balāt pramathya dṛḍham anyatra carati; tasya svābhyastaviṣayeṣv api cañcalasvabhāvasya manasas tadviparītākārātmani sthāpayituṃ nigrahaṃ pratikūlagater mahāvātasya vyajanādinaiva suduṣkaram ahaṃ manye / manonigrahopāyo vaktavya ityabhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


etaṃ sphuṭayati cañcalam iti | cañcalaṃ svabhāvenaiva capalam | kiṃ ca pramāthi pramathana-śīlam | dehendriya-kṣobha-karam ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca balavad vicāreṇāpi jetum aśakyam | kiṃ ca dṛḍhaṃ viṣaya-vāsanānubaddhatayā durbhedam | ato yathākāśe dodhūyamānasya vāyoḥ kumbhādiṣu nirodhanam aśakyaṃ tathāhaṃ tasya manaso nigrahaṃ nirodhaṃ suduṣkaraṃ sarvathā kartum aśakyaṃ manye

 

Madhusūdana


sarva-loka-prasiddhatvena tad eva cañcalatvam upapādayati cañcalaṃ hīti | cañcalam atyarthaṃ calaṃ sadā calana-svabhāvaṃ manaḥ | hi prasiddham evaitat | bhaktānāṃ pāpādi-doṣān sarvathā nivārayitum aśakyān api kṛṣati nivārayati teṣām eva sarvathā prāptum aśayān api puruṣārthān ākarṣati prāpayatīti vā kṛṣṇaḥ | tena rūpeṇa sambodhayan durnivāram api citta-cāñcalyaṃ nivārya duṣprāpam api samādhi-sukhaṃ tvam eva prāpayituṃ śaknoṣīti sūcayati | na kevalam atyarthaṃ cañcalaṃ kintu pramāthi śarīram indriyāṇi ca pramathituṃ kṣobhayituṃ śīlaṃ yasya tat | kṣobhakatayā śarīrendriya-saṃghātasya vivaśatā-hetur ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca balavat, abhipretād viṣayāt kenāpy upāyena nivārayitum aśakyam | kiṃ ca, dṛḍhaṃ viṣaya-vāsanā-sahasrānusyūtatayā bhettum aśakyam, tantu-nāga-vad acchedyam iti bhāṣye | tantu-nāgo nāga-pāśaḥ | tāntanīti gurjarādau prasiddho mahā-hrada-nivāsī jantu-viśeṣo vā | tasyātidṛḍhatayā balavato balavattayā pramāthinaḥ pramāthitayāticañcalasya mahā-matta-vana-gajasya nigrahaṃ nirodhaṃ nirvṛttikatayāvasthānaṃ suduṣkaraṃ sarvathā kartum aśakyam ahaṃ manye | vāyor iva | yathākāśe dodhūyamānasya vāyor niścalatvaṃ sampādya nirodhanam aśakyaṃ tadvad ity arthaḥ |

ayaṃ bhāvaḥ |jāte ‚pi tattva-jñāne prārabdha-karma-bhogāya jīvataḥ puruṣasya kartṛtva-bhoktṛtva-sukha-duḥkha-rāga-dveṣādi-lakṣaṇaś citta-dharmaḥ kleśa-hetutvād bādhitānuvṛttyāpi bandho bhavati | citta-vṛtti-nirodha-rūpeṇa tu yogena tasya nivāraṇaṃ jīvanmuktir ity ucyate | yasyāḥ sampādanena sa yogī paramo mata ity uktam | tatredam ucyate | bandhaḥ kiṃ sākṣiṇo nivāryate kiṃ vā cittāt | nādyas tattva-jñānenaiva sākṣiṇo bandhasya nivāritatvāt | na dvitīyaḥ svabhāva-viparyayāyogāt | virodhi-sad-bhāvāc ca | na hi jalād ārdratvam agner voṣṇatvaṃ nivārayituṃ śakyate pratikṣaṇa-pariṇamino hi bhāvā ṛte citi-śakteḥ iti nyāyena pratikṣaṇa-pariṇama-svabhāvatvāc cittasya prārabdha-bhogena ca karmaṇā kṛtsnāvidyā-tat-kārya-nāśane pravṛttasya tattva-jñānasyāpi pratibandhaṃ kṛtvā sva-phala-dānāya dehendriyādikam avasthāpitam | na ca karmaṇā sva-phala-sukha-duḥkhādi-bhogaś citta-vṛttibhir vinā sampādayituṃ śakyate | tasmād yadyapi svābhāvikānām api citta-pariṇāmānāṃ kathaṃcid yogenābhibhavaḥ śakyeta kartuṃ tathāpi tattva-jñānād iva yogād api prārabdha-phalasya karmaṇaḥ prābalyād avaśyambhāvini cittasya cāñcalye yogena tan-nivāraṇam aśakyam ahaṃ sva-bodhād eva manye | tasmād anupapannam etad ātmaupamyena sarvatra sama-darśī paramo yogī mata ity arjunasyākṣepaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etad evāha cañcalam iti | nanu ātmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ ratham eva ca [KaṭhU 1.3.3] ity ādi śruteḥ,

āhuḥ śarīraṃ ratham indriyāṇi
hayān abhīṣūn mana indriyeśam |
vartmāni mātrā dhiṣaṇaṃ ca sūtam [BhP 7.15.41] iti smṛteś ca

buddher mano niyantṛtva-darśanād vivekavatyā buddhyā mano vaśīkartuṃ śaktyam eveti ced ata āha balavat | sva-praśamakam auṣudham api balavān rogo yathā na gaṇayati, tathaiva svabhāvād eva baliṣṭhaṃ mano vivekavatīm api buddhim | kiṃ ca dṛḍham atisūkṣma-buddhi-sūcyāpi loham iva sahasā bhettum aśakyam | vāyor ity ākāśe dodhūyamānasya vāyor nigrahaṃ kumbhakādinā nirodham iva yogenāṣṭāṅgena manaso ‚pi nirodhaṃ duṣkaraṃ manye

 

Baladeva


tad evāha cañcalaṃ hīti | manaḥ svabhāvena cañcalam | nanu

ātmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ ratham eva ca |
buddhiṃ tu sārathiṃ viddhi manaḥ pragraham eva ca ||
indriyāṇi hayān āhur viṣayāṃs teṣu gocarān |
ātmendriya-mano-yukto bhoktety āhur manīṣiṇaḥ || [KaṭhU 1.3.3]

iti śruter buddhi-niyamyaṃ manaḥ śrūyate tato vivekinyāṃ buddhyāṃ śakyaṃ tad vaśīkartum iti cet tatrāha pramāthīti | tādṛśīm api buddhiṃ pramathati | kutaḥ ? balavat sva-praśamakam apy auṣadhaṃ yathā balavān rogo na gaṇayati, tadvat | kiṃ ca dṛḍham sūcyā lauham iva tādṛśyāpi buddhyā bhettum aśakyam ato yogenāpi tasya nigraham ahaṃ vāyor iva suduṣkaraṃ manye | na hi vāyor muṣṭinā dhartuṃ śakyate atas tatropāyaṃ brūhīti

 
 

BhG 6.35

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
asaṃśayaṃ mahābāho mano durnigrahaṃ calam
abhyāsena tu kaunteya vairāgyeṇa ca gṛhyate

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one), he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī),
manaḥ (the mind) asaṁśayaṁ (without doubt) calam (restless) durnigraham (difficult to control) [asti] (it is).
abhyāsena tu (but by practice) vairāgyeṇa ca (and by freedom from passion) [manaḥ] (the mind) gṛhyate (it is taken).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
asaṁśayam av.without doubt (from: sam-śī – to waver, saṁśaya – hesitation, doubt);
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
durnigraham dur-ni-graha 2n.1 m.difficult to control (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; ni-grah – to hold back, to control);
calam cala 2n.1 n.restless, unsteady (from: cal – to move, to shake);
abhyāsena abhy-āsa 3n.1 m.by practice, by repetition (from: abhi-as – to repeat, to study);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
vairāgyeṇa vai-rāgya 3n.1 m.by freedom from passion, by aversion, by ascetism (from: vi-rañj – to discolour, to change affection, to become indifferent, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty);
ca av.and;
gṛhyate grah (to take) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is taken;

 

textual variants


vairāgyeṇa → vairāgyena (by freedom from passion);

 
 

Śāṃkara


śrī-bhagavān uvāca, evam etad yathā bravīṣi—

asaṃśayaṃ nāsti saṃśayo mano durnigrahaṃ calam ity atra he mahābāho | kiṃtv abhyāsena tv abhyāso nāmaś citta-bhūmau kasyāṃcit samāna-pratyayāvṛttiś cittasya | vairāgyeṇa vairāgyaṃ nāma dṛṣṭādṛṣṭeṣṭa-bhogeṣu doṣa-darśanābhyāsād vaitṛṣṇyam | tena ca vairāgyeṇa gṛhyate vikṣepa-rūpaḥ pracāraś cittasya | evaṃ tan mano gṛhyate nigṛhyate nirudhyata ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 6.36

 

Śrīdhara


tad uktaṃ cañcalatvādikam aṅgīkṛtyaiva mano-nigrahopāyaṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca asaṃśayam iti | cañcalatvādinā mano niroddhum aśakyam iti yad vadasi etan niḥsaṃśayam eva | tathāpi tv abhyāsena paramātmākāra-pratyayā vṛttyā viṣaya-vaitṛṣṇyena ca gṛhyate | abhyāsena laya-pratibandhād vairāgyeṇa ca vikṣepa-pratibandhād uparata-vṛttikaṃ sat paramātmākāreṇa tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ yoga-śāstre –

manaso vṛtti-śūnyasya brahmākāratayā sthitiḥ |
yāsamprajñāta-nāmāsau samādhir abhidhīyate || iti

 

Madhusūdana


tam imam ākṣepaṃ pariharan śrī-bhagavān uvāca asaṃśayam iti | samyag viditaṃ te citta-ceṣṭitaṃ mano nigrahītuṃ śakṣyasīti santoṣeṇa sambodhayati he mahābāho mahāntau sākṣān mahādevenāpi saha kṛta-praharaṇau bāhū yasyeti niratiśayam utkarṣaṃ sūcayati | prārabdha-karma-prābalyād asaṃyatātmanā durnigrahaṃ duḥkhenāpi nigrahītum aśakyam | pramāthi balavad dṛḍham iti viśeṣaṇa-trayaṃ piṇḍīkṛtyaitad uktam | calaṃ svabhāva-cañcalaṃ mana ity asaṃśayaṃ nāsty eva saṃśayo ‚tra satyam evaitad bravīṣīty arthaḥ | evaṃ saty api saṃyatātmanā samādhi-mātropāyena yoginābhyāsena vairāgyeṇa ca gṛhyate nigṛhyate sarva-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ kriyate tan mana ity arthaḥ | anigrahītur asaṃyatātmanaḥ sakāśāt saṃyatātmano nigrahītur viśeṣa-dyotanāya tu-śabdaḥ | mano-nigrahe ‚bhyāsa-vairāgyayoḥ samuccaya-bodhanāya ca-śabdaḥ | he kaunteyeti pitṛ-ṣvasṛ-putras tvam avaśyaṃ mayā sukhī kartavya iti sneha-sambandha-sūcanenāśvāsayati | atra prathamārdhena cittasya haṭha-nigraho na sambhavatīti dvitīyārdhena tu krama-nigrahaḥ sambhavatīty uktam |

dvividho hi manaso nigrahaḥ | haṭhena krameṇa ca | tatra cakṣuḥ-śrotrādīni jñānendriyāṇi vāk-pāṇy-ādīni karmendriyāṇi ca tad-golaka-mātroparodhena haṭhān nigṛhyante | tad-dṛṣṭāntena mano ‚pi haṭhena nigrahīṣyāmīti mūḍhasya bhrāntir bhavati | na ca tathā nigrahītuṃ śakyate tad-golakasya hṛdaya-kamalasya niroddhum aśakyatvāt | ataeva ca krama-nigraha eva yuktas tad etad bhagavān vasiṣṭha āha –

upaviśyopaviśyaiva cittajñena muhur muhuḥ |
na śakyate mano jetuṃ vinā yuktim aninditām ||
aṅkuśena vinā matto yathā duṣṭa-mataṅgajaḥ |
adhyātma-vidyādhigamaḥ sādhu-saṅgama eva ca ||
vāsanā-samparityāgaḥ prāṇa-spanda-nirodhanam |
etās tā yuktayaḥ puṣṭāḥ santi citta-jaye kila ||
satīṣu yuktiṣv etāsu haṭhān niyamayanti ye |
cetas te dīpam utsṛjya vinighnanti tamo ‚ñjanaiḥ || iti |

krama-nigrahe cādhyātma-vidyādhigama eka upāyaḥ | sā hi dṛśyasya mithyātvaṃ dṛg-vastunaś ca paramārtha-satya-paramānanda-svaprakāśatavaṃ bodhayati | tathā ca saty etan manaḥ sva-gocareṣu buddhvā nirindhanāgnivat svayam evopaśāmyati | yas tu bodhitam api tattvaṃ na samyag budhyate yo vā vismarati tayoḥ sādhu-saṅgama evopāyaḥ | sādhavo hi punaḥ punar bodhayanti smārayanti ca | yas tu vidyā-madādi-durvāsanayā pīḍyamāno na sādhūn anuvartitum utsahate tasya pūrvokta-vivekena vāsanā-parityāga evopāyaḥ | yas tu vāsanānām atiprābalyāt tās tyaktuṃ na śaknoti tasya prāṇa-spanda-nirodha eva upāyaḥ | prāṇa-spanda-vāsanayoś citta-prerakatvāt tayor nirodhe citta-śāntir upapadyate | tad etad āha sa eva –

dve bīje citta-vṛkṣasya prāṇa-spandana-vāsane |
ekasmiṃś ca tayoḥ kṣīṇe kṣipraṃ dve api naśyataḥ ||
prāṇāyāma-dṛḍhābhyāsair yuktyā ca guru-dattayā |
āsanāśana-yogena prāṇa-spando nirudhyate ||
asaṅga-vyavahāritvād bhava-bhāvana-varjanāt |
śarīra-nāśa-darśitvād vāsanā na pravartate ||
vāsanā-samparityāgāc cittaṃ gacchaty acittatām |
prāṇa-spanda-nirodhāc ca yathecchasi tathā kuru ||
etāvan mātrakaṃ manye rūpaṃ cittasya rāghava |
yad bhāvanaṃ vastuno ‚ntarvastutvena rasena ca ||
yadā na bhāvyate kiṃcid dheyopādeya-rūpi yat |
sthīyate sakalaṃ tyaktvā tadā cittaṃ na jāyate ||
avāsanatvāt satataṃ yadā na manute manaḥ |
amanastā tadodeti paramātma-pada-pradā || iti |

atra dvāv evopāyau paryavasitau prāṇa-spanda-nirodhārtham abhyāsaḥ | vāsanā-parityāgārthaṃ ca vairāgyam iti | sādhu-saṅgamādhyātma-vidyādhigamau tv abhyāsa-vairāgyopapādakatayānyathā-siddhau tayor evāntarbhavataḥ | ata eva bhagavatābhyāsena vairāgyeṇa ceti dvayam evoktam | ataeva bhagavān patañjalir asūtrayat abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ tan-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.12] iti | tāsāṃ prāg-uktānāṃ pramāṇa-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrā-smṛti-rūpeṇa pañca-vidhānām anantānām āsuratvena kliṣṭānāṃ daivatvenākliṣṭānām api vṛttīnāṃ sarvāssām api nirodho nirindhanāgnivad upaśamākhyaḥ pariṇāmo ‚bhyāsena vairāgyeṇa ca samuccitena bhavati | tad uktaṃ yoga-bhāṣye – citta-nadī nāmobhayato-vāhinī vahati kalyāṇāya vahati pāpāya ca | tatra yā kaivalya-prāg-bhārā viveka-nimnā sā kalyāṇa-vahā | yā tv aviveka-nimnā saṃsāra-prāg-bhārā sā pāpa-vahā | tatra vairāgyeṇa viṣaya-srotaḥ khilīkriyate | viveka-darśanābhyāsena ca kalyāṇa-srota udghāṭyate ity ubhayādhīnaś citta-vṛtti-nirodha iti | prāg-bhāra-nimna-pade tadā viveka-nimnaṃ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṃ cittam ity atra vyākhyāyate | yathā tīvra-vegopetaṃ nadī-pravāhaṃ setu-bandhanena nivārya kulyā-praṇayena kṣetrābhimukhaṃ tiryak-pravāhāntaram utpādyate tathā vairāgyeṇa citta-nadyā viṣaya-pravāhaṃ nivārya samādhy-abhyāsena praśānta-vāhitā sampādyata iti dvāra-bhedāt samuccaya eva | eka-dvāratve hi brīhi-yava-dvi-kalpaḥ syād iti |

mantra-japa-devatā-dhyānādīnāṃ kriyā-rūpāṇām āvṛtti-lakṣaṇo ‚bhyāsaḥ sambhavāt | sarva-vyāpāroparamasya tu samādheḥ ko nāmābhyāsa iti śaṅkāṃ nivārayitum abhyāsaṃ sūtrayati sma tatra sthitau yatno ‚bhyāsaḥ [YogaS 1.13] iti | tatra svarūpāvasthite draṣṭari śuddhe cid-ātmani cittasyāvṛttikasya praśānta-vāhitā-rūpā niścalatāsthitis tad-arthaṃ yatno mānasa utsāhaḥ svabhāva-cāñcalyād bahiṣpravāha-śīlaṃ cittaṃ sarvathā nirotsyāmīty evaṃ vidhaḥ | sa āvartyamāno ‚bhyāsa ucyate | sa tu dīrgha-kāla-nairantarya-satkārāsevito dṛḍha-bhūmiḥ [YogaS 1.14] anirvedena dīrgha-kāla-sevito vicchedābhāvena nirantarāsevitaḥ sat-kāreṇa śraddhātiśayena cāsevitaḥ | so ‚bhyāso dṛḍha-bhūmir viṣaya-sukha-vāsanayā cālayitum aśakyo bhavati | adīrgha-kālatve dīrghakālatve ‚pi vicchidya vicchidya sevane śraddhātiśayābhāve ca laya-vikṣepa-kaṣāya-sukhāsvādānām aparihāre vyutthāna-saṃskāra-prābalyād adṛḍha-bhūmir abhyāsaḥ phalāya na syād iti trayam upāttam |

vairāgyaṃ tu dvividham aparaṃ paraṃ ca | yatmāna-saṃjñā-vyatireka-saṃjñaikendriya-saṃjñā-vaśīkāra-saṃjñā-bhedair aparaṃ caturdhā | tatra pūrva-bhūmi-jayenottara-bhūmi-sampādana-vivakṣayā caturtham evāsūtrayat — dṛṣṭānuśravika-viṣaya-vitṛṣṇasya vaśīkāra-saṃjñā vairāgyam [YogaS 1.15] iti | striyo ‚nnaṃ pānam aiśvaryam ity ādayo dṛṣṭā viṣayāḥ | svargo videhatā prakṛti-laya ity ādayo vaidikatvenānuśravikā viṣayās teṣūbhaya-vidheṣv api satyām eva tṛṣṇāyāṃ viveka-tāratamyena yatamānādi-trayaṃ bhavati | atra jagati kiṃ sāraṃ kim asāram iti guru-śāstrābhyāṃ jñāsāmīty udyogo yatamānam | sva-citte pūrva-vidyamāna-doṣāṇāṃ madhye ‚bhyasyamāna-vivekenaite pakvā ete ‚vaśiṣṭā iti cikitsakavad vivecanaṃ vyatirekaḥ | dṛṣṭānuśravika-viṣaya-pravṛtter duḥkhātmatva-bodhena bhair indriya-pravṛttim ajanayantyā api tṛṣṇāyā autsukya-mātreṇa manasy avasthānam ekendriyam | manasy api tṛṣṇā-śūnyatvena sarvathā vaitṛṣṇyaṃ tṛṣṇā-virodhinī citta-vṛttir jñāna-prasāda-rūpā vaśīkāra-saṃjñā vairāgyaṃ samprajñātasya samādher antaraṅgaṃ sādhanam asaṃprajñātasya tu bahiraṅgam | tasya tv antaraṅga-sādhanaṃ param evaṃ vairāgyam | tac cāsūtrayat — tat-paraṃ puruṣa-khyāter guṇa-vaitṛṣṇyam [YogaS 1.16] iti | samprajñāta-samādhi-pāṭavena guṇa-trayātmakāt pradhānād viviktasya puruṣasya khyātiḥ sākṣātkāra utpadyate | tataś cāśeṣa-guṇa-traya-vyavahāreṣu vaitṛṣṇyaṃ yad bhavati tat-paraṃ śreṣṭhaṃ phala-bhūtaṃ vairāgyam | tat-paripāka-nimittāc ca cittopaśama-paripākād avilambena kaivalyam iti

 

Viśvanātha


uktam artham aṅgīkṛtya samadadhāti aśaṃśayam iti | tvayoktaṃ satyam eva, kintu balavān api rogas tat-praśamakauṣadha-sevayā sad-vaidya-prayukta-prakārayā muhur abhyastayā yathā cira-kālena śāmyaty eva, tathā durnigraham api mano ‚bhyāsena sad-gurūpadiṣṭa-prakāreṇa parameśvara-dhyāna-yogasya muhur anuśīlanena vairāgyeṇa viṣayeṣv anāsaṅgena ca gṛhyate sva-hasta-vaśīkartuṃ śakyata ity arthaḥ | tathā ca pātañjala-sūtram – abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ tan-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.12] iti | mahābāho iti saṅgrāme tvayā yan mahāvīrā api vijīyante, sa ca pināka-pāṇir api vaśīkṛtas tenāpi kim ? yadi mahā-vīra-śiro-maṇir mano nāmā prādhāniko bhaṭo mahā-yogāstra-prayogeṇa jetuṃ śakyate, tadaiva mahā-bāhuteti bhāvaḥ | he kaunteyeti tatra tvaṃ mā bhaiṣīḥ | mat-pituḥ svasuḥ kuntyāḥ putre tvayi mayā sāhāyyaṃ vidheyam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


uktam artham svīkṛtya bhagavān uvāca aśaṃśayam iti | tathāpi sva-prakāśa-sukhaikatānatvātma-guṇābhimukhyābhyāsenātma-vyatirikteṣu viṣayeṣu doṣa-dṛṣṭi-janitena vairāgyeṇa ca mano nigrahītuṃ śakyate | tathā cātmānandāsvādhābhyāsena laya-pratibandhād viṣaya-vaitṛṣṇyena ca vikṣepa-pratibandhān nivṛtta-cāpalyaṃ manaḥ sugrahaṃ yathā sad-auṣadha-sevayā sad-vaidya-prayukta-prakārayā muhur abhyastayā yathā cira-kālena śāmyaty eva, tathā durnigraham api mano ‚bhyāsena sad-gurūpadiṣṭa-prakāreṇa parameśvara-dhyāna-yogasya muhur anuśīlanena vairāgyeṇa viṣayeṣv anāsaṅgena ca gṛhyate sva-hasta-vaśīkartuṃ śakyata ity arthaḥ | tathā ca pātañjala-sūtram – abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ tan-nirodhaḥ [YogaS 1.12] iti | mahābāho iti saṅgrāme tvayā yan mahāvīrā api vijīyante, sa ca pināka-pāṇir api vaśīkṛtas tenāpi kim ? yadi mahā-vīra-śiro-maṇir mano nāmā prādhāniko bhaṭo mahā-yogāstra-prayogeṇa jetuṃ śakyate, tadaiva mahā-bāhuteti bhāvaḥ | he kaunteyeti tatra tvaṃ mā bhaiṣīḥ | mat-pituḥ svasuḥ kuntyāḥ putre tvayi mayā sāhāyyaṃ vidheyam iti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 6.36

asaṃyatātmanā yogo duṣprāpa iti me matiḥ
vaśyātmanā tu yatatā śakyo vāptum upāyataḥ

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syntax


asaṁyatātmanā (by one whose self is not restrained) yogaḥ (yoga) duṣprāpaḥ [asti] (is difficult to obtain) iti me (it is my) matiḥ (opinion),
vaśyātmanā tu (but by one whose self is under control) yatatā (by one endeavouring) upāyataḥ (through a means) avāptum (to obtain) śakyaḥ (it is possible).

 

grammar

asaṁyatātmanā a-saṁyata-ātman 3n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā saṁyato nāsti tena by one whose self is not restrained (from: sam-yam – to hold together, to restrain, [PP] saṁyata – restrained, controlled; ātman – self);
yogaḥ yoga 1n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
duṣprāpaḥ duṣprāpa 1n.1 m.difficult to obtain (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; pra-āp – to obtain, to reach, prāpa – obtainment);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
matiḥ mati 1n.1 f.thought, opinion, view (from: man – to think);
vaśyātmanā vaśya-ātman 3n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā vaśyo ‘sti tena by one whose self is under control (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command, PF vaśya – to be subjugated; subject to, under control, tamed; ātman – self);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
yatatā yatant (yat – to endeavour) PPr 3n.1 m.by one endeavouring, by one striving;
śakyaḥ śakya (śak – to be able to) PF 1n.1 m. it is possible;
avāptum ava-āp (to obtain, to reach) [inf.] – to obtain, to reach;
upāyataḥ av.through a means (from: upa-ā-i – to approach, upāya – a means, way, remedy; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);

 

textual variants


asaṃyatātmanā → asaṃyatātmanaḥ / asaṃśayātmanā (of one whose self is not restrained / by one whose self has no doubts);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yaḥ punar asaṃyatātmā, tena—

asaṃyatātmanābhyāsa-vairāgyābhyām asaṃyataḥ ātmāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya so’yam asaṃyatātmā tenāsaṃyatātmanā yogo duṣprāpo duḥkhena prāpyateti me matiḥ | yas tu punar vaśyātmābhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ vaśyatvam āpāditaḥ ātmā mano yasya so’yaṃ vaśyātmā tena vaśyātmanā tu yatatā bhūyo’pi prayatnaṃ kurvatā śakyo’vāptuṃ yogar upāyato yathoktād upāyāt

 

Rāmānuja


calasvabhāvatayā mano durnigraham evety atra na saṃśayaḥ; tathā +apy ātmano guṇākaratvābhyāsajanitābhimukhyena ātmavyatirikteṣu doṣākaratvajanitavaitṛṣṇyena ca kathaṃcid gṛhyate; asaṃyatātmanā ajitamanasā mahatāpi balena yogo duṣprāpa ea / upāyatas tu vaśyātmanā pūrvoktena madārādhanarūpeṇāntargatajñānena karmaṇā jitamanasā yatamānenāyam eva samadarśanarūpo yogo ‚vāptuṃ śakyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


etāvāṃs tv iha niścaya ity āha asaṃyateti | ukta-prakāreṇābhyāsa-vairāgyābhyām asaṃyata ātmā cittaṃ yasya tena yogo duṣprāpa prāptum aśakyaḥ | abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ vaśyo vaśavartī ātmā cittaṃ yasya tena puruṣeṇa punaś cānenaivopāyena prayatnaṃ kurvatā yogaḥ prāptuṃ śakyaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yat tu tvam avocaḥ prārabdha-bhogena karmaṇā tattva-jñānād api prabalena sva-phala-dānāya manaso vṛttiṣūtpādyamānāsu kathaṃ tāsāṃ nirodhaḥ kartuṃ śakyaṃ iti tatrocyate asaṃśayātmaneti |

tathā cāha bhagavān vasiṣṭhaḥ –

sarvam eveha hi sadā saṃsāre raghunandana |
samyak prayuktāt sarveṇa pauruṣāt samavāpyate ||
ucchāstraṃ śāstritaṃ ceti pauruṣaṃ dvividhaṃ smṛtam |
tatrocchāstram anarthāya paramārthāya śāstritam ||

ucchāstraṃ śāstra-pratiṣiddham anarthāya narakāya | śāstritaṃ śāstra-vihitam antaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhi-dvārā paramārthāya caturṣv artheṣu paramāya mokṣāya |

śubhāśubhābhyāṃ mārgābhyāṃ vahantī vāsanā sarit |
pauruṣeṇa prayatnena yojanīyā śubhe pathi ||
aśubheṣu samāviṣṭaṃ śubheṣv evāvatāraya |
sva-manaḥ puruṣārthena balena balināṃ vara ||
drāg-abhyāsa-vaśād yāti yadā te vāsanodayam |
tadābhyāsasya sāphalyaṃ viddhi tvam ari-mardana ||

vāsanā śubhedti śeṣaḥ |

sandigdhāyām api bhṛśaṃ śubhām eva samāhara |
śubhāyāṃ vāsanā-vṛddhau tāta doṣo na kaścana ||
avyutpanna-manā yāvad bhavān ajñāta-tatpadaḥ |
guru-śāstra-pramāṇais tvaṃ nirṇītaṃ tāvad ācara ||
tataḥ pakva-kaṣāyeṇa nūnaṃ vijñāta-vastunā |
śubho ‚py asau tvayā tyājyo vāsanaugho nirodhinā || iti |

tasmāt sākṣi-gatasya saṃsārasyāviveka-nibandhanasya viveka-sākṣātkārād apanaye ‚pi prārabdha-karma-paryavasthāpitasya cittasya svābhāvikīnām api vṛttīnāṃ yogābhyāsa-prayatnenāpanaye sati jīvanmuktaḥ paramo yogī | citta-vṛtti-nirodhābhāve tu tattva-jñānavān apy aparamo yogīti siddham | avaśiṣṭaṃ jīvanmukti-viveke sa-vistaram anusandheyam

 

Viśvanātha


atrāyaṃ parāmarśa ity ata āha saṃyatātmanābhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ na saṃyataṃ mano yasya tena | tābhyāṃ tu vaśyātmanā vaśībhūta-manasāpi puṃsā yatatā ciraṃ yatnavataiva yogo mano-nirodha-lakṣaṇaḥ samādhir upāyataḥ sādhana-bhūyastvāt prāptuṃ śakyaḥ

 

Baladeva


asaṃyateti | uktābhyām abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ na saṃyata ātmā mano yasya tena vijñenāpi puṃsā citta-vṛtti-nirodha-lakṣaṇo yogo duṣprāpaḥ prāptum aśakyaḥ | tābhyāṃ vaśyo ‚dhīna ātmā mano yasya tena puṃsā, tathāpi yatatā tādṛśa-prayatnavatā sa yogaḥ prāptuṃ śakyaḥ | upāyato mad-ārādhana-lakṣaṇāj jñānākārān niṣkāma-karma-yogāc ceti me matiḥ

 
 

BhG 6.37

arjuna uvāca
ayatiḥ śraddhayopeto yogāc calita-mānasaḥ
aprāpya yoga-saṃsiddhiṃ kāṃ gatiṃ kṛṣṇa gacchati

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arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he kṛṣṇa (O Kṛṣṇa!),
śraddhayā (with faith) upetaḥ (endowed) ayatiḥ (not endeavouring) yogāt (from yoga) calita-mānasaḥ (whose functions of the mind moved)
yoga-saṁsiddhim (perfection of yoga) aprāpya (after not obtaining)
kām gatim (what goal?) gacchati (he obtains).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
ayatiḥ a-yati 1n.1 m.not endeavouring, non-ascetic (from: yat – to place in order, to endeavour);
śraddhayā śraddhā 3n.1 f.with faith (from: śrat – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]; śraddhā – faith, confidence);
upetaḥ upeta (upa-i – to go near, to attain) [PP] 1n.1 m.endowed with;
yogāt yoga 5n.1 m.from yoga, from yoking, from application (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
calita-mānasaḥ calita-mānasa 1n.1 m.; yasya mānasaṁ calitam asti saḥ whose functions of the mind moved from (from: cal – to move, to shake, [PP] calita – shaken, moving, disturbed; man – to think, manas – the mind, mānasa – pertaining to the mind, imagine, thought);
aprāpya  na pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after not obtaining;
yoga-saṁsiddhim yoga-sam-siddhi 2n.1 f.; [TP]: yogasya saṁsiddhim iti success in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; sidh – to succeed, to become perfect, sam-siddhi – accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success);
kām kim sn. 2n.1 f.what?
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, way, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa 8n.1 m.O dark one, O Kṛṣṇa;
gacchati gam (to go, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he goes;

 

textual variants


ayatiḥ → ayataḥ (unrestrained);

… → pada, not found in critical edition, after the second pada of verse 6.37:
ayaṁ niḥsaṁśayo yogo (that yoga without a doubt);

… → verse, not found in critical edition, between the second and third pada of verse 6.37:
lipsamānaḥ satāṁ mārgaṁ pramūḍho brahmaṇaḥ pathi
aneka-citto vibhrānto mohasyaiva vaśaṁ gataḥ

Desiring to obtain the path of the saints, [but] perplexed in the path of brahman,
whose mind is not concentrated, wandering, who has gone into bewilderment…

 
 

Śāṃkara


tatra yogābhyāsāṅgīkaraṇena ihaloka-paraloka-prāpti-nimittāni karmāṇi saṃnyastāni, yoga-siddhi-phalaṃ ca mokṣa-sādhanaṃ samyag darśanaṃ na prāptam iti, yogī yoga-mārgāt maraṇa-kāle calita-citta iti tasya nāśam āśaṅkayārjuna uvāca—

ayatir aprayatnavān yoga-mārge śraddhayāstikya-buddhyā copeto yogād anta-kāle ca calitaṃ mānasaṃ mano yasya sa calita-mānaso bhraṣṭa-smṛtiḥ so’prāpya yoga-saṃsiddhiṃ yoga-phalaṃ samyag-darśanaṃ kāṃ gatiṃ he kṛṣṇa gacchati

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 6.39

 

Śrīdhara


abhyāsa-vairāgyābhāvena kathañcid aprāpta-samyag-jñānaḥ kiṃ phalaṃ prāpnotīty arjuna uvāca ayatir it | prathamaṃ śraddhayopeta eva yoge pravṛttaḥ, na tu mithyācāratayā | tataḥ paraṃ tv ayatiḥ samyaṅ na yatate | śithilābhyāsa ity arthaḥ | evam abhyāsa-vairāgya-śaithilyād yogasya saṃsiddhiṃ phalaṃ jñānam aprāpya kāṃ gatiṃ prāpnoti ?

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ prāktanena granthenotpanna-tattva-jñāno ‚nutpanna-jīvan-mukti-paramo yogī mataḥ | utpanna-tattva-jñāna utpanna-jīvan-muktis tu paramo yogī mata ity uktam | tayor ubhayor api jñānād jñāna-nāśe ‚pi yāvat prārabdha-bhogaṃ karma dehendriya-saṅghātāvasthānāt prārabdha-bhoga-karmāpāye ca vartamāna-dehendriya-saṅghātāpāyāt punar-utpādakābhāvād videha-kaivalyaṃ prati kāpi nāsty āśaṅkā | yas tu prāk-kṛta-karmabhir labdha-vividiṣā-paryanta-citta-śuddhiḥ kṛta-kāryatvāt sarvāṇi karmāṇi parityajya prāpta-paramahaṃsa-parivrājaka-bhāvaḥ paramahaṃsa-parivrājakam ātma-sākṣātkāreṇa jīvan-muktaṃ para-prabodhana-dakṣaṃ gurum upasṛtya tato vedānta-mahā-vākyopadeśaṃ prāpya tatrāsambhāvanā-viparīta-bhāvanākhya-pratibandha-nirāsāya athāto brahma-jijñāsā [Vs 1.1.1] ity ādy anāvṛttiḥ śabdāt [Vs 4.4.23] ity antayā catur-lakṣaṇa-mīmāṃsayā śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanāni guru-prasādāt kartum ārabhate sa śraddadhāno ‚pi sann āyuṣo ‚lpatvenālpa-prayatnatvād alabdha-jñāna-paripākaḥ śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsaneṣu kriyamāṇeṣv eva madhye vyāpadyate | sa jñāna-paripāka-śūnyatvenānaṣṭājñāno na mucyate | nāpy upāsanā-sahita-karma-phalaṃ devalokam anubhavaty arcir-ādi-mārgeṇa | nāpi kevala-karma-phalaṃ pitṛ-lokam anubhavati dhūmādi-mārgeṇa | karmaṇām upāsanānāṃ ca tyaktatvāt | ata etādṛśo yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ kīṭādi-bhāvena kaṣṭāṃ gatim iyād ajñatve sati deva-yāna-pitṛ-yāna-mārgāsambandhitvād varṇāśramācāra-bhraṣṭavad athavā kaṣṭāṃ gatiṃ neyāt | śāstra-ninidta-karma-śūnyatvād vāmadevavad iti saṃśaya-paryākula-manā arjuna uvāca ayatir iti |

yatir yatna-śīlaḥ alpārthe nañ alavaṇā yavāgūr ity-ādivat | ayatir alpa-yatnaḥ | śraddhayā guru-vedānta-vākyeṣu viśvāsa-buddhi-rūpayopeto yuktaḥ | śraddhā ca sva-sahacaritānāṃ śamādīnām upalakṣaṇaṃ śānto dānta uparatas titikṣuḥ śraddhānvito bhūtvātmany evātmānaṃ paśyati iti śruteḥ | tena nityānitya-vastu-viveka ihāmutra-bhoga-virāgaḥ śama-damoparati-titikṣā-śraddhādi-sampan-mumukṣutā ceti sādhana-catuṣṭaya-sampanno gurum upasṛtya vedānta-vākya-śravaṇādi kurvann api paramāyuṣo ‚lpatvena maraṇa-kāle cendriyāṇāṃ vyākulatvena sādhanānuṣṭhānāsambhavād yogāc calita-mānaso yogāc chravaṇādi-paripāka-labdha-janmanas tattva-sākṣātkārāc calitaṃ tat-phalam aprāptaṃ mānasaṃ yasya sa yogāniṣpattyaivāprāpya yoga-saṃsiddhiṃ tattva-jñāna-nimittām ajñāna-tat-kārya-nivṛttim apunar-āvṛtti-sahitām aprāpyātattva-jña eva mṛtaḥ san kāṃ gatiṃ he kṛṣṇa gacchati sugatiṃ durgatiṃ vā ? karmaṇāṃ parityāgāj jñānasya cānutpatteḥ śāstrokta-mokṣa-sādhanānuṣṭhāyitvāc chāstra-garhita-karma-śūnyatvāc ca

 

Viśvanātha


nanv abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ prayatnavataiva puṃsā yogo labhyata iti tvayocyate | yasyaitat tritayam api na dṛśyate, tasya kā gatir iti pṛcchati | ayatir alpa-yatnaḥ anavarṇāya vāgur itivad alpārthe nañ | atha ca śraddhayopeto yoga-śāstrāstikyena tatra śraddhayopeto yogābhyāsa pravṛtta eva, na tu loka-vañcakatvena mithyācāraḥ | kintv abhyāsa-vairāgyayor abhāvena yogāc calitaṃ viṣaya-pravaṇī-bhūtaṃ mānasaṃ yasya saḥ | ataeva yogasya saṃsiddhiṃ samyak siddhim aprāpyeti yat kiñcit siddhiṃ tu prāpta eveti yogārurukṣā-bhūmikāto ‚grimāṃ yogāroha-bhūmikāyāḥ prathamāṃ kakṣāṃ gata iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


jñāna-garbho niṣkāma-karma-yogo ‚ṣṭāṅga-yoga-śirasko nikhilopasarga-vimardanaḥ sva-paramātmāvalokanopāyo bhavatīty asakṛd uktam | tasya ca tādṛśasya nehābhikrama-nāśo ‚stīti pūrvokta-mahimnas tan-mahimānaṃ śrotum arjunaḥ pṛcchati ayatir iti | abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ prayatnena ca yogaṃ pumān labhetaiva | yas tu prathamaṃ śraddhayā tādṛśa-yoga-nirūpaka-śruti-viśvāsenopetaḥ | kintv ayatir alpa-svadharmānuṣṭhāna-yatnavān anudārā yuvatiḥ itivad alpārthe ‚tra nañ | śithila-prayatnatvād eva yogād aṣṭāṅgāc calitaṃ viṣaya-pravaṇaṃ mānasaṃ yasya saḥ | evaṃ ca svadharmānuṣṭhānābhyāsa-vairāgya-śaithilyād vividhasya yogasya samyak siddhiṃ hṛd-viśuddh-lakṣaṇām ātmāvalokana-lakṣaṇāṃ cāprāptaḥ kiṃcit siddhiṃ tu prāpta eva | śraddhāluḥ kiṃcid anuṣṭhita-svadharmaḥ prārabdha-yogo ‚prāpta-yoga-phalo dehānte kāṃ gatiṃ gacchati ? he kṛṣṇa

 
 

BhG 6.38

kac-cin nobhaya-vibhraṣṭaś chinnābhram iva naśyati
apratiṣṭho mahābāho vimūḍho brahmaṇaḥ pathi

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he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
ubhaya-vibhraṣṭaḥ (fallen from both) [ataḥ eva] (and therefore) apratiṣṭhaḥ (has no support),
brahmaṇaḥ pathi (on the path of brahman) vimūḍhaḥ (bewildered),
chinnābhram iva (like a riven cloud) na naśyati kaccit (I hope he does not perish?).

 

grammar

kac-cit av.a question particle with a wish: I hope that? (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
na av.not;
ubhaya-vibhraṣṭaḥ ubhaya-vibhraṣṭa 1n.1 m.; [TP]: ubhayato vibhraṣṭa iti fallen from both (from: sn. ubhaya – both; vi-bhraṁś – to fall, to decay, to be lost, [PP] vibhraṣṭa – fallen, deprived, perished, lost);
chinnābhram chinna-abhra 1n.1 n.; KD: chinnam abhram itiriven cloud (from: chid – to cut, [PP] chinna – cut, destroyed; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, ab-bhra – bearer of water, cloud);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
naśyati naś (to disappear, to be lost, to perish) Praes. P 1v.1he perishes;
apratiṣṭhaḥ a-pratiṣṭha 1n.1 m.; yasya pratiṣṭhā nāsti saḥwho is without support, unstable (from: prati-sthā – to stand firmly, pratiṣṭhā – base, foundation, position);
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
vimūḍhaḥ vimūḍha (vi-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.1 m. bewildered, perplexed (as to what? – requires locative);
brahmaṇaḥ brahman 6n.1 n.of the spirit, of the Veda (from: bṛh – to increase);
pathi pathin 7n.1 n.on a path, way, road, course (from: path – to go, to move);

 

textual variants


nobhaya-vibhraṣṭaśnobhaya-vibhraṁśāc / nobhaya-vibhraṣṭaṁ (does not [perish] because of both falls / does not [perish like a cloud] fallen from both);
chinnābhram → chinnābhra (who is [like] a riven cloud);
vimūḍho brahmaṇaḥ pathi → vināśaṁ vādhigacchati (or goes into destruction);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kaścit kiṃ na ubhaya-vibhraṣṭaḥ karma-mārgāt yoga-mārgāc ca vibhraṣṭaḥ san chinnābhram iva naśyati, kiṃ vā na naśyaty apratiṣṭho nirāśrayo he mahābāho vimūḍhaḥ san brahmaṇaḥ pathi brahma-prāpti-mārge

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 6.39

 

Śrīdhara


praśnābhiprāyaṃ vivṛṇoti kaccid iti | karmaṇām īśvare ‚rpitatvād ananuṣṭhānāc ca tāvat karma-phalaṃ svargādikaṃ na prāpnoti | yogāniṣpatteś ca mokṣaṃ na prāpnoti | evam ubhayasmād bhraṣṭo ‚pratiṣṭho nirāśrayaḥ | ataeva brahmaṇaḥ prāpty-upāye pathi mārge vimūḍhaḥ san kaccit kiṃ naśyati ? kiṃ vā na naśyatīty arthaḥ | nāśe dṛṣṭāntaḥ – yathā cchinnam abhraṃ pūrvasmād abhrād viśliṣṭam abhrāntaraṃ cāprāptaṃ san madhya eva vilīyate tadvad ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


etad eva saṃśaya-bījaṃ vivṛṇoti kaccid iti | kaccid iti sābhilāṣa-praśne | he mahābāho mahāntaḥ sarveṣāṃ bhaktānāṃ sarvopadrava-nivāraṇa-samarthāḥ puruṣārtah-catuṣṭaya-dāna-samarthā vā catvāro bāhavo yasyeti praśna-nimitta-krodhābhāvas tad-uttara-dāna-sahiṣṇutvaṃ ca sūcitam | brahmaṇaḥ pathi brahma-prāpti-mārge jñāne vimūḍho vicittaḥ, anutpanna-brahmātmaikya-sākṣātkāra iti yāvat | apratiṣṭho deva-yāna-pitṛ-yāna-mārga-gamana-hetubhyām upāsanā-karmabhyāṃ pratiṣṭhābhyāṃ sādhanābhyāṃ rahitaḥ sopāsanānāṃ sarveṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ parityāgāt | etādṛśa ubhaya-vibhraṣṭaḥ karma-mārgāj jñāna-mārgāc ca vibhraṣṭaś chinnābhram iva vāyunā chinnaṃ viśakalitaṃ pūrvasmān meghād bhraṣṭam uttaraṃ megham aprāptam abhraṃ yathā vṛṣṭy-ayogyaṃ sad-antarāla eva naśyati tathā yoga-bhraṣṭo ‚pi pūrvasmāt karma-mārgād vicchinna uttaraṃ ca jñāna-mārgam aprāpto ‚ntarāla eva naśyati karma-phalaṃ jñāna-phalaṃ ca labdhum ayogyo na kim iti praśnārthaḥ | etena jñāna-karma-samuccayo nirākṛtaḥ | etasmin hi pakṣe jñāna-phala-lābhe ‚pi karma-phala-lābha-sambhavenobhaya-vibhraṣṭatvāsambhavāt | na ca tasya karma-sambhave ‚pi phala-kāmanā-tyāgāt phala-bhraṃśa-vacanam avakalpata iti vācyaṃ niṣkāmānām api karmaṇāṃ phala-sad-bhāvasyāpastamba-vacanāndy-udāharaṇena bahuśaḥ pratipāditatvāt | tasmāt sarva-karma-tyāginaṃ praty evāyaṃ praśnaḥ | anartha-prāpti-śaṅkāyās tatraiva sambhavāt

 

Viśvanātha


kaccid iti praśne | ubhaya-vibhraṣṭaḥ karma-mārgāc cyuto yoga-mārgaṃ ca samyag aprāpta ity arthaḥ | chinnābhram iveti yathā chinnam abhraṃ meghaḥ pūrvasmād abhrād viśliṣṭam abhrāntaraṃ cāprāptaṃ sat madhye vilīyate tenāsya iha loke yoga-mārge praveśād viṣaya-bhoga-tyāgecchā samyag-vairāgyābhāvād viṣaya-bhogecchā ceti kaṣṭam | para-loke ca svarga-sādhanasya karmaṇo ‚bhāvāt | mokṣa-sādhanasya yogasyāpy aparipākān na svarga-mokṣāv ity ubhaya-loka evāsya vināśa iti dyotitam | ato brahma-prāpty-upāye pathi mārge vimūḍho ‚yam apratiṣṭhaḥ pratiṣṭhām āspadam aprāptaḥ san kaccit kiṃ naśyati na naśyati tvaṃ pṛcchyase

 

Baladeva


praśnāśayaṃ viśadayati kaccid iti praśne | niṣkāmatayā karmaṇo ‚nuṣṭhānān na svargādi-phalaṃ yogāsiddher nātmāvalokanaṃ ca tasyābhūt | evam ubhayasmād vibhraṣṭo ‚pratiṣṭho nirālambaḥ san kiṃ naśyati kiṃ vā na naśyati ? ity arthaḥ | chinnābhram iveti abhraṃ megho yathā pūrvasmād abhrād vicchinnaṃ param abhraṃ cāprāptam antarāle vilīyate, tadvad eveti nāśe dṛṣṭāntaḥ | katham evaṃ śaṅkā ? tatrāha – brahmaṇaḥ pathi prāpty-upāye yad asau vimūḍhaḥ

 
 

BhG 6.39

etan me saṃśayaṃ kṛṣṇa chettum arhasy aśeṣataḥ
tvad-anyaḥ saṃśayasyāsya chettā na hy upapadyate

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he kṛṣṇa (O Kṛṣṇa!),
[tvam] (you) me (my) etat saṁśayam (this doubt) aśeṣataḥ (completely) chettum (to cut) arhasi (you deserve).
tvad-anyaḥ (other than you) asya saṁśayasya (of this doubt) chettā (who cuts) na hi upapadyate (indeed does not exist).

 

grammar

etat etat sn. 2n.1 n.this (with word saṁśaya m. it is possible to use n. of etat – ārṣa-prayoga = archaic use);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
saṁśayam saṁśaya 2n.1 m.doubt, hesitation (from: sam-śī – to waver);
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa 8n.1 m.O dark one, O Kṛṣṇa;
chettum chid (to cut) [inf.] – to cut, to destroy;
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1you deserve;
aśeṣataḥ av.completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
tvad-anyaḥ tvad-anya 1n.1 m.; [TP]: tvattaḥ kenāpy anya iti [whoever] other than you (from: tvat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „you” singular used in compounds; anya other);
saṁśayasya saṁśaya 6n.1 m.hesitation, doubt (from: sam-śī – to waver);
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
chettā chettṛ 1n.1 m.one who cuts (from: chid – to cut);
na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
upapadyate upa-pad (to approach, to exist, to be suitable, to attain) Praes. Ā 1v.1it exists, it is possible;

 

textual variants


etan me → etaṃ me / enaṃ me (this my);
 
 

Śāṃkara


etan me mama saṃśayaṃ kṛṣṇaś chettum apanetum arhasy aśeṣataḥ | tvad-anyas tvatto’nyaḥ ṛṣir devo vā cchettā nāśayitā saṃśayasyāsya na hi yasmād upapadyate na saṃbhavati | atas tvam eva cchettum arhasīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


śraddhayā yoge pravṛtto dṛḍhatarābhyāsarūpayatanavaikalyena yogasaṃsiddhim aprāpya yogāc calitamānasaḥ kāṃ gatiṃ gacchati; ubhayavibhraṣṭo ‚yaṃ cchinnābhram iva kaccin na naśyati? yathā meghaśakalaḥ pūrvasmād bṛhato meghāc chinnaḥ paraṃ bṛhantaṃ megham aprāpya madhye vinaṣṭo bhavati, tathaiva kaccin na naśyati / katham ubhayavibhraṣṭatā? apratiṣṭhaḥ, vimūḍho brahmaṇaḥ pathīti / yathāvasthitaṃ svargādisādhanabhūtaṃ karma phalābhisandhirahitasyāsya puruṣasya svaphalasādhanatvena pratiṣṭhā na bhavatīty apratiṣṭhaḥ / prakrānte brahmaṇaḥ pathi vimūḍhaḥ tasmāt pathaḥ pracyutaḥ / ataḥ ubhayavibhraṣṭatayā kim ayaṃ naśyaty eva, uta na naśyati? tam enaṃ saṃśayam aśeṣataś chettum arhasi / svataḥ pratyakṣeṇa yugapat sarvaṃ sadā paśyatas tvatto ‚nyaḥ saṃśayasyāsya chettā na hy upapadyate

 

Śrīdhara


tvayaiva sarvajñenāyaṃ mama sandeho nirasanīyaḥ | tvatto ‚nyas tv etat sandeha-nivartako nāsti ity āha etad iti etad enam | chettvā nivartakaḥ spaṣṭam anyat

 

Madhusūdana


yathopadarśita-saṃśayāpākaraṇāya bhagavantam antaryāmiṇam arthayate pārthaḥ etan ma iti | etad evaṃ pūrvopadarśitaṃ me mama saṃśayaṃ he kṛṣṇa cchettum apanetum arhasy aśeṣataḥ saṃśaya-mūlādharmādy-ucchedena | mad-anyaḥ kaścid ṛṣir vā devo vā tvadīyam imaṃ saṃśayam ucchetsyatīty āśaṅkyāha tvad-anya iti | tvat parameśvarāt sarvajñāc chāstra-kṛtaḥ parama-guroḥ kāruṇikād anyo ‚nīśvaratvena asarvajñaḥ kaścid ṛṣir vā devo vāsya yoga-bhraṣṭa-para-loka-gati-viṣayasya saṃśayasya cchettā samyag-uttara-dānena nāśayitā hi yasmā̆n nopapadyate na sambhavati tasmāt tvam eva pratyakṣa-darśī sarvasya parama-guruḥ saṃśayam etaṃ mama cchettum arhasīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etad etam

 

Baladeva


etad iti klībtvam ārṣam | tvad iti sarveśvarāt sarvajñatvatto ‚nyo ‚nīśvaro ‚lpajñaḥ kaścid ṛṣiḥ

 
 

BhG 6.40

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
pārtha naiveha nāmutra vināśas tasya vidyate
na hi kalyāṇa-kṛt kaś-cid durgatiṃ tāta gacchati

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!), he tāta (O darling),
na eva iha (indeed not here) na amutra (not in the other world) tasya [yoga-bhraṣṭasya] (of one fallen from yoga) vināśaḥ (destruction) na vidyate (there is not).
kaś-cit (no one) kalyāṇa-kṛt (who does good) durgatim (to misfortune) na hi gacchati (indeed he does no go).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
na av.not;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
na av.not;
amutra av.there, in the other world, in next life (from: adas – that far away, not in the eyes’ reach; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
vināśaḥ vināśa 1n.1 m.destruction (from: vi-naś – to destroy, to vanish);
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.his;
vidyate vid (to be, to exist) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is;
na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
kalyāṇa-kṛt kalyāṇa-kṛt 1n.1 m.; yaḥ kalyāṇaṁ karoti saḥ one who does good (from: kalyāṇa – beauty, good, prosperity; kṛ – to do; -kṛt – suffix indicates a doer);
kaś-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.1 m.whichever (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
durgatim dur-gati 2n.1 f.misfortune, distress, poverty, hell (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; gam – to go, gati – moving, passage, means, refuge, goal);
tāta tāta 8n.1 m.darling (a term of affection);
gacchati gam (to go, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains, he goes;

 

textual variants


tāta → jātu (always);

 
 

Śāṃkara


he pārtha naiva iha loke nāmutra parasmin vā loke vināśas tasya vidyate nāsti | nāśo nāma pūrvasmāt hīnajanmaprāptiḥ sa yogabhraṣṭasya nāsti | na hi yasmāt kalyāṇakṛt śubhakṛt kaścit durgatiṃ kutsitāṃ gatiṃ he tāta, tanoti ātmānaṃ putrarūpeṇeti pitā tāta ucyate | pitaiva putreti putro’pi tāta ucyate | śiṣyo’pi putra ucyate | yato na gacchati

 

Rāmānuja


śraddhayā yoge prakrāntasya tasmāt pracyutasyeha cāmutra ca vināśo na vidyate prākṛtasvargādibhogānubhave brahmānubhave cābhilaṣitān avāptirūpaḥ pratyavāyākhyāniṣṭāvāptirūpaś ca vināśo na vidyata ityarthaḥ / na hi niratiśayakalyāṇarūpayogakṛt kaścit kālatraye ‚pi durgatiṃ gacchati

 

Śrīdhara


tatrottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca pārtheti sārdhaiś caturbhiḥ | iha-loke nāśa ubhaya-bhraṣṭāt pātityam | amutra para-loke nāśo naraka-prāptiḥ | tad ubhayaṃ tasya nāsty eva | yataḥ kalyāṇa-kṛc cubha-kārī kaścid api durgatiṃ na gacchati | ayaṃ ca śubhakārī śraddayā yoge pravṛttatvāt | tāteti loka-rītyopalālayan sambodhayati

 

Madhusūdana


evam arjunasya yoginaṃ prati nāśāśaṅkāṃ pariharann uttaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca pārtheti | ubhaya-vibhraṣṭo yogī naśyatīti ko ‚rthaḥ | kim iha loke śiṣṭa-garhaṇīyo bhavati veda-vihita-karma-tyāgāt | yathā kaścid ucchṛṅkhalaḥ | kiṃ vā paratra nikṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ prāpnoti | yathoktaṃ śrutyā – athaitayoḥ pathor na katareṇacana te kīṭāḥ pataṅgā yadi dandaśūkam iti | tathā coktaṃ manunā — vāntāśy ulkā-mukhaḥ preto vipro dharmāt svakāc cyutaḥ [Manu 12.71] ity ādi | tad ubhayam api nety āha he pārtha pārtha naiveha nāmutra vināśas tasya yathā-śāstraṃ kṛta-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsasya sarvato viraktasya gurum upasṛtya vedānta-śravaṇādi kurvato ‚ntarāle mṛtasya yoga-bhraṣṭasya vidyate |

ubhayatrāpi tasya vināśo nāstīty atra hetum āha hi yasmāt kalyāṇa-kṛc chāstra-vihita-kārī kaścid api durgatim ihākīrtiṃ paratra ca kīṭādi-rūpatāṃ na gacchati | ayaṃ tu sarvotkṛṣṭa eva san durgatiṃ na gacchatīti kim u vaktavyam ity arthaḥ | tanoty ātmānaṃ putra-rūpeṇeti pitā tata ucyate | svārthike ‚ṇi tata eva tāto rākṣasa-vāyasādivat | pitaiva ca putra-rūpeṇa bhajatīti putra-sthānīyasya śiṣyasya tāteti sambodhanaṃ kṛpātiśaya-sūcanārtham | yad uktaṃ yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ kaṣṭāṃ gatiṃ gacchati ajñatve sati deva-yāna-pitṛ-yāna-mārgānyatarāsambandhitvāt svadharma-bhraṣṭavad iti | tad ayuktam | etasya devayāna-mārga-sambandhitvena hetor asiddhatvāt | pañcāgni-vidyāyāṃ ya itthaṃ vidur ye cāmī araṇye śraddhāṃ satyam upāsate te ‚rcir abhisambhavantīty aviśeṣeṇa pañcāgni-vidām ivātaskratūnāṃ śraddhā-satyavatāṃ mumukṣūṇām api deva-yāna-mārgeṇa brahma-loka-prāpti-kathanāt | śravaṇādi-parāyaṇasya ca yoga-bhraṣṭasya śraddhānvito bhūtvety anena śraddhāyāḥ prāptatvāt | śānto dānta ity anena cānṛta-bhāṣaṇa-rūpa-vāg-vyāpāra-nirodha-rūpasya satyasya labdhatvāt | bahir indiryāṇām ucchṛṅkhala-vyāpāra-nirodho hi damaḥ | yoga-śāstre ca ahiṃsā-satyāsteya-brahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ [YogaS 2.30] iti yogāṅga-svenoktatvāt | yadi tu satya-śabdena brahmaivocyate tadāpi na kṣatiḥ | vedānta-śravaṇāder api satya-brahma-cintana-rūpatvāt | atat-kratutve ‚pi ca pañcāgni-vidām iva brahma-loka-prāpti-sambhavāt | tathā ca smṛtiḥ saṃnyāsād brahmaṇaḥ sthānam iti | tathā prātyahika-vedānta-vākya-vicārasyāpi brahma-loka-prāpti-sādhanatvāt samuditānāṃ teṣāṃ tat-sādhanatvaṃ kiṃ citram | ataeva sarva-sukṛta-rūpatvaṃ yogi-caritasya taittirīyā āmananti tasyaivaṃ viduṣo yajñasya ity ādinā | smaryate ca –
snātaṃ tena samasta-tīrtha-salile sarvā ‚pi dattāvanir
yajñānāṃ ca kṛtaṃ sahasram akhilā devāś ca sampūjitāḥ |
saṃsārāc ca samuddhṛtāḥ sva-pitaras trailokya-pūjyo ‚py asau
yasya brahma-vicāraṇe kṣaṇam api sthairyaṃ manaḥ prāpnuyāt || iti

 

Viśvanātha


iha loke amutra para-loke ‚pi kalyāṇaṃ kalyāṇa-prāpakaṃ yogaṃ karotīti saḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān uvāca pārtheti | tasyokta-lakṣaṇasya yogina iha prākṛtike loke ‚mutrāprākṛtike ca loke vināśaḥ svargādi-sukha-vibhraṃśa-lakṣaṇaḥ paramātmāvalokana-vibhraṃśa-lakṣaṇaś ca na vidyate na bhavati | kiṃ cottaratra tat-prāptir bhaved eve | hi yataḥ | kalyāṇa-kṛt niḥśreyasopāya-bhūta-sad-dharma-yogārambhī durgatiṃ tad-ubhayābhāva-rūpāṃ daridratāṃ na gacchati | he tātety ativātsalyāt saṃbodhanam | tenātyātmānaṃ putra-rūpeṇa iti vyutpattes | tataḥ pitā svārthike ‚ṇi | tata eva tātaḥ putraṃ śiṣyaṃ cātikṛpayā jyeṣṭas tathā sambodhayati

 
 

BhG 6.41

prāpya puṇya-kṛtāṃl lokān uṣitvā śāśvatīḥ samāḥ
śucīnāṃ śrī-matāṃ gehe yoga-bhraṣṭo bhijāyate

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yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ (fallen from yoga) puṇya-kṛtān (done through the pious acts) lokān (worlds) prāpya (after obtaining)
[tatra] (there) śāśvatīḥ (many) samāḥ (years) uṣitvā (after dwelling)
śucīnām (of the noble) śrī-matām (of the wealthy) gehe (in the house) abhijāyate (he is born).

 

grammar

prāpya pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after obtaining;
puṇya-kṛtān puṇya-kṛta 2n.3 m.; [TP]: puṇyena kṛtān itidone through the pious acts (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously, puṇya – good, meritorious, virtuous act, purity; kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made);
lokān loka 2n.3 m.worlds;
uṣitvā vas (to dwell) absol.after dwelling;
śāśvatīḥ śāśvatī 2n.3 f.endless, many (from: śaśvat – eternal, perpetual, numerous);
samāḥ samā 2n.3 f.years;
śucīnām śucin 6n.3 m.of the noble, of the pure, of the pious (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci pure);
śrī-matām śrī-mat 6n.3 m.of the wealthy (from: śrī lustre, majesty, fortune; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
gehe geha 7n.1 n.in the house, family (corrupted from: gṛha – house, property);
yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ yoga-bhraṣṭa 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yogād bhraṣṭa itifallen from yoga (from: bhraṁś – to fall, to decay, to be lost, [PP] bhraṣṭa – fallen, deprived, perished, lost; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
abhijāyate abhi-jan (to be born, to arise) Praes. Ā 1v.1he is born;

 

textual variants


puṇya-kṛtāṁl lokānpuṇya-kṛtāṁ lokān / puṇyatamāṁl lokān (worlds belonging to those who do good / the most noble worlds);
śāśvatīḥ samāḥ → śāśvatī-samāḥ (unending years);
yoga-bhraṣṭo ‚bhijāyate → yoga-naṣṭo ‚bhijāyate / yoga-bhraṣṭo ‚hi jāyate / yoga-bhraṣṭo ‚pi ijāyate (he is born who is perished in yoga / indeed he is born who has fallen from yoga / although fallen from yoga, he is born);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ tv asya bhavati ?—

yoga-mārge pravṛttaḥ saṃnyāsī sāmarthyāt prāpya gatvā puṇya-kṛtām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān, tatra coṣitvā vāsam anubhūya śāśvatīr nityāḥ samāḥ saṃvatsarān, tad-bhoga-kṣaye śucīnāṃ yathokta-kāriṇāṃ śrīmatāṃ vibhūti-matāṃ gehe gṛhe yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ abhijāyate

 

Rāmānuja


katham ayaṃ bhaviṣyatīty atrāha

yajjātīyabhogābhikāṅkṣayā yogāt pracyuto ‚yam, atipuṇyakṛtāṃ prāpyān lokān prāpya tajjātīyān atikalyāṇān bhogān yogamāhātmyād eva bhuñjāno yāvat tadbhogatṛṣṇāvasānaṃ śaśvatīḥ samās tatroṣitvā tasmin bhoge vitṛṣṇaḥ śucīnāṃ śrīmatām yogopakramayogyānāṃ kule yogopakrame bhraṣṭo yogamāhātmyāj jāyate

 

Śrīdhara


tarhi kim asau prāpnotīty apekṣāyām āha prāpyeti | puṇya-kṛtāṃ puṇya-kāriṇām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān prāpya tatra śāśvatīḥ samāḥ bahūn saṃvatsarān uṣitvā vāsa-sukham anubhūya śucīnāṃ sad-ācārāṇāṃ śrīmatāṃ dhaninām | gehe sa yoga-bhraṣṭo ‚bhijāyate janma prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ yoga-bhraṣṭasya śubha-kṛttvena loka-dvaye ‚pi nāśābhāve kiṃ bhavatīty ucyate prāpyeti | yoga-mārga-pravṛttaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsī vedānta-śravaṇādi kurvann antarāle mriyamāṇaḥ kaścit pūrvopacita-bhoga-vāsanā-prādurbhāvād viṣayebhyaḥ spṛhayati | kaścit tu vairāgya-bhāvanā-dāḍhyān na spṛhayati | tayoḥ prathamaḥ prāpya puṇya-kṛtām aśvamedha-yājināṃ lokān arcir-ādi-mārgeṇa brahma-lokān | ekasminn api bhoga-bhūmi-bhedāpekṣayā bahu-vacanam | tatra coṣitvā vāsam anubhūya śāśvatīr brahma-parimāṇenākṣāyāḥ samāḥ saṃvatsarān, tad-ante śucīnāṃ śuddhānāṃ śrīmatāṃ vibhūtimatāṃ mahārāja-cakravartināṃ gehe kule bhoga-vāsanāśoṣa-sad-bhāvād ajātaśatru-janakādivad yoga-bhraṣṭo ‚bhijāyate | bhoga-vāsanā-prābalyād brahma-lokānte sarva-karma-saṃnyāsāyogyo mahārājo bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tarhi kāṃ gatim asau prāpnotīty ata āha prāpyeti | puṇya-kṛtām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān iti yogasya phalaṃ mokṣo bhogaś ca bhavati | tatrāpakva-yogino bhogecchāyāṃ satyāṃ yoga-bhraṃśe sati bhoga eva | paripakva-yoginas tu bhogecchāyā asambhavān mokṣa eva | kecit tu paripakva-yogino ‚pi daivād bhogecchāyāṃ satyāṃ kardama-saubharyādi-dṛṣṭyā bhoagam apy āhur iti | śucīnāṃ sad-ācārāṇāṃ śrīmatāṃ dhanika-vaṇig-ādīnāṃ rājñāṃ vā

 

Baladeva


aihikīṃ sukha-sampattiṃ tāvad āha prāpyeti | yādṛśa-viṣaya-spṛhayā sva-dharme śithilo yogāc ca vicyuto ‚yaṃ tādṛśān viṣayān ātmoddeśyaka-niṣkāma-svadharma-yogārambha-māhātmyena puṇya-kṛtām aśvamedhādi-yājināṃ lokān pāpya bhuṅkte tān bhuñjāno yāvatībhis tad-bhoga-tṛṣṇā-vinivṛttis tāvatīḥ śāśvatīḥ bahvīḥ samāḥ saṃvatsarāṃs teṣu lokeṣūṣitvā sthitvā tad-bhoga-vitṛṣṇas tebhyo lokebhyaḥ śucīnāṃ sad-dharma-niratānāṃ yogārhāṇāṃ śrīmatāṃ dhanināṃ gehe pūrvārabdha-yoga-māhātmyāt sa yoga-śreṣṭho ‚bhijāyata ity alpa-kālārabdha-yogād bhraṣṭasya gatir iyaṃ darśitā

 
 

BhG 6.42

atha vā yoginām eva kule bhavati dhīmatām
etad dhi durlabhataraṃ loke janma yad īdṛśam

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atha vā (or now) dhī-matām (of the wise) yoginām eva (just of the yogīs) kule (in the family) bhavati (he becomes).
yat īdṛśam (which like this) janma (birth) etat hi (this indeed) loke (in the world) durlabha-taram [asti] (it is very difficult to obtain).

 

grammar

atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
yoginām yogin 6n.3 m.of the yogīs, of those engaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kule kula 7n.1 n.in the family
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1he becomes;
dhīmatām dhīmant 6n.3 m. of the wise, of the intelligent (from: dhī – to think, to consider; dhī – thought, intelligence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
durlabhataram dur-labha-tara 1n.1 n.very difficult to obtain (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; labh – to obtain, to gain; lābha – gain, profit; comparative of: durlabha – durlabha-tara, durlabha-tama)
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
janma janman 1n.1 n.birth (from: jan – to be born);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
īdṛśam īdṛśa 1n.1 n. of this kind, like this;

 

textual variants


bhavati → mahati (in a powerful [family]);
dhīmatām → nirmale (in a spotless [family]);
kule bhavati dhīmatām → jāyate dhī śrīmatāṁ kule (indeed he is born in the family of the wealthy);

 
 

Śāṃkara


athavā śrīmatāṃ kulāt anyasmin yoginām eva daridrāṇāṃ kule bhavati jāyate dhīmatāṃ buddhimatām | etat hi janma, yat daridrāṇāṃ yogināṃ kule, durlabhataraṃ duḥkha-labhyataraṃ pūrvam apekṣya loke janma yad īdṛśaṃ yathokta-viśeṣaṇe kule

 

Rāmānuja


paripakvayogaś calitaś cet, yogināṃ dhīmatāṃ yogaṃ kurvatāṃ svayam eva yogopadeśakṣamāṇāṃ mahatāṃ kule bhavati; tad etad ubhayavidhaṃ yogayogyānāṃ yogināṃ ca kule janma loke prākṛtānāṃ durlabhataram / etat tu yogamāhātmyakṛtam

 

Śrīdhara


alpa-kālābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe gatir iyam uktā | cirābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe tu pakṣāntaram āha athaveti | yoga-niṣṭhānāṃ dhīmatāṃ jñāninām eva kule jāyate | na tu pūrvoktānām ārūḍha-yogānāṃ kule | etaj janma stauti īdṛśaṃ yaj janma etad dhi loke durlabhataraṃ mokṣa-hetutvāt

 

Madhusūdana


dvitīyaṃ prati pakṣāntaram āha athaveti | śraddhā-vairāgyādi-kalyāṇa-guṇādhikye tu bhoga-vāsanā-virahāt puṇya-kṛtāṃ lokān aprāpyaiva yoginām eva daridrāṇāṃ brāhmaṇānāṃ na tu śrīmatāṃ rājñāṃ gṛhe yoga-bhraṣṭa-janma tad api durlabham aneka-sukṛta-sādhyatvān mokṣa-paryavasāyitvāc ca | yat tu śucīnāṃ daridrāṇāṃ brāhmaṇānāṃ brahma-vidyāvatāṃ kule janma | etad dhi prasiddhaṃ śukādivat | durlabhataraṃ durlabhād api durlabhaṃ loke yad īdṛśaṃ sarva-pramāda-kāraṇa-śūnyaṃ janmeti dvitīyaḥ stūyate bhoga-vāsanā-śūnyatvena sarva-karma-saṃnyāsārhatvāt

 

Viśvanātha


alpa-kālābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe gatir iyam uktā | cira-kālābhyasta-yoga-bhraṃśe tu pakṣāntaram āha athaveti | yogināṃ nimi-prabhṛtīnām ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


cirārābdhād yogād bhraṣṭasya gatim āha athaveti | yogināṃ yogam abhyasatāṃ dhīmatāṃ yoga-deśikānāṃ kule bhavaty utpadyate | dvividhaṃ janma stauti etad iti | yogārhāṇāṃ yogam abhyasatāṃ ca kule pūrva-yoga-saṃskāra-bala-kṛtam etaj janma prākṛtānām atidurlabham

 
 

BhG 6.43

tatra taṃ buddhi-saṃyogaṃ labhate paurva-dehikam
yatate ca tato bhūyaḥ saṃsiddhau kuru-nandana

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syntax


he kuru-nandana (O delight of the Kurus!),
tatra [yoginām kule] (there in the family of yogīs) tam paurva-dehikam (this related to previous body) buddhi-saṁyogam (contact with intelligence) labhate (he obtains),
tataḥ ca (and then) bhūyaḥ (again) saṁsiddhau (to perfection) yatate (he endeavours).

 

grammar

tatra av.there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
buddhi-saṁyogam buddhi-saṁyoga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: buddhyā saṁyogam iti contact with intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; sam-yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, saṁyoga – connection, union);
labhate labh (to obtain, to gain) Praes. Ā 1v.1he obtains;
paurva-dehikam paurva-dehika 2n.1 m.related to previous body (from: pūrva – previous, ancient; dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; purva-deha – previous body);
yatate yat (to place in order, to endeavour) Praes. Ā 1v.1he endeavours, he strives (for what? – requires locative);
ca av.and;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
saṁsiddhau sam-siddhi 7n.1 f.in accomplishment, in perfection, in success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
kuru-nandana kuru-nandana 8n.1 m.; [TP]: kurūṇāṁ nandanetiO delight of the Kurus (from: from: kuru – Kuru, the Kurus – the descendants of Kuru; nand – to delight, nandana – delight, gladness);

 

textual variants


taṁ buddhi-saṁyogaṁsaṁbuddhi-saṁyogaṁ (contact with full intelligence);
paurva-dehikam → pūrva-daihikaṁ / paurva-daihikam / pūrva-dehikaṁ (related to previous body);
yatate ca tato bhūyaḥ → tato bhūyo ‘pi yatate (therefore again he endeavours);
saṁsiddhau → siddhaye (for perfection);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yasmāt—

tatra yogināṃ kule taṃ buddhi-saṃyogaṃ buddhyā saṃyogaṃ buddhi-saṃyogaṃ labhate paurvadehikaṃ pūrvasmin dehe bhavaṃ paurvadehikam | yatate ca prayatnaṃ ca karoti tatas tasmāt pūrva-kṛtāt saṃskārāt bhūyo bahutaraṃ saṃsiddhau saṃsiddhi-nimittaṃ he kuru-nandana

 

Rāmānuja


tatra janmani paurvadaihikaṃ tam eva yogaviṣayaṃ buddhisaṃyogaṃ labhate / tataḥ suptaprabuddhavad bhūyaḥ saṃsiddhau yatate yathā nāntarāyahato bhavati, tathā yatate / tena pūrvābhyāsena pūrveṇa yogaviṣyeṇābhyāsena saḥ yogabhraṣṭo hy avaśo ‚pi yoga eva hriyate / prasiddhaṃ hy etad yogamāhātmyam ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha tatreti sārdhena | sa tatra dvi-prakāre ‚pi janmani pūrva-dehe bhavaṃ paurvadehikam | tam eva brahma-viṣayayā buddhyā saṃyogaṃ labhate | tataś ca bhūyo ‚dhikaṃ saṃsiddhau mokṣe prayatnaṃ karoti

 

Madhusūdana


etādṛśa-janma-dvayasya durlabhatvaṃ kasmāt ? yasmāt tatra tam iti | tatra dvi-prakāre ‚pi janmani pūrva-dehe bhavaṃ paurvadehikam sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-gurūpasadana-śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanānāṃ madhye yāvat-paryantam anuṣṭhitaṃ tāvat paryantam eva taṃ brahmātmaikya-viṣayayā buddhyā saṃyogaṃ tat-sādhana-kalāpam iti yāvat | labhate prāpnoti | na kevalaṃ labhata eva kintu tatas tal-lābhānantaraṃ bhūyo ‚dhikaṃ labdhāyā bhūmer agrimāṃ bhūmiṃ sampādayituṃ saṃsiddhau saṃsiddhir mokṣas tan-nimittaṃ yatate ca prayatnaṃ karoti ca | yāvan mokṣaṃ bhūmikāḥ sampādayatīty arthaḥ | he kuru-nandana tavāpi śucīnāṃ śrīmatāṃ kule yoga-bhraṣṭa-janama jātam iti pūrva-vāsanā-vaśād anāyāsenaiva jñāna-lābho bhaviṣyatīti sūcayituṃ mahā-prabhāvasya kuroḥ kīrtanam |

ayam artho bhagavad-vaśiṣṭha-vacane vyaktaḥ | yathā śrī-rāmaḥ –

ekām atha dvitīyāṃ vā tṛtīyāṃ bhūmikām uta |
ārūḍhasya mṛtakasyātha kīdṛśī bhagavan gatiḥ ||

pūrvaṃ hi sapta bhūmayo vyākhyātāḥ | tatra nityānitya-vastu-viveka-pūrvakād ihāmutrārtha-bhoga-vairāgyāc chama-dama-śraddhā-titikṣā-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsādi-puraḥsarā mumukṣā śubhecchākhyā prathamā bhūmikā | sādhana-catuṣṭaya-sampad iti tāvat | tataḥ śravaṇa-manana-pariniṣpannasya tattva-jñānasya nirvicikitsanā-rūpā tanu-mānasā nāma tṛtīyā bhūmikā | nididhyāsana-sampad iti yāvat | caturthī bhūmikā tu tattva-sākṣātkāra eva | pañcama-ṣaṣṭha-saptama-bhūmayas tu jīvanmukter avāntara-bhedā iti tṛtīye prāg-vyākhyātam | tatra caturthīṃ bhūmiṃ prāptasya mṛtasya jīvan-mukty-abhāve ‚pi videha-kaivalyaṃ prati nāsty eva saṃśayaḥ | tad-uttara-bhūmi-trayaṃ prāptas tu jīvann api muktaḥ kim u videha iti nāsty eva bhūmikā-catuṣṭaye śaṅkā | sādhana-bhūta-bhūmikā-traye tu karma-tyāgāj jñānālābhāc ca bhavati śaṅketi tatraiva praśnaḥ |

śrī-vaśiṣṭhaḥ –

yoga-bhūmikayotkrānta-jīvitasya śarīriṇaḥ |
bhūmikāṃśānusāreṇa kṣīyate pūrva-duṣkṛtam ||
tataḥ sura-vimāneṣu loka-pāla-pureṣu ca |
merūpavana-kuñjeṣu ramate ramaṇī-sakhaḥ ||
tataḥ sukṛta-saṃbhāre duṣkṛte ca purākṛte |
bhoga-kṣayāt parikṣīṇe jāyante yogino bhuvi ||
śucīnāṃ śrīmatāṃ gehe gupte guṇavatāṃ satām |
janitvā yogam evaite sevante yoga-vāsitāḥ ||
tatra pāg-bhavanābhyastaṃ yoga-bhūmi-kramaṃ budhāḥ |
dṛṣṭvā paripatanty uccair uttaraṃ bhūmikā-kramam || iti |

atra prāg-upacita-bhoga-vāsanā-prābalyād alpa-kālābhyasta-vairāgya-vāsanā-daurbalyena prāṇotkrānti-samaye prādurbhūta-bhoga-spṛhaḥ sarva-karma-saṃnyāsī yaḥ sa evoktaḥ | yas tu vairāgya-vāsanā-prābalyāt prakṛṣṭa-puṇya-prakaṭita-parameśvara-prasāda-vaśena prāṇotkrānti-samaye ‚nudbhūta-bhoga-spṛhaḥ saṃnyāsī bhoga-vyavadhānaṃ vinaiva brāhmaṇānām eva brahma-vidāṃ sarva-pramāda-kāraṇa-śūnye kule samutpannas tasya prāktana-saṃskārābhivyaktenāyāsenaiva sambhavān nāsti pūrvasyaiva mokṣaṃ praty āśaṅketi sa vasiṣṭhena nokto bhagavatā tu parama-kāruṇikenāthaveti pakṣāntaraṃ kṛtvokta eva | spaṣṭam anyat

 

Viśvanātha


tatra dvividhe ‚pi janmani buddhyā paramātma-niṣṭhayā saha saṃyogaṃ paurvadaihikaṃ pūrva-janma-bhavam

 

Baladeva


āmutrikīṃ sukha-sampattiṃ vaktuṃ pūrva-saṃskāra-hetukaṃ sādhanam āha tatreti | tatra dvividhe janmani paurvadaihikaṃ pūrva-dehe bhavam | buddhyā svadharma-svātma-paramātma-viṣayā saṃyogaṃ sambandhaṃ labhate | tataś ca hṛd-viśuddhi-sva-paramātmāvaloka-rūpāyāṃ saṃsiddhau nimitte svāpotthitavad bhūyo bahutaraṃ yatate | yathā punar vighna-hato na syāt

 
 

BhG 6.44

pūrvābhyāsena tenaiva hriyate hy avaśo pi saḥ
jijñāsur api yogasya śabda-brahmātivartate

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syntax


tena hi (indeed by that) pūrvābhyāsena eva (just by previous practice) avaśaḥ api (although unwillingly) saḥ (he) hriyate (is carried).
yogasya (of yoga) jijñāsuḥ api (although desiring to know) śabda-brahma (brahman in the form of a sound) ativartate (he surpasses).

 

grammar

pūrvābhyāsena pūrvābhyāsa 3n.1 m.; KD: pūvo ‘bhyāsa itiby previous practice (from: pūrva – previous, ancient; abhi-as – to repeat, to study, abhy-āsa repetition, practice, discipline);
tena tat sn. 3n.1 m.by that;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
hriyate hṛ (to carry, to remove) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is carried;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
avaśaḥ avaśa 1n.1 m. unwillingly, not under control (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command, vaśa – wish, power, control, dominion);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
jijñāsuḥ jijñāsu (jñā – to know, to understand) des. 1n.1 m.; jñātum icchantaḥdesiring to know;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
yogasya yoga 6n.1 m.of yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
śabda-brahma śabda-brahma 2n.1 m.brahman in the form of a sound (KD: brahma cādaḥ śabdaś ca – it is brahman and it is a sound; from: śabda – sound; bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas);
ativartate pra-vṛt (to start to act, to surpass) Praes. Ā 1v.1he surpasses;

 

textual variants


hriyate → hrīyate / kriyate (is carried away / is done);
hy avaśo → ‘py avaśo (although unwillingly);
saḥ → san (being);
yogasya → lokasya (world [desiring to know]);
śabda-brahmātivartate → śabda-brahmāpi vartate / śabda-brahmādi vartate / śabda-brahmā nivartate (he even suprasses brahman in the form of a sound / hesuprasses brahman in the form of a sound and others / he stops brahman in the form of a sound);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kathaṃ pūrva-deha-buddhi-saṃyogeti tad ucyate—

yaḥ pūrva-janmani kṛto’bhyāsaḥ sa pūrvābhyāsaḥ, tenaiva balavatā hriyate saṃsiddhau hi yasmād avaśo’pi sa yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ | na kṛtaṃ ced yogābhyāsajāt saṃskārāt balavattaram adharmādi-lakṣaṇaṃ karma, tadā yogābhyāsa-janitena saṃskāreṇa hriyate | adharmaś cet balavattaraḥ kṛtaḥ, tena yogajo’pi saṃskāro’bhibhūyata eva, tat-kṣaye tu yogajaḥ saṃskāraḥ svayam eva kāryam ārabhate, na dīrgha-kālasthasyāpi vināśas tasyāstīty arthaḥ | ato jijñāsur api yogasya svarūpaṃ jñātum icchann api yoga-mārge pravṛttaḥ saṃnyāsī yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ, sāmarthyāt so’pi śabda-brahma vedokta-karmānuṣṭhāna-phalam ativartate’tikrāmaty apākariṣyati | kim uta buddhvā yo yogaṃ tan-niṣṭho’bhyāsaṃ kuryāt

 

Rāmānuja


apravṛttayogo yoge jijñāsur api tataś calitamānasaḥ punar api tām eva jijñāsāṃ prāpya karmayogādikaṃ yogam anuṣṭhāya śabdabrahmātivartate / śabdabrahma devamanuṣyapṛthivyantarikṣasvargādiśabdābhilāpayogyaṃ brahma prakṛtiḥ / prakṛtibandhād vimukto devamanuṣyādiśabdābhilāpānarhaṃ jñānānandaikatānam ātmānaṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tatra hetuḥ pūrveti | tenaiva pūrva-deha-kṛtābhyāsenāvaśo ‚pi kutaścid ambharāyād anicchann api saṃhriyate viṣayebhyaḥ purāvṛtya brahma-niṣṭhaḥ kriyate | tad evaṃ pūrvābhyāsa-balena prayatnaṃ kurvan śanair mucyata itīmam arthaṃ kaimutya-nyāyena sphuṭayati jijñāsur iti sārdhena | yogasya svarūpaṃ jijñāsur eva kevalaṃ na tu prāpta-yogaḥ | evambhūto yoge praviṣṭa-mātro ‚pi pāpa-vaśād yoga-bhraṣṭo ‚pi śabda-brahma vedam ativartate | vedokta-karma-phalāny atikrāmati | tebhyo ‚dhikaṃ phalaṃ prāpya mucyata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanu yo brahma-vidāṃ brāhmaṇānāṃ sarva-pramāda-kāraṇa-śūnye kule samutpannas tasya madhye viṣaya-bhoga-vyavadhānābhāvād avyavahita-prāg-bhavīya-saṃskārodbodhāt punar api sarva-karma-saṃnyāsa-pūrvako jñāna-sādhana-lābho bhavatu nāma | yas tu śrīmatāṃ mahārāja-cakravartināṃ kule bahuvidha-viṣaya-bhoga-vyavadhānenotpannas tasya viṣaya-bhoga-vāsanā-prābalyāt pramāda-kāraṇa-sambhavāc ca katham ativyavahita-jñāna-saṃskārodbodhaḥ kṣatriyatvena sarva-karma-saṃnyāsānarhasya kathaṃ vā jñāna-sādhana-lābha iti | tathocyate pūrvābhyāseneti | aticira-vyavahita-janmopacitenāpi tenaiva pūrvābhyāsena prāg-arjita-jñāna-saṃskāreṇāvaśo ‚pi mokṣa-sādhanāyāprayatamāno ‚pi hriyate svavaśīkriyate | akasmād eva bhoga-vāsanābhyo vyutthāpya mokṣa-sādhanonmukhaḥ kriyate, jñāna-vāsanāyā evālpa-kālābhyastāyā api vastu-viṣayatvenāvastu-viṣayābhyo bhoga-vāsanābhyaḥ prābalyāt | paśya yathā tvam eva yuddhe pravṛtto jñānāyāpratayamāno ‚pi pūrva-saṃskāra-prābalyād akasmād eva raṇa-bhūmau jñānonmukho ‚bhūr iti | ataeva prāg uktaṃ nehābhikrama-nāśo ‚sti [Gītā 2.40] iti | aneka-janma-sahasra-vyavahito ‚pi jñāna-saṃskāraḥ sva-kāryaṃ karoty eva sarva-virodhy-upamardenety abhiprāyaḥ |

sarva-karma-saṃnyāsābhāve ‚pi hi kṣatriyasya jñānādhikāraḥ sthita eva | yathā pāṭac-careṇa bahūnāṃ rakṣiṇāṃ madhye vidyamānam api aśvādi-dravyaṃ svayam anicchad api tān sarvān abhibhūya sva-sāmarthya-viśeṣād evāpahriyate | paścāt tu kadāpahṛtam iti vimarśo bhavati | evaṃ bahūnāṃ jñāna-pratibandhakānāṃ madhye vidyamāno ‚pi yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ svayam anicchann api jñāna-saṃskāreṇa balavatā svasāmarthaya-viśeṣād eva sarvān pratibandhakān abhibhūyātma-vaśī kriyata iti hṛñaḥ prayogena sūcitam | ataeva saṃskāra-prābalyāj jijñāsur jñātum icchur api yogasya mokṣa-sādhana-jñānasya viṣayaṃ brahma, prathama-bhūmikāyāṃ sthitaḥ saṃnyāsīti yāvat | so ‚pi tasyām eva bhūmikāyāṃ mṛto ‚ntarāle bahūn viṣayān bhuktvā mahārāja-cakravartināṃ kule samutpanno ‚pi yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ prāg-upacita-jñāna-saṃskāra-prābalyāt tasmin janmani śabda-brahma vedaṃ karma-pratipādakam ativartate ‚tikramya tiṣṭhati karmādhikārātikrameṇa jñānādhikārī bhavatīty arthaḥ | etenāpi jñāna-karma-samuccayo nirākṛta iti draṣṭavyam | samuccaye hi jñānino ‚pi karma-kāṇḍātikramābhāvāt

 

Viśvanātha


hriyata ākṛṣyate | yogasya yogaṃ jijñāsur api bhavati | ataḥ śabda-brahma veda-śāstram ativartate vedokta-karma-mārgam atikramya vartate | kintu yoga-mārga eva tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


tatra hetuḥ | tenaiva yoga-viṣayakeṇa pūrvābhyāsena sa yogī hriyate ākṛṣyate avaśo ‚pi kenacid vighnenānicchann apīty arthaḥ | hīti prasiddho ‚yaṃ yoga-mahimā | yogasya jijñāsur api tu yogam abhyasituṃ pravṛttaḥ śabda-brahma sa-kāma-karma-nirūpakaṃ vedam ativartate | taṃ na śabda-ghātīty arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 6.45

prayatnād yatamānas tu yogī saṃśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ
aneka-janma-saṃsiddhas tato yāti parāṃ gatim

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syntax


yatamānaḥ tu (but endeavouring) prayatnāt (with effort) saṁśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ (whose sin is purified) aneka-janma-saṁsiddhaḥ (one perfected by many births) yogī (a yogī)
tataḥ (then) parām (to supreme) gatim (to goal) yāti (he goes).

 

grammar

prayatnāt prayatna 5n.1 m.from effort (from: pra-yat – to strive, to exert oneself);
yatamānaḥ yatamāna (yat – to endeavour) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] endeavouring, [while] striving;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
saṁśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ saṁśuddha-kilbiṣa 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya kilbiṣaṁ saṁśuddham asti saḥwhose sin is purified (from: sam-śudh – to become pure, [PP] saṁśuddha – purified, cleansed; kilbiṣa – fault, offence, sin);
aneka-janma-saṁsiddhaḥ aneka-janma-saṁsiddha 1n.1 m.; BV: anekair janmabhiḥ saṁsiddha itione perfected by many births (from: an-eka – not one, many; jan – to be born, janman – birth; sam-sidh – to succeed, to become perfect, [PP] saṁsiddha – accomplished, perfected);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
yāti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, way, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


saṁśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ → saṁśuddha-kalmaṣaḥ / vigata-kilbiṣaḥ / saṁsiddha-kilbiṣaḥ (whose sin got purified / whose sin is gone / whose sin is accomplished);
aneka-janma-saṁsiddhas → aneka-janma-saṁśuddhas / aneka-janma-saṁsiddhis (one purified by many births / one who got perfection by many births);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kutaś ca yogitvaṃ śreya iti—

prayatnād yatamānaḥ, adhikaṃ yatamāna ity arthaḥ | tatra yogī vidvān saṃśuddha-kilbiṣo viśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ saṃśuddha-pāpo’neka-janma-saṃsiddhir anekeṣu janmasu kiṃcit kiṃcit saṃskāra-jātam upacitya tena upacitenāneka-janma-kṛtena saṃsiddho’neka-janma-saṃsiddhas tataḥ labdha-samyag-darśanaḥ san yāti parāṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ gatim

 

Rāmānuja


yata evaṃ yogamāhātmyam, tataḥ anekajanmārjitapuṇyasañcayaiḥ saṃśuddhakilbiṣas saṃsiddhiḥ saṃjātaḥ prayatnād yatamānas tu yogī calito ‚pi punaḥ parāṃ gatiṃ yāty eva

 

Śrīdhara


prayatnād iti | yadaivaṃ manda-prayatno ‚pi yogī parāṃ gaitṃ yāti tadā yas tu yogī prayatnād uttarottaram adhikaṃ yoge yatamāno yatnaṃ kurvan yogenaiva saṃśuddha-kilbiṣo vidhūta-pāpaḥ so ‚nekeṣu janmasūcitena yogena saṃsiddhaḥ samyag jñānī bhūtvā tataḥ śreṣṭhāṃ gatiṃ yātīti kiṃ vaktavyam ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yadā caivaṃ prathama-bhūmikāyāṃ mṛto ‚pi aneka-bhoga-vāsanā-vyavahitam api vividha-pramāda-kāraṇavati mahārāja-kule ‚pi janma labdhvāpi yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ pūrvopacita-jñāna-saṃskāra-prābalyena karmādhikāram atikramya jñānādhikārī bhavati tadā kim u vaktavyaṃ dvitīyāyāṃ tṛtīyāyāṃ vā bhūmikāyāṃ mṛto viṣaya-bhogānte labdha-mahārāja-kula-janmā yadi vā bhogam akṛtvaiva labdha-brahma-vid brāhmaṇa-kula-janmā yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ karmādhikārātikrameṇa jñānādhikārī bhūtvā tat-sādhanāni sampādya tat-phala-lābhena saṃsāra-bandhanān mucyata iti | tad etad āh prayatnād iti | prayatnāt pūrva-kṛtād apy adhikam adhikaṃ yatamānaḥ prayatnātirekaṃ kurvan yogī pūrvopacita-saṃskāravāṃs tenaiva yoga-prayatna-puṇyena saṃśuddha-kilbiṣo dhauta-jñāna-pratibandhaka-pāpa-malaḥ | ataeva saṃskāropacayāt puṇyopacayāc cānekair janmabhiḥ saṃsiddhaḥ saṃskārātirekeṇa puṇyātirekeṇa ca prāpta-carama-janmā tataḥ sādhana-paripākād yāti parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ muktim | nāsty evātra kaścit saṃśaya ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ yoga-bhraṃśe kāraṇaṃ yatna-śaithilyam eva ayatiḥ śraddhayopetaḥ ity uktaḥ | tasya ca yatna-śaithilyavato yoga-bhraṣṭasya janmāntare punar yoga-prāptir evoktā, na tu saṃsiddhiḥ | saṃsiddhis tu yāvadbhir janmabhis tasya yogasya paripākaḥ syāt | tāvadbhir evety avasīyate | yas tu na kadācid api yoge śaithilya-prayatnaḥ | sa na yoga-bhraṣṭa-śabda-vācyaḥ | kintu –

bahu-janma-vipakvena samyag-yoga-samādhinā |
draṣṭuṃ yatante yatayaḥ śūnyāgāreṣu yat-padam || [BhP 3.24.28]

iti kardamokteḥ so ‚pi naikena janmanā sidhyatīty āha prayatnād yatamānaḥ prakṛṣṭa-yatnād api yatnavān ity arthaḥ | tu-kāraḥ pūrvoktād yoga-bhraṣṭād asya bhedaṃ bodhayati | saṃśuddha-kilbiṣaḥ samyag-paripakva-kaṣāyaḥ | so ‚pi naikena janmanā sidhyatīti saḥ | parāṃ gatiṃ mokṣam

 

Baladeva


athāmutrikīṃ sukha-sampattim āha prayatnād iti | pūrva-kṛtād api prayatnād adhikam adhikaṃ yatamānaḥ pūrva-vighna-bhayāt prayatnādhikyaṃ kurvan yogī tenopacitena prayatnena saṃśuddha-kilbiṣo nidhauta-nikhilānya-vāsanaḥ | evam anekair janmabhiḥ saṃsiddhaḥ paripakva-yogo yoga-paripākād eva hetoḥ parāṃ sva-parātmāvaloka-lakṣaṇāṃ gatiṃ muktiṃ yāti

 
 

BhG 6.46

tapasvibhyo dhiko yogī jñānibhyo pi mato dhikaḥ
karmibhyaś cādhiko yogī tasmād yogī bhavārjuna

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
yogī (a yogī) tapasvibhyaḥ (than ascetics) adhikaḥ (superior) [asti] (he is),
[yogī] (a yogī) jñānibhyaḥ api (also than the wise) adhikaḥ (superior) [asti] (he is),
[yogī] (a yogī) karmibhyaś ca api (and also than those acting) adhikaḥ (superior) mataḥ (considered),
tasmāt (therefore) [tvam] (you) yogī (a yogī) bhava (you must be).

 

grammar

tapasvibhyaḥ tapasvin 5n.3 m. than ascetics (from: tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
adhikaḥ adhika 1n.1 m.additional, subsequent, superior;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
jñānibhyaḥ jñānin 5n.3 m.than wise men (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
mataḥ mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 n.regarded, considered; thought, opinion, view;
adhikaḥ adhika 1n.1 m.additional, subsequent, superior;
karmibhyaḥ karmin 5n.3 m.than those acting (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
adhikaḥ adhika 1n.1 m.additional, subsequent, superior;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;

 

textual variants


jñānibhyo pi → jñānibhyaś ca / jñānino ‘pi / jñāninaś ca (and than the wise / even than the wise / and than the wise);
jñānibhyo pi mato ‚dhikaḥjñānibhyo py adhiko mataḥ (even than the wise he is considered higher);
karmibhyaś → karmabhiś / karmibhiś / karmabhyaś (by activities / by those acting / than acts);
karmibhyaś cādhiko → karmibhyaś ‘py adhiko (even higher than those acting);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt—

tapasvibhyo’dhiko yogī, jñānibhyo’pi jñānam atra śāstrārtha-pāṇḍityam, tadvadbhyo’pi mato jñāto’dhikaḥ śreṣṭha iti | karmibhyaḥ, agnihotrādi karma, tadvadbhyo’dhiko yogī viśiṣṭo yasmāt tasmād yogī bhavārjuna

 

Rāmānuja


atiśayitapuruṣārthaniṣṭhatayā yoginaḥ sarvasmād ādhikyam āha

kevalatapobhir yaḥ puruṣārthaḥ sādhyate, ātmajñānavyatiriktair jñānaiś ca yaḥ, yaś ca kevalair aśvamedhādibhiḥ karmabhiḥ, tebhyas sarvebhyo ‚dhikapuruṣārthasādhanatvād yogasya, tapasvibhyo jñānibhyaḥ karmibhyaś cādhiko yogī tasmād yogī bhavārjuna

 

Śrīdhara


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tapasvibhya iti | tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-tapo-niṣṭhebhyaḥ | jñānibhyaḥ śāstra-jñāna-vidbhyo ‚pi | karmibhya iṣṭa-pūrtādi-karma-kāribhyo ‚pi | yogī śreṣṭho mamābhimataḥ | tasmāt tvaṃ yogī bhava

 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ yogī stūyate ‚rjunaṃ prati śraddhātiśayotpādana-pūrvakaṃ yogaṃ vidhātuṃ tapasvibhya iti | tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-tapaḥ-parāyaṇebhyo ‚pi adhika utkṛṣṭo yogī tattva-jñānotpatty-anantaraṃ mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣaya-kārī |

vidyayā ta ārohanti yatra kāmāḥ parāgatāḥ |
na tatra dakṣiṇā yānti nāvadvāṃsas tapasvinaḥ || iti śruteḥ |

ataeva karmibhyo dakṣiṇā-sahita-jyotiṣṭomādi-karmānuṣṭhānebhyaś cādhiko yogī | karmiṇāṃ tapasvināṃ cājñatvena mokṣānarhatvāt |

jñānibhyo ‚pi parokṣa-jñānavadbhyo ‚pi aparokṣa-jñānavān adhiko mato yogī | evam aparokṣa-jñānavadbhyo ‚pi mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣayābhāvād ajīvan-muktebhyo mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣaya-vattvena jīvan-mukto yogy adhiko mato mama saṃyataḥ | yasmād evaṃ tasmād adhikādhika-prayatna-balāttvaṃ yoga-bhraṣṭa idānīṃ tattva-jñāna-mano-nāśa-vāsanākṣayair yugapat-saṃpāditair yogī jīva-mukto yaḥ sa yogī paramo mata iti prāg-uktaḥ sa tādṛśo bhava sādhana-paripākāt | he ‚rjuneti śuddheti sabodhanārthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


karma-jñāna-taop-yogavatāṃ madhye kaḥ śreṣṭha ity apekṣāyām āha tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādi-tapo-niṣṭhebhyaḥ | jñānibhyaḥ brahmopāsakebhyo ‚pi yogī paramātmopāsako ‚dhiko mata iti mamedam eva matam iti bhāvaḥ | yadi jñānibhyo ‚py adhikas tadā kim uta karmibhya ity āha karmibhyaś ceti

 

Baladeva


evaṃ jñāna-garbho niṣkāma-karma-yogo ‚ṣṭāṅga-yoga-śirasko mokṣa-hetus tādṛśād yogād vibhraṣṭsyāntatas tat-phalaṃ bhaved ity abhidhāya yoginaṃ stauti tapasvibhya iti | tapasvibhyaḥ kṛcchrādi-tapaḥ-parebhyaḥ jñānibhyo ‚rtha-śāstra-vidbhyaḥ karmibhyaḥ sakāmeṣṭā-pūrty-ādikṛdbhyaś ca yogī mad-ukta-yogānuṣṭhātādhikaḥ śreṣṭho mataḥ | ātma-jñāna-vaidhuryeṇa mokṣānarhebhyas tapasvy-ādibhyo mad-ukto yogī samuditātma-jñānatvena mokṣārhatvāt śreṣṭhaḥ

 
 

BhG 6.47

yoginām api sarveṣāṃ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā
śraddhā-vān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ

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yaḥ (he who) śraddhā-vān (has faith) mad-gatena (by being gone into me) antar-ātmanā (by inner self) mām (me) bhajate (he worships),
saḥ (he) sarveṣām (among all) yoginām api (even among the yogīs) yukta-tamaḥ [iti] (the best of the engaged) me mataḥ (is considered by me).

 

grammar

yoginām yogin 6n.3 m.of the yogīs (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
sarveṣām sarva sn. 6n.3 m.among all;
mad-gatena mad-gata 3n.1 m.; [TP]: mayi gatenetiby being gone into me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone);
antar-ātmanā antar-ātman 3n.1 m.; KD: antarenātmaneti by inner self (from: anta – end, limit, settlement, inside, nature, av. antaḥ – inside, within; ātman – self);
śraddhā-vān śraddhā-vant 1n.1 m.who has faith (from: śrat – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]; śraddhā – faith, confidence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
bhajate bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.1he worships;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
yuktatamaḥ yukta-tama 1n.1 m. the best of the engaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage; superlative of: [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
mataḥ mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 n. regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;

 

textual variants


yogināmyogīnām;
api → mama (my);
-ātmanā-ātmanaḥ (of the self);
bhajate → labhate (he obtains);
 
 

Śāṃkara


yoginām api sarveṣāṃ rūdrādityādi-dhyāna-parāṇāṃ madhye mad-gatena mayi vāsudeve samāhitenāntarātmanāntaḥ-karaṇena śraddhāvān śraddadhānaḥ san bhajate sevate yo mām, sa me mama yuktatamo’tiśayena yukto mato’bhipreta iti

 

Rāmānuja


tad evaṃ paravidyāṅgabhūtaṃ prajāpativākyoditaṃ pratyagātmadarśanam uktam; atha paravidyāṃ prastauti

yoginām iti pañcamyarthe ṣaṣṭhī / „sarvabhūtastham ātmānam” ityādinā caturvidhā yoginaḥ pratipāditāḥ / teṣv anantargatatvād vakṣyamāṇasya yoginaḥ na nirdhāraṇe ṣaṣṭhī saṃbhavati / api sarveṣām iti sarvaśabdanirdiṣṭās tapasviprabhṛtayaḥ / tatrāpy uktena nyāyena pañcamyartho grahītavyaḥ / yogibhyaḥ, api sarvebhyo vakṣyamāṇo yogī yuktatamaḥ / tadapekṣayā avaratve tapasviprabhṛtīnāṃ yogināṃ ca na kaścidviśeṣa ityarthaḥ; mervapekṣayā sarṣapāṇām iva / yady api sarṣapeṣu anyonyanyūnādhikabhāvo vidyate tathāpi mervapekṣayā avaratvanirdeśaḥ samānaḥ / matpriyatvātirekena ananyadhāraṇasvabhāvatayā madgatena antarātmanā manasā, śraddhāvān atyarthamatpriyatvena kṣaṇamātraviśleṣāsahatayā matprāptipravṛttau tvarāvān yo māṃ bhajate māṃ vicitrānantabhogyabhoktṛvargabhogopakaraṇabhogasthānaparipūrṇanikhilajagadudayavibhavalayalīlam, aspṛṣṭāśeṣadoṣānavadhikātiśayajñānabalāiśvaryavīryaśaktitejaḥprabhṛtyasaṅkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇagaṇanidhim, svābhimatānurūpaikarūpācintyadivyādbhutanityaniravadyaniratiśayāujjvalyasaundaryasaugandhyasaukumāryalāvaṇyayauvanādyanantaguṇanidhidivyarūpam, vāṅmanasāparicchedyasvarūpasvabhāvam, apārakāruṇyasauśīlyavātsalyodāryamahodadhim, anālocitaviśeṣāśeṣalokaśaraṇyam, praṇatārtiharam, āśritavātsalyaikajaladhim, akhilam anujanayanaviṣayatāṃ gatam, ajahatsvasvabhāvam, vasudevagṛhe ‚vatīrṇam, anavadhikātiśayatejasā nikhilaṃ jagad bhāsayantam, ātmakāntyā viśvam āpyāyayantam, bhajate sevate, upāsta ityarthaḥ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ sa sarvebhyaś śreṣṭatamaḥ iti sarvaṃ sarvadā yathāvasthitaṃ svata eva sākṣātkurvan ahaṃ manye

 

Śrīdhara


yoginām api yama-niyamādi-parāṇāṃ madhye mad-bhaktaḥ śreṣṭha ity āha yoginām apīti | mad-gatena mayy āsaktena | antarātmanā manasā | yo māṃ parameśvaraṃ vāsudevam | śraddā-yuktaḥ san bhajate | sa yoga-yukteṣu śreṣṭho mama saṃmataḥ | ato mad-bhakto bhava iti bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ sarva-yogi-śreṣṭhaṃ yoginaṃ vadann adhyāyam upasaṃharati yoginām iti | yogināṃ vasu-rudrādityādi-kṣudra-devatā-bhaktānāṃ sarveṣām api madhye mayi bhagavati vāsudeve puṇya-paripāka-viśeṣād gatena prīti-vaśān niviṣṭena mad-gatenāntarātmanāntaḥ-karaṇena prāg-bhavīya-saṃskāra-pāṭavāt sādhu-saṅgāc ca mad-bhajana evaṃ śraddhāvān atiśayena śraddadhānaḥ sambhajante sevata satataṃ cintayati yo māṃ nārāyaṇam īśvareśvaraṃ sa-guṇaṃ nirguṇaṃ vā manuṣyo ‚yam īśvarāntara-sādhāraṇo ‚yam ity ādi-bhramaṃ hitvā sa eva mad-bhakto yogī yuktatamaḥ sarvebhyaḥ samāhita-cittebhyo yuktebhyaḥ śreṣṭho me mama parameśvarasya sarvajñasya mato niścitaḥ | samāne ‚pi yogābhyāsa-kleśe samāne ‚pi bhajanāyāse mad-bhakti-śūnyebhyo mad-bhaktasyaiva śreṣṭhatvāt tvaṃ mad-bhaktaḥ paramo yuktatamo ‚nāyāsena bhavituṃ śakṣyasīti bhāvaḥ |

tad anenādhyāyena karma-yogasya buddhi-śuddhi-hetor maryādāṃ darśayatā tataś ca kṛta-sarva-karma-saṃnyāsasya sāṅgaṃ yogaṃ vivṛṇvatā mano-nigrahopāyaṃ cākṣepa-nirāsa-pūrvakam upadiśatā yoga-bhraṣṭasya puruṣārtha-śūnyatāśaṅkāṃ ca śithilatayā karma-kāṇḍaṃ bhajanīyaṃ ca bhagavantaṃ vāsudevaṃ tat-padārthaṃ nirūpayitum agrima-madhyāya-ṣaṭkam ārabhyata iti śivam

 

Viśvanātha


tarhi yoginaḥ sakāśān nāsty adhikaḥ ko ‚pīty avasīyate | tatra maivaṃ vācyam ity āha yoginām api | pañcamy-arthe ṣaṣṭhī nirdhāraṇa-yogāt | tapasvibhyo jñānibhyo ‚py adhika iti pañcamy-artha-kramāc ca yogibhyaḥ sakāśād apīty arthaḥ | na kevalaṃ yogibhya eka-vidhebhyaḥ sakāśāt | api tu yogibhyaḥ sarvebhyo nānā-vidhebhyo yogārūḍhebhyaḥ samprajñāta-samādhy-asamprajñāta-samādhimadbhyo ‚pīti | yad vā yogā upāyāḥ karma-jñāna-tapo-yoga-bhakty-ādayas tadvatāṃ madhye yo māṃ bhajeta | mad-bhakto bhavati sa yuktatama upāyavattamaḥ | karmī tapasvī jñānī ca yogī mataḥ | aṣṭāṅga-yogī yogitaraḥ | śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhaktimāṃs tu yogitama ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ śrī-bhāgavate-

muktānām api siddhānāṃ nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇaḥ |
sudurlabhaḥ praśāntātmā koṭiṣv api mahāmune || iti

 

Baladeva


tad ittham ādyena ṣaṭkena saniṣṭhasya sādhanāni jñāna-garbhāni niṣkāma-karmāṇi yoga-śiraskāny abhidhāya madhyena pariniṣṭhitāder bhagavac-charaṇādīni sādhanāny abhidhāsyan tasmāt tasya śraiṣṭhyāvedakaṃ tat-sūtram abhidhatte yoginām iti | pañcamy-arthe ṣaṣṭhīyaṃ tapasvibhya iti pūrvopakramāt | na ca nirdhāraṇe ṣaṣṭhīyam astu vakṣyamāṇasya yoginas tapasvy-ādi-vilakṣaṇa-kriyatvena teṣv anantar-bhāvāt | yadyapi tapasvy-ādīnāṃ mitho nyūnādhikatābhāvo ‚sti | tathāpy avaratvaṃ tasmāt samānam | svarṇa-girer iva tad anyeṣām uccāvacānāṃ girīṇām iti | yaḥ śraddhāvān mad-bhakti-nirūpakeṣu śruty-ādi-vākyeṣu dṛḍha-viśvāsaḥ san māṃ nīlotpala-śyāmalam ājānu-pīvara-bāhuṃ savitṛ-kara-vikasitāravindekṣaṇaṃ vidyud-ujjvala-vāsasaṃ kirīṭa-kuṇḍala-kaṭaka-keyūra-hāra-kaustubha-nūpuraiḥ vanamālayā ca vibhrājamānaṃ sva-prabhayā diśo vitamisrāḥ kurvāṇaṃ nitya-siddha-nṛsiṃha-raghu-varyādi-rūpaṃ sarveśvaraṃ svayaṃ bhagavantaṃ manuṣya-saṃniveśi-vibhu-vijñānanda-mayaṃ yaśodā-stanandhayaṃ kṛṣṇādi-śabdair abhidhīyamānaṃ sārvajña-sarvaiśvarya-satya-saṅkalpāśrita-vātsalyādibhiḥ saundarya-mādhurya-lāvaṇyādibhiś ca guṇa-ratnaiḥ pūrṇaṃ bhajate śravaṇādibhiḥ sevate | mad-gatena mad-ekāsaktenāntarātmanā manasā viśiṣṭas tila-mātram api mad-viyogāsahaḥ sann ity arthaḥ | mad-bhaktaḥ sarvebhyas tapasvy-ādibhyo yogibhyo mad-eka-bhakto yuktatama ity arthaḥ |

atra vyācaṣṭe – nanu yoginaḥ sakāśān na ko ‚py adhiko ‚stīti cet tatrāha yoginām iti | yogāroha-tāratamyāt karma-yogino bahavas tebhyaḥ sarvebhyo ‚pīti dhyānārūḍho yuktaḥ samādhy-ārūḍho yuktataraḥ śravaṇādi-bhaktimāṃs tu yuktatama iti | bhakti-śabdaḥ sevābhidhāyī |
bhaja ity eṣa vai dhātuḥ sevāyāṃ parikīrtitaḥ |
tasmāt sevā budhaiḥ proktā bhakti-śabdena bhūyasī || iti smṛteḥ |

etāṃ bhaktiṃ śrutir āha śraddhā-bhakti-dhyāna-yogād avehi iti |

yasya deve parā bhaktir yathā deve tathā gurau |
tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ || [ŚvetU 6.23] iti |

bhaktir asya bhajanaṃ tad-ihāmutropādhi-nairāsyenāmuṣmin manaḥ-kalpanam etad eva naiṣkarmyam [GTU 1.14] iti |

ātmānam eva lokam upāsīta [BAU 1.4.8] iti |

ātmā vā are draṣṭavyaḥ śrotavyo mantavyo nididhyāsitavyo maitreyi [BAU 2.4.5, 4.5.6] iti caivam ādyāḥ |

sā ca bhaktir bhagavat-svarūpa-śakti-vṛtti-bhūtā bodhyā-

vijñāna-ghanānanda-ghanā sac-cid-ānandaika-rase bhakti-yoge tiṣṭhati [GTU 2.79] iti śruteḥ |

tasyāḥ śravaṇādi-kriyā-rūpatvaṃ tu cit-sukha-mūrteḥ sarveśvarasya kuntalādi-pratīkatvavat pratyetavyam | śravaṇādi-rūpāyā bhakteś cid-ānandatvaṃ tv anuvṛttyānubhāvyaṃ sitānusevayā pitta-vināśe tan-mādhuryam iveti

 
 

BhG 6.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇy aṣṭāviṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translations

Thus [ends] the twenty-eighth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants

iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde ātma-saṃyogo / ātma-saṃyama-yogo / abhyāsa-yogo / dhyāna-yoga-brahma-prāpti-mārga-darśaka-rūpo / yoga-garbho / saṃnyāsa-yogo / yogābhyāso / ātma-yogo / adhy-ātma-yogo / saṃyama-yogo / dhāna-yogo / svarūpa-yogo nāma ṣaṣṭo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the sixth chapter entitled: The Engagement of the Self / The Yoga of Restraining the Self / The Yoga of Practice / Showing Yoga of Contemplation as the Path of Attaining Brahman / The Source of Yoga / The Yoga of Austerity / The Practice of Yoga / The Yoga of the self / The Yoga of the Spirit Self / The Yoga of Restrain / The Yoga of Contemplation / The Yoga of One’s Own Shape.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 

Śrīdhara


ātma-yogam avocad yo bhakti-yoga-śiromaṇim |
taṃ vande paramānandaṃ mādhavaṃ bhakta-sevadhim ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
dhyāna-yogo nāma ṣaṣṭho ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


agrimādhyāya-ṣaṭkaṃ yad bhakti-yoga-nirūpakam |
tasya sūtramayaṃ ślokā bhakta-kaṇṭha-vibhūṣaṇam ||
prathamena kathā-sūtraṃ gītā-śāstra-śiromaṇiḥ |
dvitīyena tṛtīyena tūryeṇākāma-karma ca ||
jñānaṃ ca pañcamenoktaṃ yogaḥ ṣaṣṭhena kīrtitaḥ |
prādhānyena tad apy etaṃ ṣaṭkaṃ karma-nirūpakam ||
iti sārārtha-darśinyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu ṣaṣṭho ‚dhyāyo ‚yaṃ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||

 

Baladeva


gītā-kathā-sūtram avocad ādye
karma dvitīyādiṣu kāma-śūnyam |
tat pañcame vedana-garbham ākhyan
ṣaṣṭhe tu yogojjvalitaṃ mukundaḥ ||