atha saptamo ‘dhyāyaḥ – jñāna-vijñāna-yogaḥ

Now the seventh chapter: “The Yoga of Knowledge and Wisdom”

Rāmānuja


prathamenādhyāyaṣaṭkena paramaprāpyabhūtasya parasya brahmaṇo niravadhasya nikhilajagadekakāraṇasya sarvajñasya sarvabhūtasya satyasaṅkalpasya mahāvibhūteḥ śrīmato nārāyaṇasya prāptyupāyabhūtaṃ tadupāsanaṃ vaktuṃ tadaṅgabhūtam ātmajñānapūrvakakarmānuṣṭhānasādhyaṃ prāptuḥ pratyagātmano yāthātmyadārśanam uktam / idānīṃ madhyamena ṣaṭkena parabrahmabhūtaparamapuruṣasvarūpaṃ tadupāsanaṃ ca bhaktiśabdavācyam ucyate / tad etad uttaratra, „yataḥ pravṛttir bhūtānāṃ yena sarvam idaṃ tatam / svakarmaṇā tam abhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ // BhGR_1.” ity ārabhya, „vimucya nirmamaś śānto brahmabhūyāya kalpate / brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati / samas sarveṣu bhūteṣu madbhaktiṃ labhate parām // BhGR_1.” iti saṃkṣipya vakṣyate /

upānasaṃ tu bhaktirūpāpannam eva paraprāptyupāyabhūtam iti vedāntavākyasiddham / „tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti”, „tam evaṃ vidvān amṛta iha bhavati” ityādinā abhihitaṃ vedanam, „ātmā vā are draṣṭavyaḥ ….. nididhyāsitavyaḥ”, „ātmānam eva lokam upāsīta”, „sattvaśuddhau dhruvā smṛtiḥ; smṛtilambhe sarvagranthīnāṃ vipramokṣaḥ”, „bhidyate hṛdayagranthiś chidyante sarvasaṃśayāḥ / kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi tasmin dṛṣṭe parāvare” ityādibhir aikārthyāt smṛtisantānarūpaṃ darśanasamānākāraṃ dhyānopāsanaśabdavācyam ity avagamyate / punaś ca, „nāyam ātmā pravacanena labhyo na medhayā na bahunā śrutena / yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyas tasyaiṣa ātmā vivṛṇute tanūṃ svām” iti viśeṣaṇāt pareṇātmanā varaṇīyatāhetubhūtaṃ smaryamāṇātyarthapriyatvena svayam apy atyarthapriyarūpaṃ smṛtisantānam evopāsanaśabdavācyam iti hi niścīyate / tad eva hi bhaktir ity ucyate, „snehapūrvam anudhyānaṃ bhaktir ity abhidhīyate” ityādivacanāt / ataḥ „tam evaṃ vidvān amṛta iha bhavati, nānyaḥ panthā ayanāya vidyate”, „nāhaṃ vedair na tapasā na dānena na cejyayā / śakya evaṃvidho draṣṭuṃ dṛṣṭavān asi mām yathā // bhaktyā tv ananyayā śakya aham evaṃvidho ‚rjuna / jñātuṃ draṣṭuṃ ca tattvena praveṣṭuṃ ca parantapa” ity anayor ekārthatvaṃ siddhaṃ bhavati /

tatra saptame tāvad upāsyabhūtaparamapuruṣayāthātmyaṃ prakṛtyā tattirodhānaṃ tannivṛttaye bhagavatprapattiḥ, upāsakavidhābhedaḥ, jñāninaś śraiṣṭhyaṃ cocyate

 

Baladeva


saptame bhajanīyasya svasyaiśvaryaṃ prakīrtyate |
cāturvidhyaṃ ca bhajatāṃ tathaivābhajatām api ||

 
 

BhG 7.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṃ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ
asaṃśayaṃ samagraṃ māṃ yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
[tvam] (you) mayi (in me) āsakta-manāḥ (whose mind is attached) mad-āśrayaḥ (whose shelter I am) yogam (in yoga) yuñjan (engaging)
yathā (as) asaṁśayam (without doubt) mām (me) samagram (completely) jñāsyasi (you will know),
tat (that) śṛṇu (you must listen).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
āsakta-manāḥ ā-sakta-manas 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya mana āsaktam asti saḥwhose mind is attached (from: ā-sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, ā-sakta – attached; man – to think, manas – the mind);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
yuñjan yuñjant (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] engaging;
mad-āśrayaḥ mad-āśraya 1n.1 m.yasyāśrayo ‘ham asti saḥwhose shelter I am (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; ā-śri – to lean on, to rest on, to depend on, āśraya – place of refuge, shelter);
asaṁśayam av.without doubt (from: sam-śī – to waver, saṁśaya – hesitation, doubt);
samagram samagra 1n.2 m.whole, complete;
or av.completely;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
jñāsyasi jñā (to know, to understand) Fut. P 2v.1you will know;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;

 

textual variants


mad-āśrayaḥ → mad-āśritaḥ (sheltered in me);
jñāsyasi → jñāsyati / jñānasya (he will know / of knowledge);

 
 

Śāṃkara


iti praśna-bījam upanyasya, svayam eva īdṛśaṃ madīyaṃ tattvam, evaṃ mad-gatāntar-ātmā syād ity etat vivakṣuḥ śrī-bhagavān uvāca—

mayi vakṣyamāṇa-viśeṣaṇe parameśvare āsaktaṃ mano yasya saḥ mayy āsakta-manāḥ, he pārtha ! yogaṃ yuñjan manaḥ-samādhānaṃ kurvan, mad-āśrayo’ham eva parameśvaraḥ āśrayo yasya saḥ mad-āśrayaḥ | yo hi kaścit puruṣārthena kenacit arthī bhavati sa tat-sādhanaṃ karmāgnihotrādi tapo dānaṃ vā kiṃcid āśrayaṃ pratipadyate, ayaṃ tu yogī mām evāśrayaṃ pratipadyate, hitvānyat sādhanāntaraṃ mayy eva āsakta-manā bhavati | yas tvam evaṃ-bhūtaḥ san asaṃśayaṃ samagraṃ samastaṃ vibhūti-bala-śakty-aiśvaryādi-guṇa-saṃpannaṃ māṃ yathā yena prakāreṇa jñāsyasi saṃśayam antareṇaivam eva bhagavān iti, tat sṛṇu ucyamānaṃ mayā

 

Rāmānuja


mayy ābhimukhyena asaktamanāḥ matpriyatvātirekeṇa matsvarūpeṇa guṇaiś ca ceṣṭitena madvibhūtyā viśleṣe sati tatkṣaṇād eva viśīryamāṇasvarūpatayā mayi sugāḍhaṃ baddhamanāḥ tathā madaśrayaḥ svayaṃ ca mayā vinā viśīryamāṇatayā madāśrayaḥ madekādhāraḥ, madyogaṃ yuñjan yoktuṃ pravṛttaḥ yogaviṣayabhūtaṃ mām asaṃśayaṃ nissaṃśayam, samagraṃ sakalaṃ yathā jñāsyasi yna jñānenoktena jñāsyasi, taj jñānam avahitamanāḥ tvaṃ śṛṇu

 

Śrīdhara


vijñeyam ātmanas tattvaṃ saṃyogaṃ samudīritam |
bhajanīyam athedānīm aiśvaraṃ rūpam īryate ||

pūrvādhyāyānte mad-gatenāntarātmanā yo māṃ bhajate sa me yuktatamo mataḥ ity uktam | atra kīdṛśas tvaṃ yasya bhaktiḥ kartavyety apekṣāyāṃ sva-svarūpaṃ nirupayiṣyan śrī-bhagavān uvāca mayīti | mayi parameśvara āsaktam abhiniviṣṭaṃ mano yasya saḥ | mad-āśrayo ‚ham evāśrayo yasya | ananya-śaraṇaḥ san | yogaṃ yuñjann abhyasan asaṃśayaṃ yathā bhavaty evam | māṃ samagraṃ vibhūti-balaiśvaryādi-sahitaṃ yathā jñāsyasi tad idaṃ mayā vakṣyamāṇaṃ śṛṇu

 

Madhusūdana


yad-bhaktiṃ na vinā muktir yaḥ sevyaḥ sarva-yoginām |
taṃ vande paramānanda-ghanaṃ śrī-nanda-nandanam ||

evaṃ karma-saṃnyāsātmaka-sādhana-pradhānena prathama-ṣaṭkena jñeyaṃ tvaṃ-pada-lakṣyaṃ sa-yogaṃ vyākhyāyādhunā dhyeya-brahma-pratipādana-pradhānena madhyamena ṣaṭkena tat-padārtho vyākhyātavyaḥ | tatrāpi —

yoginām api sarveṣāṃ madgatenāntarātmanā |
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ || [Gītā 6.47]

iti prāg-uktasya bhagavad-bhajanasya vyākhyānāya saptamo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | tatra kīdṛśaṃ bhagavato rūpaṃ bhajanīyaṃ kathaṃ vā tad-gato ‚ntarātmā syād ity etad-dvayaṃ praṣṭavyam arjunenāpṛṣṭam api parama-kāruṇikatayā svayam eva vivakṣuḥ śrī-bhagavān uvāca mayīti |

mayi parameśvare sakala-jagad-āyatanatvādivividha-vibhūti-bhāgini āsaktaṃ viṣayāntara-parihāreṇa sarvadā niviṣṭaṃ mano yasya tava sa tvam | ataeva mad-āśrayo mad-eka-śaraṇaḥ | rājāśrayo bhāryādy-āsakta-manāś ca rāja-bhṛtyaḥ prasiddho mumukṣus tu mad-āśrayo mad-āsakta-manāś ca | tvaṃ tvad-vidho vā yogaṃ yuñjan manaḥ-samādhānaṃ ṣaṣṭhokta-prakāreṇa kurvan | asaṃśayaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ samagraṃ sarva-vibhūti-bala-śaktyaiśvaryādi-sampannaṃ māṃ yathā yena prakāreṇa jñāsyasi tac chṛṇūcyamānaṃ mayā

 

Viśvanātha


kadā sad-ānanda-bhuvo mahāprabhoḥ
kṛpāmṛtābdheś caraṇau śrayāmahe |
yathā tathā projjhita-mukti-tat-pathā
bhakty-adhvanā prema-sudhām ayāmahe ||

saptame bhajanīyasya śrī-kṛṣṇaiśvaryam ucyate |
na bhajante bhajante ye te cāpy uktāś caturvidhāḥ ||

prathamenādhyāya-ṣaṭkenāntaḥ-karaṇa-śuddhy-artha-kaniṣkām akarma-sāpekṣau mokṣa-phala-sādhakau jñāna-yogāv uktau | idānīm anena dvitīyādhyāya-ṣaṭkena karma-jñānādi-vimiśra-śravaṇān niṣkāmatva-sakāmatvābhyāṃ ca sālokyādi-sādhakas tathā sarva-mukhyaḥ karma-jñānādi-nirapekṣa eva premavat pārṣadatva-lakṣaṇa-mukti-phala-sādhakas tathā yat karmabhir yat tapasā jñāna-vairāgyataś ca yat ity ādau, sarvaṃ mad-bhakti-yogena mad-bhakto labhate ‚ñjasā, svargāpavargaṃ mad-dhāma [BhP 1.20.32-33] ity ādy-ukter vināpi sādhanānantaraṃ svargāpavargādi-nikhila-sādhakaś ca paramaḥ svatantraḥ sarva-sukaro ‚pi sarva-duṣkaraḥ śrīmad-bhakti-yoga ucyate |

nanu tam eva viditvā atimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 6.15] iti śruteḥ | jñānaṃ vinā kevalayā bhaktyaiva kathaṃ mokṣaḥ brūṣe ? maivaṃ, tvam eva tat padārthaṃ paramātmānam eva viditvā sākṣād anubhūya, na tu tvaṃ-padārthaṃ ātmānaṃ nāpi prakṛtiṃ nāpi vastu-mātraṃ viditvā mṛtyum atyeti ity asyāḥ śruter arthaḥ | tatra sita-śarkarā-rasa-grahaṇe yathā rasanaiva kāraṇaṃ na tu cakṣuḥ-śrotrādikaṃ tathaiva guṇātītasya brahmaṇe grahaṇaṃ sambhavet, na tu dehādy-atiriktātma-jñānena sāttvikena | bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ [BhP 11.14.11] iti bhagavad-ukter iti | bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ [Gītā 18.55] ity atra sa-viśeṣaṃ pratipādayiṣyāmaḥ | jñāna-yogayor mukti-sādhanatva-prasiddhis tu tatrastha-guṇī-bhūta-bhakti-prabhāvād eva | tayā vinā tayor akiñcitkaratvasya bahuśaḥ śravaṇāt |

kiṃ ca, asyāṃ śrutau viditvā ity anantaram eva-kārasyāprayogād eva | yoga-vyavacchedābhāve jñāpite sati, tasmād eva paramātmano viditāt kvacid aviditād api mokṣa ity artho labhyate | tataś ca bhakty-utthena nirguṇena paramātma-jñānena mokṣaḥ | kvacit tu bhakty-utthaṃ taj-jñānaṃ vināpi kevalena bhakti-mātreṇa mokṣa ity arthaḥ paryavasyati | yathā matsyaṇḍikā-piṇḍād rasanā-doṣeṇālabdha-svādād api bhuktāt tad-eka-nāśyo vyādhir naśyaty evātra na sandehaḥ | matsyaṇḍikāni te khaṇḍa-vikārā śarkarāsite ity amaraḥ | śrīmad-uddhavenoktam –

nanv īśvaro ‚nubhajato ‚viduṣo ‚pi sākṣāc
chreyas tanoty agada-rāja ivopayuktaḥ [BhP 10.47.56] iti |

ekādaśe ‚py uktaṃ – yat karmabhir yat tapasā jñāna-vairāgyataś ca yat ity ādau sarvaṃ mad-bhakti-yogena mad-bhakto labhate ‚ñjasā [BhP 11.20.31-32] iti | ataeva yan-nāma-sakṛc-chravaṇāt pukkaso ‚pi vimucyate saṃsārāt ity ādau bahuśo vākyair bhaktyaiva mokṣaḥ pratipādyata iti |

atha prakṛtam anusarāmaḥ |

yoginām api sarveṣāṃ madgatenāntarātmanā |
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ || [Gītā 6.47]

iti tvad-vākyena tvan-manaskatve sati tvaj-jana-viṣayaka-śraddhāvattvam iti tvayā sva-bhakta-viśeṣa-lakṣaṇam eva kṛtam ity avagamyate | kintu sa ca kīdṛśo bhaktas tadīya-jñāna-vijñānayor adhikārī bhavatīty apekṣāyām āha mayy āsakteti dvābhyām | yadyapi –

bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir
anyatra caiṣa trika eka-kālaḥ |
prapadyamānasya yathāśnataḥ syus
tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭiḥ kṣud-apāyo ‚nu-ghāsam || [BhP 11.2.42]

ity ukter bhajan-prakramata eva mad-anubhava-kramo ‚pi bhavati, tad apy eka-grāsa-mātra-bhojinas tathā tuṣṭi-puṣṭī na spaṣṭe bhavataḥ, kintu bahutara-grāsa-bhojina eva | tathaiva mayi śyāmasundare pītāmbare āsaktam āsakti-bhūmikārūḍhaṃ mano yasya tathābhūta eva tvaṃ māṃ jñāsyasi | yathā spaṣṭam anubhaviṣyasi, tat śṛṇu kīdṛśaṃ yogaṃ mayā saha saṃyogaṃ yuñjan śanaiḥ śanaiḥ prāpnuvan mad-āśrayaḥ | mām eva, na tu jñāna-karmādikam āśrayamāṇo ‚nanya-bhakta ity arthaḥ |

atrāsaṃśayaṃ samagram iti padābhyāṃ madīya-nirviśeṣa-brahma-svarūpa-jñānaṃ

kleśo ‚dhikataras teṣām avyaktāsaktacetasām |
avyaktā hi gatir duḥkhaṃ dehavadbhir avāpyate || [Gītā 12.5]

ity agrimokteḥ sa-saṃśayam eva | tathā jñāninām upāsyaṃ yad brahma parama-mahato mama mahima-svarūpam eva | yad uktaṃ mayaiva satyavrataṃ prati matsya-rūpeṇa –

madīyaṃ mahimānaṃ ca paraṃ brahmeti śabditam |
vetsyasy anugṛhītaṃ me sampraśnair vivṛtaṃ hṛdi || [BhP 8.24.38] iti |

atrāpi brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham [Gītā 14.27] iti | ato maj-jñānam asamagram iti dyotitam

 

Baladeva


ādyena ṣaṭkenopāsakasya jīvasya svarūpaṃ tat-prāpti-sādhanaṃ ca prādhānyenoktam | madhyena tūpāsyasya svasya tat tac ca tathocyate | tatra ṣaṣṭhānta-nirdiṣṭaṃ tava bhajanīyaṃ rūpaṃ kīdṛśaṃ, kathaṃ vā bhajato ‚ntarātmā tad-gataḥ syād ity etat pārthenāpṛṣṭam api kṛpālutvena svayam eva vivakṣur bhagavān uvāca mayīti | vyākhyāta-lakṣaṇe svopāsye mayy āsaktam atimātra-nirataṃ mano yasya sa tvam anyo vā tādṛśo mad-āśrayo mad-dāsya-sakhy-ādy-ekatamena bhāvena māṃ śaraṇaṃ gato yogaṃ mac-charaṇādi-lakṣaṇaṃ yuñjan kartuṃ pravṛttaḥ | asaṃśayaṃ yathā syāt tathā | kṛṣṇa eva paraṃ tattvam ato ‚nyad veti sandeha-śūnyo mat-pāramya-niścayavān ity arthaḥ | samagraṃ sādhiṣṭhānaṃ savibhūtiṃ saparikaraṃ ca māṃ sarveśvaraṃ yena jñānena jñāsyasi tan mayocyamānam avahita-manāḥ śṛṇu | he pārtha ! na ca samagram iti kārtsnyena sa jñānam ādiśatīti vācyam anantasya tasya tathājñānāsambhavāt | smṛtiś ca kārtsnyena nājo ‚py abhidhātum īśaḥ iti

 
 

BhG 7.2

jñānaṃ te haṃ sa-vijñānam idaṃ vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ
yaj jñātvā neha bhūyo nyaj jñātavyam avaśiṣyate

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syntax


aham (I) te (to you) idam jñānam (this knowledge) sa-vijñānam (together with wisdom) aśeṣataḥ (in full) vakṣyāmi (I will speak),
yat [jñānam] (this knowledge) jñātvā (after knowing) iha (here) bhūyaḥ (more) anyat (other) jñātavyam (to be known) na avaśiṣyate (it is not left).

 

grammar

jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
sa-vijñānam sa-vijñāna 2n.1 n.; BV: yad vijñānena saha vartate tattogether with wisdom (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; vi-jñāna – comprehension, understanding, wisdom);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
vakṣyāmi vac (to speak) Fut. P 3v.1I will speak;
aśeṣataḥ av.completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
na av.not;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
anyat anya sn. 1n.1 n.other;
jñātavyam jñātavya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be understood;
avaśiṣyate ava-śiṣ (to leave) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is left;

 

textual variants


te haṁ → dehaṁ (form);
aśeṣataḥśeṣataḥ (otherwise);
neha bhūyo → na punaḥ kiṁcij / na punaś cānyaj (again something [is not left] / and again other [is not left]);
avaśiṣyateiha śiṣyate (here it is left);
ciṁtanīyaṁ yad utkṛṣṭaṁ sattvaṁ tad upadiśyate (that truth which is extracted, being [the subject] of reflection, will be shown);

 
 

Śāṃkara


tac ca mad-viṣayaṃ—

jñānaṃ te tubhyam ahaṃ sa-vijñānaṃ vijñāna-sahitaṃ svānubhava-yuktam idaṃ vakṣyāmi kathayiṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ kārtsnyena | taj jñānaṃ vivakṣitaṃ stauti śrotuḥ abhimukhīkaraṇāya—yaj jñātvā yaj jñānaṃ jñātvā neha bhūyaḥ punar anyat jñātavyaṃ puruṣārtha-sādhanam avaśiṣyate nāvaśiṣṭaṃ bhavati | iti mat-tattva-jño yaḥ, sa sarvajño bhavatīty arthaḥ | ato viśiṣṭa-phalatvāt durlabhaṃ jñānam

 

Rāmānuja


ahaṃ te madviṣayam idaṃ jñānaṃ vijñānena sahāśeṣato vakṣayāmi / vijñānan viviktākāraviṣayaṃ jñānam / yathāhaṃ madvyatiriktāt samastacidacidvastujātān nikhilaheyapratyanīkatayā nānāvidhānavadhikātiśayāsaṃkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇagaṇānantamahāvibhūtitayā ca viviktaḥ, tena viviktaviṣayajñānena saha matsvarūpaviṣayajñānaṃ vakṣyāmi / kiṃ bahunā; yad jñānaṃ jñātvā
mayi punar anyaj jñātavyaṃ nāvaśiṣyate

 

Śrīdhara


vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñānaṃ stauti jñānam iti | jñānaṃ śāstrīyaṃ vijñānam anubhavaḥ | tat-sahitam idaṃ mad-viṣayam aśeṣataḥ sākalyena vakṣyāmi | yaj jñātveha śreyo-mārge vartamānasya punar anyaj jñātavyam avaśiṣṭaṃ na bhavati | tenaiva kṛtārtho bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


jñāsyasīty ukte parokṣam eva taj jñānaṃ syād iti śaṅkāṃ vyāvartayan stauti śrotur ābhimukhyāya jñānam iti | idaṃ mad-viṣayaṃ svato ‚parokṣa-jñānam | asambhāvanādi-pratibandhena phalam ajanayat parokṣam ity upacaryate asambhāvanādi-nirāse tu vicāra-paripākānte tenaiva pramāṇena janitaṃ jñānaṃ pratibandhābhāvāt phalaṃ janayad-aparokṣam ity ucyate | vicāra-paripāka-niṣpannatvāc ca tad eva vijñānaṃ, tena vijñānena sahitam idam aparokṣam eva jñānaṃ śāstra-janyaṃ te tubhyam ahaṃ param āpto vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ sādhana-phalādi-sahitatvena niravaśeṣaṃ kathayiṣyāmi | śrautīm eka-vijñānena sarva-vijñāna-pratijñām anusarann āha yaj-jñānaṃ nitya-caitanya-rūpaṃ jñātvā vedānta-janya-mano-vṛtti-viṣayīkṛtyeha vyavahāra-bhūmau bhūyaḥ punar api anyat kiṃcid api jñātavyaṃ nāvaśiṣyate | sarvādhiṣṭhāna-san-mātra-jñānena kalpitānāṃ sarveṣāṃ bādhe san-mātra-pariśeṣāt tan-mātra-jñānenaiva tvaṃ kṛtārtho bhaviṣyasīty abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tatra mad-bhakter āsakti-bhūmikātaḥ pūrvam api me jñānam aiśvarya-mayaṃ bhavet | tad-uttaraṃ vijñānaṃ mādhuryānubhava-mayaṃ bhavet | tad-ubhayam api tvaṃ śṛṇv ity āha jñānam iti | anyaj jñātavyaṃ nāviśiṣyate iti man-nirviśeṣa-brahma-jñāna-vijñāne ‚py etad-antarbhūta evety arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñānaṃ stauti jñānam iti | idaṃ cid-acic-chaktimat-svarūpa-viṣayakaṃ jñānaṃ | tac ca sa-vijñānam vakṣyāmi | tac-chakti-dvaya-vivikta-svarūpa-viṣayakaṃ jñānaṃ vijñānaṃ tena sahitaṃ te tubhyaṃ prapannāyāśeṣataḥ sāmagryeṇopadekṣyāmīty arthaḥ | yat svarūpaṃ sarva-kāraṇaṃ yac ca dhyeyaṃ tad ubhaya-viṣayakaṃ jñānam atra vaktuṃ pratijñātaṃ yaj jñānaṃ jñātveha śreyo-vartmani niviṣṭasya jijñāsos tavānyaj jñātavyaṃ nāvaśiṣyate | sarvasya tad-antarbhāvāt

 
 

BhG 7.3

manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaś-cid yatati siddhaye
yatatām api siddhānāṃ kaś-cin māṃ vetti tattvataḥ

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manuṣyāṇām (of people) sahasreṣu (in thousands) kaścit (someone) siddhaye (for perfection) yatati (he endeavours).
yatatām api (also of those endeavouring) siddhānām (of those perfected) kaścit (someone) mām (me) tattvataḥ (truly) vetti (he knows).

 

grammar

manuṣyāṇām manuṣya 6n.3 m.of people (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person);
sahasreṣu sahasra 7n.3 m.in thousands;
kaś-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
yatati yat (to endeavour) Praes. P 1v.1he endeavours, he strives (for what? – requires dative);
siddhaye siddhi 4n.1 f.for accomplishment, for fulfilment, for perfection, for success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
yatatām yatant (yat – to endeavour) PPr 6n.3 m.of those endeavouring;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
siddhānām siddha (sidh – to succeed, to become perfect) [PP] 6n.3 m.of those who are perfected;
kaś-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
tattvataḥ av.truly (from: tat – to, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);

 
 

Śāṃkara


katham ity ucyate—

manuṣyāṇāṃ madhye sahasreṣu anekeṣu kaścit yatati prayatnaṃ karoti siddhaye siddhy-artham | teṣāṃ yatatām api siddhānām, siddhā eva hi te ye mokṣāya yatante, teṣāṃ kaścid eva hi māṃ vetti tattvato yathāvat

 

Rāmānuja


vakṣyamāṇasya jñānasya duṣprāpatām āha

manuṣyāḥ śāstrādhikārayogyāḥ / teṣāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid eva siddhiparyantaṃ yatate / siddhiparyantaṃ yatamānānāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid eva māṃ viditvā mattas siddhaye yatate / madvidāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid eva tattvataḥ yathāvasthitaṃ māṃ vetti / na kaścid ityabhiprāyaḥ; „sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ”, „māṃ tu veda na kaścana” iti hi vakṣyate

 

Śrīdhara


mad-bhaktiṃ vinā tu yaj jñānaṃ durlabham ity āha manuṣyāṇām iti | asaṅkhyātānāṃ jīvānāṃ madhye manuṣya-vyatiriktānāṃ śreyasi pravṛttir eva nāsti | manuṣyāṇāṃ tu sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eva puṇya-vaśāt siddhaya ātma-jñānāya prayatate | prayatnaṃ kurvatām api sahasreṣu kaścid eva prakṛṣṭa-puṇya-vaśād ātmānaṃ vetti | tādṛśānāṃ cātma-jñānāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid eva māṃ paramātmānaṃ mat-prasādena tattvato vetti | tad evam atidurlabham api yaj jñānaṃ tubhyam ahaṃ vakṣyāmīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


atidurlabhaṃ caitan-mad-anugraham antareṇa mahā-phalaṃ jñānam | yato manuṣyāṇām iti | manuṣyāṇāṃ śāstrīya-jñāna-karma-yogyānāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eko ‚neka-janma-kṛta-sukṛta-samāsādita-nityānitya-vastu-vivekaḥ san yatati yatate siddhaye sattva-śuddhi-dvārā jñānotpattaye | yatatāṃ yatamānānāṃ jñānāya siddhānāṃ prāg-arjita-sukṛtānāṃ sādhakānām api madhye kaścid ekaḥ śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsana-paripākānte mām īśvaraṃ vetti sākṣātkaroti tattvataḥ pratyag-abhedena tattvam asīty ādi-gurūpadiṣṭa-mahā-vākyebhyaḥ | anekeṣu manuṣyeṣv ātma-jñāna-sādhanānuṣṭhāyī parama-durlabhaḥ | sādhanānuṣṭhāyiṣv api madhye phala-bhāgī parama-durlabha iti kiṃ vaktavyam asya jñānasya māhātmyam ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etac ca sa-vijñānaṃ maj-jñānaṃ pūrvam adhyāya-ṣaṭke prokta-lakṣaṇair jñānibhir yogibhir api durlabham iti vadana prathamaṃ vijñānam āha manuṣyāṇām iti | asaṅkhyātānāṃ jīvānāṃ madhye kaścid eve manuṣyo bhavati | manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eva śreyase yatate | tādṛśānām api manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid eva māṃ śyāmasundarākāraṃ tattvato vetti sākṣād anubhavatīti nirviśeṣa-brahmānubhavānandāt sahasra-guṇādhikaṃ sa-viśeṣa-brahmānubhavānandaḥ syād iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


sva-jñānasya daurlabhyam āha manuṣyāṇām iti | uccāvaca-dheātma-asaṅkhyātā jīvās teṣu katicid eva manuṣyās teṣāṃ śāstrādhikāra-yogyānāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid eva sat-prasaṅga-vaśāt siddhaye sva-parātmāvalokanāya yatate, na tu sarvaḥ | tādṛśānāṃ yatatāṃ yatamānānāṃ siddhānāṃ labdha-sva-parātmāvalokanānāṃ sahasreṣu madhye kaścid evaiko māṃ kṛṣṇaṃ tattvato vetti | ayam arthaḥ – śāstrīyārthānuṣṭhāyino bahavo manuṣyāḥ paramāṇu-caitanyaṃ svātmānaṃ prādeśa-mātraṃ mat-svāṃśaṃ paramātmānaṃ cānubhūya vimucyante | māṃ tu yaśodā-stanandhayaṃ kṛṣṇam adhunā tvat-sārathiṃ kaścid eva tādṛśa-sat-prasaṅgāvāpta-mad-bhaktis tattvato yāthātmyena vetti | avicintyānanta-śaktikatvena nikhila-kāraṇatvena sārvajñya-sārvaiśvarya-svabhakta-vātsalyādy-asaṅkhyeya-kalyāṇa-guṇa-ratnākaratvena pūrṇa-brahmatvena cānubhavatīty arthaḥ | vakṣyati ca sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ [Gītā 7.19], māṃ tu veda na kaścana [Gītā 7.26] iti

 
 

BhG 7.4

bhūmir āpo nalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano buddhir eva ca
ahaṃ-kāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā

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bhūmiḥ (earth) āpaḥ (water) analaḥ (fire) vāyuḥ (air) kham (space) manaḥ (the mind) buddhiḥ (intelligence) ahaṁ-kāraḥ eva ca iti (and indeed egoism)
iyam (this) me (my) aṣṭadhā (eightfold) bhinnā (divided) prakṛtiḥ (nature).

 

grammar

bhūmiḥ bhūmi 1n.1 f. earth;
āpaḥ ap 1n.3 f.water (inflected always in plural);
analaḥ anala 1n.1 m. fire (an – to breath, to live);
vāyuḥ vāyu 1n.1 m.wind (from: – to blow);
kham kha 1n.1 n.cavity (eg in the body), empty space, ether, sky;
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
ahaṁ-kāraḥ ahaṁ-kāra 1n.1 m. ego, egotism, pride (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
iyam idam sn. 1n.1 f.this;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
bhinnā bhinnā (bhid – to split) [PP] 1n.1 f.split, divided, separated;
prakṛtiḥ prakṛti 1n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
aṣṭa-dhā av.eightfold (from: aṣṭa – eight; -dhā – suffix to form manifold numerals);

 
 

Śāṃkara


śrotāraṃ prarocanenābhimukhīkṛtyāha—

bhūmiḥ pṛthivī-tanmātram ucyate, na sthūlā | bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā iti vacanāt | tathāb-ādayo’pi tanmātrāṇy eva ucyante—āpo’nalo vāyuḥ kham | mana iti manasaḥ kāraṇam ahaṃkāro gṛhyate | buddhir ity ahaṃkāra-kāraṇaṃ mahat-tattvam | ahaṃkāra ity avidyā-saṃyuktam avyaktam | yathā viṣa-saṃyuktam annaṃ viṣam ity ucyate, evam ahaṃkāra-vāsanāvad avyaktaṃ mūla-kāraṇam ahaṃkāra ity ucyate, pravartakatvāt ahaṃkārasya | ahaṃkāra eva hi sarvasya pravṛtti-bījaṃ dṛṣṭaṃ loke | itīyaṃ yathoktā prakṛtir me mamaiśvarī māyā-śaktir aṣṭadhā bhinnā bhedam āgatā

 

Rāmānuja


asya vicitrānantabhogyabhogopakaraṇabhogasthānarūpeṇāvasthitasya jagataḥ prakṛtir iyaṃ gandhādiguṇakapṛthivyaptejovāyvākāśādirūpeṇa manaḥprabhṛtīndriyarūpeṇa mahadahaṃkārarūpeṇa cāṣṭadhā bhinnā madīyeti viddhi

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ śrotāram abhimukhīkṛtyedānīṃ prakṛti-dvārā sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartṛtveneśvara-tattvaṃ pratijñātaṃ nirūpayiṣyan parāpara-bhedena prakṛti-dvayam āha bhūmir iti dvyābhyām | bhūmy-ādi-śabdaiḥ pañca-gandhādi-tan-mātrāṇy ucyante | manaḥ-śabdena tat-kāraṇa-bhūto ‚haṅkāraḥ | buddhi-śabdena tat-kāraṇaṃ mahat-tattvam ahaṅkāra-śabdena tat-kāraṇam avidyā | ity evam aṣṭadhā bhinnā | yad vā bhūmy-ādi-śabdaiḥ pañca-mahā-bhūtāni sūkṣmaiḥ sahikīkṛtya gṛhyante | ahaṅkāra-śabdenaivāhaṅkāras tenaiva tat-kāryāṇīndriyāṇy api gṛhyante | buddhir iti mahat-tattvam | manaḥ-śabdena tu manasaivonneyam avyakta-rūpaṃ pradhānam iti | anena prakāreṇa me pakṛtir māyākhyā śaktir aṣṭadhā bhinnā vibhāgaṃ prāptā | caturviṃśati-bheda-bhinnāpy aṣṭa-svaivāntarbhāva-vivakṣayāṣṭadhā bhinnety uktam | tathā ca kṣetrādhyāya imām eva prakṛtiṃ caturviṃśati-tattvātmanā prapañcayiṣyati –

mahābhūtāny ahaṅkāro buddhir avyaktam eva ca |
indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca pañca cendriya-gocarāḥ || [Gītā 13.5] iti

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ prarocanena śrotāram abhimukhīkṛtyātmanaḥ sarvātmakatvena paripūrṇatvam avatārayann ādāv aparāṃ prakṛtim upanyasyati bhūmir iti | sāṅkhyair hi pañca tan-mātrāṇy ahaṅkāro mahān avyaktam ity aṣṭau prakṛtayaḥ pañca mahā-bhūtāni pañca karmendriyāṇi pañca jñānendriyāṇi ubhaya-sādhāraṇaṃ manaś ceti ṣoḍaśa vikārā ucyante | etāny eva caturviṃśatis tattvāni | tatra bhūmir āpo ‚nalo vāyuḥ kham iti pṛthvy-ap-tejo-vāyv-ākāśākhya-pañca-mahābhūta-sūkṣmāvasthā-rūpāṇi gandha-rasa-rūpa-sparśa-śabdātmakāni pañca-tan-mātrāṇi lakṣyante | buddhy-ahaṅkāra-śabdau tu svārthāv eva | manaḥ-śabdena ca pariśiṣṭam avyaktaṃ lakṣyante prakṛti-śabda-sāmānādhikaraṇyena svārtha-hāner āvaśyakatvāt |

manaḥ-śabdena vā sva-kāraṇam ahaṅkāro lakṣyate pañca-tanmātra-saṃnikarṣāt | buddhi-śabdas tv ahaṅkāra-kāraṇe mahat-tattve mukhya-vṛttir eva | ahaṅkāra-śabdena ca sarva-vāsanā-vāsitam avidyātmakam avyaktaṃ lakṣyante pravartakatvādy-asādhāraṇa-dharma-yogāc ca | iti ukta-prakāreṇeyam aparokṣā sākṣi-bhāsyatvāt prakṛtir māyākhyā pārameśvarī śaktir anirvacanīya-svabhāvā triguṇātmikāṣṭadhā bhinno ‚ṣṭabhiḥ prakārair bhedam āgatā | sarvo ‚pi jaḍa-vargo ‚traivāntarbhavatīty arthaḥ | sva-siddhānte cekṣaṇa-saṅkalpātmakau māyā-pariṇāmāv eva buddhy-ahaṅkārau | pañca-tan-mātrāṇi cāpañcīkṛta-pañca-mahā-bhūtānīty asakṛd avocām

 

Viśvanātha


atha bhakti-mate jñānaṃ nāma bhagavad-aiśvarya-jñānam eva, na tu dehādy-atiriktātma-jñānam eveti | ataḥ svīyaiśvarya-jñānaṃ nirūpayan parāpara-bhedena svīya-prakṛti-dvayam āha bhūmir iti dvābhyām | bhūmy-ādi-śabdaiḥ pañca-mahā-bhūtāni sūkṣma-bhūtair gandhādibhiḥ sahaikīkṛtya saṅgṛhyante, ahaṅkāra-śabdena tat-kārya-bhūtānīndriyāṇi tat-kāraṇa-bhūta-mahat-tattvam api gṛhyate | buddhi-manasoḥ pṛthag-uktis tattveṣu tayoḥ prādhānyāt

 

Baladeva


evaṃ śrotāraṃ pārtham abhimukhīkṛtya svasya kāraṇa-svarūpaṃ cid-acic-chaktimad vaktuṃ te śaktī prāha bhūmir iti dvābhyām | caturviṃśatidhā prakṛtir bhūmy-ādy-ātmanāṣṭadhā bhinnā me madīyā bodhyā tan-mātrādīnāṃ bhūmy-ādiṣv antarbhāvād ihāpi caturviṃśatidhaivāvaseyā | tatra bhūmy-ādiṣu pañcasu bhūteṣu tat-kāraṇānāṃ gandhānāṃ pañcānāṃ tan-mātrāṇām antar-bhāvaḥ | ahaṅkāre tat-kāryāṇām ekādaśānām indriyāṇām | buddhi-śabdo mahat-tattvam āha | manaḥ-śabdas tu mano-gamyam avyakta-rūpaṃ pradhānam iti | śrutiś caivam āha-caturviṃśati-saṅkhyānām avyaktaṃ vyaktam ucyate iti | svayaṃ ca kṣetrādhyāye vakṣyati mahābhūtāny ahaṅkāraḥ [Gītā 13.5] ity ādinā

 
 

BhG 7.5

apareyam itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām
jīva-bhūtāṃ mahā-bāho yayedaṃ dhāryate jagat

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he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
iyam tu (but this) [prakṛtiḥ] (nature) aparā (inferior) [asti] (it is).
itaḥ (than this) anyām (other) parām (superior) jīva-bhūtām (being life) me prakṛtim (my nature) viddhi (you must know).
yayā (by which) idam (this) jagat (world) dhāryate (it is supported).

 

grammar

aparā apara 1n.1 f.other, later, inferior, different;
iyam idam sn. 1n.1 f.this;
itaḥ av.from this, than this (from: idam – this; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
anyām anya sn. 2n.1 f.other;
prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
jīva-bhūtām jīva-bhūtā 2n.1 f.being life / comprising the living beings (from: jīv – to live, jīva – living, living being, life; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
mahā-bāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
yayā yat sn. 3n.1 f. by which;
idam idam sn. 1n.1 n.this;
dhāryate dhṛ (to hold) Praes. caus. pass. 1v.1it is supported;
jagat jagat 1n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


jīva-bhūtāṃ → bīja-bhūtāṃ (being the seed);

 
 

Śāṃkara


aparā na parā nikṛṣṭāśuddhānartha-karī saṃsāra-bandhanātmikeyam | ito’syāḥ yathoktāyās tv anyāṃ viśuddhāṃ prakṛtiṃ mamātma-bhūtāṃ viddhi me parāṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇāṃ prāṇa-dhāraṇa-nimitta-bhūtāṃ he mahābāho, yayā prakṛtyedaṃ dhāryate jagad antaḥ-praviṣṭayā

 

Rāmānuja


iyaṃ mamāparā prakṛtiḥ; itas tv anyām ito ‚cetanāyāś cetanabhogyabhūtāyāḥ prakṛter visajātīyākārāṃ jīvabhūtāṃ parāṃ tasyāḥ bhoktṛtvena pradhānabhūtāṃ cetanarūpāṃ madīyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi; yayedam acetanaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagad dhāryate

 

Śrīdhara


aparām imāṃ prakṛtim upasaṃharan parāṃ prakṛtim āha apareyam iti | aṣṭadhā yā prakṛtir ukteyam aparā nikṛṣṭā jaḍatvāt parārthatvāc ca | itaḥ sakāśāt parāṃ prakṛṣṭām anyāṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ jīva-svarūpāṃ me prakṛtiṃ viddhi jānīhi | paratve hetuḥ yayā cetanayā kṣetrajña-rūpayā svakarma-dvāreṇedaṃ jagad dhāryate

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ kṣetra-lakṣaṇāyāḥ prakṛter aparatvaṃ vadan kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇāṃ parāṃ prakṛtim āha apareyam iti | yā prāg aṣṭadhoktā prakṛtiḥ sarvācetana-varga-rūpā seyam aparā nikṛṣṭā jaḍatvāt parārthatvāt saṃsāra-bandha-rūpatvāc ca | itas tv acetana-varga-rūpāyāḥ kṣetra-lakṣaṇāyāḥ prakṛter anyāṃ vilakṣaṇāṃ tu-śabdād yathā-kathaṃcid apy abhedāyogyāṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ cetanātmikāṃ kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇāṃ me mamātma-bhūtāṃ viśuddhāṃ parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi he mahābāho, yayā kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇayā jīva-bhūtayāntar-anupraviṣṭayā prakṛtyedaṃ jagad-acetana-jātaṃ dhāryate svato viśīrya uttamyate anena jīvenātmanānupraviśa nāma-rūpe vyākaravāṇi iti śruteḥ | na hi jīva-rahitaṃ dhārayituṃ śakyam ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


iyaṃ prakṛtir variyaṅgākhyā śaktir aparānutkṛṣṭā jaḍatvāt | ito ‚nyāṃ prakṛtiṃ taṭasthāṃ śaktiṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ parām utkṛṣṭāṃ viddhi caitanyatvāt | asyā utkṛṣṭatve hetuḥ yayā cetanayedaṃ jagad acetanaṃ svabhogārthaṃ gṛhyate

 

Baladeva


eṣā prakṛtir aparā nikṛṣṭā jaḍatvād bhogyatvāc ceto jaḍāyāḥ prakṛter anyāṃ parāṃ cetanatvād bhoktṛtvāc cotkṛṣṭāṃ jīva-bhūtāṃ me madīyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi | he mahābāho pārtha ! paratve hetuḥ yayeti | yayā cetanayā idaṃ jagat sva-karma-dvārā dhāryate śayyāsanādivat sva-bhogāya gṛhyate | śrutiś ca harer eveyaṃ śaktis tvayīty āha pradhāna-kṣetrajña-patir guṇeśaḥ [ŚvetU 6.16] iti

 
 

BhG 7.6

etad-yonīni bhūtāni sarvāṇīty upadhāraya
ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā

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syntax


sarvāṇi bhūtāni (all beings) etad-yonīni iti (whose source is this [nature]) upadhāraya (you must consider).
aham (I) kṛtsnasya jagataḥ (of the whole world) prabhavaḥ (source) tathā pralayaḥ (and annihilation).

 

grammar

etad-yonīni etad-yoni 1n.3 n.; BV: yeṣām ete [parāpara-prakṛtī] yony asti tāni these whose source is this [nature being superior and inferior] (from: etat – this; yoni / yonī – womb, source, origin);
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
sarvāṇi sarva sn. 1n.3 n. all;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
upadhāraya upa-dhṛ (to hold up) Imperat. caus. P 2v.1you must consider;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
kṛtsnasya kṛtsna 6n.1 n.of the whole;
jagataḥ jagat 6n.1 n.of the world, of mankind (from: gam – to go);
prabhavaḥ prabhava 1n.1 m.birth, source (from: pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce);
pralayaḥ pralaya 1n.1 m.annihilation, dissolution, end, death (from: pra- – to dissolve, to vanish);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;

 

textual variants


bhūtāni sarvāṇītysarvāṇi bhūtānīty (all beings);
upadhāraya → avādhāraya (you must think);
kṛtsnasya → sarvasya (of the whole);
prabhavaḥ pralayas → pralayaḥ prabhavas (annihilation and source);
 
 

Śāṃkara


etad-yonīni ete parāpare kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇe prakṛtī yonir yeṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ tāni etad-yonīni, bhūtāni sarvāṇīti evam upadhāraya jānīhi | yasmāt mama prakṛti yoniḥ kāraṇaṃ sarva-bhūtānām, ato’haṃ kṛtsnasya samastasya jagataḥ prabhava utpattiḥ pralayo vināśas tathā | prakṛti-dvaya-dvāreṇāhaṃ sarvajña īśvaro jagataḥ kāraṇam ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


etadcetanācetanasamaṣṭirūpamadīyaprakṛtidvayayonīni brahmādistambaparyantāni uccāvacabhāvenāvasthitāni cidacinmiśrāṇi madīyāni sarvāṇi bhūtānīty upadhāraya / madīyaprakṛtidvayayonīni hi tāni madīyāny eva / tathā prakṛtidvayayonitvena kṛtsnasya jagataḥ, tayor dvayor api madyonitvena madīyatvena ca, kṛtsnasya jagataḥ aham eva prabhavo ‚ham eva ca pralayo ‚ham eva ca śeṣīty upadhāraya / tayoḥ cidacitsamaṣṭibhūtayoḥ prakṛtipuruṣayor api paramapuruṣayonitvaṃ śrutismṛtisiddham / „mahān avyakte līyate / avyaktam akṣare līyate / akṣaraṃ tamasi līyate / tamaḥ pare deva ekībhavati”, „viṣṇos svarūpāt paratodite dve rūpe prdhānaṃ puruṣaś ca vipra”, „prakṛtir yā mayākhyātā vyaktāvyaktasvarūpiṇī / puruṣaś cāpy ubhāv etau līyate paramātmani / paramātmā ca sarveṣām ādhāraḥ parameśvaraḥ / viṣṇunāmā sa vedeṣu vedānteṣu ca gīyate

 

Śrīdhara


anayoḥ prakṛtitvaṃ darśayan svasya tad-dvārā sṛṣṭy-ādi-kāraṇatvam āha etad iti | ete kṣetra-kṣetrajña-rūpe prakṛtī yonī kāraṇa-bhūte yeṣāṃ tāny etad-yonīni | sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakāni sarvāṇi bhūtānīty upadhāraya budhyasva | tatra jaḍā prakṛtir deha-rūpeṇa pariṇamate | cetanā tu mad-aṃśa-bhūtā bhoktṛtvena deheṣu praviśya svakarmaṇā tāni dhārayati | te ca madīye prakṛtī mattaḥ sambhūte | ato ‚ham eva kṛtsnasya sa-prakṛtikasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ | prakarṣeṇa bhavaty asmād iti prabhavaḥ | paraṃ kāraṇam aham ity arthaḥ | tathā pralīyate ‚neneti pralayaḥ | saṃhartāpy aham evety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


ukta-prakṛti-dvaye kārya-liṅgakam anumānaṃ pramāṇayan svasya tad-dvārā jaga-sṛṣṭy-ādi-kāraṇatvaṃ darśayati etad-yonīnīti | ete aparatvena paratvena ca prāg-ukte kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇe prakṛtī yonir yeṣāṃ tāny etad-yonīni bhūtāni bhavana-dharmakāṇi sarvāṇi cetanācetanātmakāni janimanti nikhilānīty evam upadhāraya jānīhi | kāryāṇāṃ cid-acid-granthi-rūpatvāt kāraṇam api cid-acid-granthi-rūpam anuminv ity arthaḥ | evaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇe mamopādhi-bhūte yataḥ prakṛtī bhavatas tatas tad-dvārāhaṃ sarvajñaḥ sarveśvaro ‚nanta-śakti-māyopādhiḥ kṛtsnasya carācarātmakasya jagataḥ sarvasya kārya-vargasya prabhava utpatti-kāraṇaṃ pralayas tathā vināśa-kāraṇam | svāpnikasyeva prapañcasya māyikasya māyāśarayatva-viṣayatvābhyāṃ māyāvy aham evopādānaṃ draṣṭā cety arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etac chakti-dvaya-dvāraiva svasya jagat-kāraṇatvam āha etad iti | ete māyā-śakti-jīva-śaktī kṣetra-kṣetrajña-rūpe yonī kāraṇa-bhūte yeṣāṃ tāni sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakāni bhūtāni jānīhi | ataḥ kṛtsnasya sarvasyāsya jagataḥ prabhavo mac-chakti-dvaya-prabhūtatvād aham eva sraṣṭā | pralayas tac-chaktimati mayy eva pralīna-bhāvitvād aham evāsya saṃhartā

 

Baladeva


etac chakti-dvaya-dvāraiva sarva-jagat-kāraṇatāṃ svasyāha etad iti | sarvāṇi sthira-carāṇi bhūtāny etad-yonīni upadhāraya viddhi | ete ‚para-pare kṣetra-kṣetrajña-śabda-vācye mac-chaktī yonī kāraṇa-bhūte yeṣāṃ tānīty arthaḥ | te ca prakṛtī madīye matta eva sambhūte | ataḥ kṛtsnasya sa-prakṛtikasya jagato ‚ham eva prabhava utpatti-hetuḥ | prabhavaty asmāt iti vyutpatteḥ | tasya pralaya-saṃhartāpy aham eva pralīyate ‚nena iti vyutpatteḥ

 
 

BhG 7.7

mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiṃ-cid asti dhanaṃjaya
mayi sarvam idaṃ protaṃ sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iva

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syntax


he dhanaṁjaya (O winner of wealth!),
mattaḥ (from me) parataram (superior) anyat (other) kiṁcit (something) na asti (there is not).
sūtre (on a thread) maṇi-gaṇāḥ iva (like groups of jewels) [protāḥ santi] (it is strung),
[tathā] (so) mayi (in me) idam sarvam (all that) protaṁ (strung) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

mattaḥ av.from me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
parataram paratara 1n.1 n.superior, better, previous (comparative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
na av.not;
anyat anya sn. 1n.1 n.other;
kiṁ-cit kiṁ-cit sn. 1n.1 n.something (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.O winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥ – one who wins wealth; dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
idam idam sn. 1n.1 n.this;
protam pra-uta / -ūta (pra-ve – to weave) [PP] 1n.1 n.sewed, strung on, fixed;
sūtre sūtra 7n.1 n.on a thread, on a line (from: siv – to sew, to stitch, to join);
maṇi-gaṇāḥ maṇi-gaṇa 1n.3 m.; [TP]: maṇīṇāṁ gana itigroups of jewels (from: maṇi – jewel, gem; gaṇ – to count, to sum up, gaṇa – group, flock, troop, series, class);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;

 

textual variants


protaṃ → proktaṃ (said);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yatas tasmāt—

mattaḥ parameśvarāt parataram anyat kāraṇāntaraṃ kiṃcit nāsti na vidyate, aham eva jagat-kāraṇam ity arthaḥ, he dhanaṃjaya | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt mayi parameśvare sarvāṇi bhūtāni sarvam idaṃ jagat protam anusyūtam anugatam anuviddhaṃ grathitam ity arthaḥ | dīrgha-tantuṣu paṭavat, sūtre ca maṇi-gaṇā iva

 

Rāmānuja


yathā sarvakāraṇasyāpi prakṛtidvayasya kāraṇatvena, sarvācetanavastuśeṣiṇaś cetanasyāpi śeṣitvena kāraṇatayā śeṣitayā cāhaṃ parataraḥ tathā jñānaśaktibalādiguṇayogena cāham eva parataraḥ / matto ‚nyan madvyatiriktaṃ jñānabalādiguṇāntarayogi kiṃcid api parataraṃ nāsti

sarvam idaṃ cidacidvastujātaṃ kāryāvasthaṃ kāraṇāvasthaṃ ca maccharīrabhūtaṃ sūtre maṇigaṇavad atmatayāvasthite mayi protam āśritam / „yasya pṛthivī śarīram”, „yasyātmā śarīram”, „eṣa sarvabhūtāntarātmāpahatapāpmā divyo deva eko nārāyaṇaḥ” iti, ātmaśarīrabhāvenāvasthānaṃ ca jagadbrahmaṇor antaryāmibrāhmaṇādiṣu siddham

 

Śrīdhara


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt matta iti | mattaḥ sakāśāt parataraṃ śreṣṭhaṃ jagataḥ sṛṣṭi-saṃhārayoḥ svatantraṃ kāraṇaṃ kiñcid api nāsti | sthiti-hetur apy aham evety āha mayīti | mayi sarvam idaṃ jagat protaṃ grathitam āśritam ity arthaḥ | dṛṣṭāntaḥ spaṣṭaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yasmād aham eva māyayā sarvasya jagato janma-sthiti-bhaṅga-hetus tasmāt paramārthataḥ matta iti | nikhila-dṛśyākāra-pariṇata-māyādhiṣṭhānāt sarva-bhāsakān mattaḥ sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇa ca sarvānusyūtān sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-caitanya-ghanāt paramārtha-satyāt svapna-dṛśa iva svāpnikaṃ māyāvina iva māyikaṃ śukti-śakalāvacchinna-caitanyādivat-tad-ajñāna-kalpitaṃ rajataṃ parataraṃ paramārtha-satyam anyat kiṃcid api nāsti he dhanañjaya | mayi kalpitaṃ paramārthato na matto bhidyata ity arthaḥ tad ananyatvam ārambhaṇa-śabdādibhyaḥ [Vs 2.1.14] iti nyāyāt | vyavahāra-dṛṣṭyā tu mayi sad-rūpe sphuraṇa-rūpe ca sarvam idaṃ jaḍa-jātaṃ protaṃ grathitaṃ mat-sattayā sad iva mat-sphuraṇena ca sphurad iva vyavahārāya māyā-mayāya kalpate | sarvasya caitanya-grathitatva-mātre dṛṣṭāntaḥ – sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iveti | athavā sūtre taijasātmani hiraṇyagarbhe svapna-dṛśi svapna-protā maṇi-gaṇā iveti sarvāṃśe dṛṣṭānto vyākhyeyaḥ |

anye tu param ataḥ setūn māna-sambandha-bheda-vyapadeśebhyaḥ [Vs 3.2.31] iti sūtroktasya pūrva-pakṣasyottaratvena ślokam imaṃ vyācakṣate | mattaḥ sarvajñāt sarva-śakteḥ sarva-kāraṇāt parataraṃ praśasyataraṃ sarvasya jagataḥ sṛṣṭi-saṃhārayoḥ svatantraṃ kāraṇam anyan nāsti he dhanañjaya ! yasmād evaṃ tasmān mayi sarva-kāraṇe sarvam idaṃ kārya-jātaṃ protaṃ grathitaṃ nānyan na | sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iveti dṛṣṭāntas tu grathitatva-mātre na tu kāraṇatve | kanake kuṇḍalādivad iti tu yogyo dṛṣṭāntaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


yasmād evaṃ tasmād aham eva sarvam ity āha mattaḥ parataram anyat kiñcid apii nāsti | kārya-kāraṇayor aikyāt śakti-śaktimator aikyāc ca | tathā ca śrutiḥ ekam evādvitīyaṃ brahma, neha nānāsti kiñcana iti | evaṃ svasya sarvātmakatvam uktvā sarvāntaryāmitvaṃ cāha mayīti | sarvam idaṃ cij-jaḍātmakaṃ jagat mat-kāryatvān mad-ātmakam api punar mayy antaryāmiṇi protaṃ grathitaṃ yathā sūtre maṇi-gaṇāḥ protāḥ | madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādās tu sūtre maṇi-gaṇā iveti dṛṣṭāntas tu grathitatva-mātre, na tu kāraṇatve kanake kuṇḍalādivad iti tu yogyo dṛṣṭānta ity āhuḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu sthira-carayor apara-parayoḥ prakṛtyor api tvam eva tac-chaktimān yonir ity ukter nikhila-jagad-bījatvaṃ tava pratītaṃ, na tu sarva-paratvam | tac ca tad-bījāt tvatto ‚nyasyaiva –

tato yad uttarataraṃ tad arūpam anāmayam |
ya etad vidur amṛtās te bhavanti athetare
duḥkham evāpi yanti || [ŚvetU 3.10] iti śravaṇād iti cet tatrāha matta iti |

mattas tvat-sakhāt kṛṣṇāt parataraḥ śreṣṭham anyat kiñcid api nāsty aham eva sarva-śreṣṭhaṃ vastv ity arthaḥ | nanu tato yad uttarataram ity ādāv anyathā śrutim iti cen mandam etat kṣodākṣamatvāt | tathā hi

vedāham etaṃ puruṣaṃ mahāntam
ādity-varṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt |
tam eva vidvān amṛta iha bhavati
nānyaḥ panthā vidyate ‚nayanāya || iti [ŚvetU 3.8]

śvetāśvataraiḥ sarva-jagad-bījasya mahā-puruṣasya viṣṇor jñānam amṛtasya panthās tato nāstīty upadiśya tad-upapādanāya

yasmāt paraṃ nāparam asti kiñcid
yasmān nāṇīyona jyāyo ‚sti kiñcit

iti tasyaiva paramatvaṃ tad-itarasya tad-asambhavaṃ ca pratipādya | tato yad uttarotaraṃ ity ādinā pūrvoktam eva nigamitam | na tu tato ‚nyac-chreṣṭham astīti uktam | tathā sati teṣāṃ mṛṣāvāditvāpatteḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ-tathānya-pratiṣedhāt [Vs 3.2.36] iti | mad-anyasya kasyacid api śraiṣṭhyābhāvād aham eva mad-anya-sarvāśraya ity āha mayīti | protaṃ grathitaṃ sphuṭam anyat | etena viśvapālakatvaṃ svasyoktam

 
 

BhG 7.8

raso ham apsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ
praṇavaḥ sarva-vedeṣu śabdaḥ khe pauruṣaṃ nṛṣu

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
aham (I) apsu (in waters) rasaḥ (taste),
śaśi-sūryayoḥ (of Moon and Sun) prabhā (light),
sarva-vedeṣu (in all Vedas) praṇavaḥ (syllable OM),
khe (in space) śabdaḥ (sound),
nṛṣu (in men) pauruṣam (manhood) asmi (I am).

 

grammar

rasaḥ rasa 1n.1 m.juice, nectar, taste (from: ras – to taste, to relish, to love);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
apsu ap 7n.3 f.in waters (zawsze odmieniane w l.mn.);
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
prabhā pra-bhā 1n.1 f.brightness, light, splendour, beauty (from: pra-bhā – to shine, to be bright);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
śaśi-sūryayoḥ śaśi-sūrya 6n.2 m.; DV: śaśinaś ca sūryasya cetiof Moon and Sun (from: śaśa – rabbit, hare, śaśin – with a [sign of a] rabbit, Moon; sūrya – Sun);
praṇavaḥ praṇava 1n.1 m.syllable OM (from: pra-ṇu – to reverberate);
sarva-vedeṣu sarva-veda 7n.3 m.; sarveṣu vedeṣv itiin all Vedas (from: sarva – all, whole; vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas);
śabdaḥ śabda 1n.1 m.sound;
khe kha 7n.1 n.in a cavity (eg in the body), in an empty space, ether, sky;
pauruṣam pauruṣa 1n.1 n.manhood, virile, human (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people, puruṣa – a person);
nṛṣu nṛ 7n.3 m. in men;

 

textual variants


prabhāsmi → prakāśaḥ (manifestation);
sarva-vedeṣu → sarva-bhuteṣu (in all beings);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kena kena dharmeṇa viśiṣṭo tvayi sarvam idaṃ protam ity ucyate—

raso’ham, apāṃ yaḥ sāraṃ sa rasaḥ, tasmin rasa-bhūte mayi āpaḥ protā ity arthaḥ | evaṃ sarvatra | yathāham apsu rasaḥ, evaṃ prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ | praṇava oṃkāraḥ sarva-vedeṣu, tasmin praṇava-bhūte mayi sarve vedāḥ protāḥ | tathā khe ākāśe śabdaḥ sāra-bhūtaḥ, tasmin mayi khaṃ protam | tathā pauruṣaṃ puruṣasya bhāvaḥ pauruṣaṃ yataḥ puṃ-buddhir nṛṣu, tasmin mayi puruṣāḥ protāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 7.11

 

Śrīdhara


jagataḥ sthiti-hetutvam eva prapañcati raso ‚ham iti pañcabhiḥ | apsu raso ‚haṃ rasa-tan-mātra-rūpayā vibhūtyā tad-āśrayatenāpsu-sthito ‚ham ity arthaḥ | tathā śaśi-sūryayoḥ prabhāsmi | candre sūrye ca prakāśa-rūpayā vibhūtyā tad-āśrayatvena sthito ‚ham ity arthaḥ | uttarātrāpy evaṃ draṣṭavyam | sarveṣu vedeṣu vaikharī-rūpeṣu tan-mūla-bhūtaḥ praṇava oṅkāro ‚smi | kha ākāśe śabda-tan-mātra-rūpo ‚smi | nṛṣu puruṣeṣu pauruṣam udyamam asmi | udyame hi puruṣās tiṣṭhanti

 

Madhusūdana


avādīnāṃ rasādiṣu protatva-pratīteḥ kathaṃ tvayi sarvam idaṃ protam iti ca na śaṅkyaṃ rasādi-rūpeṇa mamaiva sthitatvād ity āha raso ‚ham iti pañcabhiḥ | rasaḥ puṇyo madhuras tan-mātra-rūpaḥ sarvāsām apāṃ sāraḥ kāraṇa-bhūto yo ‚psu sarvāsvanugataḥ so ‚haṃ he kaunteya tad-rūpe mayi sarvā āpaḥ protā ity arthaḥ | evaṃ sarveṣu paryāyeṣu vyākhyātavyam | iyaṃ vibhūtir ādhyānāyopadiśyata iti nātīvābhiniveṣṭavyam | tathā porabhā prakāśaḥ śaśi-sūryayor aham asmi | prakāśa-sāmānya-rūpe mayi śaśi-sūryau protāv ity arthaḥ | tathā praṇaya oṅkāraḥ sarva-vedeṣv anusyūto ‚haṃ tad yathā śaṅkunā sarvāṇi parṇāni saṃtṛṇṇāny evam oṅkāreṇa sarvā vāk iti śruteḥ | saṃtṛṇṇāni grathitāni | sarvā vāk sarvo veda ity arthaḥ | śabdaḥ puṇyas tan-mātra-rūpaḥ kha ākāśe ‚nusyūto ‚ham | pauruṣaṃ puruṣatva-sāmānyaṃ nṛṣu puruṣeṣu yad anusyūtaṃ tad aham | sāmānya-rūpe mayi sarve viśeṣāḥ protāḥ śrautair dundubhy-ādi-dṛṣṭāntair iti sarvatra draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


sva-kārye jagaty atra yathāham antaryāmi-rūpeṇa praviṣṭo varte, tathā kvacit kāraṇa-rūpeṇa kvacit kāryeṣu manuṣyādiṣu sāra-rūpeṇāpy ahaṃ varta ity āha raso ‚ham iti caturbhiḥ | apsu rasa tat-kāraṇa-bhūto mad-vibhūtir ity arthaḥ | evaṃ sarvatrāgre ‚pi | prabhā prabhā-rūpaḥ | praṇava oṅkāraḥ sarva-veda-kāraṇam | ākāśe śabdas tat-kāraṇam | nṛṣu pauruṣam sakala udyama-viśeṣa eva manuṣya-sāraḥ

 

Baladeva


tattvaṃ darśayati raso ‚ham iti pañcabhiḥ | apsu raso ‚haṃ rasa-tan-mātrayā vibhūtyā tāḥ pālayan tāsv ahaṃ vartate | tāṃ vinā tāsām asthiteḥ | śaśini sūrye cāhaṃ prabhāsmi prabhayā vibhūtyā tau pālayan tayor ahaṃ varte | evaṃ paratra draṣṭavyam | vaikharī-rūpeṣu sarva-vedeṣu tan-mūla-bhūtaḥ praṇavo ‚ham | khe nabhasi śabdas tan-mātra-lakṣaṇo ‚ham | nṛṣu pauruṣaṃ phalavān udyamo ‚ham | tenaiva teṣāṃ sthiteḥ

 
 

BhG 7.9

puṇyo gandhaḥ pṛthivyāṃ ca tejaś cāsmi vibhāvasau
jīvanaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu tapaś cāsmi tapasviṣu

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syntax


[aham] ca (and I) pṛthivyām (in earth) puṇyaḥ (pure) gandhaḥ (fragrance),
vibhāvasau ca (and in fire) tejaḥ (heat) asmi (I am).
[aham] ca (and I) sarva-bhūteṣu (in all beings) jīvanaṁ (life),
tapasviṣu ca (in ascetics) tapaḥ (austerity) asmi (I am).

 

grammar

puṇyaḥ puṇya 1n.1 m.good, meritorious, pious, pure (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously);
gandhaḥ gandha 1n.1 m.fragrance;
pṛthivyām pṛthivī 7n.1 f.in earth (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthu – broad, extensive, great);
ca av.and;
tejaḥ tejas 1n.1 n.sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
vibhāvasau vibhā-vasu 7n.1 m.in fire, in Sun (from: vibhā – light, beauty; vas – to dwell, vasun. wealth, m. Vasu (one of eight), Kuvera, Śiva, Sun, fire);
jīvanam jīvana 1n.1 n.life, enlivening (from: jīv – to live, jīva – living, living being, life);
sarva-bhūteṣu sarva-bhūta 7n.3 m.; sarveṣu bhūteṣu itiin all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
tapaḥ tapas 1n.1 n.heat, austerity (from: tap – to scorch);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
tapasviṣu tapasvin 7n.3 m.in those undergoing austerity, in ascetics (from: tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);

 

textual variants


puṇyo gandhaḥ pṛthivyāṃ ca → puṇyaḥ pṛthivyāṃ gaṃdho ‘smi (I am a nice fragrance in earth);

 
 

Śāṃkara


puṇyaḥ surabhir gandhaḥ pṛthivyāṃ cāham | tasmin mayi gandha-bhūte pṛthivī protā | puṇyatvaṃ gandhasya svabhāvata eva pṛthivyāṃ darśitam ab-ādiṣu rasādeḥ puṇyatvopalakṣaṇārtham | apuṇyatvaṃ tu gandhādīnām avidyā-dharmādy-apekṣaṃ saṃsāriṇāṃ bhūta-viśeṣa-saṃsarga-nimittaṃ bhavati | tejaś ca dīptiś cāsmi vibhāvasau agnau | tathā jīvanaṃ sarva-bhūteṣu, yena jīvanti sarvāṇi bhūtāni tat jīvanam | tapaś cāsmi tapasviṣu, tasmin tapasi mayi tapasvinaḥ protāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 7.11

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca puṇya iti | puṇyo ‚vikṛto gandho gandha-tan-mātram | pṛthivyā āśraya-bhūto ‚ham ity arthaḥ | yad vā vibhūti-rūpeṇāśrayatvasya vivakṣitatvāt surabhi-gandhasyaivotkṛṣṭatayā vibhūtitvāt puṇyo gandha ity uktam | tathā vibhāvasāgnau yat tejo duḥsahā sahajā dīptis tad aham | sarva-bhūteṣu jīvanaṃ prāṇa-dhāraṇa-vāyur aham ity arthaḥ | tapasviṣu vānaprasthādiṣu dvandva-sahana-rūpaṃ tapo ‚smi

 

Madhusūdana


puṇyaḥ surabhir avikṛto gandhaḥ sarva-pṛthivī-sāmānya-rūpas tan-mātrākhyaḥ pṛthivyām anusyūto ‚ham | ca-kāro rasādīnām api puṇyatva-samuccayārthaḥ | śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhānāṃ hi svabhāvata eva puṇyatvam avikṛtatvaṃ prāṇinām adharma-viśeṣāt tu teṣām apuṇyatvaṃ na tu svabhāvata iti draṣṭavyam | tathā vibhāvasāv agnau yat tejaḥ sarva-dahana-prakāśana-sāmarthya-rūpam uṣṇa-sparśa-sahitaṃ sita-bhāsvaraṃ rūpaṃ puṇyaṃ tad aham asmi | ca-kārādyo vāyau puṇya uṣṇa-sparśāturāṇām āpyāyakaḥ śīta-sparśaḥ so ‚py aham iti draṣṭavyam |
sarva-bhūteṣu sarveṣu prāṇiṣu jīvanaṃ prāṇa-dhāraṇam āyur aham asmi | tad-rūpe mayi sarve prāṇinaḥ protā ity arthaḥ | tapasviṣu nityaṃ tapo-yukteṣu vānaprasthādiṣu yat tapaḥ śītoṣṇa-kṣut-pipāsādi-dvandva-sahana-sāmarthya-rūpaṃ tad aham asmi | tad-rūpe mayi tapasvinaḥ protā viśeṣaṇābhāve viśiṣṭābhāvāt | tapaś ceti ca-kāreṇa cittaikāgryam āntaraṃ jihvopasthādi-nigraha-lakṣaṇaṃ bāhyaṃ ca sarvaṃ tapaḥ samuccīyate

 

Viśvanātha


puṇyo ‚vikṛto gandhaḥ puṇyas tu cārv api ity amaraḥ | ca-kāro rasādīnām api puṇyatva-samuccayārthaḥ | tejaḥ sarva-vastu-pācana-prakāśana-śīta-trāṇādi-sāmarthya-rūpaḥ sāraḥ | jīvanam āyur eva sāraḥ | tapo dvandva-sahanādikam eva sāraḥ

 

Baladeva


puṇyo ‚vikṛto gandhas tan-mātra-lakṣaṇaḥ | ca-kāro rasādīnām aham api puṇyatva-samuccāyakaḥ | vibhāvasau vahnau tejaḥ sarva-vastu-pacana-prakāśanādi-sāmarthya-rūpaṃ ca śadād vāyau yaḥ puṇyaḥ sparśa uṣṇa-sparśa-vyākulānām āpāyakaḥ so ‚ham iti bodhyam | jīvanam āyus tapo dvandva-sahanam

 
 

BhG 7.10

bījaṃ māṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ viddhi pārtha sanātanam
buddhir buddhimatām asmi tejas tejasvinām aham

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
mām (me) sarva-bhūtānām (of all beings) sanātanam (eternal) bījam (semen) viddhi (you must know).
aham (I) buddhi-matām (of the intelligent) buddhiḥ (intelligence),
tejasvinām (of those having prowess) tejaḥ (vigour) asmi (I am).

 

grammar

bījam bīja 2n.1 n.seed, semen, source;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
sarva-bhūtānām sarva-bhūta 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ bhūtānām iti of all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
sanātanam sanātana 2n.1 n.eternal, primeval;
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
buddhimatām buddhimant 6n.3 m.of the intelligent (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
tejaḥ tejas 1n.1 n.sharpness, heat, splendour, vigour, semen (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
tejasvinām tejasvin 6n.3 m.of those having prowess, of ascetics (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate, tejas – sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


The fourth pada of verse 7.10 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 10.36;

 
 

Śāṃkara


bījaṃ praroha-kāraṇaṃ māṃ viddhi sarva-bhūtānāṃ he pārtha sanātanaṃ cirantanam | kiṃ ca, buddhir viveka-śaktir antaḥ-karaṇasya buddhimatāṃ viveka-śaktimatām asmi | tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ tadvatāṃ tejasvinām aham

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 7.11

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca bījam iti | sarveṣāṃ carācarāṇāṃ bhūtānāṃ bījaṃ sajātīya-kāryotpādana-sāmarthyam | sanātanaṃ nityam uttarottara-sarva-kāryeṣv anusyūtam | tad eva bījaṃ mad-vibhūtiṃ viddhi | na tu prativyakti vinaśyam | tathā buddhimatāṃ buddhiḥ prajñāham asmi | tejasvināṃ pragalbhānāṃ tejaḥ pragalbhatām

 

Madhusūdana


sarvāṇi bhūtāni sva-sva-bījeṣu protāni na tu svayīti cen nety āha bījam iti | yat sarva-bhūtānāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānām ekaṃ bījaṃ kāraṇaṃ | sanātanaṃ nityaṃ bījāntarānapekṣaṃ na tu prativyakti-bhinnam anityaṃ vā tad-avyākṛtākhyaṃ sarva-bījaṃ mām eva viddhi na tu mad-bhinnaṃ he pārtha | ato yuktam ekasminn eva mayi sarva-bīje protatvaṃ sarveṣām ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca buddhis tattvātattva-viveka-sāmarthyaṃ tādṛśa-buddhimatām aham asmi | buddhi-rūpe mayi buddhimantaḥ protā viśeṣaṇābhāve viśiṣṭābhāvasyoktatvāt | tathā tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ parābhibhava-sāmarthyaṃ pariś cānabhibhāvyatvaṃ tejasvināṃ tathāvidha-prāgalbhya-yuktānāṃ yat tad aham asmi, tejo-rūpe mayi tejasvinaḥ protā ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


bījam avikṛtaṃ kāraṇaṃ pradhānākhyam ity arthaḥ | sanātanaṃ nityaṃ buddhimatāṃ buddhir eva sāraḥ

 

Baladeva


sarva-bhūtānāṃ carācarāṇāṃ yad eka-bījaṃ sanātanaṃ nityaṃ, na tu prativyakti-bhinnam anityaṃ vā tat pradhānākhyaṃ sarva-bījaṃ mām eva viddhi tad-rūpayā vibhūtyā tāny ahaṃ pālayāmi tat-pareṇa hi tāni puṣyante | buddhiḥ sārāsāra-vivekavatī | tejaḥ prāgalbhyaṃ parābhibhava-sāmarthyaṃ parān abhibhāvyatvaṃ ca

 
 

BhG 7.11

balaṃ balavatāṃ cāhaṃ kāma-rāga-vivarjitam
dharmāviruddho bhūteṣu kāmo smi bharata-rṣabha

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he bharatarṣabha (O best of the Bharatas!),
aham ca (and I) balavatāṁ (of the strong) kāma-rāga-vivarjitam (devoid of desire and passion) balam (strength) [asmi] (I am),
bhūteṣu (in beings) dharmāviruddhaḥ (not against dharma) kāmaḥ (desire) asmi (I am).

 

grammar

balam bala 1n.1 n.strength;
balavatām bala-vant 6n.3 m.of the strong (from: bala – strength, force; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
ca av.and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
kāma-rāga-vivarjitam kāma-rāga-vivarjita 1n.1 n.; [TP]/DV: kāmena ca rāgena ca vivarjitam iti devoid of desire and passion (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire; rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty; vi-vṛj – to exclude, to avoid, caus. [PP] vivarjita – excluded, deprived of, without);
dharmāviruddhaḥ dharma-aviruddha 1n.1 m.; [TP]: dharmeṇa aviruddha iti not against the law (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law; vi-rudh – to obstruct, to stop, [PP] viruddha – kept back, prohibited);
bhūteṣu bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 7n.3 m.in beings;
kāmaḥ kāma 1n.1 m.wish, desire, pleasure (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
bharata-rṣabha bharata-rṣabha 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇām ṛṣabha itiO best of the Bharatas (from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, maintained, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; ṛṣabha – bull, the best of any kind);

 

textual variants


balavatāṁbalavatā (by the strong);
cāhaṁ → asmi (I am);
 
 

Śāṃkara


balaṃ sāmarthyam ojo balavatām aham | tac ca balaṃ kāma-rāga-vivarjitam | kāmaś ca rāgaś ca kāma-rāgau | kāmas tṛṣṇā-saṃnikṛṣṭeṣu viṣayeṣu, rāgo rañjanā prāpteṣu viṣayeṣu—tābhyāṃ kāma-rāgābhyāṃ vivarjitaṃ dehādi-dhāraṇa-mātrārthaṃ balaṃ sattvam aham asmi | na tu yat saṃsāriṇāṃ tṛṣṇā-rāga-kāraṇam | kiṃ ca—dharmāviruddhaḥ | dharmeṇa śāstrārthenāviruddho yaḥ prāṇiṣu bhūteṣu kāmaḥ, yathā deha-dhāraṇa-mātrādy-artho’śana-pānādi-viṣayaḥ, sa kāmo’smi | he bharatarṣabha

 

Rāmānuja


ataḥ sarvasya paramapuruṣaśarīratvenātmabhūtaparamapuruṣaprakārarvāt sarvaprakāraḥ paramapuruṣa evāvasthita iti sarvaiś śabdais tasyaivābhidhānam iti tat tat sāmānādhikaraṇyena āha

ete sarve vilakṣaṇā bhāvā matta evotpannāḥ, maccheṣabhūtāḥ maccharīratayā mayy evāvasthitāḥ; atas tattatprakāro ‚ham evāvathitaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca balam iti | kāmo ‚prāpte vastuny abhilāṣo rājasaḥ | rāgaḥ punar abhilaṣite ‚rthe prāpte ‚pi punar adhike ‚rthe citta-rañjanātmakas tṛṣṇāpara-paryāyas tāmasaḥ | tābhyāṃ vivarjitaṃ balavatāṃ balam aham asmi | sāttvikaṃ sva-dharmānuṣṭhāna-sāmarthyam aham ity arthaḥ | dharmeṇāviruddhaḥ sva-dāreṣu putrotpādana-mātropayogī kāmo ‚ham iti

 

Madhusūdana


aprāpto viṣayaḥ prāpti-kāraṇābhāve ‚pi prāpyatām ity ākāraś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ kāmaḥ | prāpto viṣayaḥ kṣaya-kāraṇe saty api na kṣīyatām ity evam-ākāraś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣo rañjanātmā rāgas tābhyāṃ viśeṣeṇa varjitaṃ sarvathā tad-akāraṇaṃ rajas-tamo-virahitaṃ yat svadharmānuṣṭhānāya dehendriyādi-dhāraṇa-sāmarthyaṃ sāttvikaṃ balam balavatāṃ tādṛśa-sāttvika-bala-yuktānāṃ saṃsāra-parāṅmukhānāṃ tad aham asmi | tad-rūpe mayi balavantaḥ protā ity arthaḥ | ca-śabdas tu-śabdārtho bhinna-kramaḥ | kāma-rāga-vivarjitam eva balaṃ mad-rūpatvena dhyeyaṃ na tu saṃsāriṇāṃ kāma-rāga-kāraṇaṃ balam ity arthaḥ |

krodhārtho vā rāga-śabdo vyākhyeyaḥ | dharmo dharma-śāstraṃ tenāviruddho ‚pratiṣiddho dharmānukūlo vā yo bhūteṣu prāṇiṣu kāmaḥ śāstrānumata-jāyā-putra-vittādi-viṣayo ‚bhilāṣaḥ so ‚ham asmi | he bharatarṣabha ! śāstrāviruddha-kāma-bhūte mayi tathāvidha-kāma-yuktānāṃ bhūtānāṃ protatvam ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


kāmaḥ sva-jīvikādy-abhilāṣaḥ | rāgaḥ krodhas tad-vivarjitam | na tad-dvayotthitam ity arthaḥ | dharmāviruddhaḥ sva-bhāryāyāṃ putrotpatti-mātropayogī

 

Baladeva


kāmaḥ sva-jīvikādy-abhilāṣaḥ | rāgas tu prāpte ‚py abhilaṣite ‚rthe punas tato ‚py adhike ‚rthe citta-rañjanātmako ‚titṛṣṇāpara-nāmā, tābhyāṃ vivarjitaṃ balaṃ sva-dharmānuṣṭhāna-sāmarthyam ity arthaḥ | dharmāviruddhaḥ svapatnyāṃ putrotpatti-mātra-hetuḥ

 
 

BhG 7.12

ye caiva sāttvikā bhāvā rājasās tāmasāś ca ye
matta eveti tān viddhi na tv ahaṃ teṣu te mayi

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syntax


ye ca eva (and indeed those which) bhāvāḥ (states) sāttvikāḥ (sattvic) rājasāḥ (rajasic)
ye ca (and those which) tāmasāḥ (tamasic),
tān sarvān (them all) mattaḥ eva iti (indeed from me) viddhi (you must know).
aham (I) teṣu (in them) na [varte] (I am not),
te tu (but they) mayi (in me) [vartante] (they are).

 

grammar

ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those which;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
sāttvikāḥ sāttvika 1n.3 m. pertaining to sattva, sattvic (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);
bhāvāḥ bhāva 1n.3 m.being, state, nature (from: bhū – to be);
rājasāḥ rājasa 1n.3 m. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);
tāmasāḥ tāmasa 1n.3 m. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);
ca av.and;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those which;
mattaḥ av.from me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.them;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
na av.not;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
teṣu tat sn. 7n.3 m.in them;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;

 

textual variants


rājasās tāmasāś tāmasā rājasāś (tamasic, rajasic);
eveti → eveha (indeed here);
 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

ye caiva sāttvikāḥ sattva-nirvṛttā bhāvāḥ padārthāḥ, rājasāḥ rajo-nirvṛttās tāmasās tamo-nirvṛttāś ca, ye kecit prāṇināṃ sva-karma-vaśāt jāyante bhāvāḥ, tān matta eva jāyamānān iti evaṃ viddhi sarvān samastān eva | evaṃ yady api te matto jāyante, tathāpi na tv ahaṃ teṣu tad-adhīnas tad-vaśaḥ, yathā saṃsāriṇaḥ | te punar mayi mad-vaśāḥ mad-adhīnāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


kiṃ viśiṣya abhidhīyate? sāttvikā rājasās tāmasāś ca jagati dehatvenendriyatvena bhogyatvena tattaddhtetutvena cāvasthitā ye bhavāḥ, tān sarvān matta evotpannān viddhi; te maccharīratayā mayy evāvasthitā iti ca / na tv ahaṃ teṣu nāhaṃ kadācid api tadāyattasthitiḥ; anyatrātmāyattasthititve ‚pi śarīrasya, śarīreṇātmanaḥ sthitāv apy upakāro vidyate; mama tu tair na kaścit tathāvidha upakāraḥ, kevalalīlaiva prayojanam ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca ye caiveti | ye cānye ‚pi sāttvika-bhāvāḥ śama-damādayaḥ | rājasāś ca harṣa-darpādayaḥ | tāmasāś ca śoka-mohādayaḥ | prāṇināṃ sva-karma-vaśāj jāyante tān matta eva jātān iti viddhi | madīya-prakṛti-guṇa-kāryatvāt | evam api teṣv ahaṃ na varte | jīvavat tad-adhīno ‚haṃ na bhavāmīty arthaḥ | te tu mad-adhīnāḥ santo mayi vartanta ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


kim evaṃ parigaṇanena ye caiveti | ye cānye ‚pi bhāvāś citta-pariṇāmāḥ sāttvikāḥ śama-damādayaḥ | ye ca rājasā harṣa-darpādayaḥ | ye ca tāmasāḥ śoka-mohādayaḥ prāṇinām avidyā-karmādi-vaśāj jāyante tān matta eva jāyamānān iti ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhava ity ādy-ukta-prakāreṇa viddhi samastān eva | athavā sāttvikā rājasās tāmasāś ca bhāvāḥ sarve ‚pi jaḍa-vargā vyākhyeyā viśeṣa-hetv-abhāvāt | eva-kāraś ca samastāvadhāraṇārthaḥ | evam api na tv ahaṃ teṣu, matto jātatve ‚pi tad-vaśas tad-vikāra-rūṣito rajju-khaṇḍa iva kalpita-sarva-vikāra-rūṣito ‚haṃ na bhavāmi saṃsārīva | te tu bhāvā mayi rajjvām iva sarpādayaḥ kalpitā mad-adhīna-sattā-sphūrtikā mad-adhīnā ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ vastu-kāraṇa-bhūtā vastu-sāra-bhūtāś ca rākṣasādyāś ca vibhūtayaḥ kāścid uktāḥ | kintv alam ativistareṇa | mad-adhīnaṃ vastu-mātram eva mad-vibhūtir ity āha ye caiveti | sāttva-bhāvāḥ śama-damādayo devādyāś ca | rājasā harṣa-darpādayo ‚surādyāś ca | tāmasāḥ śoka-mohādayo rākṣasādyāś ca | tān matta eveti madīya-prakṛti-guṇa-kāryatvāt | teṣv ahaṃ na varte | jīvavat tad-adhīno ‚haṃ na bhavāmīty arthaḥ | te tu mayi mad-adhīnāḥ santa eva vartante

 

Baladeva


evaṃ kāṃścid vibhūtir abhidhāya samāsena sarvās tāḥ prāha ye caiveti | ye mitho vilakṣaṇa-svabhāvāḥ sāttvikādayo bhāvāḥ prāṇināṃ śarīrendriya-viṣayātmanā ta-kāraṇatvena cāvasthitās tān sarvān tat-tac-chakty-upetān matta evopapannān viddhi | na tv ahaṃ teṣu varte naivāhaṃ tad-adhīna-sthitiḥ | te mayi mad-adhīna-sthitaya ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.13

tribhir guṇa-mayair bhāvair ebhiḥ sarvam idaṃ jagat
mohitaṃ nābhijānāti mām ebhyaḥ param avyayam

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syntax


ebhiḥ (by these) tribhiḥ (by three) guṇa-mayaiḥ (by made of the guṇas) bhāvaiḥ (by states) sarvam idam (all this) jagat (world) mohitam (is bewildered).
[ataḥ eva] (therefore) [tat jagat] (that world) ebhyaḥ param (superior than these) avyayam (unchangeable) mām (me) na abhijānāti (does not distinguish).

 

grammar

tribhiḥ tri 3n.3 m.by three;
guṇa-mayaiḥ guṇa-maya 3n.3 m.by made of the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; –maya – in compounds: made of, of the nature of);
bhāvaiḥ bhāva 3n.3 m.by states, natures, emotions (from: bhū – to be);
ebhiḥ idam sn. 3n.3 m.by these;
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
idam idam sn. 1n.1 n.this;
jagat jagat 1n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
mohitam mohita (muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] caus. 1n.1 n.bewildered;
na av.not;
abhijānāti abhi-jñā (to distinguish) Praes. P 1v.1he distinguishes, he understands;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
ebhyaḥ idam sn. 5n.3 m.than these;
param para 2n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


sarvam → kṛtsnam (whole);
mohitaṁ → mohanaṁ (bewildered);
 
 

Śāṃkara


evaṃ-bhūtam api parameśvaraṃ nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-svabhāvaṃ sarva-bhūtātmānaṃ nirguṇaṃ saṃsāra-doṣa-bīja-pradāha-kāraṇaṃ māṃ nābhijānāti jagad ity anukrośaṃ darśayati bhagavān | tac ca kiṃ-nimittaṃ jagato’jñānaṃ ? ity ucyate—

tribhir guṇa-mayaiḥ guṇa-vikāraiḥ rāga-dveṣa-mohādi-prakārair bhāvaiḥ padārthair ebhir yathoktaiḥ sarvam idaṃ prāṇi-jātaṃ jagan mohitam avivekitām āpāditaṃ san nābhijānāni mām | ebhyo yathoktebhyo guṇebhyaḥ paraṃ vyatiriktaṃ vilakṣaṇaṃ cāvyayaṃ vyaya-rahitaṃ janmādi-sarva-bhāva-vikāra-varjitam ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


tad evaṃ cetanācetanātmakaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagan madīyaṃ kāle kāle matta evotpadyate, mayi ca pralīyate, mayy evāvasthitam, maccharīrabhūtam, madātmakaṃ cety aham eva kāraṇāvasthāyāṃ kāryāvathāyāṃ ca sarvaśarīratayā sarvaprakāro ‚vasthitaḥ / ataḥ kāraṇatvena śeṣitvena ca jñānādyasaṅkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇagaṇaiś cāham eva sarvaiḥ prakāraiḥ parataraḥ, matto ‚nyat kenāpi kalyāṇaguṇagaṇena parataraṃ na vidyate / evaṃbhūtaṃ māṃ tribhyaḥ sāttvikarājasatāmasaguṇamayebhyo bhāvebhyaḥ paraṃ madasādhāraṇaiḥ kalyāṇaguṇagaṇais tattadbhogyatāprakāraiś ca param utkṛṣṭatamam, avyayaṃ sadaikarūpam api tair eva tribhir guṇamayair nihīnataraiḥ kṣaṇadhvaṃsibhiḥ pūrvakarmānuguṇadehendriyabhogyatvenāvasthitaiḥ padārthair mohitaṃ devatiryaṅmanuṣyasthāvarātmanāvasthitaṃ sarvam idaṃ jagan nābhijānāti

 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtam īśvaraṃ tvām ayaṃ janaḥ kim iti na jānātīti ? ata āha tribhir iti | tribhis trividhair ebhiḥ pūrvoktair guṇa-mayaiḥ kāma-lobhādibhir guṇa-vikārair bhāvaiḥ svabhāvair mohitam idaṃ jagat | ato māma nābhijānāti | kathambhūtam ? ebhyo bhāvebhyaḥ param | ebhir aspṛṣṭam eteṣāṃ niyantāram | ataevāvyayaṃ nirvikāram ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tava parameśvarasya svātantrye nitya-śuddha-buddham ukta-svabhāvatve ca sati kuto jagatas tvad-ātmakasya saṃsāritvam | evaṃvidha-matsvarūpāparijñānād iti cet, tad eva kuta ity ata āha tribhir iti | ebhiḥ prāg-uktais tribhis trividhair guṇa-mayaiḥ sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇa-vikārair bhāvaiḥ sarvair api bhavana-dharmabhir sarvam idaṃ jagat prāṇi-jātaṃ mohitam vivekāyogyatvam āpāditaṃ sad ebhyo guṇamayebhyo bhāvebhyaḥ param eṣāṃ kalpanādhiṣṭhānam atyanta-vilakṣaṇam avyayaṃ sarva-vikriyā-śūnyam aprapañcam ānanda-ghanam ātma-prakāśam avyavahitam api māṃ nābhijānāti | tataś ca svarūpāparicayāt saṃsaratīvety aho daurbhāgyam aviveki-janasyety anukrośaṃ darśayati bhagavān

 

Viśvanātha


nanv evambhūtaṃ tvā parameśvaraṃ katham ayaṃ jano na jānātīty ata āha tribhir iti | guṇamayaiḥ śama-damādi-harṣādi-śokādyair bhāvaiḥ svābhāvībhūtair jagaj jagaj-jāta-jīva-vṛndaṃ mohitaṃ sat māṃ nirguṇatvād ebhyaḥ param avyayaṃ nirvikāram

 

Baladeva


atha śakti-dvaya-viviktaṃ svasya dhyeya-svarūpaṃ darśayan tasyājñāne tad-āsaktim eva hetum āha tribhir iti | ebhiḥ pūrvoditair guṇamayair man-māyā-guṇa-kāryais trividhaiḥ sāttvikādibhir bhāvair bhavana-dharmibhiḥ kṣaṇa-pariṇāmibhis tat-tat-karmānuguṇa-śarīrendriya-viṣayātmanāvasthitair mohitam avivekitāṃ nītaṃ sat sarvam idaṃ jagat surāsura-manuṣyādy-ātmanāvasthitaṃ jīva-vṛndaṃ kartṛ ebhyaḥ sāttvikādibhyo bhāvebhyaḥ paraṃ tair aspṛṣṭam ananta-kalyāṇa-guṇa-ratnākaraṃ vijñānānanda-ghanaṃ sarveśvaram avyayam apracyuta-svabhāvaṃ māṃ kṛṣṇaṃ nābhijānāti pratyāsūyati

 
 

BhG 7.14

daivī hy eṣā guṇa-mayī mama māyā duratyayā
mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṃ taranti te

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syntax


eṣā (this) daivī (divine) guṇa-mayī (made of the guṇas) mama (my) māyā (illusion) duratyayā hi (indeed difficult to pass).
ye (those who) mām eva (to me only) prapadyante (they surrender),
te (they) etām (this) māyām (illusion) taranti (they cross).

 

grammar

daivī daivī 1n.1 f.divine, celestial, pertaining to devī (from: div – to shine, to play, devī – divine woman, celestial);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
eṣā etat sn. 1n.1 f.this;
guṇa-mayī guṇa-mayī 1n.1 f. made of the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; –maya – in compounds: made of, of the nature of);
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
māyā māyā 1n.1 f. illusion, magic, supernatural power;
duratyayā duratyayā 1n.1 f.difficult to pass (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; ati-i – to pass over, aty-aya – passing, transgression, death);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
prapadyante pra-pad (to surrender) Praes. Ā 1v.3 they surrender, they take shelter of;
māyām māyā 2n.1 f. magic, illusion, supernatural power;
etām etat sn. 2n.1 f.this;
taranti tṝ (to cross over) Praes. P 1v.3they cross;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;

 

textual variants


daivī → devī / divi (divine woman / in heaven);
prapadyanteprapadyaṁti (they surrender);
māyām etaṁ taranti → māyām atitaranti (they cross the magic);
 
 

Śāṃkara


kathaṃ punar daivīm etāṃ triguṇātmikāṃ vaiṣṇavīṃ māyām atikrāmatīty ucyate—

daivī devasya mameśvarasya viṣṇoḥ svabhāva-bhūtā hi yasmād eṣā yathoktā guṇa-mayī mama māyā duratyayā duḥkhenātyayo’tikramaṇaṃ yasyāḥ sā duratyayā | tatraivaṃ sati sarva-dharmān parityajya mām eva māyāvinaṃ svātma-bhūtaṃ sarvātmanā ye prapadyante te
māyām etāṃ sarva-bhūta-mohinīṃ taranty atikrāmanti | te saṃsāra-bandhanān mucyanta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


kathaṃ svata evānavadhikātiśayānande nitye sadaikarūpe laukikavastubhogyatatprakāraiś cotkṛṣṭatame tvayi sthite ‚py atyantanihīneṣu guṇamayeṣv asthireṣu bhāveṣu sarvasya bhoktṛvargasya bhogyatvabuddhir upajāyata ity atrāha

mamaiṣā guṇamayī sattvarajastamomayī māyā yasmād daivī devena krīḍhāpravṛttena mayaiva nirmitā, tasmāt sarvair duratyayā duratikramā / asyāḥ māyāśabdavācyatvam āsurarākṣasāstrādīnām iva vicitrakāryakaratvena, yathā ca „tato bhagavatā tasya rakṣārthaṃ cakram uttamam / ājagāma samājñaptaṃ jvālāmāli sudarśanam / tena māyāsahasraṃ tacchambarasyāśugāminā / bālasya rakṣatā deham aikāikaśyena sūditam” ity ādau / ato māyāśabdo na mithyārthavācī / aindrajālikādiṣv api kenacin mantrāuṣadhādinā mithyārthaviṣayāyāḥ pāramārthikyā eva buddher utpādakatvena māyāvīti prayogaḥ / tathā mantrāuṣadhādir eva tatra māyā; sarvaprayogeṣv anugatasyaikasyaiva śabdārthatvāt / tatra mithyārtheṣu māyāśabdaprayogo māyākāryabuddhiviṣayatvenāupacārikaḥ, mañcāḥ krośantītivat / eṣā guṇamayī pāramārthikī bhagavanmāyaiva, „māyām tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaram” ityādiṣv abhidhīyate / asyāḥ kāryaṃ bhagavatsvarūpatirodhānam, svasvarūpabhogyatvabuddhiś ca / ato bhagavanmāyayā mohitaṃ sarvaṃ jagad bhagavantam anavadhikātiśayānandasvarūpaṃ nābhijānāti //

māyāvimocanopāyam āha

mām eva satyasaṅkalpaṃ paramakāruṇikam anālocitaviśeṣāśeṣalokaśaraṇyam ye śaraṇaṃ prapadyante, te etāṃ madīyāṃ guṇamayīṃ māyāṃ taranti māyām utsṛjya mām evopāsata ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


ke tarhi tvāṃ jānantīti ? ata āha daivīti | daivy alaukikī | atyadbhutety arthaḥ | guṇa-mayī sattvādi-guṇa-vikārātmikā | mama parameśvarasya śaktir māyā duratyayā dustarā hi | prasiddhim etam | tathāpi mām eva ity eva-kāreṇāvyabhicāriṇyā bhaktyā ye prapadyante bhajanti māyām etāṃ sudustarām api te taranti | tato māṃ jānantīti bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanu yathoktānādi-siddha-māyā-guṇa-traya-baddhasya jagataḥ svātntryābhāvena tat-parivarjanāsāmārthyān na kadācid api māyātikramaḥ syād vastu-vivekāsāmārthya-hetoḥ sadātanatvādityāśaṅkya bhagavad-eka-śaraṇatayā tattva-jñāna-dvāreṇa māyātikramaḥ sambhavatīty āha daivīti | daivī eko devo sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ [ŚvetU 6.11] ity-ādi-śruti-pratipādite svatodyotanavati deve sva-prakāśa-caitanyānande nirvibhāge tad-āśrayatayā tad-viṣayatayā ca kalpitā āśrayatva-viṣayatva-bhāginī nirvibhāga-citir eva kevalā [Saṃ.Śārī 1.319] ity ukteḥ | eṣā sākṣi-pratyakṣatvenāpalāpānarhā | hi-śabdād bhramopādānatvād arthāpatti-siddhā ca | guṇa-mayī sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇa-trayātmikā | triguṇa-rajjur ivātidṛdhatvena bandhana-hetuḥ | mama māyāvinaḥ parameśvarasya sarva-jagat-kāraṇasya sarvajñasya sarva-śakteḥ sva-bhūtā svādhīnatvena jagat-sṛṣṭy-ādi-nirvāhikā | māyā tattva-pratibhāsi-pratibandhenātattva-pratibhāsa-hetur āvaraṇa-vikṣepa-śakti-dvayavaty avidyā sarva-prapañca-prakṛtiḥ māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaram [ŚvetU 4.19] iti śruteḥ |

atraivaṃ prakriyā | jīveśvara-jagad-vibhāga-śūnye caitanye ‚dhyastānādir avidyā sattva-prādhānyena svacchā darpaṇa iva mukha-bhāsaṃ cid-ābhāsam āgṛhṇāti | tataś ca bimba-sthānīyaḥ parameśvara upādhi-doṣānāskanditaḥ pratibimba-sthānīyaś ca jīva upādhi-doṣāskanditaḥ | īśvarāc ca jīva-bhogāyākāśādi-krameṇa śarīrendriya-saṅghātas tad-bhogyaś ca kṛtsnaḥ prapañco jāyata iti kalpanā bhavati | bimba-pratibimba-mukhānugata-mukhavac ceśa-jīvānugataṃ māyopādhi caitanyaṃ sākṣīti kalpyate | tenaiva ca svādhyastā māyā tat-kāryaṃ ca kṛtsnaṃ prakāśyate | ataḥ sākṣy-abhiprāyeṇa daivīti bimbeśvarābhiprāyeṇa tu memeti bhagavtoktam | yadyapy avidyā-pratibimba eka eva jīvas tathāpy avidyā-gatānām antaḥ-karaṇa-saṃskārāṇāṃ bhinnatvāt tad-bhedenāntaḥ-karaṇopādhes tasyātra bheda-vyapadeśo mām eva ye prapadyante duṣkṛtino mūḍhā na prapadyante, caturvidhā bhajante mām ity ādiḥ | śrutau ca tad yo devānāṃ pratyabudhyata sa eva tad abhavat tatha rṣīṇāṃ tathā manuṣyāṇām [BAU 1.4.10] ity ādiḥ |

antaḥ-karaṇopādhi-bhedāparyālocane tu jīvatva-prayojakopādher ekatvād ekatvenaivātra vyapadeśaḥ | kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu [Gītā 13.2], prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva viddhy anādī ubhāv api [Gītā 13.19], mamaivāṃśo jīva-loke jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ [Gītā 15.7] ity ādi | śrutau ca brahma vā idam agra āsīt tad ātmānam evāvedahaṃ brahmāsmīti tasmāt tat sarvam abhavat [BAU 1.4.10], eko devaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ [ŚvetU 6.11], anena jīvenā ‚ ‚tmanā ‚ ‚ nupraviśya [ChāU 6.3.2]

bālāgra-śata-bhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca |
bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ sa cānantyāya kalpate || [ŚvetU 5.9] ity ādiḥ |

yadyapi darpaṇa-gataś caitra-pratibimbaḥ svaṃ paraṃ ca na jānāty acetanāṃśasyaiva tatra pratibimbitatvāt tathāpi cit-pratibimbaś cittvād eva svaṃ paraṃ ca jānāti | pratibimba-pakṣe bimba-caitanya evopādhisthatva-mātrasya kalpitatvāt | ābhāsa-pakṣe tasyānirvacanīyatve ‚pi jaḍa-vilakṣaṇatvāt | sa ca yāvat sva-bimbaikyam ātmano na jānāti tāvaj jala-sūrya iva jala-gata-kampādikam upādhi-gataṃ vikāra-sahasram anubhavati | tad etad āha duratyayeti | bimba-bhūteśvaraikya-sākṣātkāram antareṇātyetuṃ taritum aśakyeti duratyayā | ataeva jīvo ‚ntaḥkaraṇāvacchinnatvāt tat-sambaddham evākṣyādi-dvārā bhāsayan kiṃcij jño bhavati | tataś ca jānāmi karomi bhuñje cety anartha-śata-bhājanaṃ bhavati | sa ced bimba-bhūtaṃ bhagavantam ananta-śaktiṃ māyā-niyantāraṃ sarva-vidaṃ sarva-phala-dātāram aniśam ānanda-ghana-mūrtim anekaānavatārān bhaktānugrahāya vidadhatam ārādhayati samarpaṇena tadā bimba-samarpitasya pratibimbe pratiphalanāt sarvān api puruṣārthān āsādayati | etad evābhipretya prahlādenoktaṃ –

naivātmanaḥ prabhur ayaṃ nija-lābha-pūrṇo
mānaṃ janād aviduṣaḥ karuṇo vṛṇīte |
yad yaj jano bhagavate vidadhīta mānaṃ
tac cātmane prati-mukhasya yathā mukha-śrīḥ || [BhP 7.9.11] iti |

darpaṇa-pratibimbitasya mukhasya tilakādi-śrīr apekṣitā ced bimba-bhūte mukhe samarpaṇīyā | sā svayam eva tatra pratiphalati nānyaḥ kaścit tat-prāptāv upāyo ‚sti yathā tathā bimba-bhūteśvare samarpitam eva tat-pratibimba-bhūto jīvo labhate nānyaḥ kaścit tasya puruṣārtha-lābhe ‚sty upāya iti dṛṣṭānta-dārṣṭānikayor arthaḥ |

tasya yadā bhagavantam anantam anavaratam ārādhayato ‚ntaḥkaraṇaṃ jñāna-pratibandhaka-pāpena rahitaṃ jñānānukūla-puṇyena copacitaṃ bhavati tadātinirmale mukura-maṇḍala iva mukham atisvacche ‚ntaḥkaraṇe sarva-karma-tyāga-śama-damādi-pūrvaka-gurūpasadana-vedānta-vākya-śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanaiḥ saṃskṛte tattvam asīti-gurūpadiṣṭa-vedānnta-vākya-karaṇikāhaṃ brahmāsīmty anātmākāra-śūnyā nirupādhi-caitanyākārā sākṣātkārātmikā vṛttir udeti | tasyāṃ ca pratiphalaitaṃ caitanyaṃ sadya eva sva-viṣayāśrayām avidyām unmūlayati dīpa iva tamaḥ | tatas tasyā nāśāt tayā vṛttyā sahākhilasya kārya-prapañcasya nāśaḥ | upādāna-nāśād upādeya-nāśasya sarva-tantra-siddhānta-siddhatvāt | tad etad āha bhagavān mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṃ taranti te iti | ātmety evopāsīta [BAU 1.4.7], tad ātmānam evāvet [BAU 1.4.10], tam eva dhīro vijñāya [BAU 4.4.23], tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 6.15] ity ādi-śrutiṣv ivehāpi mām evety eva-kāro ‚py anuparaktatā-pratipatty-arthaḥ | mām eva sarvopādhi-virahitaṃ vidānanda-sadātmānam akhaṇḍaṃ ye prapadyante vedānta-vākya-janyayā nirvikalpa-sākṣātkāra-rūpayā nirvacanānarha-śuddha-cid-ākāratva-dharma-viśiṣṭayā sarva-sukṛta-phala-bhūtayā nididhyāsana-paripāka-prasūtayā ceto-vṛttyā sarvājñāna-tat-kārya-virodhinyā viṣayīkurvanti te ye kecid etāṃ duratikramaṇīyām api māyām akhilānartha-janma-bhuvam anāyāsenaiva taranti atikrāmanti tasya ha na devāś canābhūtyā īśata ātmā hy eṣā sa bhavati [BAU 1.4.10] iti śruteḥ | sarovādhi-nivṛttyā saccidānanda-ghana-rūpeṇaiva tiṣṭhantīty artaḥ | bahu-vacana-prayogo dehendriyādi-saṃghāta-bheda-nbandhanātma-bheda-bhrānty-anuvādārthaḥ |

prapaśyantīti vaktavye prapadyanta ity ukte ‚rthe mad-eka-śaraṇāḥ santo mām eva bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam īdṛśam ananta-saundarya-sāra-sarvasvam akhila-kalā-kalāpa-nilayam abhinava-paṅkaja-śobhādhika-caraṇa-kamala-yugala-prabham anavarata-veṇu-vādana-nirata-vṛndāvana-krīḍāsakta-mānasa-heloddhṛta-govardhanākhya-mahīdharaṃ gopālaṃ niṣūdita-śiśupāla-kaṃsādi-duṣṭa-saṅgham abhinava-jalada-śobhā-sarvasva-haraṇa-caraṇaṃ paramānanda-ghana-maya-mūrtimati-vairiñca-prapañcam anavaratam anucintayanto divasān ativāhayanti te mat-prema-mahānanda-samudra-magna-manasas tathā samasta-māyā-guṇa-vikārair nābhibhūyante | kintu mad-vilāsa-vinoda-kuśalā ete mad-unmūlana-samarthā iti śaṅkamāneva māyā tebhyo ‚pasarati vāravilāsinīva krodhanebhyas tapodhanebhyas tasmān māyā-taraṇārthī mām īdṛśam eva santatam anucintayed ity apy abhipretaṃ bhagavataḥ | śrutayaḥ smṛtayaś cātrārthe pramāṇīkartavyāḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu tarhi triguṇa-maya-mohāt katham uttīrṇā bhavanti ? tatrāha daivīti | daivī viṣayānandena dīvyantīti devā jīvās tadīyā teṣāṃ mohayitrīty arthaḥ | guṇa-mayī śleṣeṇa triveṣṭana-mahā-pāśa-rūpā | mama parameśvarasya māyā bahiraṅgā śaktir duratyayā duratikramā | pāśa-pakṣe, chettum udgranthayituṃ vā kenāpy aśaktyety arthaḥ | kintu mad-vāci viśvasihi iti sva-vakṣaḥ spṛṣṭvāha māṃ śyāmasundarākāram eva

 

Baladeva


nanu triguṇāyas-tan-māyāyā nityatvāt tad-dhetukasya mohasya vinivṛttir durghaṭeti cet tatrāha daivīti | mama sarveśvarasyāvitarkyātivicitrānanta-viśva-sraṣṭur eṣā māyā daivī | alaukiky atyadbhutety arthaḥ | tādṛk viśva-sargopakaraṇatvāt | śrutiś caivam āha – māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaram [ŚvetU 4.10] ity ādyā | guṇamayī sattvādi-guṇa-trayātmikā, śleṣeṇa triguṇitā rajjur ivāti-dṛḍhatayā jīvānāṃ bandhu-hetuḥ | ato duratyayā teṣāṃ duratikramā | rajju-pakṣe chettum udgrathituṃ ca tair aśaktyety arthaḥ | yadyapy etādṛśī tathāpi mad-bhaktyā tad-vinivṛttiḥ syād ity āha mām iti | māṃ sarveśvaraṃ māyā-niyantāraṃ sva-prapanna-vātsalya-nīradhiṃ kṛṣṇaṃ ye tādṛśa-sat-prasaṄgāt prapadyate śaraṇaṃ gacchanti te etām arṇavam ivāpārāṃ māyāṃ goṣpadodakāñjalim ivāśrameṇa taranti | tāṃ tīrtvānadaika-rasaṃ prasādābhimukhaṃ sva-svāminaṃ māṃ prāpnuvantīti | mām evety eva-kāro mad-anyeṣāṃ vidhi-rudrādīnāṃ prapattyā tasyās taraṇaṃ nety āha śrutiś caivam āha tam eva viditvety ādyā mucukundaṃ prati devāś ca –

varaṃ vṛṇīṣva bhadraṃ te ṛte kaivalyam adya naḥ |
eka eveśvaras tasya bhagavān viṣṇur avyayaḥ || [BhP 10.51.20] iti |

ghaṇṭākarṇaṃ prati śivaś ca – mukti-pradātā sarveṣāṃ viṣṇur eva na saṃśayaḥ iti

 
 

BhG 7.15

na māṃ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ
māyayāpahṛta-jñānā āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ

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syntax


duṣkṛtinaḥ (sinners) mūḍhāḥ (bewildered) narādhamāḥ (the worst of men) māyayā apahṛta-jñānāḥ (whose knowledge is carried away by illusion) āsuram bhāvam āśritāḥ (who have taken shelter in demoniac nature) mām (to me) na prapadyante (they do not surrender).

 

grammar

na av.not;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
duṣkṛtinaḥ duṣkṛtin 1n.3 m.evil-doers, sinners (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; duṣ-kṛta – wrongly done, evil action, sin; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
mūḍhāḥ mūḍha (muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.1 m. those bewildered;
prapadyante pra-pad (to surrender) Praes. Ā 1v.3 they surrender, they take shelter of;
narādhamāḥ nara-adhama 1n.3 m.; [TP]: nareṣv adhamā iti the lowest among men (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person; adhas – low, adhara – lower, adhama – lowest, vilest);
māyayā māyā 3n.1 f.by magic, by illusion, by supernatural power;
apahṛta-jñānāḥ apahṛta-jñāna 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ jñānam apahṛtam asti tewhose knowledge is carried away (from: apa-hṛ to carry away, [PP] apahṛta – carried away, stolen; jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence);
āsuram āsura 2n.1 m.demoniac, hellish (from: asura – opponent of the heavenly, demon);
bhāvam bhāva 2n.1 m.state, existence, nature (from: bhū – to be);
āśritāḥ āśrita (ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.3 m.those who took refuge, who approached (whom? – requires accusative);

 

textual variants


māṁ → me / mā (for me / no);
māyayāpahṛta-jñānāmāyayā prahṛta-jñānā / māyayā mad-gata-jñānā (whose knowledge is beaten by magic / whose knowledge is gone into me by magic);
āśritāḥ → āsthitāḥ (situated);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yadi tvāṃ prapannāḥ māyām etāṃ taranti, kasmāt tvām eva sarve na prapadyante ? ity ucyate—

na māṃ parameśvaraṃ nārāyaṇaṃ duṣkṛtinaḥ pāpa-kāriṇaḥ mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamā narāṇāṃ madhye’dhamāḥ nikṛṣṭaḥ | te ca māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ saṃmuṣita-jñānā āsuraṃ bhāvaṃ hiṃsānṛtādi-lakṣaṇam āśritāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


kim iti bhagavadupāsanāpādinīṃ bhagavatprapattiṃ sarve na kurvata ity atrāha

duṣkṛtinaḥ pāpakarmāṇaḥ māṃ na prapadyate / duṣkṛtatāratamyena te caturvidhā bhavanti mūḍhāḥ, narādhamāḥ, māyayāpahṛtajñānāḥ, āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ iti / mūḍhāḥ viparītajñānāḥ; pūrvoktaprakāreṇa bhagavaccheṣataikarasam ātmānaṃ bhogyajātaṃ ca svaśeṣatayā manyamānāḥ / narādhamāḥ sāmānyena jñāte ‚pi matsvarūpe madaunmukhyānarhāḥ / māyayāpahṛtajñānāḥ madviṣayaṃ madaiśvaryaviṣayaṃ ca jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ tadasaṃbhāvanāpādinībhiḥ kūṭayuktibhir apahṛtam, te tathā uktāḥ / āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ madviṣayaṃ madaiśvaryaviṣayaṃ ca jñānaṃ sudṛḍham upapannaṃ yeṣāṃ dvaiṣāyaiva bhavati; te āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ / uttarottarāḥ pāpiṣṭhatamāḥ

 

Śrīdhara


yady evaṃ tarhi sarve tvām eva kim iti na bhajanti ? tatrāha na mām iti | nareṣu ye ‚dhamās te māṃ na prapadyante na bhajanti | adhamatve hetuḥ -mūḍhā viveka-śūnyāḥ | tat kutaḥ ? duṣkṛtinaḥ pāpa-śīlāḥ | ato māyayāpahṛtaṃ nirastaṃ śāstrācāryopadeśābhyāṃ jātam api jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ te tathā | ataeva dambho darpo ‚bhimānaś ca krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva cety ādinā vakṣyamāṇam āsuraṃ bhāvam svabhāvaṃ prāptāḥ santo na māṃ bhajanti

 

Madhusūdana


yady evaṃ tarhi kim iti nikhilānartha-mūla-māyonmūlanāya bhagavantaṃ bhavantam eva sarve na pratipadyante cira-saṃcita-durita-pratibandhād ity āha bhagavān na mām iti | duṣkṛtino duṣkṛtena pāpena saha nitya-yoginaḥ | ataeva nareṣu madhye ‚dhamā iha sādhubhir garhaṇīyāḥ paratra cānartha-sahasra-bhājaḥ | kuto duṣkṛtam anartha-hetum eva sadā kurvanti yato mūḍhā idam artha-sādhanam idam anartha-sādhanam iti viveka-śūnyāḥ | sati pramāṇe kuto na viviñcanti yato māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ śarīrendriya-saṃghāta-tādāmtya-bhrānti-rūpeṇa pariṇatayā māyayā pūrvoktayāpahṛtaṃ pratibaddhaṃ jñānaṃ viveka-sāmarthyaṃ yeṣāṃ te tathā | ataeva te dambho darpo ‚bhimānaś ca krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva ca [Gītā 16.4] ity ādināgre vakṣyamānam āsuraṃ bhāvaṃ hiṃsānṛtādi-svabhāvam āśritā mat-pratipatty-ayogyāḥ santo na māṃ sarveśvaraṃ prapadyante na bhajante | aho daurbhāgyaṃ teṣām ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu tarhi paṇḍitā api kecit kim iti tvāṃ na prapadyante ? tatra ye paṇḍitās te māṃ prapadyanta eva | paṇḍita-mānina eva na māṃ prapadyanta ity āha na mām iti | duṣkṛtino duṣṭāś ca te kṛtinaḥ paṇḍitāś ceti te kupaṇḍitā ity arthaḥ | te ca caturvidhāḥ | eke mūḍhāḥ paśu-tulyāḥ karmiṇaḥ | yad uktaṃ –

nūnaṃ daivena nihatā ye cācyuta-kathā-sudhām |
hitvā śṛṇvanty asad-gāthāḥ purīṣam iva viḍ-bhujaḥ || [BhP 3.32.19] iti |

mukundaṃ ko vai na seveta vinā naretaraḥ iti ca |

apare narādhamāḥ kañcit kālaṃ bhaktimattvena prāpta-naratvā apy ante phala-prāptau na sādhanopayoga iti matvā svecchayaiva bhakti-tyāginaḥ | svakartṛka-bhakti-tyāga-lakṣaṇam eva teṣām adhamatvam iti bhāvaḥ | apare śāstrādhyāpanādi-mattve ‚pi māyayāpahṛtaṃ jñānam eṣāṃ te vaikuṇṭha-virājinī nārāyaṇa-mūrtir eva sārvakālikī-bhakti-prāpyā, na tu kṛṣṇa-rāmādi-mūrtir mānuṣīti manyamānā ity arthaḥ | yad vakṣyate avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam [Gītā 9.11] iti | te khalu māṃ prapadyamānā api na māṃ prapadyanta iti bhāvaḥ | apare āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ | asurā jarāsandhādayo mad-vigrahaṃ lakṣīkṛtya śarair vidhyanti | tathaiva dṛśyatādi-hetu-mat-kutarkair mad-vigrahaṃ vaikuṇṭha-stham api khaṇḍayanty eva | na tu prapadyanta ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu cet tvām eva prapannā vimucyante tarhi paṇḍitā api kecit kim iti tvāṃ na prapadyante tatrāha na mām iti | duṣṭāś ca te kṛtinaḥ śāstrārtha-kuśalāś ceti duṣkṛtinaḥ kupaṇḍitās te māṃ na prapadyante | śrutiś caivam āha –

avidyāyām antare vartamānāḥ
svayaṃ dhīrāḥ paṇḍitaṃmanyamānāḥ |
dandramyamāṇāḥ pariyanti mūḍhā
andhenaiva nīyamānā yathāndhāḥ || [KaṭhU 1.2.5]

te catur-vidhāḥ – eke māyayā mūḍhāḥ karma-jaḍā indrādivan mām api viṣṇuṃ karmāṅgaṃ jīvavat karmādhīnaṃ manyamānāḥ | apare māyayā narādhamā viprādi-kula-janmanā narottamatāṃ prāpyāpy asat kāvyārthāsattyā pāmaratā-bhājaḥ | yad uktam –

nūnaṃ daivena nihatā ye cācyuta-kathā-sudhām |
hitvā śṛṇvanty asad-gāthā purīṣam iva viḍ-bhujaḥ || [BhP 3.32.19] iti |

anye māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ sāṅkhyādayaḥ | te hi sārvajña-sārvaiśvarya-sarva-sraṣṭṛtva-muktidatvādi dharmaiḥ śruti-sahasra-prasiddham api mām īśvaram apalapantaḥ prakṛtim eva sarva-sraṣṭrīṃ mokṣa-dātrīṃ ca kalpayanti | tatra tādṛśa-kuṭila-kuyukti-śatāny udbhāvayantī māyayaiva hetuḥ | kecit tu māyayaivāsuraṃ bhāvam āśritā nirviśeṣa-cin-mātra-vādinaḥ | asurā yathā nikhilānanda-karaṃ mad-vigrahaṃ śarair vidhyanti tathādṛśyatvādi-hetubhis te nitya-caitanyātmatayā śruti-prasiddham api taṃ khaṇḍayantīti tatrāpi tādṛśa-buddhy-utpādanī māyaiva hetur iti

 
 

BhG 7.16

catur-vidhā bhajante māṃ janāḥ sukṛtino rjuna
ārto jijñāsur arthārthī jñānī ca bharata-rṣabha

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!), he bharata-rṣabha (O best of the Bharatas!),
ārtaḥ (suffering) jijñāsuḥ (desiring to know) arthārthī (wanting wealth) jñānī ca [iti] (and wise)
catur-vidhāḥ (four kinds of) sukṛtinaḥ (the pious) janāḥ (people) mām (me) bhajante (they worship).

 

grammar

catur-vidhāḥ catur-vidha 1n.3 m.four kinds of (from: catur – four; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
bhajante bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
janāḥ jana 1n.3 m.people, men (from: jan – to be born, to produce);
sukṛtinaḥ sukṛta 1n.3 m.good-doers, the noble, the pious (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; sukṛta – well done, merit, benefit, virtue, fortune; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
ārtaḥ ārta (ā- – to reach, to fall into) 1n.1 m.suffering, distressed, afflicted;
jijñāsuḥ jijñāsu (jñā – to know, to understand) des. 1n.1 m.; jñātum icchantaḥdesiring to know;
arthārthī artha-arthin 1n.1 m.; yo ‘rtam arthayate saḥwho wants wealth (from: arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses; arthin – desiring, longing for, beggar);
jñānī jñānin 1n.1 m. wise, one in knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand), -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses;
ca av.and;
bharata-rṣabha bharata-rṣabha 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇām ṛṣabha itiO best of the Bharatas (from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, maintained, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; ṛṣabha – bull, the best of any kind);

 

textual variants


‘rjuna → sadā (constantly);
 
 

Śāṃkara


ye punar narottamāḥ puṇya-karmāṇaḥ—

catur-vidhāś catuḥ-prakārā bhajante sevante māṃ janāḥ sukṛtinaḥ puṇya-karmāṇo he’rjuna | ārta ārti-parigṛhītas taskara-vyāghra-rogādinābhibhūta āpannaḥ | jijñāsur bhagavat-tattvaṃ jñātum icchati yaḥ | arthārthī dhana-kāmaḥ | jñānī viṣṇos tattva-vic ca he bharatarṣabha

 

Rāmānuja


sukṛtinaḥ puṇyakarmāṇo māṃ śaraṇam upagamya mām eva bhajante / te ca sukṛtatāratamyena caturvidhāḥ, sukṛtagarīyastvena pratipattivaiśeṣyād uttarottarā adhikatamā bhavanti / ārtaḥ pratiṣṭhāhīnaḥ bhraṣṭāiśvaryaḥ punar tatprāptikāmaḥ / arthārthī aprāptāiśvaryatayā aiśvaryakāmaḥ / tayor mukhabhedamātram / aiśvaryaviṣayatayāikyād eka evādhikāraḥ / jijñāsuḥ prakṛtiviyuktātmasvarūpāvāptīcchuḥ / jñānam evāsya svarūpam iti jijñāsur ity uktam / jñānī ca, „itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām” ityādinābhihitabhagavaccheṣataikarasātmasvarūpavit; prakṛtiviyuktakevalātmani aparyavasyan bhagavantaṃ prepsuḥ bhagavantam eva paramaprāpyaṃ manvānaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


sukṛtinas tu māṃ bhajanty eva | te sukṛti-tāratamyena catur-vidhā ity āha catur-vidhā iti | pūrva-janmasu ye kṛta-puṇyās te māṃ bhajanti | te caturvidhāḥ | ārto vegādy-abhibhūtaḥ sa yadi pūrvaṃ kṛta-puṇyas tarhi māṃ bhajati | anyathā kṣudra-devatā-bhajanena saṃsarati | evam uttaratrāpi draṣṭavyam | jijñāsur ātma-jñānecchuḥ | arthārthī atra vā paratra vā bhoga-sādhana-bhūto ‚rtha-lipsuḥ | jñānī cātma-vit

 

Madhusūdana


ye tv āsura-bhāva-rahitāḥ puṇya-karmāṇo vivekinas te puṇya-karma-tāratamyena catur-vidhāḥ santo māṃ bhajante krameṇa ca kāmanā-rāhityena mat-prasādān māyāṃ tarantīty āha catur-vidhā iti | ye sukṛtinaḥ pūrva-janma-kṛta-puṇya-saṃcayā janāḥ saphala-janmānas ta eva nānye te māṃ bhajante sevante | he arjuna ! te ca trayaḥ sa-kāmā eko ‚kāma ity evaṃ caturvidhāḥ | ārta ārtyā śatru-vyādhy-ādy-āpadā grastas tan-nivṛttim icchan | yathā makha-bhaṅgena kupita indre varṣati vraja-vāsī janaḥ | yathā vā jarāsandha-kārāgāravartī rāja-nicayaḥ | dyūta-sabhāyāṃ vastrākarṣaṇe draupadī ca | grāha-grasto gajendraś ca | jijñāsur ātma-jñānārthī mumukṣuḥ | yathā mucukundaḥ, yathā vā maithilo janakaḥ śrutadevaś ca, nivṛtte mausale yathā coddhavaḥ | arthārthī iha vā paratra vā yad bhogopakaraṇaṃ tal-lipsuḥ | tatreha yathā sugrīvo vibhīṣaṇaś ca, yathā copamanyuḥ paratra yathā dhruvaḥ | ete trayo ‚pi bhagavad-bhajanena māyāṃ taranti | tatra jijñāsur jñānotpattyā sākṣād eva māyāṃ tarati ārto ‚rthārthī ca jijñāsutvaṃ prāpyeti viśeṣaḥ | ārtasyārthārthinaś ca jijñāsutva-sambhavāj jijñāsoś cārtatva-jñānopakaraṇārthārthitva-sambhavād ubhayor madhye jijñāsur uddiṣṭaḥ |

tad ete trayaḥ sa-kāmā vyākhyātāḥ niṣkāmaś caturtha idānīm ucyate jñānī ca | jñānaṃ bhagavat-tattva-sākṣātkāras tena nitya-yukto jñānī tīrṇa-māyo nivṛtta-sarva-kāmaḥ | ca-kāro yasya kasyāpi niṣkāma-prema-bhaktasya jñāniny-antar-bhāvārthaḥ | he bharatarṣabha tvam api jijñāsur vā jñānī veti katamo ‚haṃ bhakta iti mā śaṅkiṣṭhā ity arthaḥ | tatra niṣkāma-bhakto jñānī yathā sanakādir yathā nārado yathā prahlādo yathā pṛthur yathā vā śukaḥ | niṣkāmaḥ śuddha-prema-bhakto yathā gopikādir yathā vākrūra-yudhiṣṭhirādiḥ | kaṃsa-śiśupālādayas tu bhayād dveṣāc ca santata-bhagavac-cintā-parā api na bhaktā bhagavad-anurakter abhāvāt | bhagavad-anurakti-rūpāyās tu bhakteḥ svarūpaṃ sādhanaṃ bhedās tathā bhaktānām api bhagavad-bhakti-rasāyane ‚smābhiḥ sa-viśeṣaṃ prapañcitā itīhoparamyate

 

Viśvanātha


tarhi ke tvāṃ bhajanta ity ata āha caturvidhā iti | sukṛtaṃ varṇāśramācāra-lakṣaṇo dharmas tadvantaḥ santo māṃ bhajante | tatra ārto rogādy-āpad-grastas tan-nivṛtti-kāmaḥ | jijñāsuḥ ātma-jñānārthī vyākaraṇādi-śāstra-jñānārthī vā | arthārthī kṣiti-gaja-turaga-kāminī-kanakādyaihika-pāratrika-bhogārthīti | ete trayaḥ sakāmā gṛhasthāḥ | jñānī viśuddhāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ sannyāsīti caturtho ‚yaṃ niṣkāmaḥ | ity ete pradhānībhūta-bhakty-adhikāriṇaś catvāro nirūpitāḥ | tatrādimeṣu triṣu karma-miśrā bhaktiḥ | antime caturthe jñāna-miśrā | sarva-dvārāṇi saṃnyasya [Gītā 8.12] ity agrima-granthe yoga-miśrāpi vakṣyate | jñāna-karmādy-amiśrā kevalā bhaktir yā sā tu saptamādhyāyārambha eva mayy āsakta-manaḥ pārtha [Gītā 7.1] ity anena uktā | punaś cāṣṭame ‚py adhyāye ananya-cetāḥ satatam [Gītā 8.14] ity anena, navame mahātmānas tu māṃ pārtha [Gītā 9.13] iti śloka-dvayena ananyāś cintayanto mām [Gītā 9.22] ity anena ca nirūpayitavyeti |

pradhānībhūtā kevalā iti dvividhaiva bhaktir madhyame ‚sminn adhyāya-ṣaṭke bhagavatoktā | yā tu tṛtīyā guṇībhūtā bhaktiḥ karmaṇi jñānini yogini ca karmādi-phala-siddhy-arthā dṛśyate | tasyāḥ prādhānyābhāvāt na bhaktitva-vyapadeśaḥ | kintu tatra tatra karmādīnām eva prādhānyāt | prādhānyena vyapadeśā bhavanti iti nyāyena karmatva-jñānatva-yogatva-vyapadeśaḥ | tadvatām api karmitva-jñānitva-yogitva-vyapadeśaḥ | na tu bhaktatva-vyapadeśaḥ | phalaṃ ca sakāma-karmaṇaḥ svargo niṣkāma-karmaṇo jñāna-yogo jñāna-yogayor nirvāṇa-mokṣa iti |

atha dvidhāyā bhakteḥ phalam ucyate | tatra pradhānībhūtāsu bhaktiṣu madhye ārtādiṣu triṣu yāḥ karma-miśrās tisraḥ sa-kāmā bhaktayas tāsāṃ phalaṃ tat-tat-kāma-prāptiḥ | viṣaya-sādguṇyāt tad-ante sukhaiśvarya-pradhāna-sālokya-mokṣa-prāptiś ca, na tu karma-phala-svarga-bhogānta iva pātaḥ | yad vakṣyate yānti mad-yājino ‚pi mām [Gītā 9.25] iti | caturthyā jñāna-miśrāyās tata utkṛṣṭāyās tu phalaṃ śānta-ratiḥ sanakādiṣv iva | bhakta-bhagavat-kāruṇyādhikya-vaśāt kasyāścit tasyāḥ phalaṃ premotkarṣaś ca śrī-śukādiṣv iva | karma-miśrā bhaktir yadi niṣkāmā syāt tadā tasyāḥ phalaṃ jñāna-miśrā bhaktiḥ | tasyāḥ phalam uktam eva | kvacic ca svabhāvād eva dā̆sādi-bhakta-saṅgottha-vāsanā vaśād vā jñāna-karmādi-miśra-bhaktimatām api dāsyādi-premā syāt, kintu aiśvarya-pradhānam eveti |

atha jñāna-karmādy-amiśrāyāḥ śuddhāyā ananyākiñcanottamādi-paryāyāḥ bhakter bahu-prabhedāyā dāsya-sakhyādi-premavat-pārṣadatvam eva phalam ity ādikaṃ śrī-bhāgavata-ṭīkāyāṃ bahuśaḥ pratipāditam | atrāpi prasaṅga-vaśāt sādhya-bhakti-vivekaḥ saṃkṣipya darśitaḥ

 

Baladeva


tarhi tvāṃ ke prapadyante tatrāha catur-vidhā iti | sukṛtinaḥ supaṇḍitāḥ sva-varṇāśramocita-karmaṇā mad-ekānti-bhāvena ca sampannā janā māṃ bhajante | te ca catur-vidhāḥ | tatrārtaḥ śatru-kleśādyāpad-grastas tad-vināśecchur gajendrādiḥ | jijñāsur viviktātma-svarūpa-jñānecchuḥ śaunakādiḥ | arthārthī rājyādi-sampad-icchur dhruvādiḥ | jñānī śeṣatvena svāmtānaṃ śeṣitvena parātmānaṃ ca māṃ jñātavān śukādiḥ | eṣv ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmāḥ, jñānī tu niṣkāmaḥ | ārtārthārthinoḥ paratra jijñāsutā-sampattaye tayor antarāle jijñāsor upanyāsaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.17

teṣāṃ jñānī nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir viśiṣyate
priyo hi jñānino tyartham ahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ

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syntax


teṣāṁ [catur-vidhānāṁ] (of these four kinds) nitya-yuktaḥ (always engaged) eka-bhaktiḥ (whose devotion is in one) jñānī (man in knowledge) viśiṣyate (he is distinguished),
aham hi (indeed I) jñāninaḥ (to a man in knowledge) atyartham (exceedingly) priyaḥ (dear) [asmi] (I am),
sa ca (and he) mama (to me) priyaḥ (dear) [asti] (he is).

 

grammar

teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m.of these;
jñānī jñānin 1n.1 m. wise man (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
nitya-yuktaḥ nitya-yukta 1n.1 m.; nityaṁ yukta itialways engaged (from: av. nityam – constantly, eternally; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
eka-bhaktiḥ eka-bhakti 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yasya bhaktir ekasminn asti saḥwhose devotion is in one (from: eka – one; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving; bhakti – devotion, love, fondness);
or yasya bhaktir ekāsti saḥwhose devotion is exclusive;
viśiṣyate vi-śiṣ (to distinguish) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is distinguished, he is the best;
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
jñāninaḥ jñānin 6n.1 m. of a man in knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
atyartham av.excessively, exceedingly (from: ati-artha – beyond the proper worth)
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
ca av.and;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);

 

textual variants


eka-bhaktireka-bhakto (devotee of one);
viśiṣyateviśiṣyati (he distinguishes);
mama → sa me (he me);
 
 

Śāṃkara


teṣāṃ caturṇāṃ madhye jñānī tattva-vit tattva-vittvān nitya-yukto bhavati | eka-bhaktiś ca, anyasya bhajanīyasyādarśanāt | ataḥ sa eka-bhaktir viśiṣyate viśeṣam ādhikyam āpadyate, atiricyata ity arthaḥ | priyo hi yasmād aham ātmā jñānino’tas tasyāham atyarthaṃ priyaḥ | prasiddhaṃ hi loke ātmā priyo bhavatīti | tasmāj jñānina ātmatvād vāsudevaḥ priyo bhavatīty arthaḥ | sa ca jñānī mama vāsudevasya ātmaiveti mamātyarthaṃ priyaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


teṣāṃ jñānī viśiṣyate / kutaḥ? nityayukta ekabhaktir iti ca / jñānino hi
madekaprāpyasya mayā yogo nityaḥ; itarayos tu yāvatsvābhilaṣitaprāpti mayā yogaḥ / tathā jñānino mayy ekasminn eva bhaktiḥ; itarayos tu svābhilaṣite tatsādhanatvena mayi ca / ataḥ sa eva viśiṣyate / kiñ ca, priyo hi jñānino ‚tyartham aham / arthaśabdo ‚bhidheyavacanaḥ; jñānino ‚haṃ yathā priyaḥ, tathā mayā sarvajñena sarvaśaktināpy abhidhātuṃ na śakyata ityarthaḥ; priyatvasyeyattārahitatvāt / yathā jñāninām agresarasya prahlādasya, „sa tv āsaktamatiḥ kṛṣṇe daśyamāno mahoragaiḥ / na vivedātmano gātraṃ tatsmṛtyāhlādasaṃsthitaḥ” iti / tathaiva so ‚pi mama priya

 

Śrīdhara


teṣāṃ madhye jñānī śreṣṭha ity āha teṣām iti | teṣāṃ madhye jñānī viśiṣṭaḥ | atra hetavaḥ — nitya-yuktaḥ sadā man-niṣṭhaḥ | ekasmin mayy eva bhaktir yasya saḥ | jñānino dehādy-abhimānābhāvena citta-vikṣepābhāvān nitya-yuktatvam ekānta-bhaktitvaṃ ca sambhavati | nānyasya | ataeva hi tasyāhaṃ atyantaṃ priyaḥ | sa ca mama | tasmād etair nitya-yuktatvādibhiś caturbhir hetubhiḥ sa uttama ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


nanu na māṃ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamā ity anena tad-vilakṣaṇāḥ sukṛtino māṃ bhajanta ity arthāt prāpte ‚pi teṣāṃ cāturvidhyaṃ catur-vidhā bhajante mām ity anena darśitāḥ tatas te sarve sukṛtina eva nirviśeṣād iti cet tatrāha ca | caturvidhānām api sukṛtitve niyate ‚pi sukṛtādhikyena niṣkāmatayā premādhikyāt tata iti |

caturvidhānāṃ teṣāṃ madhye jñānī tattva-jñānavān nivṛtta-sarva-kāmo viśiṣyate sarvato ‚tiricyate sarvotkṛṣṭa ity arthaḥ | yato nitya-yukto bhagavati pratyag-abhinne sadā samāhita-cetā vikṣepakābhāvāt | ataevaika-bhaktir ekasmin bhagavaty eva bhaktir anuraktir yasya sa tathā, tasyānurakti-viṣayāntarābhāvāt | hi yasmāt | priyo nirupādhi-premāspadam atyartham atyantātiśayena jñānino ‚haṃ pratyag-abhinnaḥ paramātmā ca tasmād ayarthaṃ sa mama parameśvarasya priyaḥ | ātmā priyo ‚tiśayena bhavatīti śruti-lokayoḥ prasiddham evety arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


caturṇāṃ bhakty-adhikāriṇāṃ madhye kaḥ śreṣṭhaḥ ity apekṣāyām āha | teṣāṃ madhye jñānī viśiṣyate śreṣṭhaḥ | nitya-yukto nityaṃ mayi yujyata iti saḥ | jñānābhyāsa-vaśīkṛta-cittatvān manasy aikāgra-citta ity arthaḥ | ārtādyās trayas tu naivambhūtā iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu sarvo ‚pi jñānī jñāna-vaiyarthya-bhayāt tvāṃ bhajata eva ? tatrāha ekā mukhyā pradhānībhūtaṃ yasya saḥ | yad vā, ekā bhaktir eva tathaivāsaktimattvāt yasya sa nāma-mātreṇaiva jñānīti bhāvaḥ | evambhūtasya jñānino ‚haṃ śyāmasundarākāro ‚tyartham atiśayena priyaḥ sādhana-sādhya-daśayoḥ parihātum aśakyaḥ | ye yathā māṃ prapadyante [Gītā 4.11] iti nyāyena mamāpi sa priyaḥ

 

Baladeva


caturṣu jñāninaḥ śraiṣṭhyam āha teṣām iti | jñānī viśiṣyate śreṣṭho bhavati | yad asau nitya-yukta eka-bhaktiś ca | ārta-vināśādi-kāmanā-virahān nityaṃ mayā yogavān | ārtādeśa tu yāvat-kāmita-prāptir mad-yoga ekasmin mayy eva jñānino bhaktir ārtādes tu sva-kāmite tat-pradātṛtvena mayi cāto jñānī tataḥ śreṣṭhaḥ |

atṛpyann āha priyo hīti | jñānino hy aham atyarthaṃ priyaḥ premāspadam | sa hi mat-priyatā-sudhā-sindhu-nimagno nānyat kiñcid anusandhatte tasya mat-priyatā-parimiteti bodhayitum atyartha-śabdaḥ | sarvajño ‚nanta-śaktiś cāhaṃ yāṃ vaktuṃ na śaknotīty arthaḥ | sa ca jñānī ye yathā mām [Gītā 4.11] ity ādi-nyāyena tathaiva mama priyaḥ | mamāpi tat-priyatā tadvad parimitety arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.18

udārāḥ sarva evaite jñānī tv ātmaiva me matam
āsthitaḥ sa hi yuktātmā mām evānuttamāṃ gatim

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ete sarve eva (just they all) udārāḥ [santi] (are the noble),
jñānī tu (but a man in knowledge) [me] ātmā eva (is my soul only) me matam [āsthitaḥ] (having resorted to my opinion) / (or: that is my opinion),
sa hi (he indeed) yuktātmā (whose self is engaged) mām eva (in me only) anuttamām (unsurpassed) gatim (goal) āsthitaḥ (resorted to).

 

grammar

udārāḥ udāra 1n.3 m.the best, the noble, the generous;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ete etat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
jñānī jñānin 1n.1 m. a man in knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
matam mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 n. / 1n.2 n.regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;
āsthitaḥ āsthita (ā-sthā – to resort, to go towards) [PP] 1n.1 m.one who resorted to, who attained;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
yuktātmā yuktātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā yukto ‘sti saḥwhose self is engaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with, ātman – self);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
anuttamām an-uttamā 2n.1 f.having no superior, unsurpassed (from: ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, way, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


matammataḥ (thought);
mām eva → mamaiva (my only);
anuttamām → anuttamam (unsurpassed);
 
 

Śāṃkara


na tarhy ārtādayas trayo vāsudevasya priyāḥ ? na | kiṃ tarhi ?—

udārā utkṛṣṭāḥ sarva evaite | trayo’pi mama priyā evety arthaḥ | na hi kaścin mad-bhakto vāsudevasyāpriyo bhavati | jñānī tv atyarthaṃ priyo bhavatīti viśeṣaḥ | tat kasmāt ? ity ata āha—jñānī tv ātmaiva, nānyo matta iti me mama mataṃ niścayaḥ | āsthita āroḍhuṃ pravṛttaḥ sa jñānī hi yasmād aham eva bhagavān vāsudevo nānyo’smīty evaṃ yuktātmā samāhita-cittaḥ san mām eva paraṃ brahma gantavyam anuttamāṃ gatiṃ gantuṃ pravṛtta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


sarva evaite mām evopāsata iti udārāḥ vadānyāḥ / ye matto yat kiṃcid api gṛhṇanti, te hi mama sarvasvadāyinaḥ / jñānī tv ātmaiva me matam tadāyattadhāraṇo ‚ham iti manye / kasmād evam? yasmād ayaṃ mayā vinātmadhāraṇāsaṃbhāvanayā mām evānuttamaṃ prāpyam āsthitaḥ, atas tena vinā mamāpy ātmadhāraṇaṃ na saṃbhavati / tato mamātmā hi saḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tarhi kim itare trayas tad-bhaktāḥ saṃsaranti ? na hi na hīty āha udārā iti | sarve ‚py eta udārā mahānto mokṣa-bhāja evety arthaḥ | jñānī tu punar ātmaiveti me mataṃ niścayaḥ | hi yasmāt sa jñānī yuktātmā mad-eka-cittaḥ san na vidyata uttamā yasyās tām anuttamāṃ gatiṃ mām evāsthita āśritavān mad-vyatiriktam anyat phalaṃ na manyata ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tat-kim ārtādayas tava na priyāḥ ? na, atyartham iti viśeṣaṇād ity āha udārā iti | eta ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmā api mad-bhaktāḥ sarve trayo ‚py udārā evotkṛṣṭā eva pūrva-janmārjitāneka-sukṛta-rāśitvāt | anyathā hi māṃ na bhajeyur eva | ārtasya jijñāsor arthārthinaś ca mad-vimukhasya kṣudra-devatā-bhaktasyāpi bahulam upalambhāt | ato mama priyā eva te | na hi jñānavān ajño vā kaścid api bhakto mamāpriyo bhavati | kintu yasya yādṛśī mayi prītir mamāpi tatra tādṛśī prītir iti svabhāva-siddham etat | tatra sa-kāmānāṃ trayāṇāṃ kāmyamānam api priyam aham api priyaḥ | jñāninas tu priyāntara-śūnyasyāham eva niratiśaya-prīti-viṣayaḥ | ataḥ so ‚pi mama niratiśaya-prīti-viṣaya iti viśeṣaḥ | anyathā hi mama kṛtajñatā na syāt kṛtaghnatā ca syāt | ataevātyartham iti viśeṣaṇam upāttaṃ prāk | yathā hi yad eva vidyayā karoti śraddhayopaniṣadā tad eva vīryavattaraṃ bhavati ity atra tarab-arthasya vivakṣitatvād vidyā-divyātirekena kṛtam api karma vīryavad bhavaty eva | tathātyarthaṃ jñānī bhakto mama priya ity ukter yo jñāna-vyatirekeṇa bhaktaḥ so ‚pi priya iti paryavasyaty eva | atyartham iti viśeṣaṇasya vivakṣitatvāt | uktaṃ hi — ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham [Gītā 4.11] iti | ato mām ātmatvena jñānavān jñānī | ātmaiva na matto bhinnaḥ tv aham eva sa iti mama mataṃ niścayaḥ | tu-śabdaḥ sa-kāma-bheda-darśi-tritayāpekṣayā niṣkāmatva-bhedādarśitva-viśeṣa-dyotanārthaḥ | hi yasmāt | sa jñānī yuktātmā sadā mayi samāhita-cittaḥ san māṃ bhagavantam anantam ānanda-ghanam ātmānam evānuttamāṃ sarvotkṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ gantavyaṃ paramaṃ phalam āsthito ‚ṅgīkṛtavān, na tu mad-bhinnaṃ kim api phalaṃ sa manyata ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tarhi kim ārtādyās trayas tava na priyās tatra na hi na hīty āha udārā iti | ye māṃ bhajante, mattaḥ kiṃcit kāmitaṃ mayāpi ditsitaṃ gṛhṇanti te bhakta-vatsalāya mahyaṃ bahu-pradāyinaḥ priyā eveti bhāvaḥ | jñānī tv ātmaiveti sa hi bhajann atha ca mattaḥ kim api svargāpavargādikaṃ nākaṅkṣata iti | atas tad-adhīnasya mama sa ātmaiveti mama mataṃ matiḥ | yataḥ sa māṃ śyāmasundarākāram evānuttamāṃ sarvottamāṃ gatiṃ prāpyāsthitaḥ niścitavān | na tu mama nirviśeṣa-svarūpa-brahma-nirvāṇam iti bhāvaḥ | evaṃ ca niṣkāma-pradhānībhūta-bhaktimān jñānī bhakta-vatsalena bhagavatā svātmatvenābhimanyate | kevala-bhaktimān ananyas tu ātmano ‚py ādhikyena | yad uktaṃ –
na tathā me priyatama ātma-yonir na śaṅkaraḥ |
na ca saṅkarṣaṇo na śrīr naivātmā ca yathā bhavān || [BhP 11.14.15] iti |
nāham ātmānam āśāse mad-bhaktaiḥ sādhubhir vinā [BhP 9.4.64] iti |
ātmārāmo ‚py arīramat [BhP 10.29.42] ity ādi

 

Baladeva


nanv ārtādayas tava priyā na bhavanti maivam atyartham iti viśeṣaṇād ity āha udārā iti | sarva evaite ārtādaya udārā vadānyāḥ | udāro dātṛ-mahator ity amaraḥ | ye māṃ bhajanto mayā ditsitaṃ kiṃcit svābhīṣṭaṃ matto gṛhṇanti te bhakta-vātsalyaṃ mahyaṃ prayacchanto mama bahu-pradāḥ priyā eveti bhāvaḥ | jñānī tu mamātmaiveti matam | hi yasmāt sa jī̀iānī yuktātmā mad-arpita-manā matto ‚nyat kiṃcid apy anicchann atipriyeṇa mayā vinā lavam api sthātum asamartho mām eva sarvottamāṃ matiṃ prāpyam āsthitaḥ niścitavān atas tena tādṛśena vinā lavam api sthātum asamarthasya mamātmaiva saḥ | na ca jñāni-jīvasya hariḥ svenābhedam āheti vācyam | jñāna-bhajatvāsiddher bhajatāṃ cāturvidhyāsiddher mokṣe bheda-vākya-vyākopāc ca | tasmād atipriyatvād eva tatrātmety uktir mamātmā bhadrasena itivat | ātmaiva mana eva matam ity apare

 
 

BhG 7.19

bahūnāṃ janmanām ante jñānavān māṃ prapadyate
vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ

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bahūnām janmanām (of many births) ante (at the end)
vāsudevaḥ (Vāsudeva) sarvam [asti] iti (is all)
jñānavān (who has [such] knowledge) mām (in me) prapadyate (he takes shelter).
saḥ mahātmā (he, great-souled) su-durlabhaḥ [asti] (is very rare).

 

grammar

bahūnām bahu 6n.3 n.of many;
janmanām janman 6n.3 n.of births (from: jan – to be born);
ante anta 7n.1 m.at last, at the end, in time of death;
jñānavān jñāna-vant 1n.1 m.who has knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
prapadyate pra-pad (to surrender) Praes. Ā 1v.1 he takes shelter of, he surrenders;
vāsudevaḥ vāsudeva 1n.1 m.son of Vasudeva (from: vasu – wealth, one of eight Vasus; vāsu – soul, soul of the world; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
mahātmā mahā-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā mahān asti saḥwhose self is great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);
sudurlabhaḥ su-dur-labha 1n.1 n.very rare, difficult to obtain (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; labh – to obtain, to gain; lābha – gain, profit)

 

textual variants


sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ → mama māhātmya-durlabhaḥ (my rare one of great self);

 
 

Śāṃkara


jñānī punar api stūyate—

bahūnāṃ janmanāṃ jñānārtha-saṃskārāśrayāṇām ante samāptau jñānavān prāpta-paripāka-jñāno māṃ vāsudevaṃ pratyag-ātmānaṃ pratyakṣataḥ prapadyate | kathaṃ ? vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti | ya evaṃ sarvātmānaṃ māṃ nārāyaṇaṃ pratipadyate, sa mahātmā | na tat-samo’nyo’sti, adhiko vā | ataḥ sudurlabhaḥ, manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣv iti hy uktam

 

Rāmānuja


nālpasaṃkhyāsaṅkhyātānāṃ puṇyajanmanāṃ phalam idam, yan maccheṣataikarasātmayāthātmyajñānapūrvakaṃ matprapadanam; api tu bahūnāṃ janmanāṃ puṇyajanmanām ante avasāne, vāsudevaśeṣataikaraso ‚haṃ tadāyattasvarūpasthitipravṛttiś ca; sa cāsaṅkhyeyaiḥ kalyāṇaguṇagaṇaiḥ parataraḥ iti jñānavān bhūtvā, vāsudeva eva mama paramaprāpyaṃ prāpakaṃ ca, anyad api yan manorathavartiṃ sa eva mama tat sarvam iti māṃ prapadyate mām upāste; sa mahātmā mahāmanāḥ sudurlabhaḥ durlabhataro loke / vāsudevas sarvam ity asyāyam evārthaḥ, „priyo hi jñānino ‚tyartham aham”, „āsthitas sa hi yuktātmā mām evānuttamāṃ gatim” iti prakramāt / jñānavāṃś cāyam uktalakṣaṇa eva, asyaiva pūrvoktajñānitvāt, bhūmir āpaḥ” ity ārabhya, „ahaṅkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā / apareyam itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām / jīvabhūtām” iti hi cetanācetanaprakṛtidvayasya paramapuruṣaśeṣataikarasatoktā; „ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā / mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya” ity ārabhya, „ye caiva sāttvikā bhāvā rājasās tāmasāś ca ye / matta eveti tān viddhi na tv ahaṃ teṣu te mayi ” iti prakṛtidvayasya kāryakāraṇobhayāvasthasya paramapuruṣāyattasvarūpasthitipravṛttitvaṃ paramapuruṣasya ca sarvaiḥ prakāraiḥ sarvasmāt parataratvam uktam; ataḥ sa evātra jñānīty ucyate

 

Śrīdhara


evambhūto mad-bhakto ‚tidurlabha ity āha bahūnām iti | bahūnāṃ janmanām kiṃcit kiṃcit puṇyopacayenānte carame janmani jñānavān san sarvam idaṃ carācaraṃ vāsudeva eveti sarvātma-dṛṣṭyā māṃ prapadyate bhajati | ataḥ sa mahātmāparicchinna-dṛṣṭiḥ sudurlabhaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt bahūnām iti | bahūnāṃ janmanāṃ kiṃcit kiṃcit puṇyopacaya-hetūnām ante carame janmani sarva-sukṛta-vipāka-rūpe vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti jñānavān san māṃ nirupādhi-premāspadaṃ prapadyate sarvadā samasta-prema-viṣayatvena bhajate | sakalam idam ahaṃ ca vāsudeva iti dṛṣṭyā sarva-premṇāṃ mayy eva paryavasāyitvāt | ataḥ sa evaṃ-jñāna-pūrvaka-mad-bhaktimān mahātmātyanta-śuddhāntaḥkaraṇatvāj jīvanmuktaḥ sarvotkṛṣṭo na tat-samo ‚nyo ‚sti adhikas tu nāsty eva | ataḥ sudurlabho manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu duḥkhenāpi labdhum aśakyaḥ | ataḥ sa niratiśaya-mat-prīti-viṣaya iti yuktam evety arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu mām evānuttamāṃ gatim āsthita iti brūṣe ataḥ sa jñāni-bhaktas tvām eva prāpnoti | kintu kiyataḥ samayād anantaraṃ sa jñānī bhakty-adhikārī bhavatīty ata āha bahūnām iti | vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sarvatra vāsudeva-darśī jñānavān bahūnāṃ janmanām ante māṃ prapadyate | tādṛśa-sādhu-yādṛcchika-saṅga-vaśāt mat-prapattiṃ prāpnoti | sa ca jñānī bhakto mahātmā susthira-cittaḥ sudurlabhaḥ | manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu iti mad-ukteḥ | aikāntika-bhaktas tu kim uteti sa tv atisudurlabha eveti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanv ārtādīnām ante kā niṣṭheti cet tatrāha bahūnām iti | ārtādis trividho mad-bhaktaḥ kṛta-mad-bhakti-mahimnā bahūni janmāny uttamān viṣayānandān anubhūya teṣu vitṛṣṇo ‚nte janmani mat-svarūpa-jña-sat-prasaṅgāt jñānavān prāpta-mat-svarūpa-jñānaḥ san māṃ prapadyante | tato vindatīy arthaḥ | jñānākāram āha vāsudeva iti | vasudeva-sutaḥ kṛṣṇa eva sarvam | kṛṣṇāyatta-svarūpa-sthiti-pravṛttikaṃ sarvaṃ vastv ity arthaḥ | yad dhi yad adhīna-svarūpa-sthitikatvāt prāṇa-rūpaṃ vāg-ādi-vyapadiṣṭaṃ chāndogye na vai vāco na cakṣūṃṣi na śrotrāṇi na manāṃsīty ācakṣate prāṇā ity evācakṣate prāṇo hy evaitāni sarvāṇi bhavati || [ChāU 5.1.15] iti tatrāhuḥ sarvaṃ vastu vāsudevena vyāpyam ataḥ sarvaṃ vāsudeva ity arthaḥ | sarvaṃ samāpnoṣi tato ‚si sarvam [Gītā 11.40] iti pārtho vakṣyatīti | sa hi nikhila-spṛhā-nivṛtti-pūrvakaṃ mat-spṛho mad-ātmāty-udāra-manā man-niveditātmā jñāni-koṭiṣv api sudurlabhaḥ | eṣa jñānavān priyo hi jñānino ‚tyartham [Gītā 7.17] ity ādy-ukta-lakṣaṇo bodhyaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.20

kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ prapadyante nya-devatāḥ
taṃ taṃ niyamam āsthāya prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā

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syntax


taiḥ taiḥ (by this and this respectively) kāmaiḥ (by desires) hṛta-jñānāḥ (those whose knowledge is stolen)
tam tam (this and this respectively) niyamam (restrain) āsthāya (they resort to)
svayā prakṛtyā (by own nature) niyatāḥ (restrained)
anya-devatāḥ (to other divinities) prapadyante (they surrender).

 

grammar

kāmaiḥ kāma 3n.3 m.by wishes, desires, pleasures (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for);
taiḥ taiḥ tat sn. 3n.3 m.by this and by this, by respective (distributive use);
hṛta-jñānāḥ hṛta-jñāna 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ jñānam hṛtaṁ asti tethose hose knowledge is stolen (from: hṛ to carry away, [PP] hṛta – carried away, stolen; jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence);
prapadyante pra-pad (to surrender) Praes. Ā 1v.3 they surrender, they take shelter of;
anya-devatāḥ anya-devatā 2n.3 f.; KD: anyā devatā itiother divinities (from: anya – other; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity, devatā – divinities);
tam tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.this and that, respective (distributive use);
niyamam niyama 2n.1 m.restrain, control, rule, vow (from: ni-yam – to restrain, to control);
āsthāya ā-sthā (to resort to, to go towards) absol.after resorting to;
prakṛtyā prakṛti 3n.1 f.by nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
niyatāḥ niyata (ni-yam – to restrain, to control) [PP] 1n.3 m.those restrained;
svayā sva sn. 3n.1 f.by own;

 

textual variants


kāmais tais tair tais tair kāmair (by respective desires);
niyatāḥ → niyataḥ / niyatā (controlled / controlled);
svayā → svayaṁ / tvayā (on one’s own / by you);
 
 

Śāṃkara


ātmaiva sarvṃ vāsudeva ity evam apratipattau kāraṇam ucyate—

kāmais tais taiḥ putra-paśu-svargādi-viṣayair hṛta-jñānāḥ apahṛta-viveka-vijñānāḥ prapadyante’nya-devatāḥ prāpnuvanti vāsudevād ātmano’nyā devatāḥ | taṃ taṃ niyamaṃ devatārādhane prasiddho yo yo niyamas taṃ tam āsthāya āśritya prakṛtyā svabhāvena janmāntarārjita-saṃskāra-viśeṣeṇa niyatāḥ niyamitāḥ svayātmīyayā

 

Rāmānuja


tasya jñānino durlabhatvam evopapādayati

sarva eva hi laukikāḥ puruṣāḥ svayā prakṛtyā pāpavāsanayā guṇamayabhāvaviṣayayā niyatāḥ nityānvitāḥ tais taiḥ svavāsanānurūpair guṇamayair eva kāmaiḥ icchāviṣayabhūtaiḥ hṛtamatsvarūpaviṣayajñānāḥ tattatkāmasiddhyartham anyadevatāḥ madvyatiriktāḥ kevalendrādidevatāḥ taṃ taṃ niyamaṃ āsthāya tattaddevatāviśeṣamātraprīṇanāsādhāraṇaṃ niyamam āsthyāya prapadyante tā evāśrityārcayante

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ kāmino ‚pi santaḥ kāma-prāptaye parameśvaram eva ye bhajanti te kāmān prāpya śanair mucyanta ity uktam | ye tv atyantaṃ rājasās tāmasāś ca kāmābhibhūtāḥ kṣudra-devatāḥ sevante te saṃsarantīty āha kāmair iti caturbhiḥ | ye tu tais taiḥ putra-kīrti-śatru-jayādi-viṣayaiḥ kāmair apahṛta-vivekā santo ‚nyāḥ kṣudrā bhūta-preta-yakṣādyā devatā bhajanti | kiṃ kṛtvā ? tat-tad-devatārādhane yo yo niyama upavāsādi-lakṣaṇas taṃ taṃ niyamaṃ svīkṛtya | tatrāpi svayā svīyayā prakṛtyā pūrvābhyāsa-vāsanayā niyatā vaśīkṛtāḥ santaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


mohana-stambhanākarṣaṇa-vaśīkaraṇa-māraṇoccāṭanādi-viṣayair bhagavat-sevayā labdhum aśakyatvenābhimatais tais taiḥ kṣudraiḥ kāmair abhilāṣair hṛtam apahṛtaṃ bhagavato vāsudevād vimukhīkṛtya tat-tat-phala-dātṛtvābhimata-kṣudra-devatābhimukhyaṃ nītaṃ jñānam antaḥ-karaṇaṃ yeṣāṃ te ‚nya-devatā bhagavato vāsudevād anyāḥ kṣudra-devatās taṃ taṃ niyamaṃ japopavāsa-pradakṣiṇā-namaskārādi-rūpaṃ tat-tad-devatārādhane prasiddhaṃ niyamam āsthāyāśritya prapadyante bhajante tat-tat-kṣudra-phala-prāptīcchayā | kṣudra-devatā-madhye ‚pi kecit kāṃcid eva bhajante svayā prakṛtyā niyatā asādhāraṇayā pūrvābhyāsa-vāsanayā vaśīkṛtā santaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmā api bhagavantaṃ tvāṃ bhajantaḥ kṛtārthā iva ity avagatam | ye tu ārtādayaḥ ārti-hānādi-kāmanayā devatāntaraṃ bhajante | teṣāṃ kā gatir ity apekṣāyām āha kāmair iti caturbhiḥ | hṛta-jñānā iti rogādy-ārti-harāḥ śīghraṃ yathā sūryādayas tathā na viṣṇur iti naṣṭa-buddhayaḥ | prakṛtyeti svayā prakṛtyā niyatā vaśīkṛtāḥ santas teṣāṃ duṣṭā prakṛtir eva mat-prapattau parāṅmukhīti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


tad itthaṃ kāmanayāpi māṃ bhajanto mad-bhakti-mahimnā te vimucyanta ity uktam | ye tu śīghra-sukha-kāmā devatāntara-bhaktās te saṃsaranty evety āha kāmair ity ādibhiś caturbhiḥ | tais tair ārti-vināśādi-viṣayakaiḥ kāmair hṛta-jñānā yathādityādayaḥ śīghram eva roga-vināśādikarās tathā na viṣṇur iti naṣṭa-dhiya ity arthaḥ | taṃ tam asādhāraṇaṃ svayā prakṛtyā vāsanayā niyatā niyantritās teṣāṃ prakṛtir eva tādṛśī yā mat-prapattau vaimukhyaṃ karotīti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.21

yo yo yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitum icchati
tasya tasyācalāṃ śraddhāṃ tām eva vidadhāmy aham

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yaḥ yaḥ bhaktaḥ (whoever devotee) yām yām tanum (whichever form) śraddhayā (with faith) arcitum (to worship) icchati (he desires),
aham (I) tasya tasya [bhaktasya] (each devotee respectably) tām eva (just this) acalām śraddhām (steady faith) vidadhāmi (I grant).

 

grammar

yaḥ yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.whoever (distributive use);
yām yām yat sn. 2n.1 f.whichever (distributive use);
tanum tanu 2n.1 f.thin, small; body, form (from: tan – to spread out);
bhaktaḥ bhakta (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) [PP] 1n.1 m.distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving;
śraddhayā śraddhā 3n.1 f. with faith (from: śrat – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]; śraddhā – faith, confidence);
arcitum arc (to worship) [inf.] – to praise, to worship, to adorn;
icchati iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 1v.1he desires;
tasya tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.his respective (distributive use);
acalām a-cala 2n.1 f.motionless (from: cal – to move, to shake, cala – moving, shaking);
śraddhām śraddhā 2n.1 f. faith (from: śrat – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]; śraddhā – faith, confidence);
tām tat sn. 2n.1 f.this;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
vidadhāmi vi-dhā (to divide, to grant) Praes. P 3v.1I grant;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


bhaktaḥ → bhaktyā (with devotion);
icchati → acchati;
vidadhāmi → vyadadhāmi;
tām eva vidadhāmy aham → tasyāṁ tasyāṁ dadāmy ahaṁ (this and this I give);
 
 

Śāṃkara


teṣāṃ ca kāmināṃ—

yo yaḥ kāmī yāṃ yāṃ devatā-tanuṃ śraddhayā saṃyukto bhaktaś ca sann arcituṃ pūjayitum icchati, tasya tasya kāmino’calāṃ sthirāṃ śraddhāṃ tām eva vidadhāmi sthirīkaromi

 

Rāmānuja


tā api devatā madīyās tanavaḥ, „ya āditye tiṣṭhan … yam ādityo na veda yasyādityaś śarīram” ityādiśrutibhiḥ pratipāditāḥ / madīyās tanava ity ajānann api yo yo yāṃ yāṃ madīyām ādityādikāṃ tanuṃ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitum icchati; tasya tasyājānato ‚pi mattanuviṣayaiṣā śraddhety anusandhāya tām evācalāṃ nirvighnāṃ vidadhāmy aham

 

Śrīdhara


devatā-viśeṣaṃ ye bhajanti teṣāṃ madhye yo ya iti | yo yo bhakto yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ devatā-rūpāṃ madīyām eva mūrtiṃ śraddhayārcitum icchati pravartate tasya tasya bhaktasya tat-tan-mūrti-viṣayāṃ tām eva śraddhām acalāṃ dṛḍhām aham antaryāmī vidadhāmi karomi

 

Madhusūdana


tat tad devatā-prasādāt teṣām api sarveśvare bhagavati vāsudeve bhaktir bhaviṣyatīti na śaṅkanīyaṃ, yato yo ya iti | teṣāṃ madhye yo yaḥ kāmī yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ devatā-mūrtiṃ śraddhayā janmāntara-vāsanābala-prādurbhūtayā bhaktyā saṃyuktaḥ sann arcitum arcayitum icchati pravartate | caurādikasyārcayater ṇij-abhāva-pakṣe rūpam idam | tasya tasya kāminas tām eva devatā-tanuṃ prati śraddhāṃ pūrva-vāsanāvaśāt prāptāṃ bhaktim acalāṃ sthirāṃ viddadhāmi karomy aham antaryāmī, na tu mad-viṣayāṃ śraddhāṃ tasya tasya karomīty arthaḥ | tām eva śraddhām iti vyākhyāne yac-chabdānanvayaḥ spaṣṭas tasmāt pratiśabdam adhyāhṛtya vyākhyātam

 

Viśvanātha


te te devāḥ pūjāṃ prāpya prasannās teṣāṃ sva-sva-pūjakānāṃ hitārthaṃ tvad-bhaktau śraddhām utpādayiṣyantīti mā vādīḥ | yatas te devāḥ sva-bhaktāv api śraddhām utpādayitum aśaktāḥ | kiṃ punar mad-bhaktāv ity āha yo ya iti | yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ sūryādi-deva-rūpāṃ madīyāṃ mūrtiṃ vibhūtim arcitum pūjayituṃ tām eva tat-tad-devatā-viṣayām eva, na tu sva-viṣayāṃ śraddhām aham antaryāmy eva vidadhāmi, na tu sā devatā

 

Baladeva


sarvāntaryāmī mahā-vibhūtiḥ sarva-hitecchur aham eva tat-tad-devatāsu śraddhām utpādya tāḥ pūjayitvā tat-tad-anurūpāṇi phalāni prayacchāmi, na tu tāsāṃ tatra tatra śaktir astīty āśayavān āha ya iti dvābhyām | yo ya ārtādi-bhakto yāṃ yām ādiyādi-rūpāṃ mat-tanuṃ śraddhayārcituṃ vāñchati | tasya tasya tām eva tat-tad-devatā-viṣayām eva, na tu mad-viṣayām | acalāṃ sthirām | vidadhāmy utpādayāmy aham eva, na tu sā sā devatā | śrutiś ca tat-tad-devatānāṃ mat-tanutvam āha ya āditye tiṣṭhaty ādityād antaro yamādityo na veda yasyādityaḥ śarīram [BAU 3.7.9] ity ādyā

 
 

BhG 7.22

sa tayā śraddhayā yuktas tasyā rādhanam īhate
labhate ca tataḥ kāmān mayaiva vihitān hi tān

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saḥ [bhaktaḥ] (that devotee) tayā śraddhayā (with that faith) yuktaḥ (endowed) tasyāḥ [tanvāḥ] (these forms) rādhanam (propitiating) īhate (he endeavours to obtain).
tataḥ ca (and from that) mayā eva vihitān (just by me granted) tān hi kāmān (indeed these desires) labhate (he obtains).

 

grammar

saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
tayā tat sn. 3n.1 f.with this;
śraddhayā śraddhā 3n.1 f. with faith (from: śrat – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]; śraddhā – faith, confidence);
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
tasyāḥ tat sn. 6n.1 f.of this;
rādhanam rādhana 1n.1 n.propitiating, pleasure, obtaining (from: rādh – to succeed, to propitiate);
īhate īh (to endeavour, to desire) Praes. Ā 1v.1he endeavours to obtain;
labhate labh (to obtain, to gain) Praes. Ā 1v.1he obtains;
ca av.and;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
kāmān kāma 2n.3 m.wishes, desires, pleasures (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
vihitān vihita (vi-dhā – to divide, to grant) [PP] 2n.3 m.granted;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
tān tat sn. 2n.3 m.those;

 

textual variants


mayaivamayeva (as if by me);
hi tān → hitān (sent);
 
 

Śāṃkara


yayaiva pūrvaṃ pravṛttaḥ svabhāvato yo yāṃ devatā-tanuṃ śraddhayārcitum icchati—

sa tayā mad-vihitayā śraddhayā yuktaḥ san tasyā devatā-tanvā rādhanam ārādhanam īhate ceṣṭate | labhate ca tatas tasyā ārādhitāyā devatā-tanvāḥ kāmān īpsitān mayaiva parameśvareṇa sarvajñena karma-phala-vibhāga-jñatayā vihitān nirmitān tān, hi yasmāt te bhagavatā vihitāḥ kāmās tasmāt tān avaśyaṃ labhate ity arthaḥ | hitān iti pada-cchede hitatvaṃ kāmānām upacaritaṃ kalpyam | na hi kāmā hitāḥ kasyacit

 

Rāmānuja


sa tayā nirvighnayā śraddhayā yuktas tasya indrāder ārādhanaṃ pratīhate / tataḥ mattanubhūtendrādidevatārādhanāt tān eva hi svābhilaṣitān kāmān mayaiva vihitān labhate / yady apy ārādhanakāle, „ārādhyendrādayo madīyās tanavaḥ, tata eva tadarcanaṃ ca madārādhanam” iti na jānāti tathāpi tasya vastuno madārādhanatvād ārādhakābhilaṣitam aham eva vidadhāmi

 

Śrīdhara


tataś ca tayeti | sa bhaktas tayā dṛḍhayā śraddhayā tasyās tano rādhanm ārādhanam īhate karoti | tataś ca ye saṅkalpitāḥ kāmās tān kāmāṃs tato devatā-viśeṣāl labhate | kintu mayaiva tat-tad-devatāntaryāminā vihitān nirmitān hi | sphuṭam etat tat-tad-devatānām api mad-adhīnatvān man-mūrtitvāc cety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


sa kāmī tayā mad-vihitayā sthirayā śraddhayā yuktas tasyā devatā-tanvā rādhanam ārādhanaṃ pūrajam īhate nirvartayati | upasarga-rahito ‚pi rādhayatiḥ pūjārthaḥ | sopasargatve hy ākāraḥ śrūyate | labhate ca tatas tasyā devatā-tanvāḥ sakāśāt kāmānīpsitāṃs tān pūrva-saṅkalpitān hi prasiddham | mayaiva sarvajñena sarva-karma-phala-dāyinā tat-tad-devatāntaryāmiṇā vihitāṃs tat-tat-phala-vipāka-samaye nirmitān | hitān manaḥ-priyānityaika-padyaṃ vā | ahitatve ‚pi hitatayā pratīyamānānityārthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


īhate karoti | sa tat-tad-devatārādhanāt kāmānārādhana-phalāni labhate | na ca te te kāmā api tais tair devaiḥ pūrṇāḥ kartuṃ śakyanta ity āha mayaiva vihitān pūrṇīkṛtān

 

Baladeva


sa tayeti | īhate karoti | tato mat-tanu-bhūta-tat-tad-devatārādhanāt | kāmān phalāni tatra tatroktāni | mayaiveti vihitān racitān | yadyapi tasya tasyārādhakasya tathā jñānaṃ nāsti tathāpi mat-tanu-viṣayeyaṃ śraddhety anusandhāyāhaṃ phalāny arpayāmīti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.23

antavat tu phalaṃ teṣāṃ tad bhavaty alpa-medhasām
devān deva-yajo yānti mad-bhaktā yānti mām api

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teṣāṁ tu (but of those) alpa-medhasām (less intelligent) tat phalam (thay fruit) antavat (temporary) bhavati (it is).
deva-yajaḥ (those who worship divinities) devān (to divinities) yānti (they go),
mad-bhaktāḥ (my devotees) mām api (however to me) yānti (they go).

 

grammar

antavat anta-vant 1n.1 n.which has the end, temporary (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
phalam phala 1n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);
teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m.of those;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it is;
alpa-medhasām alpa-medhas 6n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ medho ‘lpam asti teṣāmof those whose intelligence is small / of those whose sacrifice is small (from: alpa – small, minute, trifling; medhas = medhā – intelligence, understanding, sacrifice);
devān deva 2n.3 m.the gods, divinities (from: div – to shine, to play);
deva-yajaḥ deva-yaj 1n.3 m.; ye devān yajantīti tewho worship divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, -yaj – suffix: worshipper, sacrificer);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
mad-bhaktāḥ mad-bhakta 1n.3 m.; [TP]: mama bhaktā itimy devotees (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;

 

textual variants


… → after the third pada of verse BhG 7.23 there are four padas not found in critical edition:
… siddhān yānti siddhavratāḥ
bhūtān bhūtayajo yānti pitṝn yānti pitṛvratāḥ
bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā …
…those who make vows for Siddhas they go to Siddhas,
those sacrificing for Śiva they go to Śiva,
those sacrificing for ancestors they go to ancestors,
worshippers of ghosts go to ghosts…

(Two last padas not found in critical edition are the same as the second and third pada of verse BhG 9.25;)

 
 

Śāṃkara


yasmād antavat sādhana-vyāpārāvivekinaḥ kāminaś ca te | ataḥ—

antavad vināśi tu phalaṃ teṣāṃ tad bhavaty alpa-medhasām alpa-prajñānām | devān deva-yajo yānti devān yajantīti deva-yajaḥ, te devān yānti | mad-bhaktā yānti mām api | evaṃ samāne’py āyāse mām eva na prapadyante’nanta-phalāya | aho khalu kaṣṭaṃ vartata ity anukrośaṃ darśayati bhagavān

 

Rāmānuja


teṣām alpamedhasām alpabuddhīnām indrādimātrayājināṃ tadārādhanaphalam alpam, antavac ca bhavati / kutaḥ? devān devayajo yānti yata indrādīn devān tadyājino yānti / indrādayo ‚pi hi paricchinnabhogāḥ parimitakālavartinaś ca / tatas tatsāyujyaṃ prāptāḥ tais saha pracyavante / madbhaktā api teṣām eva karmaṇāṃ madārādhanarūpatāṃ jñātvā paricchinnaphalasaṅgaṃ tyaktvā matprīṇanaikaprayojanāḥ māṃ prāpnuvanti; na ca punar nivartante / „mām upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate” iti hi vakṣyate

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ yadyapi sarvā api devatāḥ sarvātmano mamaiva tanavaḥ | atas tad-ārādhanam api vastuto mad-ārādhanam eva | tatra phala-dātāpi cāham eva | tathāpi sākṣān-mad-bhaktānāṃ teṣāṃ ca phala-vaiṣamyaṃ bhavatīty āha antavad iti | alpa-medhasāṃ paricchanna-dṛṣṭīnāṃ mayā dattam api tat-phalam antavad vināśi bhavati | tad evāha devān yajantīti deva-yajaḥ | te devān antavato yānti | mad-bhaktās tu mām anādy-anantaṃ paramānandaṃ prāpnuvanti

 

Madhusūdana


yadyapi sarvā api devatāḥ sarvātmano mamaiva tanavas tad-ārādhanam api vastuto mad-ārādhanam eva sarvatrāpi ca phala-dātāntaryāmy aham eva, tathāpi sākṣān-mad-bhaktānāṃ ca teṣāṃ ca vastu-vivekāviveka-kṛtaṃ phala-vaiṣamyaṃ bhavatīty āha antavad iti | alpa-medhasāṃ manda-prajñatvena vastu-vivekāsamarthānāṃ teṣāṃ tat-tad-devatā-bhaktānāṃ tan mayā vihitam api tat-tad-devatārādhanajaṃ phalam antavad eva vināśy eva na tu mad-bhaktānāṃ vivekinām ivānantaṃ phalaṃ teṣām ity arthaḥ | kutaḥ ? evaṃ yato devān indrādīn antavata eva deva-yajo mad-anya-devatārādhana-parā yānti prāpnuvanti | mad-bhaktās tu trayaḥ sa-kāmāḥ prathamaṃ mat-prasādād abhīṣṭān kāmān prāpnuvanti | api-śabda-prayogāt tato mad-upāsanā-paripākān mām anantam ānanda-ghanam īśvaram api yānti prāpnuvanti | ataḥ samāne ‚pi sakāmatve mad-bhaktānām anya-devatā-bhaktānāṃ ca mahad-antaram | tasmāt sādhūktam udārāḥ sarva evaita iti

 

Viśvanātha


kintu teṣāṃ devatāntara-bhaktānām phalaṃ tat-tad-devatārādhana-janyam antavat naśvaraṃ kaiñcitkālikaṃ bhavati | nanu ārādhane śrame tulyo ‚pi devatāntara-bhaktānāṃ phalaṃ naśvaraṃ karoṣi, sva-bhaktānāṃ tv anaśvaraṃ karoṣīti tvayi parameśvare ‚yam anyāyas tatra nāyam anyāya ity āha deva-yajo deva-pūjakā devān eva yānti prāpnuvanti | mat-pūjakā api mām | ayam arthaḥ | ye hi yat-pūjakās te tān prāpnuvanty eveti nyāya eva | tatra yadi devā api naśvarās tadā tad-bhaktāḥ katham anaśvarā bhavantu | kathantarāṃ yā tad bhajana-phalaṃ vā na naśyatu | ataeva tad-bhaktā alpa-medhasa uktāḥ | bhagavāṃs tu nityas tad-bhaktā api nityās tad-bhakti-bhakti-phalaṃ ca sarvaṃ nityam eveti

 

Baladeva


nanu devāś cet tvat-tanavas tarhi deva-bhaktānāṃ tad-bhaktānāṃ ca samānaṃ phalaṃ syād iti cet tatrāha antavad iti | teṣām alpa-medhasām ādityādi-mātra-buddhyā, na tu mat-tanuvudbhyārādhayatāṃ tat-tat-phalam alpam antavad vināśi ca bhavati, mat-tanuvudbhyārādhayatāṃ tu phalam anantam avināśi ceti bhāvaḥ | yasmād ādityādi-deva-yājinas tān svejyān mita-bhogān mitāyuṣo yāntīti, mad-bhaktās tu mām eva nityāparimita-svarūpa-guṇa-vibhūti-mad-ārādhana-phalam anantam avināśi ceit mahad-antaram ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.24

avyaktaṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ manyante mām abuddhayaḥ
paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto mamāvyayam anuttamam

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abuddhayaḥ (the unintelligent) mām avyaktam (me, unmanifested) vyaktim āpannaṁ (who attained manifestation) manyante (they think).
[te] (they) mama (my) avyayam (unchangeable) anuttamam (unsurpassed) param bhāvam (supreme nature) ajānantaḥ (those who do not know).

 

grammar

avyaktam a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 2n.1 m.unmanifested, invisible, unevolved;
vyaktim vyakti 2n.1 f.manifestation, appearance, distinctness (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible);
āpannam ā-panna (ā-pad – to come, to attain) [PP] 2n.1 m.having attained;
manyante man (to think) Praes. Ā 1v.3they think;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
abuddhayaḥ a-buddhi 1n.3 m.the unintelligent (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
param para 2n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
bhāvam bhāva 2n.1 m.state, existence, nature from: bhū – to be);
ajānantaḥ a-jānant (jña – to know, to understand) PPr 1n.3 m.those who do not know;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
anuttamam an-uttama 2n.1 m.having no superior, unsurpassed (from: ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);

 

textual variants


mamāvyayam → mamātyayam (my vanishing / passing);
anuttamam → ananvayam (having no relation);

The third pada of verse 7.24 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 9.11;

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ-nimittaṃ mām eva na prapadyanta ity ucyate—

avyaktam aprakāśaṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ prakāśaṃ gatam idānīṃ manyante māṃ nitya-prasiddham īśvaram api santam abuddhayo’vivekinaḥ paraṃ bhāvaṃ param ātma-svarūpam ajānanto’vivekinaḥ mamāvyayaṃ vyaya-rahitam anuttamaṃ niratiśayaṃ madīyaṃ bhāvam ajānanto manyanta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


itare tu sarvasamāśrayaṇīyatvāya mama manuṣyādiṣv avatāram apy akiñcitkaraṃ kurvantīty āha

sarvaiḥ karmabhir ārādhyo ‚haṃ sarveśvaro vāṅmanasāparicchedyasvarūpasvabhāvaḥ paramakāruṇyād aśrityavātsalyāc ca sarvasamāśrayaṇīyatvāyājahatsvabhāva eva vasudevasūnur avarīrṇa iti mamaivaṃ paraṃ bhāvam avyayam anuttamam ajānantaḥ prākṛtarājasūnusamānam itaḥ pūrvam anabhivyaktam idānīṃ karmavaśāj janmaviśeṣaṃ prāpya vyaktim āpannam prāptaṃ mām buddhayo manyante / ato māṃ nāśrayante; na karmabhir ārādhayanti ca

 

Śrīdhara


nau ca samāne prayāse mahati ca phala-viśeṣe sati sarve ‚pi kim iti devatāntaraṃ hitvā tvām eva na bhajanti ? tatrāha avyaktam iti | avyaktaṃ prapañcātītaṃ māṃ vyaktiṃ manuṣya-matsya-kūrmādi-bhāvaṃ prāptam alpa-buddhayo manyante | tatra hetuḥ — mama paraṃ bhāvaṃ svarūpam ajānantaḥ | katham-bhūtam ? avyayaṃ nityam | na vidyata uttamo bhāvo yasmāt tat mad-bhāvam | ato jagad-rakṣaṇārthaṃ līlayāviṣkṛta-nānā-viśuddhorjita-sattva-mūrtiṃ māṃ parameśvaraṃ ca sva-karma-nirmita-bhautika-dehaṃ ca devatāntaraṃ samaṃ paśyanto manda-matayo māṃ nātīvādriyante | pratyuta kṣipra-phaladaṃ devatāntaram eva bhajanti | te cokta-prakāreṇāntavat phalaṃ prāpunvantīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ bhagavad-bhajanasya sarvottama-phalatve ‚pi kathaṃ prāyeṇa prāṇino bhagavad-vimukhyā ity atra hetum āha bhagavān avyaktam iti | avyaktaṃ deha-grahaṇāt prāk-kāryākṣamatvena sthitam idānīṃ vasudeva-gṛhe vyaktiṃ bhautika-dehāvacchedena kārya-kṣamatāṃ prāptaṃ kaṃcij jīvam eva manyante mām īśvaram apy abuddhayo viveka-śūnyāḥ | avyaktaṃ sarva-kāraṇam api māṃ vyaktiṃ kārya-rūpatāṃ matsya-kūrmādy-anekāvatāra-rūpeṇa prāptam iti vā |

kathaṃ te jīvās tvāṃ na viviñcanti ? tatrābuddhaya ity uktaṃ hetuṃ vivṛṇoti | paraṃ sarva-kāraṇa-rūpam avyayaṃ nityaṃ mama bhāvaṃ svarūpaṃ sopādhikam ajānantas tathā nirupādhikam apy anuttamaṃ sarvotkṛṣṭam anatiśayādvitīya-paramānanda-ghanam anantaṃ mama svarūpam ajānanto jīvānukāri-kārya-darśanāj jīvam eva kaṃcin māṃ manyante | tato mām anīśvaratvenābhimataṃ vihāya prasiddhaṃ devatāntaram eva bhajante | tataś cāntavad eva phalaṃ prāpnuvantīty arthaḥ | agre ca vakṣyate avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam [Gītā 9.11] iti

 

Viśvanātha


devatāntara-bhaktānām alpa-medhasāṃ vārtā dūre tāvad āstām | vedādi-samasta-śāstra-darśino ‚pi mat-tattvaṃ na jānanti |

athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi |
jānāti tattvaṃ bhagavan mahimno
na cānya eko ‚pi ciraṃ vicinvan || [BhP 10.14.29]

iti brahmaṇāpi māṃ pratyuktam | ato mad-bhaktān vinā mat-tattva-jñāne sarvatra vālpa-buddhaya ity āha avyaktaṃ prapañcātītaṃ nirākāraṃ brahmaiva māṃ māyikākāratvenaiva vyaktiṃ vasudeva-gṛhe janma prāptaṃ nirbuddhayo manyante māyikākāyasyaiva dṛśyatvād iti bhāvaḥ | yato mama paraṃ bhāvaṃ māyātītaṃ svarūpaṃ janma-karma-līlādikam ajānantaḥ | bhāvaṃ kīdṛśam ? avyayaṃ nityam anuttamaṃ sarvotkṛṣṭam | bhāvaḥ sattā svabhāvābhiprāya-ceṣṭātma-janmasu | kriyā-līlā-padārtheṣu iti medinī | bhagavat-svarūpa-guṇa-janma-karma-līlānām anādy-antatvena nityatvaṃ śrī-rūpa-gosvāmi-caraṇair bhāgavatāmṛta-granthe pratipāditam | mama paraṃ bhāvaṃ svarūpam avyayaṃ nityam viśuddhorjita-sattva-mūrtṃ iti svāmi-caraṇaiś coktam

 

Baladeva


atha kā vārtā mad-anya-deva-yājinām alpa-medhasām upaniṣan-niṣṇātānām api mad-bhakti-riktānāṃ mat-tattva-dhīr na syād ity āśayenāha avyaktam iti | abuddhayo mat-tattva-yāthātmya-buddhi-śūnyā janā avyaktaṃ sva-prakāśātma-vigrahatvād indriyāviṣayaṃ māṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ tad-viṣayāṃ manyante | devakyāṃ vasudevāt sattvotkṛṣṭena karmaṇā sañjātam itara-rāja-putra-tulyaṃ māṃ vadanti | yatas te mad-abhijña-sat-prasaṅgābhāvān mama bhāvaṃ param avyayam anuttamam ajānantaḥ –

bhāvaḥ sattā svabhāvābhiprāya-ceṣṭātma-janmasu |
kriyā-līlā-padārtheṣu vibhūti-budha-jantuṣu || iti medinī-kāraḥ |

mad-bhakti-hīnās te mama svarūpa-guṇa-janma-līlādi-lakṣaṇa-bhāvaṃ māyāditaḥ paramato ‚vyayaṃ nityam anuttamaṃ sarvottamaṃ na, kintv anyavan māyikam anityaṃ sādhāraṇaṃ ca gṛhṇanta ity arthaḥ | svarūpaṃ harer vijñānānandaika-rasaṃ vijñānam ānandaṃ brahma ity ādeḥ | sārvajñādi-guṇa-gaṇas tasya svarūpānubandhī ananta-kalyāṇa-guṇātmako ‚sau ity ādeḥ | abhivyakti-mātraṃ janma ajo ‚pi san ity ādeḥ | parantu avyaktasyaiva bhajatsu prasādenaivābhivyakti-śīlaṃ [MBh 12.323.18] –

na śakyaḥ sa tvayā draṣṭum asmābhir vā bṛhaspate |
yasya prasādaṃ kurute sa vai taṃ draṣṭum arhati || ity ādeḥ

 
 

BhG 7.25

nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ
mūḍho yaṃ nābhijānāti loko mām ajam avyayam

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syntax


aham (I) yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ (covered with illusion of yoga) sarvasya (to all) prakāśaḥ (visible) na [bhavāmi] (I am not).
ayam mūḍhaḥ lokaḥ (this bewildered world) mām ajam avyayam (me unborn, unchangeable) na abhijānāti (does not distinguish).

 

grammar

na av.not;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
prakāśaḥ prakāśa 1n.1 m.visible, shining, manifested (from: pra-kāś – to become visible, to shine);
sarvasya sarva sn. 6n.1 m.of all, of every;
yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ yoga-māyā-samāvṛta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yogasya māyayā samāvṛta iti covered by illusion of yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with; māyā – magic, illusion, supernatural power; samā-vṛ – to cover [PP] sam-ā-vṛta covered);
mūḍhaḥ mūḍha (muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.1 m. bewildered, perplexed;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.this;
na av.not;
abhijānāti abhi-jñā (to distinguish) Praes. P 1v.1he distinguishes, he understands;
lokaḥ loka 1n.1 m. world, people;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
ajam a-ja 2n.1 m.unborn (from: jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 m.unchangeable, imperishable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


sarvasya → sarvaś ca / sarveṣāṁ (and whole / among all);
mūḍho changes place with: loko;
loko → loke (in the world);
avyayam → atyayam (vanishing / passing);
 
 

Śāṃkara


tad-ajñānaṃ kiṃ-nimittam ity ucyate—

nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ sarvasya lokasya, keṣāṃcid eva mad-bhaktānāṃ prakāśo’ham ity abhiprāyaḥ | yoga-māyā-samāvṛto yogo guṇānāṃ yuktir ghaṭanaṃ saiva māyā yoga-māyā | tayā yogamāyayā samāvṛtaḥ, saṃchanna ity arthaḥ | ata eva mūḍho loko’yaṃ nābhijānāti mām ajam avyayam

 

Rāmānuja


kuta evaṃ na prakāśyata ity atrāha

kṣetrajñāsādhāraṇamanuṣyatvādisaṃsthānayogākhyamāyayā samāvṛto ‚haṃ na sarvasya prakāśaḥ / mayi manuṣyatvādisaṃsthānadarśanamātreṇa mūḍho ‚yaṃ loko mām ativāyvindrakarmāṇam atisūryāgnitejasam upalabhyamānam api ajam avyayaṃ nikhilajagadekakāraṇaṃ sarveśvaraṃ māṃ sarvasamāśrayaṇīyatvāya manuṣyatvasaṃsthānam āsthitaṃ nābhijānāti

 

Śrīdhara


teṣāṃ svājñāne hetum āha nāham iti | sarvasya lokasya nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ prakaṭo na bhavāmi | kintu mad-bhaktānām eva | yato yoga-māyayā samāvṛtaḥ | yogo yuktir madīyaḥ ko ‚py acintyaḥ prajñā-vilāsaḥ | sa eva māyāghaṭana-ghaṭanāpaṭīyastvāt | tayā saṃcchannaḥ ataeva mat-svarūpa-jñāne mūḍhaḥ sann ayaṃ loko ‚jam avyayaṃ ca māṃ na jānātīti

 

Madhusūdana


nanu janma-kāle ‚pi sarva-yogi-dhyeyaṃ śrī-vaikuṇṭha-stham aiśvaram eva rūpam āvirbhāvitavati samprati ca śrīvatsa-kaustubha-vanamālā-kirīṭa-kuṇḍalādi-divyopakaraṇa-śālini kambu-kamala-kaumodakī-cakra-vara-dhāri-catur-bhuje śrīmad-vainateya-vāhane nikhila-sura-loka-sampādita-rāja-rājeśvarābhiṣekādi-mahā-vaibhave sarva-surāsura-jetari vividha-divya-līlā-vilāsa-śīle sarvāvatāra-śiromaṇau sākṣād-vaikuṇṭha-nāyake nikhila-loka-duḥkha-nistārāya bhuvam avatīrṇe viriñci-prapañcāsambhavi-niratiśaya-saundarya-sāra-sarvasva-mūrtau bāla-līlā-vimohita-vidhātari taraṇi-kiraṇojjvala-divya-pītāmbare nirupama-śyāmasundare kara-dīkṛta-pārijātārtha-parājita-purandare bāṇa-yuddha-vijita-śaśāṅka-śekhare samasta-surāsura-vijayi-naraka-prabhṛti-mahā-daiteya-prakara-prāṇa-paryanta-sarvasva-hāriṇi śrīdāmādi-parama-raṅka-mahā-vaibhava-kāriṇi ṣoḍaśa-sahasra-divya-rūpa-dhāriṇy aparimeya-guṇa-garimaṇi mahā-mahimani nārad-mārkaṇḍeyādi-mahā-muni-gaṇa-stute tvayi katham avivekino ‚pi manuṣa-buddhir jīva-buddhir vety arjunāśaṅkām apaninīṣur āha bhagavān nāham iti |

ahaṃ sarvasya lokasya na prakāśaḥ svena rūpeṇa prakaṭo na bhavāmi | kintu keṣāṃcin mad-bhaktānām prakaṭo bhavāmīty abhiprāyaḥ | kathaṃ sarvasya lokasya na prakaṭa ity atra hetum āha yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ | yogo mama saṅkalpas tad-vaśa-vartinī māyā yoga-māyā tathāyam abhakto jano māṃ svarūpeṇa na jānātv iti saṅkalpānuvidhāyinyā māyayā samyag āvṛtaḥ saty api jñāna-kāraṇe jñāna-viṣayatvāyogyaḥ kṛtaḥ | ato yad uktaṃ paraṃ bhāvam ajānanta iti tatra mama saṅkalpa eva kāraṇam ity uktaṃ bhavati | ato mama māyayā mūḍha āvṛta-jñānaḥ sann ayaṃ caturvidha-bhakta-vilakṣaṇo lokaḥ saty api jñāna-kāraṇe mām ajam avyayam anādy-anantaṃ parameśvaraṃ nābhijānāti, kintu viparīta-dṛṣṭyā manuṣyam eva kaṃcin manyata ity arthaḥ | vidyamānaṃ vastu-svarūpam āvṛṇoty avidyamānaṃ ca kiṃcid darśayatīti laukika-māyām api prasiddham etat

 

Viśvanātha


nanu yadi tvaṃ nitya-rūpa-guṇa-līlo ‚si, tadā te tathābhūtā sārvakālikī sthitiḥ kathaṃ na dṛśyate? tatrāha nāham iti | ahaṃ sarvasya sarva-deśa-kāla-vartino janasya na prakāśo na prakaṭaḥ | yathā guṇa-līlā-parikaravattvena sadaiva virājamāno ‚pi dadācid eva keṣucid eva bhramāṇḍeṣu | kiṃ ca sūryo yathā sumeru-śailāvaraṇa-vaśāt sarvadā loka-dṛśyo na bhavati, kintu kadācid eva, tathaivāham api yogamāyā-samāvṛtaḥ | na ca jyotiścakravartamānānāṃ prāṇināṃ jyotiścakrastho jyotiścakra-madhye sāmastyena sadaiva virājamāno ‚pi sūryaḥ sarva-kāla-deśa-varti-janasya na prakaṭaḥ | kintu kādācitkeṣu ca bhāratādiṣu khaṇḍeṣu vartamānasya janasyaiva tathaivāham api |

sva-dhāmasu svarūpa-sūryo yathā sadaiva dṛśyas tathaiva śrī-kṛṣṇa-dhāmani mathurā-dvārakādau sthitānām idānīntanānāṃ janānāṃ tatrasthaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ kathaṃ na dṛśyo bhavati ? ucyate yadi jyotiścakra-madhye sumerur abhaviṣyat tadā tad-āvṛtaḥ sūryo dṛśyo nābhaviṣyat | tatra tu mathurādi-kṛṣṇa-dyumaṇi-dhāmani sumeru-sthānīyā yoga-māyaiva sadā vartata ity atas tad-āvṛtaḥ kṛṣṇārkaḥ sadā na dṛśyate | kintu kadācid eveti sarvam anavadyam | ato mūḍho loko māṃ śyāmasundarākāraṃ vasudevātmajam avyayaṃ māyika-janmādi-śūnyaṃ nābhijānāti | ataeva kalyāṇa-guṇa-vāridhiṃ mām apy antatas tyaktvā man-nirviśeṣ-svarūpaṃ brahmaiva upāsata iti

 

Baladeva


nanu bhaktā ivābhaktāś ca tvāṃ pratyakṣīkurvanti prasādād eva bhajatsv abhivyaktir iti katham ? tatrāha nāham iti | bhaktānām evāhaṃ nitya-vijñām asukha-ghano ‚nanta-kalyāṇa-guṇa-karmā prakāśo ‚bhivyakto, na tu sarveṣām abhaktānām api | yad ahaṃ yogamāyayā samāvṛto mad-vimukha-vyāmohakatva-yoga-yuktayā māyayā samācchanna-parisara ity arthaḥ | yad uktaṃ -māyā-javanikācchanna-mahimne brahmaṇe namaḥ iti | māyā-mūḍho ‚yaṃ loko ‚timānuṣa-daivata-prabhāvaṃ vidhi-rudrādi-vanditam api māṃ nābhijānāti | kīdṛśam ? ajaṃ janma-śūnyaṃ yato ‚vyayam apracyuta-svarūpa-sāmarthya-sārvajñyādikam ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.26

vedāhaṃ samatītāni vartamānāni cārjuna
bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni māṃ tu veda na kaś-cana

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he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
aham (I) samatītāni (past) vartamānāni (present) bhaviṣyāṇi ca (and future) bhūtāni (beings) veda (I know),
kaścana tu (but nobody) mām (me) na veda (does not know).

 

grammar

veda vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 3v.1 (meaning Praes.) – I know;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
samatītāni samatīta (sam-ati-i – to go away) [PP] 2n.3 n.gone, past;
vartamānāni vartamāna (vṛt – to move, to happen, to act) PPr 2n.3 n.existing, moving, present;
ca av.and;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
bhaviṣyāṇi bhaviṣya 2n.3 n.future, coming (from: bhū – to be);
ca av.and;
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
veda vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.1 (meaning Praes.) – he knows;
na av.not;
kaś-cana kim-cana sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cana – indefinitive particle);

 

textual variants


bhaviṣyāṇi → bhaviṣyanti (they will be);
mām → mā (no);
māṁ tu veda na kaś-cana → na tu māṁ veda kaścana (but me nobody knows);
 
 

Śāṃkara


yayā yogamāyayā samāvṛtaṃ māṃ loko nābhijānāti, nāsau yogamāyā madīyā satī mameśvarasya māyāvino jñānaṃ pratibadhnāti | yathānyasyāpi māyāvino māyā jñānaṃ tadvat | yataḥ evam, ataḥ —ahaṃ tu veda jāne samatītāni samatikrāntāni bhūtāni, vartamānāni cārjuna, bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni vedāham | māṃ tu veda na kaścana mad-bhaktaṃ mac-charaṇam ekaṃ muktvā | mat-tattva-vedanābhāvād eva na māṃ bhajate

 

Rāmānuja


atītāni vartamānāni anāgatāni ca sarvāṇi bhūtāny ahaṃ veda jānāmi / māṃ tu veda na kaścana mayānusaṃdhīyamāneṣu kālatrayavartiṣu bhūteṣu mām evaṃvidhaṃ vāsudevaṃ sarvasamāśrayṇīyatvāyāvatīrṇaṃ viditvā mām eva samāśrayan na kaścid upalabhyata ityarthaḥ / ato jñānī sudurlabha eva

 

Śrīdhara


sarvottamaṃ mat-svarūpam ajānanta ity uktam | tad eva svasya sarvottamatvam anāvṛta-jñāna-śaktitvena darśayann anyeṣām ajñānam āha vedāham iti | samātītāni vinaṣṭāni vartamānāni ca bhaviṣyāṇi bhāvini ca trikāla-vartīni bhūtāni sthāvara-jaṅgamāni sarvāny ahaṃ veda jānāmi | māyāśrayatvān mama | tasyāḥ svāśraya-vyāmohakatvābhāvād iti prasiddham | māṃ tu ke ‚pi na vetti man-māyā-mohitatvāt | prasiddhaṃ hi loke māyāyāḥ svāśrayādhīnatvam anya-mohakatvaṃ ceti

 

Madhusūdana


ato māyayā svādhīnayā sarva-vyāmohakatvāt svayaṃ cāpratibaddha-jñānatvād āha vedāham iti | aham apratibaddha-sarva-vijñāto māyayā sarvān lokān mohayann api samātītāni cira-vinaṣṭāni vartamānāni ca bhaviṣyāṇi ca | evaṃ kāla-traya-vartīni bhūtāni sthāvara-jaṅgamāni sarvāny veda jānāmi | he ‚rjuna ! ato ‚haṃ sarva-jñaḥ parameśvara ity atra nāsti saṃśaya ity arthaḥ | māṃ tu | tu-śabdo jñāna-pratibandha-dyotanārthaḥ | māṃ sarva-darśinam api māyāvinam iva tan-māyā-mohitaḥ kaścana ko ‚pi mad-anugraha-bhājanaṃ mad-bhaktaṃ vinā na veda man-māyā-mohitatvāt | ato mat-tattva-vedanābhāvād eva prāyeṇa prāṇino māṃ na bhajanta ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca māyāyāḥ svāśraya-vyāmohakatvābhāvād bahiraṅgā māyā | antaraṅgā yoga-māyā ca mama jñānaṃ nāvṛṇotīty āha vedāham iti | māṃ tu kaścana prākṛto ‚prākṛtaś ca loko mahā-rudrādir mahā-sarvajño ‚pi na kārtsnyena veda, yathāyogaṃ māyayā yoga-māyayā ca jñānāvaraṇād iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu māyāvṛtatvāt tava jīvavad ajñatāpattir iti cet tatrāha vedāham iti | na hi mad-adhīnayā mat-tejasābhibhūtayā dūrato javanikayaiva māṃ sevamānayā māyayā mama kācid vikṛtir ity arthaḥ | māṃ tu vedeti maj-jñānī koṭiṣv api sudurlabha ity arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.27

icchā-dveṣa-samutthena dvaṃdva-mohena bhārata
sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ sarge yānti paraṃtapa

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!), he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!),
sarge (in emanation) sarva-bhūtāni (all beings) icchā-dveṣa-samutthena (by risen from desire and hatred) dvandva-mohena (by delusion of dualities) sammoham (bewilderment) yānti (they attain).

 

grammar

icchā-dveṣa-samutthena icchā-dveṣa-samuttha 3n.1 m.; DV/[TP] icchāyāś ca dveṣāc ca samuttheneti by risen from desire and hatred (from: iṣ – to desire, icchā – desire; dviṣ – to hate, dveṣa – hatred, enmity; sam-ut-sthā – to rise, samuttha – risen);
dvaṁdva-mohena dvaṁdva-moha 3n.1 m.; [TP]: dvaṁdvasya mohenetiby delusion of dualities (from: dva – two, dvaṁdva – two-two, pair of opposites; muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, moha – perplexity, loss of consciousness, bewilderment, error);
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
sarva-bhūtāni sarva-bhūta 1n.3 m.; KD: sarvāṇi bhūtānītiall beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
saṁmoham saṁ-moha 2n.1 m.bewilderment, confusion (from: sam-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
sarge sarga 7n.1 m.in emanation, in creation (from: sṛj – to let go, to emit);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥO you who torment enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);

 

textual variants


icchā-dveṣa-samutthenaicchā-dveṣa-samuḍhena (by the effect of desire and hatred);
saṁmohaṁ āmohaṁ (bewilderment);
sarge yānti → svarge yānti / yānti sarge (in heaven they go / in emanation they go);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kena punar mat-tattva-vedana-pratibandhena pratibaddhāni santi jāyamānāni sarva-bhūtāni māṃ na vidanti ? ity apekṣāyām idam āha—

icchā-dveṣa-samutthena icchā ca dveṣaś cecchā-dveṣau | tābhyāṃ samuttiṣṭhatītīcchā-dveṣa-samutthas tenecchā-dveṣa-samutthena | keneti viśeṣāpekṣāyām idam āha—dvandva-mohena dvandva-nimitto moho dvandva-mohas tena | tāv eva icchā-dveṣau śītoṣṇavat paraspara-viruddhau sukha-duḥkha-tad-dhetu-viṣayau yathā-kālaṃ sarva-bhūtaiḥ saṃbadhyamānau dvandva-śabdenābhidhīyete | tatra yadecchā-dveṣau sukha-duḥkha-tad-dhetu-saṃprāptyā labdhātmakau bhavataḥ, tadā tau sarva-bhūtānāṃ prajñāyāḥ sva-vaśāpādana-dvāreṇa paramārthātma-tattva-viṣaya-jñānotpatti-pratibandha-kāraṇaṃ mohaṃ janayataḥ | na hīcchā-dveṣa-doṣa-vaśīkṛta-cittasya yathā-bhūtārtha-viṣaya-jñānam utpadyate bahir api | kim u vaktavyaṃ tābhyām āviṣṭa-buddheḥ saṃmūḍhasya pratyag-ātmani bahu-pratibandhe jñānaṃ notpadyateti | atas tena icchā-dveṣa-samutthena dvandva-mohena, bhārata bharatānvayaja, sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohitāni santi saṃmohaṃ saṃmūḍhatāṃ sarge janmani, utpatti-kāle ity etat, yānti gacchanti he paraṃtapa | moha-vaśāny eva sarva-bhūtāni jāyamānāni jāyanta ity abhiprāyaḥ | yata evam atas tena dvandva-mohena pratibaddha-prajñānāni sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohitāni mām ātma-bhūtaṃ na jānanti | ata eva ātma-bhāvena māṃ na bhajante

 

Rāmānuja


tathā hi

icchādveṣābhyāṃ samutthitena śītoṣṇādidvandvākhyena mohena sarvabhūtāni sarge janmakāla eva saṃmohaṃ yānti / etad uktaṃ bhavati guṇamayeṣu sukhaduḥkhādidvandveṣu pūrvapūrvajanmani yadviṣayau icchādveṣau abhyastau, tadvāsanayā punar api janmakāla eva tad eva dvandvākhyam icchādveṣaviṣayatvena samutthitaṃ bhūtānāṃ mohanaṃ bhavati; tena mohena sarvabhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yānti; tadviṣayecchādveṣasvabhāvāni bhavanti, na matsamśleṣaviyogasukhaduḥkhasvabhāvāni, jñānī tu matsaṃśleṣaviyogaikasukhaduḥkhasvabhāvaḥ; na tatsvabhāvaṃ kim api bhūtaṃ jāyate iti

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ māyā-viṣayatvena jīvānāṃ parameśvarājñānam uktam | tasyaivājñānasya dṛḍhatve kāraṇam āha iccheti | sṛjyata iti sargaḥ | sarge sthūla-dehotpattau satyāṃ tad-anukūla icchā | tat-pratikūle ca dveṣaḥ | tābhyāṃ samutthaḥ samudbhūto yaḥ śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhādi-dvandva-nimitto moho viveka-bhraṃśaḥ | tena sarvāṇi bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yānti | aham eva sukhī duḥkhī ceti gāḍhataram abhiniveśaṃ prāpnuvanti | atas tāni maj-jñānābhāvān māṃ na bhajantīti bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yoga-māyāṃ bhagavat-tattva-vijñāna-pratibandhe dehendriya-saṃghātābhimānātiśaya-pūrvakaṃ bhogābhiniveśaṃ hetv-antaram āha iccheti | icchā-dveṣābhyām anukūla-pratikūla-viṣayābhyāṃ samutthitena śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkhādi-dvandva-nimittena mohenāhaṃ sukhy ahaṃ duḥkhīty ādi-viparyayeṇa sarvāṇy api bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ vivekāyogyatvaṃ sarge sthūla-dehotpattau satyāṃ yānti | he bhārata ! he parantapa ! iti sambodhana-dvayasya kula-mahimnā svarūpa-śaktyā ca tvāṃ dvandva-mohākhyaḥ śatrur nābhibhavitum alam iti bhāvaḥ | na hīcchā-dveṣa-rahitaṃ kiṃcid api bhūtam asti | na ca tābhyām āviṣṭasya bahir viṣayam api jñānaṃ sambhavati, kiṃ punar ātma-viṣayam | ato rāga-dveṣa-vyākulāntaḥ-karaṇatvāt sarvāṇy api bhūtāni māṃ parameśvaram ātma-bhūtaṃ na jānanti | ato na bhajante bhajanīyam api

 

Viśvanātha


tan-māyayā jīvāḥ kadārabhya muhyantīty apekṣāyām āha iccheti | sarge jagat-sṛṣṭy-ārambha-kāle sarva-bhūtāni sarve jīvāḥ sammohayanti | kena ? prācīna-karmodbuddhau yāv icchā-dveṣau indriyāṇām anukūle viṣaye icchābhilāṣaḥ pratikūle dveṣaḥ tābhyāṃ samutthaḥ samudbhūto yo dvandvo mānāpamānayoḥ śītoṣṇādyāḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ strī-puṃsayor mohaḥ – ahaṃ sammānitaḥ sukhī, aham avamānito duḥkhī | mameyaṃ strī, mamāyaṃ purusaḥ ity ādyākāraka āvidyako yo mohas tena saṃmohaṃ strī-putrādiṣv atyantāsaktiṃ prāpnuvanti | ataevātyantāsaktānāṃ na mad-bhaktāv adhikāraḥ | yad uddhavaṃ prati mayaiva vakṣyate –

yadṛcchayā mat-kathādau jāta-śraddhas tu yaḥ pumān |
na nirviṇṇo nāti-sakto bhakti-yogo ‚sya siddhi-daḥ || [BhP 11.20.8] iti

 

Baladeva


tvaj-jñānī kutaḥ sudurlabhas tatrāha iccheti | sarge svotpatti-kāle eva sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yānti | kenety āha dvandva-moheneti | mānāpamānayoḥ sukha-duḥkhayoḥ strī-puruṣayor dvandvair yo mohaḥ sat-kṛto ‚haṃ sukhī syām asat-kṛtas tu duḥkhī mameyaṃ patnī mamāyaṃ patir ity evam abhiniveśa-lakṣaṇas tenety arthaḥ | kīdṛśenety āha iccheti pūrva-janmani yatra yatra yāv icchā-dveṣāv abhūtāṃ tābhyāṃ saṃskārātmanā sthitābhyāṃ samuttiṣṭhati para-janmani tatra tatrotpadyata ity arthaḥ | icchā rāgaḥ | evaṃ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ saṃmūḍhatvān maj-jñānī sudurlabhaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.28

yeṣāṃ tv anta-gataṃ pāpaṃ janānāṃ puṇya-karmaṇām
te dvaṃdva-moha-nirmuktā bhajante māṃ dṛḍha-vratāḥ

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syntax


yeṣām tu (but of whom) puṇya-karmaṇām janānām (of people whose activities are pious) pāpam anta-gatam (sin gone to an end),
te dvandva-moha-mirmuktāḥ (those liberated from delusion of dualities) dṛḍha-vratāḥ (whose vows are firm) mām (me) bhajante (they worship).

 

grammar

yeṣām yat sn. 6n.3 m.of whom (correlative of: teṣām);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
anta-gatam anta-gata 1n.1 n.; [TP]: antaṁ gatam itihaving come to an end, finished (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death; gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone);
pāpam pāpa 1n.1 n.evil, sin;
janānām jana 6n.3 m.of people, of creatures (from: jan – to be born, to produce);
puṇya-karmaṇām puṇya-karman 6n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ karmāṇi puṇyāni santi teṣāmof those whose activities are pious (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously, puṇya – good, meritorious, virtuous act, purity; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
dvaṁdva-moha-nirmuktāḥ dvaṁdva-moha-nirmukta 1n.3 m.; [TP]: dvaṁdvasya mohād nirmuktā iti liberated from delusion of dualities (from: dva – two, dvaṁdva – two-two, pair of opposites; muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, moha – perplexity, loss of consciousness, bewilderment, error; nir-muc – to liberate, to release, [PP] nirmukta – liberated);
bhajante bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
dṛḍha-vratāḥ dṛḍha-vrata 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ vratāni dṛḍhāni santi tewhose vows are firm (from: dṛṁh – to make strong, [PP] dṛḍha – firm, hard, not to be bent; vṛ – to choose, to like or vṛ – to cover, to restrain, vrata – austerity, a vow);

 

textual variants


tv anta-gataṁtv aṁtaṁ gataṁ / tv aṁntar-gataṁ / dvaṁdva-gataṁ (but gone to the end / but gone inside / gone to dualities);
janānāṁ → narāṇāṁ (of people);
puṇya-karmaṇām → puṇya-karmiṇām (of the pious doers);
 
 

Śāṃkara


ke punar anena dvandva-mohena nirmuktāḥ santas tvāṃ viditvā yathā-śāstram ātma-bhāve bhajanta ity apekṣitam arthaṃ darśayitum ucyate—

yeṣāṃ tu punar anta-gataṃ samāpta-prāyaṃ kṣīṇaṃ pāpaṃ janānāṃ puṇya-karmaṇāṃ puṇyaṃ karma yeṣāṃ sattva-śuddhi-kāraṇaṃ vidyate te puṇya-karmāṇas teṣāṃ puṇya-karmaṇām, te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā yathoktena dvandva-mohena nirmuktā bhajante māṃ paramātmanāṃ dṛḍha-vratāḥ | evam eva paramārtha-tattvaṃ nānyathety evaṃ sarva-parityāga-vratena niścita-vijñānā dṛḍha-vratā ucyante

 

Rāmānuja


yeṣāṃ tv anekajanmārjitenotkṛṣṭapuṇyasaṃcayena guṇamayadvandveccchādveṣahetubhūtaṃ madaunmukhyavirodhi ca anādikālapravṛttaṃ pāpam antagatam kṣīṇam; te pūrvoktena sukṛtatāratamyena māṃ śaraṇam anuprapadya guṇamayān mohād vinirmuktāḥ jarāmaraṇamokṣāya, mahate cāiśvaryāya, matprāptaye ca dṛḍhavratāḥ dṛḍhasaṅkalpāḥ mām eva bhajante

 

Śrīdhara


kutas tarhi kecana tvāṃ bhajanto dṛśyante ? tatrāha yeṣām iti | yeṣāṃ tu puṇya-caraṇa-śīlānāṃ sarva-pratibandhakaṃ pāpam anta-gataṃ naṣṭaṃ te dvandva-nimittena mohena nirmuktā dṛḍha-vratā ekāntinaḥ santo bhajante

 

Madhusūdana


yadi sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yānti, kathaṃ tarhi catur-vidhā bhajante mām ity uktam ? satyaṃ, sukṛtātiśayena teṣāṃ kṣīṇa-pāpatvād ity āha yeṣām iti | yeṣāṃ tv itara-loka-vilakṣaṇānāṃ janānāṃ saphala-janmanāṃ puṇya-karmaṇām aneka-janmasu puṇyācaraṇa-śīlānāṃ tais taiḥ puṇyaiḥ karmabhir jñāna-pratibandhakaṃ pāpam antagatam antam avasānaṃ prāptaṃ te pāpābhāvena tan-nimittena dvandva-mohena rāga-dveṣādi-nibandhana-viparyāsena svata eva nirmuktāḥ punar āvṛtty-ayogyatvena tyaktā dṛḍha-vratā acālya-saṃkalpāḥ sarvathā bhagavān eva bhajnīyaḥ sa caivaṃ-rūpa eveti pramāṇa-janitāprāmāṇya-śaṅkā-śūnya-vijñānāḥ santo māṃ paramātmānaṃ bhajante ‚nanya-śaraṇāḥ santaḥ sevante etādṛśā eva catur-vidhā bhajante māṃ ity atra sukṛti-śabdenoktāḥ | ataḥ sarva-bhūtāni saṃmohaṃ yāntīty utsargaḥ | teṣāṃ madhye ye sukṛtinas te saṃmoha-śūnyā māṃ bhajanta ity apavāda iti na virodhaḥ | ayam evotsargaḥ prāg api pratipāditas tribhir guṇamayair bhāvair ity atra | tasmāt sarttva-śodhaka-puṇya-karma-saṃcāya sarvadā yatanīyam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tarhi keṣāṃ bhaktāv adhikāra ity ata āha yeṣāṃ puṇya-karmaṇāṃ pāpaṃ tvaṃ tu gatam anta-kālaṃ prāntaṃ naśyad-avasthaṃ, na tu samyak naṣṭam ity arthaḥ | teṣāṃ sattva-guṇodreke sati tamo-guṇa-hrāsaḥ | tasmin sati tat-kāryo moho ‚pi hrasati | moha-hrāse sati te khalu atyāsakti-rahitā yādṛcchika-mad-bhakta-saṅgena bhajante mātram | ye tu bhajanādy-abhyāsataḥ samyak naṣṭa-pāpās te mohena niḥśeṣeṇa muktā dṛḍha-vratāḥ prāpta-niṣṭhāḥ santo māṃ bhajante | na caivaṃ puṇya-karmaiva sarva-vidhayoḥ bhakteḥ kāraṇam iti mantavyam |

yaṃ na yogena sāṅkhyena dāna-vrata-tapo- ‚dhvaraiḥ |
vyākhyā-svādhyāya-sannyāsaiḥ prāpnuyād yatnavān api || [BhP 11.12.9]

iti bhagavad-ukteḥ | kevala-bhakti-yogasya puṇyādi-karmāśrayaṃ naiva kāraṇam iti bahuśaḥ pratipādanāt

 

Baladeva


nanu keṣāṃcit tvad-bhaktiḥ pratīyate sā na syāt | sarva-bhūtāni sarge saṃmohaṃ yāntīty ukter iti cet tatrāha yeṣāṃ prāṇināṃ yādṛcchika-mahattama-dṛṣṭi-pātāt pāpam anta-gataṃ nāśaṃ prāptam abhūt viṣṇor bhūtāni bhūtānāṃ pāvanāya caranti hi [BhP 11.2.28] iti smṛteḥ | kīdṛśānām ity āha puṇyeti | puṇyaṃ manojñaṃ karma mahattama-vīkṣaṇa-rūpaṃ yeṣāṃ puṇyaṃ tu cārv api ity amaraḥ | te dṛḍha-vratā mahat-prasaṅga-prāpta-niṣṭhā dvandva-mohena nirmuktā mat-tattva-jñāḥ santo māṃ bhajante

 
 

BhG 7.29

jarā-maraṇa-mokṣāya mām āśritya yatanti ye
te brahma tad viduḥ kṛtsnam adhy-ātmaṃ karma cākhilam

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syntax


ye (those who) mām (in me) āśritya (after taking shelter) jarā-maraṇa-mokṣāya (for liberation from old age and death) yatanti (they endeavour),
te (they) tad brahma (that brahman) kṛtsnam adhyātmam (the entire Supreme Self) akhilam karma ca (and all activity) viduḥ (they learned).

 

grammar

jarā-maraṇa-mokṣāya jarā-maraṇa-mokṣa 4n.1 m.; DV / [TP]: jarāyāḥ maraṇāc ca mokṣāyeti for liberation from old age and death (from: jṝ to grow old, to decay, jarā – old age; mṛ to die, maraṇa death; muc – to liberate, mokṣa – liberation, deliverance, casting away);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
āśritya ā-śri (to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) absol.after taking shelter – of whom? – requires accusative);
yatanti yat (to place in order, to endeavour) Praes. P 1v.3they endeavour, they strive for;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
brahma brahman 2n.1 n.spirit, the Veda (from: bṛh – to increase);
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know, they learned;
kṛtsnam kṛtsna 2n.1 n.whole;
adhy-ātmam adhi-ātman 2n.1 n.the Supreme Self (adhi – over, above; ātman – self; adhy-ātma – governing the self, the Supreme Spirit);
karma karman 2n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
ca av.and;
akhilam a-khila 2n.1 n.whole, complete, without a gap (from: khila – hole, gap);

 

textual variants


yatanti → bhajaṁti / yajaṁti (they worship / they sacrifice);
te → ye (those who);
 
 

Śāṃkara


te kim-arthaṃ bhajante ? ity ucyate—

jarā-maraṇa-mokṣāya jarā-maraṇayor mokṣārthaṃ māṃ parameśvaram āśritya mat-samāhita-cittāḥ santo yatanti prayatante ye, te yad brahma paraṃ tad viduḥ kṛtsnaṃ samastam adhyātmaṃ pratyag-ātma-viṣayaṃ vastu tad viduḥ | karma cākhilaṃ samastaṃ viduḥ

 

Rāmānuja


atra trayāṇāṃ bhagavantaṃ bhajamānānāṃ jñātavyaviśeṣān upādeyāṃś ca prastauti

jarāmaraṇamokṣāya prakṛtiviyuktātmasvarūpadarśanāya mām āśritya ye yatante, te tadbrahma viduḥ, adhyātmaṃ tu kṛtsnaṃ viduḥ, karma cākhilaṃ viduḥ

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ ca māṃ bhajantaḥ sarvaṃ vijñeyaṃ vijñāya kṛtārthāḥ bhavantīty āha jareti | jarāmaraṇayor mokṣāya nirasanārthaṃ mām āśritya ye prayatante te tat paraṃ brahma viduḥ | kṛtsnam adhyātmaṃ ca viduḥ | yena tat prāptavyaṃ taṃ dehādi-vyatiriktaṃ śuddham ātmānaṃ ca jānantīty arthaḥ | tat-sādhana-bhūtam akhilaṃ sa-rahasyaṃ karma ca jānantīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


athedānīm arjunasya praśyan utthāpayituṃ sūtra-bhūtau ślokāv ucyete | anayor eva vṛtti-sthānīya uttaro ‚dhyāyo bhaviṣyati jareti | ye saṃsāra-duḥkhān nirviṇṇā jarā-maraṇayor mokṣāya jarā-maraṇādi-vividha-duḥsaha-saṃsāra-duḥkha-nirāsāya tad-eka-hetuṃ māṃ sa-guṇaṃ bhagavantam āśrityetara-sarva-vaimukhyena śaraṇaṃ gatvā yatanti yatante mad-arpitāni phalābhisandhi-śūnyāni vihitāni karmāṇi kurvanti te krameṇa śuddhāntaḥ-karaṇāḥ santas taj-jagat-kāraṇaṃ māyādhiṣṭhānaṃ śuddhaṃ paraṃ brahma nirguṇaṃ tat-pada-lakṣyaṃ māṃ viduḥ | karma ca tad-ubhaya-vedana-sādhanaṃ gurūpasadana-śravaṇa-mananaādy-akhilaṃ niravaśeṣṃ phalāvyabhicāri vidur jānantīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tad evam ārtādyās trayaḥ sakāmā māṃ bhajantaḥ kṛtārthā bhavantīti | devatāntaraṃ bhajantas tu cyavanta ity uktvā svasyābhajane ‚py adhikāriṇaś coktā bhagavatā | idānīm anyaḥ sa-kāmaḥ caturtho ‚pi mad-bhakto ‚stīty āha jareti | jarāmaraṇayor mokṣāya nāśāya ye yogino yatanti yatante | ye mokṣa-kāmā māṃ bhajantīti phalito ‚rthaḥ | te taṃ prasiddhaṃ brahma tathā kṛtsnam ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya bhoktṛtayā vartamānam adhyātmaṃ jīvātmānam akhilaṃ karma ca nānā-vidha-karma-janyaṃ jīvasya saṃsāraṃ ca mad-bhakti-prabhāvād eva vidur jānanti

 

Baladeva


tad evam ārtādayaḥ sa-kāmā mad-bhaktāḥ kāmān anubhūyānte māṃ prapadya vindanti mad-anya-deva-bhaktās tu saṃsarantīty uktam | atha tebhyo ‚nyo ‚pi sa-kāmo mad-bhakto ‚stīty ucyate jareti | ye jarā-maraṇābhyāṃ vimokṣāya tan-mātra-kāmāḥ santo mām āśritya mad-arcāṃ sevitvā yatante | tat-praṇāmādi kurvanti | te tat prasiddhaṃ brahma kṛtsnaṃ sa-parikaraṃ vidur adhyātmaṃ cākhilaṃ karma ca viduḥ | brahmādi-śabdānām adhibhūtādi-śabdānāṃ cārthāḥ parasminn adhyāye bhagavataiva vyākhyāsyante | mad-arcā-sevayā vijñeyaṃ vijñāya muktiṃ labhante, na tu mad-vaśyatā-karīṃ mat-priyatām ity arthaḥ | smṛtiś caivam āha sakṛd yad aṅga pratmānta-rahitā mona-mayīṃ bhāgavatīṃ dadau gatim ity ādyā

 
 

BhG 7.30

sādhi-bhūtādhi-daivaṃ māṃ sādhi-yajñaṃ ca ye viduḥ
prayāṇa-kāle pi ca māṃ te vidur yukta-cetasaḥ

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syntax


ye (those who) mām (me) sādhibhūtādhidaivam (being [identical] with the Supreme Being and the Supreme Divinity) sādhiyajñam ca (being [identical] with the Supreme Sacrifice) viduḥ (they learned),
te yukta-cetasaḥ (those whose minds are engaged) prayāṇa-kāle api (even at the time of death) mām (me) viduḥ (they learned).

 

grammar

sādhi-bhūtādhi-daivam sa-adhi-bhūta-adhi-daiva 2n.1 m.; DV / BV: adhibhūtena adhidaivena ca sahitam iti being [identical] with the Supreme Being and the Supreme Divinity (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; adhi – over, above; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity, daiva – divine, pertaining to divinities, destiny);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
sādhi-yajñam sa-adhi-yajña 2n.1 m.; BV: adhiyajñena sahitam iti being [identical] with the Supreme Sacrifice (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; adhi – over, above; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
ca av.and;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know, they learned;
prayāṇa-kāle prayāṇa-kāla 7n.1 m.; [TP]: prayāṇasya kāla itiat he end of time, at the time of death (from: pra-– to depart, prayāṇa – departure, journey, death; kal – to count, kāla – time);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know, they learned;
yukta-cetasaḥ yukta-cetas 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ ceto yuktam asti tethose whose minds are engaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with; cit – to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);

 

textual variants


sādhibhūtādhidaivaṁ → sādhibhūtādidaivaṁ / sādhibhūtādhibhūtaṁ (the Supreme Being being together with the Supreme Being);
ca ye → ca te / yathā / tathā / ca tad (and they / as / so / and that);
 
 

Śāṃkara


sādhibhūtādhidaivam adhibhūtaṃ cādhidaivaṃ cādhibhūtādhidaivam, sahādhibhūtādhidaivena vartata iti sādhibhūtādhidaivaṃ ca māṃ ye viduḥ | sādhiyajñaṃ ca sahādhiyajñena sādhiyajñaṃ ye viduḥ, prayāṇa-kāle maraṇa-kāle’pi ca māṃ te viduḥ | yukta-cetasaḥ samāhita-cittā iti

 

Rāmānuja


atra ya iti punar nirdeśāt pūrvanirdiṣṭavyo ‚nye adhikāriṇo jñāyante; sādhibhūtaṃ sādhidaivaṃ mām aiśvaryārthino ye viduḥ ity etad anuvādasarūpam apy aprāptārthatvād vidhāyakam eva; tathā sādhiyajñam ity api trayāṇām adhikāriṇām aviśeṣeṇa vidhīyate; arthasvabhāvyāt / trayāṇāṃ hi nityanaimittikarūpamahāyajñādyanuṣṭhānam avarjanīyam / te ca prayāṇakāle ‚pi svaprāpyānuguṇaṃ māṃ viduḥ / te ceti cakārāt pūrve jarāmaraṇamokṣāya yatamānāś ca prayāṇakāle vidur iti samuccīyante; anena jñānino ‚py arthasvābhāvyāt sādhiyajñaṃ māṃ viduḥ, prayāṇakāle ‚pi svaprāpyānuguṇaṃ māṃ vidur ity uktaṃ bhavati

 

Śrīdhara


na caivaṃ-bhūtānāṃ yoga-bhraṃśa-śaṅkāpīty āha sādhibhūteti | adhibhūtādi-śabdānām arthaṃ śrī-bhagavān evottarādhyāye vyākhyāsyati | adhibhūtenādhidaivena ca sahādhiyajñena ca saha māṃ ye jānanti te yukta-cetaso mayy āsakta-manasaḥ prayāṇa-kāle ‚pi maraṇa-samaye ‚pi māṃ vidur jānanti | na tu tad api vyākulībhūya māṃ vismaranti | ato mad-bhaktānāṃ na yoga-bhraṃśa-śaṅketi bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


na caivaṃ-bhūtānāṃ mad-bhaktānāṃ mṛtyu-kāle ‚pi vivaśa-karaṇatayā mad-vismaraṇaṃ śaṅkanīyaṃ, yataḥ sādhibhūtādhidaivam adhibhūtādidaivābhyāṃ sahitaṃ tathā sādhiyajñaṃ cādhiyajñena ca sahitaṃ māṃ ye viduś cintayanti te yukta-cetasaḥ sarvadā mayi samāhita-cetasaḥ santas tat-saṃskāra-pāṭavāt prayāṇa-kāle prāṇotkramaṇa-kāle karaṇa-grāmasyātyanta-vyagratāyām api | ca-kārād ayatnenaiva mat-kṛpayā māṃ sarvātmānaṃ vidur jānanti | teṣāṃ mṛti-kāle ‚pi mad-ākāraiva citta-vṛttiḥ pūrvopacita-saṃskāra-pāṭavād bhavati | tathā ca te mad-bhakti-yogāt kṛtārthā eveti bhāvaḥ |

adhibhūtādhidaivādhiyajña-śabdānuttare ‚dhyāye ‚rjuna-praśna-pūrvakaṃ vyākhyāsyati bhagavān iti sarvam anāvilam | tad atrottamādhikāriṇaṃ prati jñeyaṃ madhyamādhikāriṇaṃ prati ca dhyeyaṃ lakṣaṇayā mukhyayā ca vṛttyā tat-pada-pratipādyaṃ brahma nirūpitam

 

Viśvanātha


mad-bhakti-prabhāvād yeṣām īdṛśaṃ maj-jñānaṃ syāt teṣām anta-kāle ‚pi tad eva jñānaṃ syāt | na tv anyeṣām iva karmopasthāpitā bhāvi-deha-prāpty-anurūpā matir ity āha sādhibhūteti | adhibhūtādayo ‚grimādhyāye vyākhyāsyante | bhaktā eva hares tattva-vido māyāṃ taranti, te coktāḥ ṣaḍ-vidhā atrety adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ

 

Baladeva


na ca tat-sevayā prāptaṃ taj-jñānaṃ kadācid api bhraṃśety āha sādhīti | adhibhūtenādhidaivenādhiyajñena ca sahitaṃ māṃ ye viduḥ sat-prasaṅgāj jānanti, te prayāṇa-kāle mṛtyu-samaye ‚pi māṃ vidur na tu tad-anyavad vyagrāḥ santo māṃ vismarantīty arthaḥ

 
 

BhG 7.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi ekonatriṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation

Thus [ends] the twenty-ninth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants

iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde jagat-prasūti-yogaḥ / prakṛti-bhedaḥ / jñāna-yogaḥ / vijñāna-yogaḥ / vijṇāna-yogo brahma-prāpti-mārga-darśaka-yogaḥ / guṇa-vijñāna-yogaḥ samagra-darśanaḥ / samagra-darśanaḥ / parāpara-yogaḥ / parama-haṃsa-yogaḥ / jñāna-vijñāna-varṇana-yogaḥ/ jñāna-yoga-kathanaṃ / parama-haṃsa-vijñāna-brahma-yogaḥ / parāvara-prakṛti-yogaḥ / jñāna-vijñāna-yogaḥ saptamo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the seventh chapter entitled: The Yoga of Birth of the World / Diversity of Nature / The Yoga of Knowledge / The Yoga of Wisdom / The Yoga of Wisdom and the Yoga of Showing the Path of Attaining Brahman / The Yoga of Knowledge of the Guṇas and Showing of the Whole / Showing of the Whole / The Yoga of Superior and Inferior / The Yoga of the Supreme Swan / The Yoga of Description of Knowledge and Wisdom / Disscourse on Yoga of Knowledge / Brahman’s Yoga of Wisdom of the Supreme Swan / The Yoga of the Superior and Inferior Nature / The Yoga of Knowledge and Wisdom.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 

Śrīdhara


kṛṣṇa-bhaktair ayatnena brahma-jñānam avāpyate |
iti vijñāna-yogārthaṃ saptame saṃprakāśitam ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmikṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
vijñāna-yogo nāma saptamo ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu saptamo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||

 

Baladeva


māṃ vidus tattvato bhaktā man-māyām uttaranti te |
te punaḥ pañcadhety eṣa saptamasya vinirṇayaḥ ||