athāṣṭamo ‘dhyāyaḥ – akṣara-brahma-yogaḥ

Now the eighth chapter: “The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman”

Rāmānuja


saptame parasya brahmaṇo vāsudevasyopāsyatvam nikhilacetanācetanavastuśeṣitvam, kāraṇatvam, ādhāratvam, sarvaśarīratayā sarvaprakāratvena sarvaśabdavācyatvam, sarvaniyantṛtvam, sarvaiś ca kalyāṇaguṇagaṇais tasyaiva parataratvam, sattvarajastamomayair dehendriyatvena bhogyatvena cāvasthitair bhāvair anādikālapravṛttaduṣkṛtapravāhahetukais tasya tirodhānam, atyutkṛṣṭasukṛtahetukabhagavatprapattyā sukṛtatāratamyena ca pratipattivaiśeṣyād aiśvaryākṣarayāthātmyabhagavatprāptyapekṣayopāsakabhedam, bhagavantaṃ prepsor nityayuktatayaikabhaktitayā cātyarthaparamapuruṣapriyatvena ca śraiṣṭhyam durlabhatvaṃ ca pratipādya eṣāṃ trayāṇāṃ jñātavyopādeyabhedāṃś ca prāstauṣīt / idānīm aṣṭame prastutān jñātavyopādeyabhedān vivinakti

 

Śrīdhara


brahma-karmādhibhūtādi viduḥ kṛṣṇaika-cetasaḥ |
ity uktaṃ brahma-karmādi spaṣṭam aṣṭama ucyate ||

 

Madhusūdana


pūrvādhyāyānte te brahma tad viduḥ kṛtsnam adhyātmaṃ karma cākhilam ity ādinā sārdha-ślokena sapta-padārthā jñeyatvena bhagavatā sūtritās teṣāṃ vṛtti-sthānīyo ‚yam aṣṭamo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | tatra sūtritāni sapta-vastūni viśeṣato bubhutsamānaḥ ślokābhyām | taj-jñeyatvenoktaṃ brahma kiṃ sopādhikaṃ nirupādhikaṃ vā | evam ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya tasminn adhiṣṭhāne tiṣṭhatīty adhyātmaṃ kiṃ śrotrādikaraṇa-grāmo vā pratyak-caitanyaṃ vā | tathā karma cākhilam ity atra kiṃ karma yajña-rūpam anyad vā vijñāntaṃ yajñaṃ tanute karmāṇi tanute ‚pi ca iti śrutau dvaividhya-śravaṇāt|

 

Viśvanātha


pārtha-praśnottaraṃ yogaṃ miśrāṃ bhaktiṃ prasaṅgataḥ |
śuddhāṃ ca bhaktiṃ provāca dve gatī api cāsṭame ||

 

Baladeva


utkān pṛṣṭaḥ kramād vyākhyad brahmādīn harir aṣṭame |
yoga-miśrāṃ ca śuddhāṃ ca bhakti-mārga-dvayaṃ tathā ||

 
 

BhG 8.1

arjuna uvāca
kiṃ tad brahma kim adhy-ātmaṃ kiṃ karma puruṣottama
adhi-bhūtaṃ ca kiṃ proktam adhi-daivaṃ kim ucyate

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he puruṣottama (O best among men),
tat brahma (that brahman) kim [asti] (what is it?),
adhy-ātmam (the Supreme Self) kim [asti] (what is it?),
karma (activity) kim [asti] (what is it?),
adhi-bhūtam (the Supreme Being) kim proktam (what is called?),
kim ca (and what?) adhi-daivam (the Supreme Divinity) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
adhy-ātmam adhi-ātma 1n.1 n. the Supreme Self (adhi – over, above; ātman – self);
kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
karma karman 1n.1 n.activity (from: kṛ – to do);
puruṣottama puruṣa-uttama 8n.1 m.; [TP]: puruṣāṇām uttametiO best among men (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
adhi-bhūtam adhi-bhūta 1n.1 n. the Supreme Being (from: adhi – over, above; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
ca av.and;
kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
proktam prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.spoken, called;
adhi-daivam adhi-daiva 1n.1 n.the Supreme Divinity (from: adhi – over, above; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity, daiva – divine, pertaining to divinities, destiny);
kim kim sn. 1n.1 n.what?
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is spoken, it is called;

 

textual variants


adhy-ātmaṁ adhy-ātma / adhy-ātman / adhy-ātmā (the Supreme Self);
adhi-bhūtaṁādhi-bhūtaṁ (the Supreme Being);
kiṁ proktam → me proktam (spoken to me);
 
 

Śāṃkara


commentary under the verse BhG 8.2

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 8.2

 

Śrīdhara


pūrvādhyāyānte bhagavatopakṣiptānāṃ brahmādhyātmādi-saptānāṃ padarthānāṃ tattvaṃ jijñāsur arjuna uvāca kiṃ tad brahmeti dvābhyām | spaṣṭo ‚rthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tava mama ca samatvāt kathaṃ tvaṃ māṃ pṛcchasīti śaṅkām apanudan sarva-puruṣebhya uttamasya sarvajñasya tava na kiṃcid ajñeyam iti saṃbodhanena sūcayati he puruṣottameti | adhibhūtaṃ ca kiṃ proktaṃ pṛthivyādibhūtam adhikṛtya yat kiṃcit kāryam adhibhūta-padena vivakṣitaṃ kiṃ vā samastam eva kārya-jātam | ca-kāraḥ sarveṣāṃ praśnānāṃ samuccayārthaḥ | adhidaivaṃ kim ucyate devatā-viṣayam anudhyānaṃ vā sarvadaivateṣv ādiyta-maṇḍalādiṣv anusyūtaṃ caitanyaṃ vā

 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 8.2

 

Baladeva


pūrvādhyāyānte mumukṣāṇāṃ jñeyatayoddiṣṭān brahmādīn saptārthān viboddhum arjunaḥ pṛcchati | kiṃ tad brahmeti kiṃ paramātma-caitanyaṃ vā | kiṃ jīvātma-caitanyaṃ vā tad brahmety arthaḥ | kim adhyātmam iti ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtyeti nirukteḥ | śrotrādīndriya-vṛndaṃ vā sūkṣma-bhūta-vṛndaṃ vā tad iti | āvayos taulyāt kim iti māṃ pṛcchasīti śaṅkāṃ nivartayituṃ sambodhanaṃ he puruṣottameti | pareśatvāt tava sarvaṃ suviditaṃ na tu memeti bhāvaḥ | adhibhūtaṃ ca kim iti bhūtāny adhikṛtyeti nirukter ghaṭyādi-kāryaṃ vā sthūla-śarīraṃ vā tad iti | adhidaivaṃ kim iti devatā-viṣayakam anudhyānaṃ vā samaṣṭir virāṭ vā tad iti

 
 

BhG 8.2

adhi-yajñaḥ kathaṃ ko tra dehe smin madhusūdana
prayāṇa-kāle ca kathaṃ jñeyo si niyatātmabhiḥ

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he madusūdana (O slayer of Madhu!)
atra (here) adhi-yajñaḥ (the Supreme Sacrifice) kaḥ (who).
asmin dehe (in this body) saḥ katham [asti] (how is he?).
prayāṇa-kāle ca (and at the time of death) niyatātmabhiḥ (by those whose self is controlled) katham (how?) [tvam] jñeyaḥ (you to be known) asi (you are).

 

grammar

adhi-yajñaḥ adhi-yajña 1n.1 m. the Supreme Sacrifice (from: adhi – over, above; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
katham av.how?, in what manner?
kaḥ kim sn. 1n.1 m.who?;
atra av.here;
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear);
asmin idam sn. 7n.1 m.in this;
madhusūdana madhu-sūdana 8n.1 m.O slayer of Madhu (from: madhu – sweet, name of a demon; sūd – to put in order, to kill, sūdana – killing, destroying);
prayāṇa-kāle prayāṇa-kāla 7n.1 m.; [TP]: prayāṇasya kāla itiat he end of time, at the time of death (from: pra-– to depart, prayāṇa – departure, journey, death; kal – to count, kāla – time);
ca av.and;
katham av.how?, in what manner?
jñeyaḥ jñeya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 m.to be known, to be learnt;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
niyatātmabhiḥ niyata-ātman 3n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā niyato ‘sti taiḥby those whose self is controlled (from: ni-yam – to hold back, [PP] niyata – held back; ātman – self);

 

textual variants

adhi-yajñaḥ → ādhi-yajñaḥ (the Supreme Sacrifice);
adhi-yajñaḥ kathaṁ ko traadhi-yajñaś ca kas tatra (and who is here the Supreme Sacrifice?);
prayāṇa-kāle ca → prayāṇa-kāle ‘pi (although at the time of death);

 
 

Śāṃkara


te brahma tad viduḥ kṛtsnam ity ādinā bhagavatārjunasya praśna-bījāni upadiṣṭani | atas tat-praśnārtham arjuna uvāca—

 

Rāmānuja


jarāmaraṇamokṣāya bhagavantam āśritya yatamānānāṃ jñātavyatayoktaṃ tad brahma adhyātmaṃ ca kim iti vaktavyam / aiśvaryārthīnāṃ jñātavyam adhibhūtam adhidaivaṃ ca kim? trayāṇāṃ jñātavyo ‚dhiyajñaśabdanirdiṣṭaś ca kaḥ? tasya cādhiyajñabhāvaḥ katham? prayāṇakāle ca ebhis tribhir niyatātmabhiḥ kathaṃ jñeyo ‚si?

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca – adhiyajña iti | atra dehe you yajño nivartate tasmin ko ‚dhiyajño ‚dhiṣṭhātā | prayojakaḥ phala-dātā ca ka ity arthaḥ | svarūpaṃ pṛṣṭvādhiṣṭhāna-prakāraṃ pṛcchati – kathaṃ kena prakāreṇāsāv asmin dehe sthito yajñam adhitiṣṭhantīty arthaḥ | yajña-grahaṇaṃ sarva-karmaṇām upalakṣaṇārtham | anta-kāle ca niyata-cittaiḥ puruṣaiḥ kathaṃ kenopāyena jñeyo ‚si

 

Madhusūdana


adhiyajño yajñam adhigato devatātmā vā para-brahma vā | sa ca kathaṃ kena prakāreṇa cintanīyaḥ | kiṃ tādātmyena kiṃ vātyantābhedena | sarvathāpi sa kim asmin dehe vartate tato bahir vā | dehe cet sa ko ‚tra buddhyādis tad-vyatirikto vā | adhiyajñaḥ kathaṃ ko ‚treti na praśna-dvayam | kintu saprakāra eka eva praśna iti draṣṭavyam | parama-kāruṇikatvād āyāsenāpi sarvopadrava-nivārakasya bhagavato ‚nāyāsena mat-sanehopadrava-nivāraṇam īṣatkaram ucitam eveti sūcayan sambodhayati he madhusūdaneti

 

Viśvanātha


pūrvādhyāyānte brahmādi-sapta-padārthānāṃ jñānaṃ bhagavatoktam | atra teṣāṃ tattvaṃ jijñāsuḥ pṛcchati dvābhyām | atra dehe ko ‚dhiyajño yajñādhiṣṭhātā, sa cāsmin dehe kathaṃ jñeya ity uttarasyānusaṅgī

 

Baladeva


adhiyajñaḥ ka iti yajñam adhigata indrādir vā viṣṇur vā sa iti | katham iti tasyādhiyajña-bhāvaḥ katham ity arthaḥ | etat sarvaṃ mat-sandeha-nivāraṇaṃ taveṣatkaram iti bodhayituṃ sambodhanaṃ – he madhusūdaneti | prayāṇeti tadā sarvendriya-vyagratayā citta-samādhānāsmabhavād iti bhāvaḥ

 
 

BhG 8.3

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
akṣaraṃ brahma paramaṃ sva-bhāvo dhy-ātmam ucyate
bhūta-bhāvodbhava-karo visargaḥ karma-saṃjñitaḥ

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śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
paramam (the supreme) akṣaram (imperishable) brahma [ucyate] (is called Brahman),
sva-bhāvaḥ (own nature) adhy-ātmam (the Supreme Self) ucyate (is called),
bhūta-bhāvodbhava-karaḥ (making the existence and generation of creatures) visargaḥ (emanation) karma-saṁjñitaḥ (is called an activity).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
akṣaram a-kṣara 1n.1 n. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
paramam parama 1n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
sva-bhāvaḥ sva-bhāva 1n.1 m.; [TP]: svasya bhāvaown nature, natural state (from: sva – own; bhāva – being, state, nature);
adhy-ātmam adhi-ātma 1n.1 n. the Supreme Self (adhi – over, above; ātman – self);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;
bhūta-bhāvodbhava-karaḥ bhūta-bhāva-udbhava-kara 1n.1 m.; DV / [TP]: bhūtānāṁ bhāvam udbhavaṁ ca kara iti – making the existence and generation of creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions; ud-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, udbhava – springing from, production; kṛ – to do, kara – a a doer, cause);
visargaḥ vi-sarga 1n.1 m.emanation, creation (from: vi-sṛj – to let go, to emit);
karma-saṁjñitaḥ karma-saṁjñita 1n.1 m.known as activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; sam-jñā – to be of one opinion, to understand, caus. [PP] saṁjñita – made known, communicated, called);

 

textual variants


brahma paramaṁ paramaṁ brahma (the supreme Brahman);
dhy-ātmam dhy-ātma (the Supreme Self);
karma-saṁjñitaḥ → karma-saṁjñitam / karma-saṁjñakaḥ (known as activity);
 
 

Śāṃkara


eṣāṃ praśnānāṃ yathā-kramaṃ nirṇayāya śrī-bhagavān uvāca—

akṣaraṃ na kṣaratīty akṣaraṃ para ātmā, etasya vākṣarasya praśāsane gārgi [bhāvātmauttaṃ 3.8.9] iti śruteḥ | oṃkārasya ca om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahma [gītā 8.13] iti pareṇa viśeṣaṇād agrahaṇam | paramam iti ca niratiśaye brahmaṇy akṣare upapannataraṃ viśeṣaṇam | tasyaiva parasya brahmaṇaḥ pratidehaṃ pratyag-ātma-bhāvaḥ svabhāvaḥ | svo bhāvaḥ svabhāvo’dhyātmam ucyate | ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya pratyag-ātmatayā pravṛttaṃ paramārtha-brahmāvasānaṃ vastu svabhāvo’dhyātmam ucyate’dhyātma-śabdenābhidhīyate | bhūta-bhāvodbhava-karo bhūtānāṃ bhāvo bhūta-bhāvas tasya udbhavo bhūta-bhāvodbhavas taṃ karotīti bhūta-bhāvodbhava-karaḥ, bhūta-vastūtpatti-kara ity arthaḥ | visargo visarjanaṃ devatoddeśena caru-puroḍāśāder dravyasya parityāgaḥ | sa eṣa visarga-lakṣaṇo yajñaḥ karma-saṃjñitaḥ karma-śabdita ity etat | etasmāt hi bīja-bhūtād vṛṣṭyaādi-krameṇa sthāvara-jaṅgamāni bhūtāny udbhavanti

 

Rāmānuja


tadbrahmeti nirdiṣṭaṃ paramam akṣaraṃ na kṣaratīty akṣaram, kṣetrajñasamaṣṭirūpam / tathā ca śrutiḥ, „avyaktam akṣare līyate akṣaraṃ tamasi līyate” ityādikā / paramam akṣaraṃ prakṛtivinirmuktam ātmasvarūpam / svabhāvo ‚dhyātmam ucyate / svabhāvaḥ prakṛtiḥ / anātmabhūtam, ātmani saṃbadhyamānaṃ bhūtasūkṣmatadvāsanādikaṃ pañcāgnividyāyāṃ jñātavyatayoditam / tadubhayaṃ prāpyatayā tyājyatayā ca mumukṣubhir jñātavyam / bhūtabhāvodbhavakaro visargaḥ karmasaṃjñitaḥ / bhūtabhāvaḥ manuṣyādibhāvaḥ; tadudbhavakaro yo visargaḥ, „pañcamyām āhutāv āpaḥ puruṣavacaso bhavanti” iti śrutisiddho yoṣitsaṃbandhajaḥ, sa karmasaṃjñitaḥ / tac cākhilaṃ sānubandham udvejanīyatayā, pariharaṇīyatayā ca mumukṣubhir jñātavyam / pariharaṇīyatayā cānantaram eva vakṣyate, „yad icchanto brahmacaryaṃ caranti” iti

 

Śrīdhara


praśna-krameṇaivottaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca akṣaram iti tribhiḥ | na kṣarati na calatīty akṣaram | nanu jīvo ‚py akṣaraḥ | paramaṃ yad akṣaraṃ jagato mūla-kāraṇaṃ tad braham | etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadantīti śruteḥ | svasyaiva brahmaṇa evāṃśatayā jīva-rūpeṇa bhavanaṃ svabhāvaḥ | sa evātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya bhoktṛtvena vartamāno ‚dhyātma-śabdenocyate ity arthaḥ | bhūtānāṃ jarāyujādīnāṃ bhāva utpattiḥ | udbhavaś ca utkṛṣṭatvena bhavanam udbhavaḥ |

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣṭir vṛṣṭer annaṃ tataḥ prajā ||

iti krameṇa vṛddhiḥ | tau bhūta-bhāvodbhavau karoti yo visargo devatoddeśena dravya-tyāga-rūpo yajñaḥ | sarva-karmaṇām upalakṣaṇam etat sa ca karma-śabda-vācyaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ saptānāṃ praśnānāṃ krameṇottaraṃ tribhiḥ ślokaiḥ | praśna-krameṇa hi nirṇaye praṣṭur abhīṣṭa-siddhir anāyāsena syādity abhiprāyavān bhagavān atra śloke praśna-trayaṃ krameṇa nirdhāritavān | evaṃ dvitīya-śloke ‚pi praśna-trayaṃ tṛtīya-śloke tv ekam iti vibhāgaḥ | nirupādhikam eva brahmātra vivakṣitaṃ brahma-śabdena na tu sopādhikam iti prathama-praśnasyottaram āha – akṣaraṃ na kṣaratīty avināśi aśnute vā sarvam iti sarva-vyāpakam | etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadanty asthūlam anaṇu ity ādy upakramya etasya vā akṣarasya praśāsane gārgi sūryā-candramasau vidhṛtau tiṣṭhataḥ nānyad ato ‚sti draṣṭṛ śrutir ityādi madhye parāmṛśya etasmin tu khalv akṣarae gārgy ākāśa otaś ca protaś ca ity upasaṃhṛtaṃ śrutyā | sarvopādhi-śūnyaṃ sarvasya praśāsitṛ, avyākṛtākāśāntasya kṛtsnasya prapañcasya dhārayitṛ | asmiṃś ca śarīrendriya-saṃghāte vijñātṛ | nirupādhikaṃ caitanyaṃ tad iha brahmeti vivakṣitam | etad eva vivṛṇoti paramam iti | paramaṃ sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-rūpaṃ praśāsanasya kṛtsna-jaḍa-varga-dhāraṇasya ca liṅgasya tatraivopapatteḥ | akṣaram ambarānta-dhṛteḥ (Vs 1.3.10) iti nyāyāt |

na tv ihākṣara-śabdasya varṇa-mātre rūḍhatvāc chruti-liṅgādhikaraṇa-nyāya-mūlakena rūḍhir yogam apaharati iti nyāyena rathakāra-śabdena jāti-viśeṣavat-praṇavākhyam akṣaram eva grāhyaṃ tatrokta-liṅga-sambhavāt | om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahmeti ca pareṇa viśeṣaṇāt ānaarthakya-pratihatānāṃ viparītaṃ balābalam iti nyāyāt | varṣāsu rathakāra ādadhīta ity atra tu jāti-viśeṣe nāsty asambhava iti viśeṣaḥ | ananyathā-siddhena tu liṅgena śruter bādhaḥ ākāśas tal-liṅgāt ity ādau vivṛtaḥ | etāvāṃs tv iha viśeṣaḥ | ananyathā-siddhena liṅgena śruter bādhe yatra yogaḥ sambhavati tatra sa eva gṛhyate mukhyatvāt | yathājyaiḥ stuvate pṛṣṭaiḥ stuvata ity ādau | yathā cātraivākṣara-śabde | yatra tu yogo ‚pi na sambhavati tatra gauṇī vṛttir yathākāśa-prāṇādi-śabdeṣu | ākāśa-śabdasyāpi brahmaṇi ā samantāt kāśata iti yogaḥ sambhavatīti cet | sa eva gṛhyatām iti pañcapādīkṛtaḥ | tathā ca parāmarṣaṃ sūtraṃ prasiddheś ca (Vs 1.3.17) iti | kṛtam atra vistareṇa |

tad evaṃ kiṃ tad brahmeti nirṇītam | adhunā kim adhyātmam iti nirṇīyate | yad akṣaraṃ brahmety uktaṃ tasyaiva svabhāvaḥ svo bhāvaḥ svarūpaṃ pratyak-caitanyaṃ na tu svasya bhāva iti ṣaṣṭhī-samāsaḥ | lakṣaṇāprasaṅgāt, ṣaṣṭhī-tatpuruṣa-bādhena karma-dhāraya-parigrahasya śruta-padārthānvayena viṣāda-sthapaty-adhikaraṇa-siddhatvāt | tasmān na brahmaṇaḥ saṃbandhi kintu brahma-svarūpam eva | ātmānaṃ deham adhikṛtya bhoktṛtayā vartamānam adhyātmam ucyate ‚dhyātma-śabdenābhidhīyate na karaṇa-grāma ity arthaḥ |

yāga-dāna-homātmakaṃ vaidikaṃ karmaivātra karma-śabdena vivikṣitam iti tṛtīya-praśnottaram āha bhūtānāṃ bhavana-dharmakāṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānāṃ bhāvam utpattim udbhavaṃ vṛddhiṃ ca karoti yo visargas tyāgasta-tac-chāstra-vihito yāga-dāna-homātmakaḥ sa iha karma-saṃjñitaḥ | karma-śabdenokta iti yāvat | tatra devatoddeśena dravya-tyāgo yāga uttiṣṭhad dhomo vaṣaṭ-kāra-prayogāntaḥ | sa evopaviṣṭa-homaḥ svāhā-kāra-prayogānta āsecana-paryanto homaḥ | para-svatvāpatti-paryantaḥ svatva-tyāgo dānam | sarvatra ca tyāgāṃśo ‚nugataḥ | tasya ca bhā̆ta-bhāvodbhava-karatvam-

agnau prāstāhutiḥ samyag ādityam upatiṣṭhate |
ādityāj jāyate vṛṣṭir vṛṣṭer annaṃ tataḥ prajāḥ || iti smṛteḥ |

te vā ete āhutī hute utkrāmataḥ ity ādi śruteś ca

 

Viśvanātha


uttaram āha akṣaram iti | na kṣaratīti akṣaraṃ nityaṃ yat paramaṃ tad brahma– etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadantīti śruteḥ | svabhāvaḥ svātmānaṃ dehādhyāsa-vaśād bhāvayati janayatīti svabhāvaḥ jīvaḥ | yad vā svaṃ bhāvayati paramātmānaṃ prāpayatīti svabhāvaḥ śuddha-jīvo ‚dhyātmam ucyate | adhyātma-śabda-vācya ity arthaḥ | bhūtair eva bhāvānāṃ manuṣyādi-dehānām udbhavaṃ karotīti sa visargo jīvasya saṃsāraḥ karma-janyatvāt karma-saṃjñaḥ | karma-śabdena jīvasya saṃsāra ucyata ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ pṛṣṭo bhagavān krameṇa saptānām uttaram āha akṣaram iti | na kṣaratīti nirkter akṣaraṃ yat paramaṃ dehādi-viviktaṃ jīvātma-caitanyaṃ tan mayā brahmety ucyate | tasyākṣara-śabdatvaṃ brahma-śabdatvaṃ ca-avyaktam akṣare līyate ‚kṣaraṃ tamasi līyate tama ekībhavati parasminn iti vijñānaṃ brahma ced veda iti śruteḥ |

svabhāva iti | svasya jīvātmanaḥ sambandhī yo bhāvo bhūta-sūkṣma-tad-vāsanā-lakṣaṇa-padārthaḥ | pañcāgni-vidyāyāṃ paṭhitas tad-ātmani saṃbadhyamānatvān mayādhyātmam ucyate |

bhūteti teṣāṃ sūkṣmāṇāṃ bhūtānāṃ sthūlais taiḥ saṃpṛktānāṃ bhāvo manuṣyādi-lakṣaṇas tad-udbhava-karas tad-utpādako yo visargaḥ sa karma saṃjñitaḥ | jyotiṣṭomādi-karmaṇā svargam āsādya tasmin deva-dehena tat-karmopabhujya-bhāṇḍa-saṃkrānta-ghṛta-śeṣavad-bhogorvarito yaḥ karma-śeṣo bhuvi manuṣyādi-deha-lābhāya visṛṣṭas tan mayā karmocyate | chāndogye dyu-parjanya-pṛthivī-puruṣa-yoṣitsu pañcasv agniṣu śraddhā-soma-vṛṣṭy-anna-retāṃsi kramāt pañcāhutayaḥ paṭhyante | tatrāyam arthaḥ – vaidiko jīva iha loke ‚smayāni dadhy-ādīni śraddhayā juhoti | tā dadhy-ādimayyaḥ pañcīkṛtatvāt pañca-bhūta-rūpā āpaḥ śraddhayā hutatvāt śraddhākhyāhuti-svarūpeṇa tasmin jīve saṃbaddhās tiṣṭhanti | atha tasmin mṛte tad-indriyādhiṣṭhātāro devās tā dyulokāgnau juhvati | tadvantaṃ jīvaṃ divaṃ nayantīty arthaḥ | hutāstāḥ soma-rājākhya-divya-dehatayā pariṇamante tena dehena sa tatra karma-phalāni bhuṅkte | tad-bhogāvasāne ‚smayo jīvavān dehais tair devaiḥ parjanyāgnau huto vṛṣṭir bhavati | vṛṣṭi-bhūtās tāḥ sajīvāḥ pṛthivy-agnau tair hutā brīhy-ādy-anna-bhāvaṃ labhante | anna-bhūtāḥ sajīvās tāḥ puruṣāgnau hutā reto-bhāvaṃ bhajante | reto-bhūtāḥ sa-jīvās tā yoṣid-agnau tair hutā garbhātmanā sthitā manuṣya-bhāvaṃ prayāntīti tad-bhāva-hetur anuśaya-śabda-vācyaḥ karma-śeṣaḥ karmeti | evam evoktaṃ sūtrakṛtā tad-antara-pratipattau ity ādibhiḥ

 
 

BhG 8.4

adhi-bhūtaṃ kṣaro bhāvaḥ puruṣaś cādhi-daivatam
adhi-yajño ham evātra dehe deha-bhṛtāṃ vara

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syntax


he deha-bhṛtāṁ vara (O best of those who hold the body!),
kṣaraḥ (perishable) bhāvaḥ (existence) adhi-bhūtam [ucyate] (is called the Supreme Being),
puruṣaḥ ca (and Man) adhi-daivatam [ucyate] (is called the Supreme Divinity).
atra dehe (in this body) aham eva (I indeed) adhi-yajñaḥ [asmi] (I am the Supreme Sacrifice).

 

grammar

adhi-bhūtam adhi-bhūta 1n.1 n. the Supreme Being (from: adhi – over, above; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
kṣaraḥ kṣara 1n.1 m. perishable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish);
bhāvaḥ bhāva 1n.1 m.state, existence, nature, emotions (from: bhū – to be);
puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
ca av.and;
adhi-daivatam adhi-daivata 1n.1 n.the Supreme Divinity (from: adhi – over, above; div – to shine, to play, devatā – divinity, daivata – divine, związany z bóstwem);
adhi-yajñaḥ adhi-yajña 1n.1 m. the Supreme Sacrifice (from: adhi – over, above; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
atra av.here;
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear);
deha-bhṛtām deha-bhṛt 6n.3 m.; ye dehaṁ bibhrati teṣām – of those who hold the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, bhṛt – suffix: bearer, holder);
vara vara 8n.1 m.chosen, the best, most excellent (from: vṛ – to choose, to like);

 

textual variants


adhi-bhūtaṃ kṣaro adhi-bhūto ‘kṣaro / adhi-bhūtaṃ karo / adhi-bhūtākṣaro (imperishable is the Supreme Being / doer is the Supreme Being / the imperishable Supreme Being);
cādhi-daivatamcādi-daivatam / cādya-daivatam (and the first divinity);
adhi-yajño ham → adhi-yajñoṁ tam / adhi-yajño yam (that Supreme Sacrifice);
 
 

Śāṃkara


adhibhūtaṃ prāṇi-jātam adhikṛtya bhavatīti | ko’sau ? kṣaraḥ kṣaratīti kṣaro vināśī, bhāvo yat kiṃcit janimat vastv ity arthaḥ | puruṣaḥ pūrṇam anena sarvam iti, puri śayanāt vā, puruṣaḥ ādityāntargato hiraṇyagarbhaḥ, sarva-prāṇi-karaṇānām anugrāhakaḥ, so’dhidaivatam | adhiyajñaḥ sarva-yajñābhimāninī viṣṇv-ākhyā devatā, yajño vai viṣṇuḥ [sthitaittsarv 1.7.4] iti śruteḥ | sa hi viṣṇur aham eva | atrāsmin dehe yo yajñas tasyāham adhiyajñaḥ | yajño hi deha-nirvartyatvena deha-samavāyīti dehādhikaraṇo bhavati, deha-bhṛtāṃ vara!

 

Rāmānuja


aiśvaryārthināṃ jñātavyatayā nirdiṣṭam adhibhūtaṃ kṣaro bhāvaḥ viyadādibhūteṣu vartamānaḥ tatpariṇāmaviśeṣaḥ kṣaraṇasvabhāvo vilakṣaṇaḥ śabdasparśādis sāsrayaḥ / vilakṣaṇāḥ sāśrayāś śabdasparśarūparasagandhāḥ aiśvaryārthibhiḥ prāpyās tair anusandheyāḥ / puruṣaś cādhidaivatam adhidaivataśabdanirdiṣṭaḥ puruṣaḥ adhidaivatam devatopari vartamānaḥ, indraprajāpatiprabhṛtikṛtsnadaivatopari vartamānaḥ, indraprajāpatiprabhṛtīnāṃ bhogyajātad vilakṣaṇaśabdāder bhoktā puruṣaḥ / sā ca bhoktṛtvāvasthā aiśvaryārthibhiḥ prāpyatayānusandheyā / adhiyajño ‚ham eva / adhiyajñaḥ yajñair ārādhyatayā vartamānaḥ / atra indrādau mama dehabhūte ātmatayāvasthito ‚ham eva yajñair ārādhya iti mahāyajñādinityanaimittikānuṣṭhānavelāyāṃ trayāṇām adhikāriṇām anusandheyam etat

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca adhibhūtam iti | kṣaro vinaśvaro bhāvo dehādi-padārthaḥ | bhūtaṃ prāṇi-mātram adhikṛtya bhavatīty adhibhūtam ucyate | puruṣo vairājaḥ sūrya-maṇḍala-madhyavartī svāṃśa-bhūta-sarva-devatānām adhipatir adhidaivatam ucyate | adhidaivatam adhiṣṭhātrī devatā |
sa vai śarīrī prathamaḥ sa vai puruṣa ucyate |
ādikartā sa bhūtānāṃ brahmāgre samavartata || iti śruteḥ |

atrāsmin dehe ‚ntaryāmitvena sthito ‚ham evādhiyajño yajñādi-karma-pravartakas tat-phala-dātā ca | katham ity asyāpy uttaram anenaivoktaṃ bhraṣṭavyam | antaryāmiṇo ‚saṅgatvādibhir guṇair jīva-vailakṣaṇyena dehāntarvartitvasya prasiddhatvāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ-

dvā suparṇā sayujā sakhāyā
samānaṃ vṛkṣaṃ pariṣasvajāte |
tayor anyaḥ pippalaṃ svādv atty
anaśnann anyo ‚bhicākaśīti || [MuṇḍU 7.1.1]

deha-bhṛtāṃ madhye śreṣṭheti sambodhayaṃs tvam apy evambhūtam antaryāmiṇaṃ parādhīna-sva-pravṛtti-nivṛtty-anvaya-vyatirekābhyāṃ boddhum arhasīti sūcayati

 

Madhusūdana


sampraty agrima-praśna-trayasyottaram āha adhibhūtam iti | kṣaratīti kṣaro vināśī bhāvo yat kiṃcij janimad vastu bhūtaṃ prāṇi-jātam adhikṛtya bhavatīty adhibhūtam ity ucyate | puruṣo hiraṇyagarbhaḥ samaṣṭi-liṅgātmā vyaṣṭi-sarva-karaṇānugrāhakaḥ ātmaivedam agra āsīt puruṣavidhaḥ ity upakramya sa yat pūrvo ‚smāt sarvasvmāt sarvān pāpmana auṣattasmāt puruṣaḥ ity ādi-śrutyā pratipāditaḥ | ca-kārāt-

sa vai śarīrī prathamaḥ sa vai puruṣa ucyate |
ādikartā sa bhūtānāṃ brahmāgre samavartata ||

ity ādi-smṛtyā ca pratipāditaḥ | adhidaivataṃ daivatāny ādityādīn adhikṛtya cakṣur-ādi-karaṇāny anugṛhṇātīti | tathocyate adhiyajñaḥ sarva-yajñādhiṣṭhātā sarva-yajña-phala-dāyakaś ca | sarva-yajñābhimāninī viṣṇv-ākhyā devatā yajño vai viṣṇuḥ iti śruteḥ | sa ca viṣṇur adhiyajño ‚haṃ vāsudeva eva na mad-bhinnaḥ kaścit | ataeva para-brahmaṇaḥ sakāśād atyantābhedenaiva pratipattavya iti katham iti vyākhyātam | sa cātrāsmin manuṣya-dehe yajña-rūpeṇa vartate buddhyādi-vyatirikto viṣṇu-rūpatvāt | etena sa kim asmin dehe tato bahir vā dehe cet ko ‚tra buddhyādis tad vyatirikto veti sandeho nirastaḥ | manuṣya-dehe ca yajñasyāvasthānaṃ yajñasya manuṣya-deha-nirvartyatvāt | puruṣo vai yajñaḥ puruṣas tena yajño yad enaṃ puruṣas tanute ity ādi śruteḥ |

he deha-bhṛtāṃ vara sarva-prāṇināṃ śreṣṭheti sambodhayan pratikṣaṇaṃ mat-sambhāṣaṇāt kṛtakṛtyas tvam etad-bodha-yogyo ‚sīti protsāhayaty arjunaṃ bhagavān | arjunasya sarva-prāṇi-śreṣṭhatvaṃ bhagavad-anugrahātiśaya-bhājanatvāt prasiddham eva

 

Viśvanātha


kṣaro naśvaro bhāvaḥ padārtho ghaṭa-paṭādir adhibhūtam adhibhūta-śabda-vācyaḥ puruṣaḥ samaṣṭi-virāḍ-adhidaivata-śabda-vācyaḥ | adhikṛtya vartamānāni sūryādi-daivatāni yatra iti tan-nirukteḥ | atra dehe ‚dhiyajño yajñādi-karma-pravartako ‚ntaryāmy ahaṃ mad-aṃśakatvād aham evety eva-kāreṇa kathaṃ jñeya ity asyottaram antaryāmitve ‚ham eva mad-abhinnatve naiva jñeyo na tu adhyātmādir ive mad-bhinnatvenety arthaḥ | dehe deha-bhṛtāṃ vareti tvaṃ tu sākṣān mat-sakhatvāt sarva-śreṣṭha eva bhavasīti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


adhīti | kṣaraḥ pratikṣaṇa-pariṇāmī bhāvaḥ sthūlo dehaḥ sa mayādhibhūtam it ucyate | bhūtaṃ prāṇinam adhikṛtya bhavatīti vyutpatteḥ | puruṣaḥ samaṣṭi-virāṭ sa mayādhidaivam ity ucyate adhikṛtya vartamānāny ādityādīni daivatāny atreti vyutpatteḥ | atra dehe ‚dhiyajño yajñam adhikṛtya vartata iti vyutpattes tat-pravartakas tat-phala-pradaś cāham eva | pratyākhyeyāni tu svayam evohyāni | eva-kāreṇa svasmāt tasya bhedo nirākṛtaḥ | anena katham ity asyāpy uttaram uktaṃ prādeśa-mātra-vapustvenāntar-niyamayann ahaṃ yajñādi-pravartaka ity arthaḥ | tathā ca mad-arcā-sevanād etān brahmādīn saptārthān svarūpato ‚ śrameṇa vindatīti | tatra brahmādhiyajñau prāpyatayādhyātmādīni tu heyatayeti

 
 

BhG 8.5

anta-kāle ca mām eva smaran muktvā kalevaram
yaḥ prayāti sa mad-bhāvaṃ yāti nāsty atra saṃśayaḥ

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anta-kāle ca (and at the time of death) yaḥ (he who) mām eva (me only) smaran (remembering)
kalevaram (body) muktvā (after giving up) prayāti (he departs),
saḥ (he) mad-bhāvam (to my state) yāti (he goes).
atra (here) saṁśayaḥ (doubt) na asti (there is not).

 

grammar

anta-kāle anta-kāla 7n.1 m.; [TP]: antasya kāla itiat he end of time, at the time of death (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death; kal – to count, kāla – time);
ca av.and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
smaran smarant (smṛ to think, to remember) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] remembering;
muktvā muc (to liberate, to release) absol.after giving up, after releasing;
kalevaram kalevara 2n.1 m.body;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
prayāti pra- (to go, to depart) Praes. P 1v.1he departs, he dies;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
mad-bhāvam mad-bhāva 2n.1 m.to my state (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
yāti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
na av.not;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
atra av.here;
saṁśayaḥ saṁśaya 1n.1 m.doubt, hesitation (from: sam-śī – to waver);

 

textual variants


anta-kāle ca mām eva anta-kāle ‘pi mām eva / prayāṇakāle ‘pi ca māṃ (even at the time of death me only / and even at the time of death me – the last one the same as the third pada of verse BhG 7.30);
yaḥ → yā / yat / yaṁ (that which/ what / which);
yāti → yāṁti (they go);
 
 

Śāṃkara


anta-kāle maraṇa-kāle ca mām eva parameśvaraṃ viṣṇuṃ smaran muktvā parityajya kalevaraṃ śarīraṃ yaḥ prayāti gacchati | sa mad-bhāvaṃ vaiṣṇavaṃ tattvaṃ yāti | nāsti na vidyate’trāsminn arthe saṃśayaḥ—yāti vā na veti

 

Rāmānuja


idam api trayāṇāṃ sādhāraṇam / antakāle ca mām eva smaran kalevaraṃ tyaktvā yaḥ prayāti, sa madbhāvaṃ yāti mama yo bhāvaḥ svabhāvaḥ taṃ yāti; tadānīṃ yathā mām anusandhatte, tathāvidhākāro bhavatītyarthaḥ; yathā ādibharatādayas tadānīṃ smaryamāṇamṛgasajātīyākārāt saṃbhūtāḥ

 

Śrīdhara


prayāṇa-kāle ca jñāyo ‚sīty anena pṛṣṭam anta-kāle jñānopāyaṃ tat-phalaṃ ca darśayati anta-kāla iti | mām evokta-lakṣaṇam antaryāmi-rūpaṃ parameśvaraṃ smaran dehaṃ tyaktvā yaḥ prakarṣeṇārcir-ādi-mārgeṇottarāyaṇa-pathā yāti sa mad-bhāvaṃ mad-rūpatāṃ yāti | atra saṃśayo nāsti | smaraṇaṃ jñānopāyaḥ | mad-bhāvāpattiś ca phalam ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ prayāṇa-kāle ca kathaṃ jñeyo ‚sīti saptamasya praśnasyottaram āha anta-kāle ceti | mām eva bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam adhiyajñaṃ sa-guṇaṃ nirguṇaṃ vā paramam akṣaraṃ brahma na tv adhyātmādikaṃ smaran sadā cintayaṃs tat-saṃskāra-pāṭavāt samasta-karaṇa-grāma-vaiyagryavaty anta-kāle ‚pi smaran kalevaraṃ muktvā śarīre ‚haṃ-mamābhimānaṃ tyaktvā prāṇa-viyoga-kāle yaḥ prayāti sa-guṇa-dhyāna-pakṣe ‚gnijyotir-ahaḥ-śukla ity ādi-vacyamāṇena deva-yāna-mārgeṇa pitṛ-yāna-mārgāt prakarṣeṇa yāti sa upāsako mad-bhāvaṃ mad-rūpatāṃ nirguṇa-brahma-bhāvaṃ hiraṇya-garbha-loka-bhogānte yāti prāpnoti | nirguṇa-brahma-smaraṇa-pakṣe tu kalevaraṃ tyaktvā prayātīti loka-dṛṣṭy-abhiprāyaṃ na tasya prāṇā utkrāmanty atraiva samavanīyante iti śrutes tasya prāṇotkramaṇābhāvena gaty-abhāvāt | sa mad-bhāvaṃ sākṣād eva yāti brahmaiva san brahmāpy eti (BAU 4.4.6) iti śruteḥ | nāsty atra deha-vyatirikta ātmani mad-bhāva-prāptau vā saṃśayaḥ | ātmā dehādy-atirikto na vā, deha-vyatireke ‚pi īśvarād bhinno na veti sandeho na vidyate chidyante sarva-saṃśayāḥ (MuṇḍU 2.2.8) iti śruteḥ | atra ca kalevaraṃ muktvā prayātīti dehād bhinnatvaṃ mad-bhāvaṃ yātīti ceśvarād abhinnatvaṃ jīvasyoktam iti draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


prayāṇa-kāle kathaṃ jñeyo ‚sīty asyottaram āha-anta-kāle ceti | mām eva smarann iti mat-smaraṇam eva maj-jñānam | na tu ghaṭa-paṭādir ivāhaṃ kenāpi tattvato jñātuṃ śakya iti bhāvaḥ | smaraṇa-rūpa-jñānasya prakāras tu caturdaśa-śloke vakṣyate

 

Baladeva


prayāṇa-kāle kathaṃ jñeyo ‚sīty asyottaram āha-anteti | atra smaraṇātmakena jñānena jñeyo bhavan-mad-bhāvopalambhanaṃ ca tat phalaṃ prayacchāmīty uktam | tatra mad-bhāvaṃ mat-svabhāvam ity arthaḥ | yathāham apahata-pāpmatvādi-guṇāṣṭaka-viśiṣṭa-svabhāvas tādṛśaḥ sa mat-smartā bhavatīti

 
 

BhG 8.6

yaṃ yaṃ vāpi smaran bhāvaṃ tyajaty ante kalevaram
taṃ tam evaiti kaunteya sadā tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ

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he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
ante (at the end) yam yam api vā (on the other side whichever) bhāvam (state) smaran (remembering) kalevaram (body) tyajati (he abandons),
sadā (always) tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ (created by that state) tam tam [bhāvam] eva (just that [state]) eti (he attains).

 

grammar

yam yam yat sn. 2n.1 m.which; whichever (distributive use);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
smaran smarant (smṛ to think, to remember) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] remembering;
bhāvam bhāva 2n.1 m.state, existence, nature (from: bhū – to be);
tyajati tyaj (to abandon, to give up) Praes. P 1v.1he abandons;
ante anta 7n.1 m.at last, at the end, in time of death;
kalevaram kalevara 2n.1 m.body;
tam tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that; each and every (distributive use);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
eti i (to go) Praes. P 1v.1he goes;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
sadā av.always;
tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ tad-bhāva-bhāvita 1n.1 m.; [TP]: tena bhāvena bhāvita iti created by that state (from: tat – that; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions; caus. [PP] bhāvita – created, maintained);

 

textual variants


vāpi → cāpi / cāṁte (and even / and at the end);
ante → etat (that);
tam evaititam eveti (just this);
tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ → mad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ / sad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ (created by my state / created by real state);
 
 

Śāṃkara


na mad-viṣaya evāyaṃ niyamaḥ | kiṃ tarhi ?—

yaṃ yaṃ vāpi yaṃ yaṃ bhāvaṃ devatā-viśeṣaṃ smaran cintayan tyajati parityajaty ante’nta-kāle prāṇa-viyoga-kāle kalevaraṃ śarīraṃ taṃ tam eva smṛtaṃ bhāvam eva eti nānyaṃ kaunteya, sadā sarvadā tad-bhāva-bhāvitas tasmin bhāvas tad-bhāvaḥ sa bhāvitaḥ smaryamāṇatayābhyasto yena sa tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ san

 

Rāmānuja


smartus svaviṣayasajātīyākāratāpādanam antyapratyayasya svabhāva iti suspaṣṭam āha

ante antakāle yaṃ yaṃ vāpi bhāvaṃ smaran kalebaraṃ tyajati, taṃ taṃ bhāvam eva maraṇānantaram eti / antimapratyayaś ca pūrvabhāvitaviṣaya eva jāyate

 

Śrīdhara


na kevalaṃ māṃ smaran mad-bhāvaṃ prāpnotīti niyamaḥ | kiṃ tarhi? yaṃ yam iti | yaṃ yaṃ bhāvaṃ devatāntaraṃ vānyam api vānta-kāle smaran dehaṃ tyajati taṃ tam eva smaryamāṇaṃ bhāvaṃ prāpnoti | anta-kāle bhāva-viśeṣa-smaraṇe hetuḥ | sadā tad-bhāva-bhāvita iti sarvadā tasya bhāvo bhāvanā anucintanam | tena bhāvito vāsita-cittaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


anta-kāle bhagavantam anudhyāyato bhagavat-prāptir niyateti vaditum anyad api yatkiṃcid api yat kiṃcit tat-kāle dhyāyato dehaṃ tyajatas tat-prāptir avaśyambhāvinīti darśayati yaṃ yam iti | na kevalaṃ māṃ smaran mad-bhāvaṃ yātīti niyamaḥ kiṃ tarhi yaṃ yaṃ cāpi bhāvaṃ devatā-viśeṣaṃ ca-kārād anyad api yat kiṃcid vā smaraṃś cintayann ante prāṇa-viyoga-kāle kalevaraṃ tyajati sa taṃ tam eva smaryamāṇaṃ bhāvam eva nānyam eti prāpnoti | he kaunteyeti pitṛ-ṣvasṛ-putratvena snehātiśayaṃ sūcayati | tena cāvaśyānugrāhyatvaṃ tena ca pratāraṇāśaṅkā-śūnyatvam iti |

anta-kāle smaraṇodyamāsambhave ‚pi pūrvābhyāsa-janitā vāsanaiva smṛti-hetur ity āha – sadā sarvadā tasmin devatā-viśeṣādau bhāvo bhāvanā vāsanā tad-bhāvaḥ sa bhāvitaḥ sampādito yena sa tathā bhāvita-tad-bhāva ity arthaḥ | ādhitāgny-āder ākṛti-gaṇatvād bhāvita-padasya para-nipātaḥ | tad-bhāvena tac-cintanena bhāvito vāsita-citta iti vā

 

Viśvanātha


mām eva smaran māṃ prāpnotītivan mad-anyam api smaran mad-anyam eva prāpnotīty āha yaṃ yam iti | tasya bhāvena bhāvanenānucintanena bhāvito vāsitas tan-mayī-bhūtaḥ

 

Baladeva


na ca mat-smarteiva mad-bhāvaṃ yātīti niyamaḥ | kintv anya-smartāpy anya-bhāvaṃ yātīty āha yaṃ yam iti | bhāvaṃ padārtham | taṃ tam eva bhāva-deha-tyāgottaram evaiti | yathā bharato dehānte mṛgaṃ cintayan mṛgo ‚bhūt | antima-smṛtiś ca pūrva-smṛti-viṣayaiva bhavatīty āha sadeti | tad-bhāva-bhāvitas tat-smṛti-vāsita-cittaḥ

 
 

BhG 8.7

tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu mām anusmara yudhya ca
mayy arpita-mano-buddhir mām evaiṣyasy asaṃśayaḥ

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tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu (therefore at every moment) mām (me) anusmara (you must remember) yudhya ca (and you must fight).
[tvam] (you) mayi (in me) arpita-mano-buddhiḥ (whose mind and intelligence are entrusted) mām eva (to me only) eṣyasi (you will go),
[atra] (here) asaṁśayaḥ (without doubt) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 m.in all;
kāleṣu kāla 7n.3 m.in moments;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
anusmara anu-smṛ (to remember, to remind) Imperat. P 2v.1you must remember;
yudhya yudh (to fight) Imperat. P 2v.1 you must fight;
ca av.and;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
arpita-mano-buddhiḥ arpita-mano-buddhi 1n.1 m.; BV / DV: yena manaś ca buddhiś cārpitau staḥ sa tvam whose mind and intelligence are entrusted (from: – to go, to reach, caus. [PP] arpita – offered, entrusted, dedicated; man – to think, manas – the mind; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
eṣyasi i (to go) Praes. Fut. P 2v.1you will go;
asaṁśayaḥ a-saṁśaya 1n.1 m.without doubt (from: sam-śī – to waver);

 

textual variants


yudhya → nudya / budhya;
mayy arpita-mano-buddhirmad-arpita-mano-buddhir (whose mind and intelligence are entrusted in me);
mām evaiṣyasy asaṁśayaḥ → mām evaiśyan na saṁśayaḥ (to me wyłącznie idący, nie ma wątpliwości);
 
 

Śāṃkara


yasmād evam antyā bhāvanā dehāntara-prāptau kāraṇaṃ—

tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu mām anusmara yathā-śāstram | yudhyaś ca yuddhaṃ sva-dharmaṃ kuru | mayi vāsudeve’rpite mano-buddhī yasya tava sa tvaṃ mayy arpita-mano-buddhiḥ san mām eva yathā-smṛtam eṣyasy āgamiṣyasi | asaṃśayo na saṃśayo’tra vidyate

 

Rāmānuja


yasmāt pūrvakālābhyastaviṣaya evāntyapratyayo jāyate, tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣv āprayāṇād ahar ahar mām anusmara / aharahar anusmṛtikaraṃ yuddhādikaṃ varṇāśramānubandhi śrutismṛticoditaṃ nityanaimittikaṃ ca karma kuru / evam upāyena mayy arpitamanobuddhiḥ antakale ca mām eva smaran yathābhilaṣitaprakāraṃ māṃ prāpsyasi; nātra saṃśayaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


yasmāt pūrva-vāsanaivānta-kāle smṛti-hetuḥ, na tu tadā vivaśasya smaraṇodyamo sambhavati tasmād iti | tasmāt sarvadā mām anusmara cintaya | satataṃ smaraṇaṃ ca citta-śuddhiṃ vinā na bhavati | ato yudhya ca yudhyasva | citta-śuddhy-arthaṃ yuddhādikaṃ svadharmam anutiṣṭhety arthaḥ | evaṃ mayy arpitaṃ manaḥ saṅkalpātmakaṃ buddhiś ca vyavasāyātmikāyena tvayā sa tvaṃ māme va prāpsyasi | asaṃśayaḥ saṃśayo ‚tra nāsti

 

Madhusūdana


yasmād evaṃ pūrva-smaraṇābhyāsa-janitāntyā bhāvanaiva tadānīṃ paravaśasya dehāntara-prāptau kāraṇaṃ tasmād iti | tasmān mad-viṣayakāntya-bhāvanotpatty-arthaṃ sarveṣu kāleṣu pūrvam evādareṇa māṃ saguṇam īśvaram anusmara cintaya | yady antaḥkaraṇāśuddhi-vaśān na śaknoṣi satatam anusmartuṃ tato ‚ntaḥkaraṇa-śuddhaye yudhya ca | antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhy-arthaṃ yuddhādikaṃ svadharmaṃ kuru | yudhyeti yudhyasvety arthaḥ | evaṃ ca nitya-naimittika-karmānuṣṭhānenāśuddhi-kṣayān mayi bhagavati vāsudeve ‚rpite saṅkalpādhyavasāya-lakṣaṇe mano-buddhī yena tvayā sa tvam īdṛśaḥ sarvadā mac-cintana-paraḥ san mām evaiṣyasi prāpsyasi | asaṃśayo nātra saṃśayo vidyate | idaṃ ca saguṇa-brahma-cintanam upāsakānām uktaṃ teṣām antya-bhāvanā-sāpekṣatvāt | nirguṇa-brahma-jñānināṃ tu jñāna-sama-kālam evājñāna-nivṛtti-lakṣaṇāyā mukteḥ siddhatvān nāsty antya-bhāvanāpekṣeti draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


manaḥ saṅkalpakātmakam | buddhir vyavasāyātmikā

 

Baladeva


yasmāt pūrva-smṛtir evāntima-smṛti-hetus tasmāt tvaṃ sarveṣu kāleṣu pratikṣaṇaṃ mām anusmara yudhyasva ca loka-saṅgrahāya yuddhādīni svocitāni karmāṇi kuru | evaṃ mayy arpitamanobuddhis tvaṃ mām evaiṣyasi, na tv anyad iy atra sandehas te mābhūt

 
 

BhG 8.8

abhyāsa-yoga-yuktena cetasā nānya-gāminā
paramaṃ puruṣaṃ divyaṃ yāti pārthānucintayan

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!)
abhyāsa-yoga-yuktena (by one engaged in the practice of yoga) na anya-gāminā (by not going astray) cetasā (by the mind) divyam (divine) paramam (supreme) puruṣam (Man) anucintayan ([while] contemplating) yāti (he goes).

 

grammar

abhyāsa-yoga-yuktena abhyāsa-yoga-yukta 3n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: abhyāsena ca yogena ca yukteneti by one engaged in yoga and practise / by one engaged in yoga, which is a practise (from: abhi-as – to repeat, to study, abhy-āsa repetition, practice, discipline; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
cetasā cetas 3n.1 n.by the mind (from: cit – to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
na av.not;
anya-gāminā anya-gāmin 3n.1 n.; [TP]: anyaṁ gāminetiby going astray (from: anya – other; gam – to go, gāmin – going, directed to, attaining);
paramam parama 2n.1 m.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
puruṣam puruṣa 2n.1 m.person, Man (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
divyam divya 2n.1 m.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
yāti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
anucintayan anu-cintayant (anu-cint – to think, to consider) PPr. 1n.1 m.[while] contemplating;

 

textual variants


cetasā nānya-gāminācetasānanya-gāminā (by the mind directed to no other);
paramaṁ → parame (in the supreme);
yāti → yāṁti (they go);
pārthānucintayan → pārthānvacintayan / pārthānucintanaṁ / pārthānucintayā (O son of Pṛthā, one contemplating / O son of Pṛthā, of one contemplating / O son of Pṛthā, by one contemplating);

 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

abhyāsa-yoga-yuktena mayi citta-samarpaṇa-viṣaya-bhūta ekasmiṃs tulya-pratyayāvṛtti-lakṣaṇo vilakṣaṇa-pratyayānantarito’bhyāsaḥ sa cābhyāso yogas tena yuktaṃ tatraiva vyāpṛtaṃ yoginaś cetas tena | cetasā nānya-gāminā nānyatra viṣayāntare gantuṃ śīlam asyeti nānya-gāmi tena nānya-gāminā, paramaṃ niratiśayaṃ puruṣaṃ divyaṃ divi sūrya-maṇḍāle bhavaṃ yāti gacchati he pārthānucintayan śāstrācāryopadeśam anudhyāyan ity etat

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ sāmānyena svaprāpyāvāptir antyapratyayādhīnety uktvā tadarthaṃ trayāṇām upāsanaprakārabhedaṃ vaktum upakramate; tatrāiśvaryārthinām upāsanaprakāraṃ yathopāsanam antyapratyayaprakāraṃ cāha

aharahar abhyāsayogābhyāṃ yuktatayā nānyagāminā cetasā antakāle paramaṃ puruṣaṃ divyaṃ māṃ vakṣyamāṇaprakāraṃ cintayan mām eva yāti ādibharatamṛgatvaprāptivad aiśvaryaviśiṣṭatayā matsamānākāro bhavati / abhyāsaḥ nityanaimittikāviruddheṣu sarveṣu kāleṣu manasopāsyasaṃśīlanam / yogas tu aharahar yogakāle ‚nuṣṭhīyamānaṃ yathoktalakṣaṇam upāsanam

 

Śrīdhara


santata-smaraṇasya cābhyāso ‚ntaraṅga-sādhanam iti darśayann āha abhyāsa-yogeneti | abhyāsaḥ sajātīya-pratyaya-pravāhaḥ | sa eva yoga upāyaḥ | tena yuktenaikāgreṇa | ataeva nānyaṃ viṣayaṃ gantuṃ śīlaṃ yasya | tena cetasā | divyaṃ dyotanātmakaṃ paramaṃ puruṣaṃ parameśvaram anucintayan he pārtha tam eva yātīti

 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ saptānām api praśnānām uttaram uktvā prayāṇa-kāle bhagavad-anusmaraṇasya bhagavat-prāpti-lakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ vivarītum ārabhate abhyāseti | abhyāsaḥ sajātīya-pratyaya-pravāho mayi vijātīya-pratyayānantaritaḥ ṣaṣṭhe prāg vyākhyātaḥ | sa eva yogaḥ samādhis tena yuktaṃ tatraiva vyāpṛtam ātmākāra-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ yac cetas tena cetasābhyāsa-pāṭavena nānya-gāminā nānyatra viṣayāntare nirodha-prayatnaṃ vināpi gantuṃ śīlam asyeti tena paramaṃ niratiśayaṃ puruṣaṃ pūrṇaṃ divyaṃ divi dyotanātmany āditye bhavaṃ yaś cāsāv āditye iti śruteḥ | yāti gacchati | he pārtha | anucintayan śāstrācāryopadeśam anudhyāyan

 

Viśvanātha


tad evaṃ saptānām api praśnānām uttaram uktvā prayāṇa-kāle bhagavad-anusmaraṇasya bhagavat-prāpti-lakṣaṇaṃ phalaṃ vivarītum ārabhate abhyāseti | abhyāsaḥ sajātīya-pratyaya-pravāho mayi vijātīya-pratyayānantaritaḥ ṣaṣṭhe prāg vyākhyātaḥ | sa eva yogaḥ samādhis tena yuktaṃ tatraiva vyāpṛtam ātmākāra-vṛtti-śūnyaṃ yac cetas tena cetasābhyāsa-pāṭavena nānya-gāminā nānyatra viṣayāntare nirodha-prayatnaṃ vināpi gantuṃ śīlam asyeti tena paramaṃ niratiśayaṃ puruṣaṃ pūrṇaṃ divyaṃ divi dyotanātmany āditye bhavaṃ yaś cāsāv āditye iti śruteḥ | yāti gacchati | he pārtha | anucintayan śāstrācāryopadeśam anudhyāyan

 

Baladeva


sārvadikī smṛtir evāntima-smṛtikarīty evaṃ draḍhayati abhyāsenti | abhyāsaḥ smaraṇāvṛttir eva yogas tad-yuktenātaevānanya-gāminā | tato ‚nyatrācalatā tad ekāgreṇa cetasā divyaṃ puruṣaṃ paramaṃ sa-śrīkaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ vāsudevam anucintayan tam eva kīṭa-bhṛṅga-nyāyena tat-tulāḥ san yāti labhate

 
 

BhG 8.9-10

kaviṃ purāṇam anuśāsitāram aṇor aṇīyāṃsam anusmared yaḥ
sarvasya dhātāram acintya-rūpam āditya-varṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt
prayāṇa-kāle manasācalena bhaktyā yukto yoga-balena caiva
bhruvor madhye prāṇam āveśya samyak sa taṃ paraṃ puruṣam upaiti divyam

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syntax


prayāṇa-kāle (at the time of death) acalena manasā (by the motionless mind) bhaktyā (with devotion) yoga-balena ca eva (and just with the strength of yoga) yuktaḥ (engaged)
samyak (properly) bhruvoḥ madhye (between the eyebrows) prāṇam (breath) āveśya (after fixing),
yaḥ (he who) kaviṁ (seer) purāṇam (ancient) anuśāsitāram (ordering) aṇoḥ aṇīyāṁsam (smaller than an atom) sarvasya dhātāram (constructor of everything) acintya-rūpam (whose form is inconceivable) āditya-varṇam (of the colour of the Sun) tamasaḥ parastāt (beyond tamas) anusmaret (he should remember),
saḥ (he) tam (that) divyam (divine) param (supreme) puruṣam (Man) upaiti (he attains).

 

grammar

kavim kavi 2n.1 m.poet, bard, seer (from: kav – to describe, to paint);
purāṇam purāṇa 2n.1 m.ancient, belonging to old times (from: pur – to precede);
anuśāsitāram anu-śāsitṛ 2n.1 m.governing, ordering (from: anu-śās – to rule, to order, to teach, to advise);
aṇoḥ aṇu 5n.1 m.than the small, minute, than an atom;
aṇīyāṁsam aṇīyas 2n.1 m.smaller (comparative of: aṇu – small, minute);
anusmaret anu-smṛ (to remember, to remind) Pot. P 1v.1he would remember;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
sarvasya sarva sn. 6n.1 m. of every;
dhātāram dhātṛ 2n.1 m.maintainer, creator, constructor (from: dhā – to put);
acintya-rūpam acintya-rūpa 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya rūpam acintyam asti tamwhose form is inconceivable (from: cint – to think, to consider, PF a-cintya – not to be thought about, inconceivable; rūp – to form, rūpa – shape, figure, beauty);
āditya-varṇam āditya-varṇa 2n.1 m.; BV: yasyādityasya varṇo ‘sti tam who has the colour of the Sun (from: āditya – descendant of Aditi, Sun; varṇ – to paint, to delineate, to tell, varṇa – colour, social class);
tamasaḥ tamas 6n.1 n.of darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
parastāt av.beyond, further, aside (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; paras – beyond, further);

*****

prayāṇa-kāle prayāṇa-kāla 7n.1 m.; [TP]: prayāṇasya kāla itiat he end of time, at the time of death (from: pra-– to depart, prayāṇa – departure, journey, death; kal – to count, kāla – time);
manasā manas 3n.1 n.by the mind (from: man – to think);
acalena a-cala 3n.1 n.by motionless (from: cal – to move, to shake, cala – moving, shaking);
bhaktyā bhakti 3n.1 f.with devotion, with love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship);
yuktaḥ yukta (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage) [PP] 1n.1 m.yoked, endowed with, engaged, suitable;
yoga-balena yoga-bala 3n.1 n.; [TP]: yogasya balenetiby the strength of yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; bala – strength, force);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
bhruvoḥ bhrū 6n.2 f.of two eyebows;
madhye madhya 7n.1 n.in the middle, inside;
prāṇam prāṇa 2n.1 m.breath, life (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live);
āveśya āveśya (ā-viś – to approach, to enter) caus. absol.after causing to enter, after fixing;
samyak av.properly, entirely, the same (from: añc – to bend, to move, to go, samy-añc – going along, united, whole, proper);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
param para 2n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
puruṣam puruṣa 2n.1 m.person, Man (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
upaiti upa-i (to go near, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1it comes;
divyam divya 2n.1 m.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);

 

textual variants


anuśāsitāramhy anuśāsitāram (indeed one ordering);
aṇor aṇīyāṁsamaṇor amaṇīyāṁsam;
acintya-rūpamacintya-śaktim (who has inconceivable powers);
āditya-varṇaṁ āditya-rūpaṁ (who has the form of the Sun);
parastāt → purastāt (before);
yukto → yuto (pertaining);
sa taṁ paraṁ → saṁtaṁ pāraṁ (true, end);
 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ-viśiṣṭaṃ ca puraṣaṃ yāti ? ity ucyate—

kaviṃ krānta-darśinaṃ sarva-jñaṃ purāṇaṃ cirantanam anuśāsitāraṃ sarvasya jagataḥ praśāsitāram aṇoḥ sūkṣmād apy aṇīyāṃsaṃ sūkṣmataram anusmared anucintayed yaḥ kaścit, sarvasya karma-phala-jātasya dhātāraṃ vidhātāraṃ vicitratayā prāṇibhyo vibhaktāram, acintya-rūpaṃ nāsya rūpaṃ niyataṃ vidyamānam api kenacit cintayituṃ śakyata ity acintya-rūpas tam, āditya-varṇam ādityasyeva nitya-caitanya-prakāśo varṇo yasya tam āditya-varṇam, tamasaḥ parastāt, ajñāna-lakṣaṇān mohāndhakārāt paraṃ tam anucintayad yātīti pūrveṇa saṃbandhaḥ

kiṃ ca—

prayāṇa-kāle maraṇa-kāle manasācalena calana-varjitena bhaktyā yukto bhajanaṃ bhaktis tayā yukto yoga-balena caiva yogasya balaṃ yoga-balaṃ samādhija-saṃskāra-pracaya-janita-citta-sthairya-lakṣaṇaṃ yoga-balaṃ tena ca yukta ity arthaḥ | pūrvaṃ hṛdaya-puṇḍārīke vaśīkṛtya cittaṃ tata ūrdhva-gāminyā nāḍyā bhūmi-jaya-krameṇa bhruvor madhye prāṇam āveśya sthāpayitvā samyag-āpramattaḥ san, sa evaṃ buddhimān yogī kaviṃ purāṇam ity ādi-lakṣaṇaṃ taṃ paraṃ parataraṃ puruṣam upaiti pratipadyate divyaṃ dyotanātmakam

 

Rāmānuja


kaviṃ sarvajñan purāṇam purātanam anuśāsitāram viśvasya praśāsitāram aṇor aṇīyāṃsam jīvād api sūkṣmataram, sarvasya dhātāram sarvasya sraṣṭāram, acintyarūpam sakaletaravisajātīyasvarūpam, ādityavarṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastād aprākṛtasvāsādhāraṇadivyarūpam, tam evaṃbhūtam aharahar abhyasyamānabhaktiyuktayogabalena ārūḍhasaṃskāratayā acalena manasā prayāṇakāle bhruvor madhye prāṇam āveśya saṃsthāpya tatra bhūmadhye divyaṃ puruṣaṃ yo ‚nusmaret; sa tam evopaiti tadbhāvaṃ yāti, tatsamānāiśvaryo bhavatītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


punar apy anucintanīyaṃ puruṣaṃ viśinaṣṭi kavim iti dvābhyām | kaviṃ sarvajñaṃ sarva-vidyā-nirmātāraṃ purāṇaṃ manādi-siddham | anuśāsitāraṃ niyantāram | aṇoḥ sūkṣmād apy aṇīyāṃsaṃ atisūkṣmam ākāśa-kāla-digbhyo ‚py atisūkṣmataram | sarvasya dhātāraṃ poṣakam | aparimita-mahimatvād acintya-rūpaṃ malīmasayor mano-buddhyor agocaram | vedāham etaṃ puruṣaṃ mahāntam āditya-varṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt iti śruteḥ

prayāṇa-kāla iti | sa-prapañca-prakṛtiṃ bhittvā yas tiṣṭhāti | evaṃbhūtaṃ puruṣam anta-kāle bhakti-yukto niścalena vikṣepa-rahitena manasā yo ‚nusmaret | mano-naiścalye hetuḥ | yoga-balena samyak suṣumṇā mārgeṇa bhruvor madhye prāṇam āveśyeti | sa taṃ paraṃ puruṣaṃ paramātma-svarūpaṃ divyaṃ dyotanātmakaṃ prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


punar api tam evānucintayitavyaṃ gantavyaṃ ca puruṣaṃ viśinaṣṭi kavim iti | kaviṃ krānta-darśinaṃ tenātītānāgatādy-aśeṣa-vastu-darśitvena sarvajñam | purāṇaṃ cirantanaṃ sarva-kāraṇatvād anādim iti yāvat | anuśāsitāraṃ sarvasya jagato niyantāram | aṇor aṇīyāṃsaṃ sūkṣād apy ākāśādeḥ sūkṣmataraṃ tad-upādānatvāt | sarvasya karma-phala-jātasya dhātāraṃ vicitratayā prāṇibhyo vibhaktāraṃ phalam ata upapatteḥ iti nyāyāt | na cintayituṃ śakyam aparimitam ahimatvena rūpaṃ yasya tam | ādityasyeva sakala-jagad-avabhāsako varṇaḥ prakāśo yasya taṃ sarvasya jagato ‚vabhāsakam iti yāvat | ataeva tamasaḥ parastāt tamaso mohāndhakārād ajñāna-lakṣaṇāt parastāt prakāśa-rūpatvena tamo-virodhinam iti yāvat | anusmarec cintayed yaḥ kaścid api sa taṃ yātīti pūrveṇaiva sambandhaḥ | sa taṃ paraṃ puruṣam upaiti divyam iti pareṇa vā sambandhaḥ

kadā tad-anusmaraṇe pratrātireko ‚bhyavartate tad āha prayāneti | prayāṇa-kāle ‚nta-kāle ‚calenaikāgreṇa manasā taṃ puruṣaṃ yo ‚nusmared ity anuvartate | kīdṛśaḥ bhaktyā parameśvara-viṣayeṇa parameṇa premṇā yuktaḥ | yogasya samādher balena taj-janita-saṃskāra-samūhena vyutthāna-saṃskāra-virodhinā ca yuktaḥ | evaṃ prathamaṃ hṛdaya-puṇḍarīke vaśīkṛtya tata ūrdhva-gāminyā suṣumṇayā nāḍyā gurūpadiṣṭa-mārgeṇa bhūmi-jaya-krameṇa bhruvor madhye ājñā-cakre prāṇam āveśya sthāpayitvā samyag apramatto brahma-randhrād utkrāmya sa evam upāsakas taṃ kaviṃ purāṇam anuśāsitāram ity-ādi-lakṣaṇaṃ paraṃ puruṣaṃ divyaṃ dyotanātmakam upaiti pratipadyate

 

Viśvanātha


yogābhyāsaṃ vinā manaso viṣaya-grāmān nivṛttir durghaṭā | yac ca vinā sātatyena bhagavat-smaraṇam api durghaṭam iti yuktam | kenacit yogābhyāsena sahitaiva bhaktiḥ kriyata iti tāṃ yoga-miśrāṃ bhaktim āha kavim iti pañcabhiḥ | kaviṃ sarvajñaṃ sarvajño ‚py anyaḥ sanakādiḥ sārvakāliko na bhavaty ata āha purāṇam anādiṃ sarvajño ‚nādir apy antaryāmī sa bhakty-upadeṣṭā na bhavaty ata āha anuśāsitāram | kṛpayā svabhakti-śikṣakaṃ kṛṣṇa-rāmādi-svarūpam ity arthaḥ | tādṛśa-kṛpālur api sudurvijñeya-tattva eva ity āha aṇoḥ sakāśād apy aṇīyāṃsam | tarhi sa kiṃ jīva iva paramāṇu-pramāṇas tatrāha sarvasya dhātāraṃ sarva-vastu-mātra-dhārakatvena sarva-vyāpakatvāt paraṃ mahā-parimāṇam apīty arthaḥ | ataevācintya-rūpam | puruṣa-vidhatvena madhyama-parimāṇam api tasyānanya-prakāśyatvam āha āditya-varṇam ādityavat sva-para-prakāśako varṇaḥ svarūpaṃ yasya | tathā tamasaḥ prakṛteḥ parastāt vartamānaṃ māyā-śaktimantam api māyātīta-svarūpam ity arthaḥ

prayāṇa-kāle ‚nta-kāle ‚calena niścalena manasā yā satata-smaraṇa-mayī bhaktis tayā yuktaḥ | kathaṃ manaso naiścalyam | ata āha yogasya yogābhyāsasya balena | yoga-prakāraṃ darśayati bhruvor madhye ājñā-cakre

 

Baladeva


yogād ṛte cetaso ‚nanya-gāmitā duṣkareti yoga-miśrāṃ bhaktim āha kavim ity ādibhiḥ pañcabhiḥ | kaviṃ sarvajñaṃ | anuśāsitāram raghunāthādi-rūpeṇa hitopadeṣṭāram | aṇor aṇīyāṃsaṃ tena cāṇum api jīvam antaḥ praviśatīti siddham | āha caivaṃ śrutiḥ antaḥ praviṣṭaḥ śāstā janānām iti | aṇīyaso ‚pi tasya vyāptim āha sarvasyeti | kṛtsnasya jagato dhātāraṃ dhārakam |

nanu katham evaṃ saṅgacchate tatrāha acintya-rūpaṃ avitarkya-svarūpaṃ ekam eva brahma puruṣa-vidhatvena madhyama-parimāṇam aṇor aṇīyāṃsam ity ukteḥ | paramāṇu-parimāṇaṃ sarvasya dhātāram ity ukteḥ | paraṃ mahā-parimāṇaṃ ceti | nātra yukter avakāśaḥ | sva-parakāśatām āha ādityeti sūryavat sva-para-prakāśakam ity arthaḥ | māyā-gandhāsparśam āha tamasa iti | tamaso māyāyāḥ parastāt sthitaṃ | māyinam api māyātītam ity arthaḥ | etādṛśaṃ puruṣaṃ yo ‚nukṣaṇaṃ smaret sa taṃ paraṃ puruṣam upaiti iti pareṇānvayaḥ

yo jano bhaktyā paramātma-premṇā yoga-balena samādhi-janita-saṃskāra-nicayena ca yuktaḥ prayāṇa-kāle maraṇa-samaye ‚calenaikāgreṇa manasā taṃ puruṣam anusmaret | yoga-prakāram āha bhruvor iti | bhruvor madhye ājñā-cakre prāṇam āveśya saṃsthāpya samyak sāvadhānaḥ san sa taṃ puruṣam upaiti

 
 

BhG 8.11

yad akṣaraṃ veda-vido vadanti viśanti yad yatayo vīta-rāgāḥ
yad icchanto brahma-caryaṃ caranti tat te padaṃ saṃgraheṇa pravakṣye

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syntax


veda-vidaḥ (knowers of the Vedas) yat akṣaram (which imperishable) vadanti (they call),
vīta-rāgāḥ (without passion) yatayaḥ (endeavouring) yat (that in which) viśanti (they enter),
yat (that which) icchantaḥ (desiring) brahma-caryam (celibacy) caranti (they practise),
[aham] (I) tat padam (this site) te (to you) samgraheṇa (shortly) pravakṣye (I will describe).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
akṣaram a-kṣara 2n.1 n. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
veda-vidaḥ veda-vit 1n.3 m.; ye vedān viduḥ teknowers of the Vedas (from: vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
vadanti vad (to speak) Praes. P 1v.3they call;
viśanti viś (to enter) Praes. P 1v.3they enter;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
yatayaḥ yati 1n.3 m.endeavouring, ascetics (from: yat – to place in order, to endeavour);
vīta-rāgāḥ vīta-rāga 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ rāgo vito ‘sti tethose whose passion is gone (from: vi-i – to go away, [PP] vīta – gone; rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
icchantaḥ icchant (iṣ – to desire) PPr 1n.3 m. desiring;
brahma-caryam brahma-carya 2n.1 n.celibacy practised by a student of the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; car – to move, to go, PF carya – to be practised, to be performed);
caranti car (to move, to go) Praes. P 1v.3 m. they practise;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
padam pada 2n.1 n.step, pace, footmark, site, part, portion, word (from: pad – to fall, to go, to apply to);
saṁgraheṇa av. (3n.1) – in summary, shortly (from: sam-grah – to hold together, to support, saṁ-graha – holding together, collection, protection);
pravakṣye pra-vac (to declare, to speak) Fut. Ā 3v.1I will declare;

 

textual variants


viśanti → vidaṁti (they know);
yad yatayoyad yātayo (that which ascetics);
caranti → vidaṁti (they know);
tat te → tato (therefore);
saṁgraheṇa pravakṣyesaṁgraheṇābhidhāsye / saṁgrahaṇe pravakṣye / saṁgraheṇa vakṣe / saṁgraheṇa bravīmi (shortly I will explain / shortly I will speak / shortly I speak);

The third and the fourth pada of verse 8.11 are the same as the third and the fourth pada of verse: Kaṭhopaniṣad 2.15;

… → verse, not found in critical edition, after verse 8.11:
sarve vedā yat padam āmananti tapāṁsi sarvāṇi ca yad vadanti
yad icchanto brahmacaryaṁ caranti tat te padaṁ saṁgraheṇa bravīmi

That site which all the Vedas long for and which all  austerities speak about,
for which desiring they practice celibacy, to you about this site I shortly speak.

 
 

Śāṃkara


[yoga-mārgānugamanenaiva brahma-vidyām antareṇāpi brahma prāpyata ity evaṃ prāptam idam ucyate ] punar api vakṣyamāṇenopāyena pratipitsitasya brahmaṇo veda-vidvad-anādi-viśeṣaṇa-viśeṣyasyābhidhānaṃ karoti bhagavān—

yad akṣaraṃ na kṣaratīty akṣaram avināśi vedavido vedārthajñāḥ vadanti | tad vā etad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadanti [bhāvātmauttaṃ 3.8.8] iti śruteḥ | sarva-viśeṣa-nivartakatvenābhivadanty asthūlam aṇv ity ādi | kiṃ ca—viśanti praviśanti samyag-darśana-prāptau satyāṃ yad yatayo yatana-śīlāḥ saṃnyāsino vīta-rāgāḥ vīto vigataḥ rāgo yebhyas te vīta-rāgāḥ | yac cākṣaram icchanto jñātum iti vākya-śeṣaḥ brahmacaryaṃ gurau caranti ācaranti, tat te padaṃ tad akṣarākhyaṃ padaṃ padanīyaṃ te tava saṃgraheṇa, saṃgrahaḥ saṃkṣepas tena, saṃkṣepeṇa pravakṣye kathayiṣyāmi

 

Rāmānuja


atha kaivalyārthināṃ smaraṇ aprakāram āha

yad akṣaram asthūlatvādiguṇakaṃ vedavido vadanti, vītarāgāś ca yatayo yad akṣaraṃ viśanti, yad akṣaraṃ prāptum icchanto brahmacaryaṃ caranti, tat padaṃ saṃgraheṇa te pravakṣye / padyate gamyate cetaseti padam; tan nikhilavedāntavedyaṃ matsvarūpam akṣaraṃ yathā upāsyam, tathā saṃkṣepeṇa pravakṣyāmītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kevalād abhyāsa-yogād api praṇavā̆bhyāsam antaraṅgaṃ vidhitsuḥ pratijānīte-yad akṣaram iti | yad akṣaraṃ vedārthajñā vadanti | etasya vā akṣarasya praśāsane gārgi sūryācandramasau vidhṛtau tiṣṭhata iti śruteḥ | vīto rāgo yebhyas te vīta-rāgāḥ | yatayaḥ prayatnavanto yad viśanti | yac ca jñātum icchanto gurukule brahmacaryaṃ caranti | tat te tubhyaṃ padaṃ padyate gamyata iti padaṃ prāpyam | saṅgraheṇa saṃkṣepeṇa pravakṣye | tat-prāpty-upāyaṃ kathayiṣyāmīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ yena kenacid abhidhānena dhyāna-kāle bhagavad-anusmaraṇe prāpte-

sarve vedā yatpadamāmananti
tapāṃsi sarvāṇi ca yadvadanti |
yadicchanto brahmacaryaṃ caranti
tatte padaṃ saṃgraheṇa bravīmy om ity etat || (KaṭhaU 1.2.15)

ity ādi-śruti-pratipāditatvena praṇavenaivābhidhānena tad-anusmaraṇaṃ kartavyaṃ nānyena mantrādineti niyantum upakramate yad akṣaram iti | yad akṣaram avināśi oṅkārākhyaṃ brahma veda-vido vadanti etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadanty asthūlam aṇv ahrasvam adīrgham ity ādi-vacanaiḥ sarva-viśeṣa-nivartanena pratipādayanti | pramāṇa-kuśalair eva pratipannaṃ kiṃ tu muktopasṛpyatayā tair apy anubhūtam ity āha-viśanti svarūpatayā samyag-darśanena yad akṣaraṃ yatayo yatna-śīlāḥ saṃnyāsino vīta-rāgā niḥspṛhāḥ | na kevalaṃ siddhair anubhūtaṃ sādhakānām api sarvo ‚pi prayāsas tad-artha ity āha yad-icchanto jñātuṃ naiṣṭhikā brahmacāriṇo brahmacaryaṃ gurukula-vāsādi-tapaś caranti yāvaj-jīvaṃ tad akṣarākhyaṃ padaṃ padanīyaṃ te tubhyaṃ saṅgraheṇa saṅkṣepeṇāhaṃ pravakṣye prakarṣeṇa kathayiṣyāmi yathā tava bodho bhavati tathā | atas tad akṣaraṃ kathaṃ mayā jñeyam ity ākulo mā bhūr ity abhiprāyaḥ |

atra ca parasya brahmaṇo vācaka-rūpeṇa pratimāvat-pratīka-rūpeṇa ca yaḥ punar etaṃ trimātreṇom ity aneaivākṣareṇa paraṃ puruṣam abhidhyāyīta sa tam adhigacchati ity ādi-vacanair manda-madhyama-buddhīnāṃ krama-mukti-phalakam upāsanam uktaṃ tad evehāpi vivakṣitaṃ bhagavatā | ato yoga-dhāraṇā-sahitam oṅkāropāsanaṃ tat phalaṃ sva-svarūpaṃ tato ‚punar-āvṛttis tan-mārgaś cety artha-jātam ucyate yāvad adhyāya-samāpti

 

Viśvanātha


nanu bhruvor madhye prāṇam āveśya ity etāvan mātroktyā yogo na jñāyate, tasmāt tatra yoge prakāraḥ kaḥ, kiṃ japyaṃ, kiṃ vā dhyeyam, kiṃ vā prāpyam ity api saṅkṣepeṇa brūhīty apekṣāyām āha yad iti tribhiḥ | yad evākṣaram om ity ekākṣara-vācyaṃ brahma yatayo viśanti tat padaṃ padyate gamyata iti padaṃ prāpyam | samyaktayā gṛhayte ‚neneti saṅgrahas tad-upāyas tena saha pravakṣye śṛṇu

 

Baladeva


nanu bhruvor madhye prāṇam āveśyaitāvatā yogo nāvagamyate, tasmāt tasya prakāraṃ tatra japyaṃ prāpyaṃ brūhīty apekṣāyām āha yad akṣaram iti tribhiḥ | ekam eva brahma akṣaram om iti vācakaṃ vadanti | vīta-rāgā vinaṣṭāvidyā yatayo yad brahma tad-vācya-bhūtaṃ vijñānaika-rasaṃ viśanti prāpnuvanti | tad-ubhaya-r”paṃ brahma jñātum icchanto naiṣṭhikā gurukula-vasādi-lakṣaṇaṃ brahmacaryaṃ caranti | tat padaṃ prāpyaṃ saṅgraheṇopāyena saha pravakṣye vakṣyāmi yathānāyasena tvaṃ tad-vidyāṃ prāpnuyāḥ | samyag gṛhyate tattvam anena iti nirukteḥ saṅgraha upāyaḥ

 
 

BhG 8.12-13

sarva-dvārāṇi saṃyamya mano hṛdi nirudhya ca
mūrdhny ādhāyātmanaḥ prāṇam āsthito yoga-dhāraṇām
om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahma vyāharan mām anusmaran
yaḥ prayāti tyajan dehaṃ sa yāti paramāṃ gatim

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syntax


sarva-dvārāṇi (all gates) saṁyamya (after restraining),
hṛdi ca (and in the heart) manaḥ (the mind) nirudhya (after confining),
mūrdhni (on the head) ātmanaḥ (own) prāṇam (breath) ādhāya (after placing),
yoga-dhāraṇām (yogic concentration) āsthitaḥ (resorted to),
om iti (OM) ekākṣaram (one-syllable) brahma (brahman) vyaharan (pronouncing)
mām (me) anusmaran (remembering)
deham (body) tyajan ([while] abandoning) yaḥ (he who) prayāti (departs),
sa (he) paramām gatim (to the supreme goal) yāti (he goes).

 

grammar

sarva-dvārāṇi sarva-dvāra 2n.3 n.; sarvāṇi [indriyāṇāṁ] dvārāṇīti all gates [of the senses] (from: sarva – all, whole; dvṛ – to obstruct, to cover, dvāra – gate, entrance, passage);
saṁyamya sam-yam (to restrain) absol.after restraining;
manaḥ manas 2n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
hṛdi hṛt 7n.1 n.in the heart, in the mind, in the self;
nirudhya ni-rudh (to obstruct, to stop) absol.after confining;
ca av.and;
mūrdhni mūrdhan 7n.1 m.on the head, on the forehead;
ādhāya ā-dhā (to put, to place) absol.after placing;
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
prāṇam prāṇa 2n.1 m.breath, life (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live);
āsthitaḥ āsthita (ā-sthā – to resort, to go towards) [PP] 1n.1 m.one who resorted to, who attained;
yoga-dhāraṇām yoga-dhāraṇā 2n.1 f.; [TP]: yogasya dhāraṇām itiyogic steadiness (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; dhṛ – to hold, dhāraṇā – holding, concentration, steadiness);

*****

om av.OM, praṇava;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ekākṣaram eka-akṣara 2n.1 n.the one syllable (from: eka – one; kṣar – to flow, to perish, a-kṣara – imperishable, a syllable);
brahma brahman 2n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
vyāharan vy-ā-harant (vi-ā-hṛ – to pronounce) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] pronouncing, uttering the sound;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
anusmaran anusmarant (anu-smṛ – to remember, to remind) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] remembering;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
prayāti pra- (to go, to depart) Praes. P 1v.1he departs, he dies;
tyajan tyajant (tyaj – to abandon, to give up) PPr 1n.1[while] abandoning;
deham deha 2n.1 m. body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
yāti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
paramām paramā 2n.1 f.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


mūrdhny ādhāyātmanaḥmūrdhny ādāyātmanaḥ / mūrdhny ādhāya manaḥ / mūrdhny ādhyāyātmanaḥ (on the forehead one’s own [breath] after giving / on the forehead after placing the mind / on the forehead thinking of one’s own [breath]);
prāṇam → prāṇān (breaths);
yoga-dhāraṇām → yoga-dhāraṇam / yoga-dhāraṇāt (yogic holding / from yogic holding);
tyajan dehaṃ sa yāti paramāṃ gatim → sa mad-bhāvaṃ yāṃti nāsty atra saṃśayaḥ (he attains my nature, there is no doubt about it);
 
 

Śāṃkara


sa yo ha vai tad bhagavan manuṣyeṣu prāyaṇāntam oṃkāram abhidhyāyīta | katamaṃ vāva sa tena lokaṃ jayatīti | tasmai sa hovāca—etad vai satya-kāma paraṃ cāparaṃ ca brahma yad oṃkāraḥ [pūrvraśnauttaṃ 5.1-2] ity upakramya, yaḥ punar etaṃ trimātreṇa om ity etenaivākṣareṇa paraṃ puruṣam abhidhyāyīta sa sāmabhir unnīyate brahma-lokaṃ [pūrvraśnauttaṃ 5.5] ity ādinā vacanena, anyatra dharmād anyatrādharmād [kṛtaṭhuttaṃ 1.2.14] iti copakramya

sarve vedā yat padam āmananti
tapāṃsi sarvāṇi ca yad vadanti |
yad icchanto brahmacaryaṃ caranti
tat te padaṃ saṃgraheṇa bravīmy om ity etad [kṛtaṭhuttaṃ 1.2.15]

ity ādibhiś ca vacanaiḥ parasya brahmaṇo vācaka-rūpeṇa, pratimāvat pratīka-rūpeṇa vā, para-brahma-pratipatti-sādhanatvena manda-madhyama-buddhīnāṃ vivakṣitasya oṃkārasyopāsanaṃ kālāntare mukti-phalam uktaṃ yat, tad evehāpi kaviṃ purāṇam anuśāsitāraṃ [gītā 8.9] yad akṣaraṃ veda-vido vadanti [gītā 8.11] iti copanyastasya parasya brahmaṇaḥ pūrvokta-rūpeṇa pratipatty-upāya-bhūtasya oṃkārasya kālāntara-mukti-phalam upāsanaṃ yogadhāraṇā-sahitaṃ vaktavyam | prasaktānuprasaktaṃ ca yat kiṃcid ity evam artha uttare grantha ārabhyate—

sarva-dvārāṇi sarvāṇi ca tāni dvārāṇi ca sarva-dvārāṇy upalabdhau, tāni sarvāṇi saṃyasya saṃyamanaṃ kṛtvā mano hṛdi hṛdaya-puṇḍārīke nirūdhya nirodhaṃ kṛtvā niṣpracāram āpādya, tatra vaśīkṛtena manasā hṛdayād ūrdhva-gāminyā nāḍyordhvam ārūhya mūrdhny ādhāya ātmanaḥ prāṇam āsthitaḥ pṛvṛtto yoga-dhāraṇāṃ dhārayitum

tatraiva ca dhārayan—

om iti ekākṣaraṃ brahma brahmaṇo’bhidhāna-bhūtam oṃkāraṃ vyāharan ucārayan, tad-artha-bhūtaṃ mām īśvaram anusmaran anucintayan yaḥ prayāti mriyate, sa tyajan parityajan dehaṃ śarīraṃ—tyajan deham iti prayāṇa-viśeṣaṇārthaṃ deha-tyāgena prayāṇam ātmanaḥ, na svarūpa-nāśenety arthaḥ—sa evaṃ yāti gacchati paramāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatim

 

Rāmānuja


sarvāṇi śrotrādīnīndriyāṇi jñānadvārabhūtāni saṃyamya svavyāpārebhyo vinivartya, hṛdayakamalaniviṣṭe mayy akṣare mano nirudhya, yogākhyāṃ dhāraṇām āsthitaḥ mayy eva niścalāṃ sthitim āsthitaḥ, om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahma madvācakaṃ vyāharan, vācyaṃ mām anusmaran, ātmanaḥ prāṇaṃ mūrdhny ādhāya dehaṃ tyajan yaḥ prayāti sa yāti paramāṃ gatiṃ prakṛtiviyuktaṃ matsamānākāram apunarāvṛttim ātmānaṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ / „yaḥ sa sarveṣu bhūteṣu naśyatsu na vinaśyati // avyakto ‚kṣara ity uktas tam āhuḥ paramāṃ gatim // BhGR_1.” ity anantaram eva vakṣyate

 

Śrīdhara


pratijñātam upāyaṃ sāṅgam āha dvābhyāṃ sarveti | sarvāṇi indriya-dvārāṇi saṃyamya pratyāhṛtya | cakṣur-ādibhiḥ bāhya-viṣaya-grahaṇaṃ akurvan ity arthaḥ | manaś ca hṛdi nirudhya | bāhya-viṣaya-smaraṇam akurvan ity arthaḥ | mūrdhni bhruvor madhye prāṇam ādhāya yogasya dhāraṇāṃ sthairyam āsthitaḥ āśritavān san |

om iti | om ity ekaṃ yad akṣaraṃ tad eva brahma-vācakatvād vā pratimādivad brahma-pratīkatvād vā brahma | tad-vyāharan uccārayaṃs tad-vācyaṃ ca mām anusmarann eva dehaṃ tyajan yaḥ prakarṣeṇa yāti arcirādi-mārgeṇa sa paramāṃ śreṣṭhāṃ gatiṃ mad-gatiṃ yāti prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


tatra pravakṣya iti pratijñātam arthaṃ sopakaraṇam āhaa dvābhyām sarva-dvārāṇīti | sarvāṇīndriya-dvārāṇi saṃyamya sva-sva-viṣayebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya viṣaya-doṣa-darśanābhyāsāt tad-vimukhatām āpāditaiḥ śrotrādibhiḥ śabdādi-viṣaya-grahaṇam akurvan | bāheyndriya-nirodhe ‚pi manasaḥ pracāraḥ syād ity ata āha mano hṛdi nirudhya ca, abhyāsa-vairāgyābhyāṃ ṣaṣṭhe vyākhyātābhyāṃ hṛdaya-deśe mano nirudhya nirvṛttikatām āpādya ca, antar api viṣaya-cintām akurvann ity arthaḥ | evaṃ bahir antar upalabdhi-dvārāṇi sarvāṇi saṃnirudhya kriyā-dvāraṃ prāṇam api sarvato nigṛhya bhūmi-jaya-krameṇa mūrdhny ādhāya bhruvor madhye tad-upari ca gurūpadiṣṭa-mārgeṇāveśyātmano yoga-dhāraṇām ātma-viṣaya-samādhi-rūpāṃ dhāraṇām āsthitaḥ | ātmana iti devatā-divya-vṛtty-artham |

om ity ekam akṣaraṃ brahma-vācakatvāt pratimā-baddha-brahma-pratīkatvād vā brahma vyāharann uccaran | om iti vyāharann ity etāvataiva nirvāha ekākṣaram ity anāyāsa-kathanena stuty-artham | om iti vyāharann ekākṣaram ekam advitīyam akṣaram avināśi sarva-vyāpakaṃ brahma mām om ity asyārthaṃ smarann iti vā | tena praṇavaṃ japaṃs tad-abhidheya-bhūtaṃ ca māṃ cintayan mūrdhanyayā nāḍyā dehaṃ tyajanyaḥ prayāti sa yāti deva-yāna-mārgeṇa brahma-lokaṃ gatvā tad-bhogānte paramāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ mad-rūpām |

atra patañjalinā tīvra-saṃvegānām āsannaḥ (Ys 1.21) samādhi-lābhaḥ ity uktvā īśvara-praṇidhānād vā (1.23) ity uktam | praṇidhānaṃ ca vyākhyātaṃ tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ (1.27), taj-japas tad-artha-bhāvanam (1.28) iti | samādhi-siddhir īśvara-praṇidhānāt (2.45) iti ca | iha tu sākṣād eva tataḥ parama-gati-lābha ity uktam | tasmād avirodhayom ity ekākṣaraṃ brahma vyāharan mām anusmarann ātmano yoga-dhāraṇām āsthita iti vyākhyeyam | vicitra-phalatvopapatter vā na nirodhyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


uktam arthaṃ vadan yoge prakāram āha sarvāṇi cakṣur-ādīndriya-dvārāṇi saṃyamya bāhya-viṣayebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya manaś ca hṛdy eva nirudhya viṣayāntareṣv asaṅkalpya mūrdhni bhruvor madhye eva prāṇam ādhāya yoga-dhāraṇām ānakha-śikha-man-mūrti-bhāvanām āśritaḥ san om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahma-svarūpaṃ vyāharan uccārayan tad-vācyaṃ mām anusmarann anudhyāyan paramāṃ gatiṃ mat-sālokyam

 

Baladeva


yoga-prakāram āha sarveti | sarvāṇi bahir jñāna-dvārāṇi śrotrādīni saṃyamya śabdādibhyo viṣayebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya doṣa-darśanābhyāsena tad-vimukhais tais tān gṛhṇan śrotrādi-saṃyame ‚pi manaḥ pracared ity ata āha hṛdi sthite mayi antar-jñāna-dvāraṃ mano nirudhya niveśya manasāpi tān smaran | atha kriyā-dvāraṃ prāṇaṃ ca mūrdhnādhāyādau hṛt-padme vaśīkṛtya tasmād ūrdhva-gatayā suṣumṇayā gurūpadiṣṭa-vartmanā bhūmi-jaya-krameṇa bhruvor madhye tad-upari brahma-randhre ca saṃsthāpya ātmano mama yoga-dhāraṇām āāda-śikhaṃ mad-bhāvanam āsthitaḥ kurvan |

om iti vācakaṃ brahma tatra vyāharan antar uccārayan tat stauti ekākṣaram iti ekaṃ pradhānaṃ ca tad-akṣaram avināśi ceti tathā tad vācyaṃ māṃ parmātmānam anusmaran dhyāyan yo dehaṃ tyajan prayāti sa paramāṃ gatiṃ mat-sālokyatāṃ yāti

 
 

BhG 8.14

ananya-cetāḥ satataṃ yo māṃ smarati nityaśaḥ
tasyāhaṃ sulabhaḥ pārtha nitya-yuktasya yoginaḥ

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!)
yaḥ ananya-cetāḥ (he whose mind is on nothing else) nityaśaḥ (always) satatam (constantly) mām (about me) smarati (he thinks),
aham (I) tasya nitya-yuktasya (for one always engaged) yoginaḥ (for a yogī) su-labhaḥ [bhavāmi] (I become easy to obtain).

 

grammar

ananya-cetāḥ an-anya-cetas 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya ceto ‘nyasmin nāsti saḥ whose mind is on nothing else (from: anya – other, ananya – no other, unique, undistracted, not devoted to anything else; cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
satatam av.constantly (from: sa-tata – constant, uninterrupted);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
smarati smṛ (to think, to remember) Praes. P 1v.1he remembers, he thinks;
nityaśaḥ av.always (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.his;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
sulabhaḥ su-labha 1n.1 m.easy to obtain (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous, easy; labh – to obtain, to gain; lābha – gain, profit);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
nitya-yuktasya nitya-yukta 6n.1 m.; nityaṁ yuktasyetiof one always engaged (from: av. nityam – constantly, eternally; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
yoginaḥ yogin 6n.1 m.of a yogī, engaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);

 

textual variants


nitya-yuktasyanitya-yogasya (for whom yoga is a daily [practice]);
yoginaḥ → dehinaḥ (for the embodied);
 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

ananya-cetā nānya-viṣaye ceto yasya so’yam ananya-cetāḥ | yogī satataṃ sarvadā yo māṃ parameśvaraṃ smarati | nityaśaḥ satatam iti nairantaryam ucyate, nityaśaḥ iti dīrgha-kālatvam ucyate | na ṣaṇ-māsaṃ saṃvatsaraṃ vā | kiṃ tarhi ? yāvaj-jīvaṃ nairantaryeṇa yo māṃ smaratīty arthaḥ | tasya yogino’haṃ sulabhaḥ sukhena labhyo he pārtha, nitya-yuktasya sadā samāhita-cittasya yoginaḥ | yata evam, ato’nanya-cetāḥ san mayi sadā samāhito bhavet

 

Rāmānuja


evam aiśvaryārthinaḥ kaivalyārthinaś ca svaprāpyānuguṇaṃ bhagavadupāsanaprakāra uktaḥ; atha jñānino bhagavadupāsanaprakāraṃ prāptiprakāraṃ cāha

nityaśaḥ mām udyogaprabhṛti satataṃ sarvakālam ananyacetāḥ yaḥ smarati atyarthamatpriyatvena matsmṛtyā vinā ātmadhāraṇam alabhamāno niratiśayapriyāṃ smṛtiṃ yaḥ karoti; tasya nityayuktasya nityayogaṃ kāṅkṣamāṇasya yoginaḥ ahaṃ sulabhaḥ aham eva prāpyaḥ; na madbhāva aiśvaryādikaḥ suprāpaś ca / tadviyogam asahamāno ‚ham eva taṃ vṛṇe / „yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyaḥ” iti hi śrūyate / matprāptyanuguṇopāsanavipākaṃ tadvirodhinirasanam atyarthamatpriyatvādikaṃ cāham eva dadāmītyarthaḥ / vakṣyate ca „teṣāṃ satatayuktānāṃ bhajatāṃ prītipūrvakam / dadāmi buddhiyogaṃ taṃ yena mām upāyānti te // teṣām evānukampārtham aham ajñānajaṃ tamaḥ / nāśayāmy ātmabhāvastho jñānadīpena bhāsvatā

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ cānta-kāle dhāraṇayā mat-prāptir nityābhyāsavata eva bhavati | nānyasyeti pūrvoktam evānusmārayati ananyeti | nāsty anyasmiṃś ceto yasya | tathābhūtaḥ san | yo māṃ satataṃ nirantaraṃ nityaśaḥ pratidinaṃ smarati | tasya nitya-yuktasya samāhitasyāhaṃ sukhena labhyo ‚smi nānyasya

 

Madhusūdana


ya evaṃ vāyu-nirodha-vaidhuryeṇa prāṇam āveśya mūrdhanyayā nāḍyā dehaṃ tyaktuṃ svecchayā na śaknoti kiṃ tu karma-kṣayeṇaiva paravaśo dehaṃ tyajati tasya kiṃ syād iti tad āha ananya-cetā iti | na vidyate mad-anya-viṣaye ceto yasya so ‚nanya-cetāḥ satataṃ nirantaraṃ nityaśo yāvaj-jīvaṃ yo māṃ smarati tasya sva-vaśatayā vā dehaṃ tyajato ‚pi nitya-yuktasya satata-samāhita-cittasya yoginaḥ sulabhaḥ sukhena labhyo ‚haṃ parameśvara itareṣām atidurlabho ‚pi he pārtha tavāham atisulabho mā bhaiṣīr ity abhiprāyaḥ |

atra tasyeti ṣaṣṭh.-śeṣe sambandha-sāmānye | kartari na lokety ādinā niṣedhāt | atra cānanya-cetastvena sat-kāro ‚tyādaram | satatam iti nairantaryaṃ nityaśa iti dīrgha-kālatvaṃ smaraṇasyoktam | tena sa tu dīrgha-kāla-nairantarya-satkārāsevito dṛḍha-bhūmiḥ (Ys 1.14) iti pātañjalaṃ matam anusṛtaṃ bhavati | tatra sa ity abhyāsa ukto ‚pi smaraṇa-paryavasāyī | tena yāvaj-jīvaṃ pratikṣaṇaṃ vikṣepāntara-śūnyatayā bhagavad-anucintanam eva parama-gati-hetur mūrdhanyayā nāḍyā tu svecchayā prāṇotkramaṇaṃ bhavatu na veti nātīvāgrahaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tad evam ārtaḥ ity ādinā karma-miśrām, jaarā-maraṇa-mokṣāya ity anenāpi karma-miśrām, kaviṃ purāṇaṃ ity ādibhir yoga-miśrāṃ ca saparikarāṃ pradhānībhūtāṃ bhaktim uktvā sarva-śreṣṭhāṃ nirguṇāṃ kevalāṃ bhaktim āha-ananya-cetā iti | na vidyate ‚nyasmin karmaṇi jñāna-yoge vānuṣṭheyatvena | tathā devatāntare vārādhyatvena | tathā svargāpargādāv api prāpyatvena ceto yasya | satataṃ sadeti kāla-deśa-pātra-śuddhy-ādy-anapekṣatayaiva nityaśaḥ pratidinam eva yo māṃ smarati, yasya tena bhaktenāhaṃ sulabhaḥ sukhena labhyaḥ | yoga-jñānābhyāsādi-duḥkha-miśraṇābhāvād iti bhāvaḥ | nitya-yuktasya nitya-mad-yogākāṅkṣiṇa āśaṃsāyāṃ bhūtavac ceti bhāviny api yoga āśāṃsite kta-pratyayaḥ | yogino bhakti-yogavataḥ | yad vā yoga-sambandho dāsya-sakhyādis tadvataḥ

 

Baladeva


evaṃ mokṣa-mātra-kāṅkṣiṇāṃ yoga-miśrāṃ bhaktim upadiśya sva-jñānināṃ svam evākāṅkṣatām eka-bhaktir ity uktāṃ śuddhāṃ bhaktiṃ upadiśati ananyeti | yo jano ‚nanya-cetā na matto ‚nyasmin karma-yogādike sādhane svarga-mokṣādike sādhye vā ceto yasya sa mad-ekābhilāṣavān satataṃ sarvadā deśa-kālādi-viśuddhi-nairapekṣeṇa nityaśaḥ pratyahaṃ māṃ yaśodā-stanandhayaṃ nṛsiṃha-raghunāthādi-rūpeṇa bahudhāvirbhūtaṃ sarveśvaram atimātra-priyaṃ smaraty arcana-japādiṣv anusandhatte tasyāhaṃ tat-prītijñaḥ sulabhaḥ sukhena labhyaḥ karmānuṣṭhāna-yogābhyāsādi-duḥkha-samparkābhāvāt | tasyeti sambandha-sāmānye ṣaṣṭhī, na lokāvyaya ity ādinā kartari tasyāḥ pratiṣedhāt | tādṛśasya tasya viyogam asahiṣṇur aham eva tam ātmānaṃ darśayāmi tat-sādhana-paripākaṃ tat-pratikūla-nirāsaṃ ca kurvan | śrutiś caivam āha – yam evaiṣa vṛnute tena labhyas tasyaiṣa ātmā viviṛṇute tanūṃ svām iti | svayaṃ ca vakṣyati – dadāmi buddhi-yogaṃ taṃ yena mām upayānti te ity ādinā | kīdṛśasyety āha nityeti | sarvadā mad-yogaṃ vāñchataḥ āśaṃsāyāṃ bhūtavac ca iti sūtrād āśāṃsite yoge bhaviṣyaty api kta-pratyayaḥ | yogino mad-dāsya-sakhyādi-sambandhavataḥ

 
 

BhG 8.15

mām upetya punar-janma duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam
nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ saṃsiddhiṃ paramāṃ gatāḥ

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mahātmānaḥ (great-souled ones) mām (me) upetya (after attaining)
duḥkhālayam (the place of distress) aśāśvatam (temporary) punar-janma (re-birth) na āpnuvanti (they do not obtain),
[te] (they) paramāṁ (supreme) saṁsiddhiṁ (perfection) gatāḥ (those who have gone).

 

grammar

mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
upetya upa-i (to go near, to attain) absol.after attaining;
punar-janma punar-janman 2n.1 n.re-birth (from: jan – to be born, janman – birth; av. punaḥ – back, again);
duḥkhālayam duḥkha-ālaya 2n.1 n.; [TP]: duḥkhasyālayam itiplace of distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not; ā- – to come close, to settle, ālaya – dwelling, house);
aśāśvatam a-śāśvata 2n.1 n.not eternal, temporary;
na av.not;
āpnuvanti āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.3they obtain;
mahātmānaḥ mahā-ātman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā mahān asti tethose whose selves are great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);
saṁsiddhim sam-siddhi 2n.1 f. accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
paramām paramā 2n.1 f. the supreme (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest);
gatāḥ gata (gam – to go) [PP] 1n.3 m.who have gone;

 
 

Śāṃkara


tava saulabhyena kiṃ syāt ? ity ucyate | sṛṇu tan mama saulabhyena yad bhavati—

mām upetya mām īśvaram upetya mad-bhāvam āpadya punar janma punar utpattiṃ nāpnuvanti na prāpnuvanti | kiṃ-viśiṣṭaṃ punar-janma na prāpnuvanti ? iti, tad-viśeṣaṇam āha—duḥkhālayaṃ duḥkhānām ādhyātmikādīnām ālayam āśrayam | ālīyante yasmin duḥkhānīti duḥkhālayaṃ janma | na kevalaṃ duḥkhālayam, aśāśvatam anavasthita-svarūpaṃ ca | nāpnuvanti īdṛśaṃ punar-janma mahātmāno yatayaḥ saṃsiddhiṃ mokṣākhyāṃ paramāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatāḥ prāptāḥ | ye punar māṃ na prāpnuvanti te punar āvartante

 

Rāmānuja


ataḥ param adhyāyaśeṣeṇa jñāninaḥ kaivalyārthinaś cāpunarāvṛttim aiśvaryārthinaḥ punarāvṛttiṃ cāha

māṃ prāpya punarnikhiladuḥkhālayam aśāśvatam asthiraṃ janma na prāpnuvanti / yata ete mahātmānaḥ mahāmanasaḥ, yathāvasthitamatsvarūpajñānānā atyarthamatpriyatvena mayā vinā ātmadhāraṇam alabhamānā mayy āsktamanaso madāśrayā mām upāsya paramasaṃsiddhirūpaṃ māṃ prāptāḥ

 

Śrīdhara


yady evaṃ tvaṃ sulabho ‚si tataḥ kiṃ ? ata āha mām iti | ukta-lakṣaṇā mahātmāno mad-bhaktā māṃ prāpya punar duḥkhāśrayam antiyaṃ ca janma na prāpnuvanti | yatas te paramāṃ samyak siddhiṃ mokṣam eva prāptāḥ | punar janmano duḥkhānāṃ cālayaṃ sthānaṃ te mām upetya na prāpnuvantīti vā

 

Madhusūdana


bhagavantaṃ prāptāḥ punar āvartante na veti sandehe nāvartanta ity āha mām iti | mām īśvaraṃ prāpya punar janma manuṣyādi-deha-sambandhaṃ kīdṛśaṃ duḥkhālayaṃ garbha-vāsa-yoni-dvāra-nirgamanādy-aneka-duḥkha-sthānam | aśāśvatam asthiraṃ dṛṣṭa-naṣṭa-prāyaṃ nāpnuvanti punar nāvartanta ity arthaḥ | yato mahātmnāno rajas-tamo-mala-rahitāntaḥ-karaṇā śuddha-sattvāḥ samutpanna-samyag-darśanā mal-loka-bhogānte paramāṃ sarvotkṛṣṭāṃ saṃsiddhiṃ muktiṃ gatās te | atra māṃ prāpya siddhiṃ gatā iti vadatopāsakānāṃ krama-muktir darśitā

 

Viśvanātha


tvāṃ prāptavatas tasya kiṃ syād ity āha mām iti | duḥkhālayaṃ duḥkha-pūrṇam | aśāśvatam anityaṃ ca janma nāpnuvanti kintu sukha-pūrṇaṃ janma maj-janma-tulyaṃ prāpnuvanti | śāśvatas tu dhruvo nityaḥ sadānanaḥ sanātanaḥ ity amaraḥ | yadā vasudeva-gṛhe sukha-pūrṇaṃ nitya-bhūtam aprākṛtaṃ maj-janma bhavet tad eva teṣāṃ mad-bhaktānām api man-nitya-saṅgināṃ janma syān nānyadā iti bhāvaḥ | paramām iti anye bhaktāḥ saṃsiddhiṃ prāpnuvanti ananya-cetasas tu paramāṃ saṃsiddhiṃ mal-līlā-parikaratām ity arthaḥ | tenokta-lakṣaṇebhyaḥ sarva-bhaktebhyo dṛśya-śraiṣṭhyaṃ dyotitam

 

Baladeva


tāṃ labdhavataḥ kiṃ phalaṃ syād ity apekṣāyām āha mām iti | mām ukta-lakṣaṇam upetya prāpya punaḥ prapañce janma nāpnuvanti nāvartanta ity arthaḥ | kīdṛśaṃ janmety āha duḥkhālayaṃ garbha-vāsādi-bahu-kleśa-pūrṇam | aśāśvatam anityaṃ dṛṣṭa-naṣṭa-prāyam śāśvatas tu dhruvo nityaḥ ity amaraḥ | yatas te paramāṃ sarvotkṛṣṭāṃ saṃsiddhiṃ gatiṃ mām eva gatā labdhavantaḥ avyakto ‚kṣara ity uktas tam āhuḥ paramāṃ gatim iti vakṣyati | kīdṛśās te mahātmāno ‚tyudāra-mnanasaḥ vijñānānanda-nidhiṃ bhakta-prasādābhimukhaṃ bhaktāyatta-sarvasvaṃ māṃ vinānyat sārṣṭyādikam agaṇayanto made-eka-jīvātavo bhavanty atas te mām eva saṃsiddhiṃ gatāḥ | atrānanya-cetaso ‚sya svaikāntinaḥ sva-niṣṭhebhyaḥ sva-bhaktebhyaḥ śraiṣṭhyaṃ ucyate

 
 

BhG 8.16

ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino rjuna
mām upetya tu kaunteya punar janma na vidyate

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he arjuna (O Arjuna!), he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
ā-brahma-bhuvanāt (up to the abode of Brahmā) lokāḥ (worlds) punar-āvartinaḥ (subject to re-birth) [santi] (they are).
mām tu (but me) upetya (after attaining)
punar-janma (re-birth) na vidyate (there is not).

 

grammar

ā-brahma-bhuvanāt ā-brahma-bhuvana 5n.1 n.up to the abode of Brahmā (from: ā – before a word in ablative means: up to, regardless of the meaning of the word; bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas, Brahma; bhū – to be, bhuvana – being, world, abode);
lokāḥ loka 1n.3 m. worlds;
punar-āvartinaḥ punar-āvaṛtin 1n.3 m.whih return again, are subject to re-birth (from: av. punaḥ – back, again; ā-vṛt – to return, to reverse; āvartin – returning);
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
upetya upa-i (to go near, to attain) absol.after attaining;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
punar-janma punar-janman 2n.1 n.re-birth (from: jan – to be born, janman – birth; av. punaḥ – back, again);
na av.not;
vidyate vid (to be) Praes. Ā 1v.1there is;

 

textual variants


ā-brahma-bhuvanālā-brahma-bhavanāl (up to the palace of Brahmā);
lokāḥ → lokān / lokāt (worlds / than the worlds);
punar-āvartino punar-āvṛttino;
upetya tu → upeyati;
 
 

Śāṃkara


kiṃ punas tvatto’nyat prāptāḥ punar āvartante ? ity ucyate—

ā brahma-bhuvanāt bhavanty asmin bhūtānīti bhuvanam | brahmaṇo bhuvanaṃ brahma-bhuvanam, brahma-loka ity arthaḥ | ā brahma-bhuvanāt saha brahma-bhuvanena lokāḥ sarve punar-āvartinaḥ punar-āvartana-svabhāvāḥ | he’rjuna | mām ekam upetya tu kaunteya punar-janma punar-utpattiḥ na vidyate

 

Rāmānuja


aiśvaryagatiṃ prāptānāṃ bhagavantaṃ prāptānāṃ ca punarāvṛttau apunarāvṛttau ca hetum anantaram āha

brahmalokaparyantāḥ brahmāṇḍodaravartinas sarve lokā bhogāiśvaryālayāḥ punarāvartinaḥ vināśinaḥ / ata aiśvaryagatiṃ prāptānāṃ prāpyasthānavināśād vināśitvam avarjanīyam / māṃ sarvajñaṃ satyasaṅkalpaṃ nikhilajagadutpattisthitilayalīlaṃ paramakāruṇikaṃ sadaikarūpaṃ prāptānāṃ vināśaprasaṅgābhāvāt teṣāṃ punarjanma na vidyate

 

Śrīdhara


sarva eva jīvā mahā-sukṛtino ‚pi jāyante | mad-bhaktās tu tadvan na jāyanta ity āha ā-brahmeti | brahmaṇo bhuvanaṃ satya-lokaḥ tam abhivyāpya

 

Madhusūdana


bhagavantam upāgatānāṃ samyag-darśinām apunar-āvṛttau kathitāyāṃ tato vimukhānām asamyag-darśināṃ punar-āvṛttir artha-siddhety āha ābrahmeti | ābrahma-bhuvanāt bhavanty atra bhūtānīti bhuvanaṃ lokaḥ | abhividhāv ā-kāraḥ | brahma-lokena saha sarve ‚pi lokā mad-vimukhānām asamyag-darśināṃ bhoga-bhūtayaḥ punar-āvartinaḥ punar-āvartana-śīlāḥ | brahma-bhavanād iti pāṭhe bhavanaṃ vāsa-sthānam iti sa evārthaḥ | he ‚rjuna svataḥ-prasiddha-mahā-puruṣa |

kiṃ tadvad eva tvāṃ prāptānām api punar āvṛttir nety āha mām īśvaram ekam upetya tu | tur lokāntara-vailakṣaṇya-dyotanārtho ‚vadhāraṇārtho vā | mām eva prāpya nirvṛttānāṃ he kaunteya mātṛto ‚pi prasiddha-mahānubhāva punar-janma na vidyate punar-āvṛttir nāstīty arthaḥ | atrārjuna kaunteyeti sambodhana-dvayena svarūpataḥ kāraṇataś ca śuddhir jñāna-saṃpattaye sūcitā |

atreyaṃ vyavasthā | ye krama-mukti-phalābhirupāsanābhir brahma-lokaṃ prāptās teṣām eva tatrotpanna-samyag-darśanānāṃ brahmaṇā saha mokṣaḥ | ye tu pañcāgni-vidyādibhir atat-kratavo ‚pi tatra gatās teṣām avaśyambhāvi punar-janma | ataeva krama-mukty-abhiprāyeṇa brahma-lokam abhisampadyate na ca punar āvartate, anāvṛttiḥ śabdāt iti śruti-sūtrayor upapattiḥ | itaratra teṣām iha na punar āvṛttiḥ imaṃ mānavam āvartaṃ nāvartante itīhemam iti ca viśeṣaṇād gamanādhikaraṇa-kalpād anyatra punar āvṛttiḥ pratīyate

 

Viśvanātha


sarva eva jīvā mahā-sukṛtino ‚pi jāyante mad-bhaktās tu tavan na jāyanta ity āha ābrahmeti | brahmaṇo bhuvanaṃ satya-lokas tam abhivyāpya

 

Baladeva


mad-vimukhās tu karma-viśeṣaiḥ svargādi-lokān prāptā api tebhyaḥ patantīty āha ābrahmeti | abhividhāvākāraḥ brahma bhuvanaṃ vyāpyety arthaḥ | brahma-lokena saha sarve svargādayo lokās tat-tad-vartino jīvās tat-tat-karma-kṣaye sati punar āvartino bhūmau punar janma labhante | mām upetyeti punaḥ kathanaṃ dṛḍhīkaraṇārtham | atredaṃ bodhyaṃ pañcāgni-vidyayā mahāhava-maraṇādinā ye brahma-lokaṃ gatās teṣāṃ bhogānte pātaḥ syāt | ye tu sa-niṣṭhāḥ pareśa-bhaktāḥ svargādi-lokān krameṇānubhavantas tatra gatās teṣāṃ tu na tasmāt pātaḥ | kintu tal-loka-vināśe tat-patinā saha pareśa-loka-prāptir eva –

brahmaṇā saha te sarve samprāpte pratisañcare |
parasyānte kṛtātmānaḥ praviśanti paraṃ padam || iti smaraṇād iti ||

 
 

BhG 8.17

sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ
rātriṃ yuga-sahasrāntāṃ te ho-rātra-vido janāḥ

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[ye] (those who) brahmaṇaḥ (of Brahmā) sahasra-yuga-paryantam (whose extend is a thousand aeons) yat ahaḥ (which day) viduḥ (they know),
[ye] (those who) [brahmaṇaḥ] (of Brahmā) yuga-sahasrāntām (whose end is after a thousand aeons) [yat] rātrim (which night) [viduḥ] (they know),
te (they) janāḥ (people) aho-rātra-vidaḥ (knowers of day and night) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

sahasra-yuga-paryantam sahasra-yuga-paryanta 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya sahasraṁ yugāni paryanto ‘sti tat whose extend is a thousand aeons (from: sahasra – a thousand; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yuga – aeon, an age of the world; pary-anta – circuit, edge, end, limit, boundary);
ahaḥ ahar / ahan 2n.1 n.day;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.which;
brahmaṇaḥ brahman 6n.1 m.of Brahmā (from: bṛh – to increase);
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know, they learned;
rātrim rātri 2n.1 f.night (from: – to grant or ram – to play, to rejoice);
yuga-sahasrāntām yuga-sahasra-antā 2n.1 f.; BV: yasyā yugānām sahasreṇānto ‘sti tām whose end is after a thousand aeons (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yuga – aeon, an age of the world; sahasra – a thousand; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
aho-rātra-vidaḥ aho-rātra-vit 1n.3 m.; ye ahar ca rārtiṁ ca vetti teknowers of day and night (from: ahar / ahan – day; – to grant or ram – to play, to rejoice, rātra = rātri – night; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
janāḥ jana 1n.3 m.people, men (from: jan – to be born, to produce);

 

textual variants


ahar yad → ahar ye (day, those who);
rātriṁ → rātrir (night);
yuga-sahasrāntāṁyuga-sahasrāṁte (in one whose end is after a thousand aeons);
te ‚ho-rātra-vido → te ‘ho-rātri-vido / aho-rātra-vido (they are the knowers of day and night / knowers of day and night);
 
 

Śāṃkara


brahma-loka-sahitā lokāḥ kasmāt punar-āvartinaḥ ? kāla-paricchinnatvāt | kathaṃ ?—

sahasra-yuga-paryantaṃ sahasrāṇi yugāni paryantaḥ paryavasānaṃ yasyāhnas tat ahaḥ sahasra-yuga-paryantam | brahmaṇaḥ prajāpater virājo viduḥ | rātrim api yuga-sahasrāntām ahaḥ-parimāṇām eva | ke vidur ity āha—te’ho-rātra-vidaḥ kāla-saṃkhyā-vido janā ity arthaḥ | yata evaṃ kāla-paricchinnās te, ataḥ punar-āvartino lokāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 8.19

 

Śrīdhara


nanu ca tapasvino dāna-śīlā vīta-rāgās titikṣavaḥ | trailokya-sopari-sthānaṃ labhante loka-varjitam | ity ādi purāṇa-vākyais trailokyasya sakāśān maharlokādīnām utkṛṣṭatvaṃ gamyate | vināśitve ca sarveṣām avaśiṣṭe katham asau viśeṣaḥ syād ity āśaṅkya bahv-alpa-kāla-sthāyitva-nimitto ‚sau viśeṣa ity āśayena sva-mānena śata-varṣāyuṣo brahmaṇo ‚hany ahani trilokya utpattiḥ niśi niśi ca pralayo bhavatīti darśayiṣyan brahmaṇo ‚horātrayoḥ pramāṇam āha sahasreti |

sahasraṃ yugāni paryanto ‚vasānaṃ ysya tad brahmaṇo yad ahas tad ye viduḥ yuga-sahasram anto yasyās tāṃ rātriṃ ca yoga-balena ye vidus ta eva sarvajñā janā aho-rātra-vidaḥ | yeṣāṃ tu kevalaṃ candrāditya-gatyaiva jñānaṃ te tathāhorātra-vido na bhavanti | alpa-darśitvāt | yuga-śabdena atra caturyugam abhipretaṃ caturyuga-sahasraṃ tu brahmaṇo dinam ucyate iti viṣṇu-purāṇokteḥ | brahmaṇa iti ca mahar-lokādi-vāsinām upalakṣaṇārtham | tatrāyaṃ kāla-gaṇanā-prakāraḥ | manuṣyāṇāṃ yad varṣaṃ tad devānām aho-rātram | tādṛśair aho-rātraiḥ pakṣa-māsādi-kalpanayā dvādaśabhir varṣa-sahasraiś catur-yugaṃ bhavati | catur-yuga-sahasraṃ tu brahmaṇo dinam | tāvat parimāṇaiva rātris tādṛśair aho-rātraiḥ pakṣa-māsādi-krameṇa varṣa-śataṃa brahmaṇaḥ paramāyur iti

 

Madhusūdana


brahma-loka-sahitāḥ sarve lokāḥ punar āvartinaḥ | kasmāt ? kāla-paricchinnatvād ity āha sahasreti | manuṣya-parimāṇena sahasra-yuga-paryantaṃ sahasraṃ yugāni catur-yugāni paryanto ‚vasānaṃ yasya tat | caturyuga-sahasraṃ tu brahmaṇo dinam ucyate iti hi paurāṇikaṃ vacanam | tādṛśaṃ brahmaṇaḥ prajāpater ahar-dinaṃ yad ye viduḥ tathā rātriṃ yuga-sahasrāntāṃ caturyuga-sahasra-paryantāṃ ye vidur ity anuvartate te ‚horātra-vidas ta evāho-rātra-vido yogino janāḥ | ye tu candrārka-gatyaiva vidus te nāhorātra-vidaḥ svalpa-darśitvād ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu amṛtaṃ kṣemam abhayaṃ trimūrdhno ‚dhāyi mūrdhasu (BhP 2.6.19) iti dvitīya-skandhoktyā keṣāṃcin mate brahma-lokasya abhayatva-śravaṇāt | sannyāsibhir api jagamiṣitatvāt tatratyānāṃ pāto na sambhāvyate ? maivaṃ | tal-loka-svāmino brahmaṇo ‚pi pātaḥ syāt kim utānyeṣām iti vyañjayann āha sahasra iti | sahasraṃ yugāni paryanto ‚vasānaṃ yasya tad brahmaṇo ‚har dinaṃ yad ye śāstrābhijñā vidur jānanti te ‚ho-rātra-vido janā rātrim api tasya yuga-sahasrāntāṃ viduḥ | tena tādṛśāho-rātraiḥ pakṣam āsādi-krameṇa varṣa-śataṃ brahmaṇaḥ paramāyur iti | etad-ante tasyāpi pāto na kasyacid vaiṣṇavasya tasya brahmaṇo mokṣaś ceti vyañjitam

 

Baladeva


svargādayaḥ satyāntāḥ sarve lokāḥ kāla-paricchinnatvād vinaśyantīti bhāvenāha sahasreti | yad ye brahmaṇaś caturmukhasyāhar dinaṃ nṛ-māṇena sahasra-yuga-paryantaṃ viduḥ catur-yuga-sahasraṃ tu brahmaṇo dinam ucyate iti smṛteḥ | sahasraṃ caturyugāni paryanto ‚vasānaṃ yasya tat | tasya rātriṃ ca caturyuga-sahasrāntāṃ vidus ta eva yogino janā aho-rātra-vido bhavanti | na tv anye candrārka-gati-vido mahar-lokādi-sthitānām upalakṣaṇam etat | ayam arthaḥ nṝṇāṃ varṣaṃ devānām aho-rātraṃ tādṛśair aho-rātraiḥ pakṣam āsādi-gaṇanayā dvādaśabhri varṣa-sahasraiś catur-yugaṃ catur-yugānāṃ sahasraṃ tu brahmaṇo dinaṃ rātriś ca tāvaty eva tādṛśaiś cāho-rātraiḥ pakṣādi-gaṇanayā varṣa-śataṃ tasya paramāyur iti | tad-ante tal-lokasya tad-vartināṃ ca vināśād āvṛttiḥ siddheti

 
 

BhG 8.18

avyaktād vyaktayaḥ sarvāḥ prabhavanty ahar-āgame
rātry-āgame pralīyante tatraivāvyakta-saṃjñake

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ahar-āgame (at the arrival of day) avyaktāt (from the unmaifested) sarvāḥ vyaktayaḥ (all manifestations) prabhavanti (they are born).
rātry-āgame (at the arrival of night) tatra eva (just there) avyakta-saṁjñake (into that named unmanifested) pralīyante (they dissolve).

 

grammar

avyaktāt a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 5n.1 m.from the unmanifested, invisible, unevolved;
vyaktayaḥ vyakti 1n.3 f.manifestations, appearances, distinctness (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible);
sarvāḥ sarva sn. 1n.3 f.all;
prabhavanti pra-bhū (to spring up from, to produce) Praes. P 1v.3they are born;
ahar-āgame ahar-āgama 7n.1 m.; [TP]: ahnar āgama itiat the arrival of day (from: ahar / ahan – day; ā-gam – to come, āgama – arrival);
rātry-āgame rātry-āgama 7n.1 m.; [TP]: rātrer āgama itiat the arrival of night (from: – to grant or ram – to play, to rejoice, rātri – night; ā-gam – to come, āgama – arrival);
pralīyante pra- (to dissolve, to vanish) Praes. Ā 1v.3they dissolve;
tatra av.there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
avyakta-saṁjñake avyakta-saṁjñaka 7n.1 m.; yasyāvyakto iti saṁjñāstiinto that named unmanifested (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible, [PP] a-vyakta – unmanifested, invisible, unevolved; sam-jñā – to be of one opinion, to understand, saṁjñā – made known, communicated, called, definied, saṁjñaka – suffix: named);

 

textual variants


avyaktād vyaktayaḥ sarvāḥ avyaktā vyaktayaḥ sarvāḥ (all manifested nad unmanifested);
prabhavanty → pralayaṁti (they dissolve);
avyakta-saṁjñake → avyakta-saṁjñike (into that named unmanifested);
 
 

Śāṃkara


prajāpater ahani yad bhavati rātrau ca, tad ucyate—

avyaktād avyaktaṃ prajāpateḥ svāpāvasthā | tasmād avyaktād vyaktayo vyajyanta iti vyaktayaḥ sthāvara-jaṅgama-lakṣaṇāḥ sarvāḥ prajāḥ prabhavanty abhivyajyante, ahna āgamo’har-āgamas tasmin ahar-āgame kāle brahmaṇaḥ prabodha-kāle | tathā rātry-āgame brahmaṇaḥ svāpa-kāle pralīyante sarvā vyaktayas tatraiva pūrvokte’vyakta-saṃjñake

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 8.19

 

Śrīdhara


tatra kim ? ata āha avyaktād iti | kāryasyāvyaktaṃ rūpaṃ kāraṇātmakam | tasmād avyaktāt kāraṇa-rūpād vyajyanta iti vyaktayaś carācarāṇi bhūtāni prādurbhavanti | kadā ? ahar-āgame brahmaṇo dinasyopakrame | tathā rātrer āgame brahma-śayane | tasminn evāvyakta-saṃjñake kāraṇa-rūpe pralayaṃ yānti | yad vā te ‚horātra-vida ity etan na vidhīyante | kintu te prasiddhā ahorātra-vido janā brahmaṇo yad ahar vidus tasyāhna āgame ‚vyaktād vyaktayaḥ prabhavanti | yāṃ ca rātriṃ vidus tasyā rātrer āgame pralīyante iti dvayor anvayaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yathoktair aho-rātraiḥ pakṣam āsādi-gaṇanayā pūrṇaṃ varṣa-śataṃ prajāpateḥ paramāyur iti kāla-paricchinnatvenānityo ‚sau | tena tal-lokāt punar-āvṛtti-yuktaiva | ye tu tato ‚rvācīnās teṣāṃ tad ahar-mātra-paricchinnatvāt tat-tal-lokebhyaḥ punar-āvṛttir iti kim u vaktavyam ity āha avyaktād iti | atra dainandina-sṛṣṭi-pralayor eva vaktum upakrāntatvāt tatra cākāśādīnāṃ sattvād avyakta-śabdenākhyākṛtāvasthā nocyate | kintu prajāpateḥ svāpāvasthaiva | svāpāvasthaḥ prajāpatir iti yāvat | ahar-āgame prajāpateḥ prabodha-samaye ‚vyaktāt tat-svāpāvasthā-rūpād vyaktayaḥ śarīra-viṣayādi-rūpā bhoga-bhūtayaḥ prabhavanti vyavahāra-kṣamatayā ‚bhivyajyante | rātry-āgame tasya svāpa-kāle pūrvoktāḥ sarvā api vyaktayaḥ pralīyante tiro-bhavanti yata āvirbhūtās tatraivāvyakta-saṃjñake kāraṇe prāg-ukte svāpāvasthe prajāpatau

 

Viśvanātha


ye tu tato ‚rvācīnās triloka-sthās teṣāṃ tu tasyāhany ahany api pāta ity āha avyaktād iti | atra dainandina-sṛṣṭi-pralayayor ākāśādīnāṃ sattvād avyakta-śabdena svāpāvasthaḥ prajāpatir evocyate iti madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ | tataś ca avyaktāt svāpāvasthāt prajāpateḥ sakāśād vyaktayaḥ śarīra-viṣayādi-rūpā bhoga-bhūmayo bhavanti vyavahāra-kṣamāḥ syuḥ | rātry-āgame tasya svāpa-kāle pralīyante tasminn eva tirobhavanti

 

Baladeva


ye tu tasmād arvācīnās trilokī-vartinas teṣāṃ brahmaṇo dine pātaḥ syād ity āha avyaktād iti | ahar-āgame brahmaṇo jāgara-samaye avyaktāt svāpāvasthāt tasmāt sarvā śarīrendriya-bhogya-bhoga-sthāna-rūpā vyaktayaḥ prabhavanty utpadyante | rātry-āgame tasya svāpa-samaye tatraiva brahmaṇy avyakta-saṃjñake svāpāvasthe kāraṇe tāḥ pralīyante tirobhavanti | atrāvyakta-śabdena pradhānaṃ nābhidheyaṃ dainandina-sṛṣṭi-pralayayor upakramāt | tadā viyad-ādīnāṃ sthitatvāc ca | kintu svāpāvastho brahmaiva tasyārthaḥ

 
 


BhG 8.19

bhūta-grāmaḥ sa evāyaṃ bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate
rātry-āgamevaśaḥ pārtha prabhavaty ahar-āgame

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
ayam sa eva (just this) bhūta-grāmaḥ (multitude of beings) bhūtvā bhūtvā (after being manifested again and again)
rātry-āgame (at the arrival of night) pralīyate (it dissolves),
ahar-āgame (at the arrival of day) [punaḥ ayam] (again it) avaśaḥ (helplessly) prabhavati (it is born).

 

grammar

bhūta-grāmaḥ bhūta-grāma 1n.1 m.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ grāma itimultitude of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; grāma – collection, multitude, village);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.this;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.that;
bhūtvā bhūtvā bhū (to be) absol. after becoming, after becoming (double means continuous);
pralīyate pra- (to dissolve, to vanish) Praes. Ā 1v.1it dissolves;
rātry-āgame rātry-āgama 7n.1 m.; [TP]: rātrer āgama itiat the arrival of night (from: – to grant or ram – to play, to rejoice, rātri – night; ā-gam – to come, āgama – arrival);
avaśaḥ avaśa 1n.1 m. unwillingly, helplessly (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command, vaśa – wish, power, control, dominion);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
prabhavati pra-bhū (to spring up from, to produce) Praes. P 1v.1it is born;
ahar-āgame ahar-āgama 1.7 m.; [TP]: ahnar āgama itiat the arrival of day (from: ahar / ahan – day; ā-gam – to come, āgama – arrival);

 

textual variants


evāyaṁ → evāhaṁ (I indeed);
bhūtvā bhūtvāevaṁ bhūtvā (thus after becoming);
rātry-āgame ‚vaśaḥrātry-āgame ‘vaśaṁ (at the arrival of night helplessly);
prabhavati → prabhavaṁti (they are born);
 
 

Śāṃkara


akṛtābhyāgama-kṛta-vipraṇāśa-doṣa-parihārārthaṃ bandha-mokṣa-śāstra-pravṛtti-sāphalya-pradarśanārtham avidyādi-kleśa-mūla-karmāśaya-vaśāc cāvaśo bhūta-grāmo bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyata ity ataḥ saṃsāre vairāgya-pradarśanārthaṃ cedam āha—

bhūta-grāmo bhūta-samudāyaḥ sthāvara-jaṅgama-lakṣaṇo yaḥ pūrvasmin kalpa āsīt sa evāyaṃ nānyaḥ | bhūtvā bhūtvāhar-āgame | pralīyate punaḥ punaḥ rātry-āgame’hnaḥ kṣaye’vaśo’svatantra eva | he pārtha | prabhavati jāyate’vaśa evāhar-āgame

 

Rāmānuja


brahmalokaparyantānāṃ lokānāṃ tadantarvartināṃ ca paramapuruṣasaṅkalpakṛtām utpattivināśakālavyavasthām āha

ye manuṣyādicaturmukhāntānāṃ matsaṅkalpakṛtāhorātravyavasthāvido janāḥ, te brahmaṇaś caturmukhasya yad ahaḥ tac caturyugasahasrāvasānaṃ viduḥ, rātriṃ ca tathārūpām / tatra brahmaṇo ‚harāgamasamaye trailokyāntarvartinyo dehendriyabhogyabhogasthānarūpā vyaktaś caturmukhadehāvasthād avyaktāt prabhavanti / tatraiva avyaktāvasthāviśeṣe caturmukhadehe rātryāgamasamaye pralīyante / sa evāyaṃ karmavaśyo bhūtagrāmo ‚harāgame bhūtvā bhutvā rātryāgame pralīyate / punar apy aharāgame prabhavati / tathā varṣatāvasānarūpayugasahasrānte brahmalokaparyantā lokāḥ brahmā ca, „pṛthivyapsu pralīyate āpastejasi līyante” ityādikrameṇa avyaktākṣaratamaḥparyantaṃ mayy eva pralīyante / evaṃ madvyatiriktasya kṛtsnasya kālavyavasthayā matta utpatteḥ mayi pralayāc cotpattivināśayogitvam avarjanīyam ity aiśvaryagatiṃ prāptānāṃ punarāvṛttir aparihāryā / mām upetānāṃ tu na punarāvṛttiprasaṅgaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


atra ca kṛta-nāśākṛtābhyāgama-śaṅkāṃ vārayan vairāgyārthaṃ sṛṣṭi-praylaya-pravāhasyāvicchedaṃ darśayati bhūta-grāma iti | bhūtānāṃ carācara-prāṇinām | grāmaḥ samūhaḥ | yaḥ prāg āsīt sa evāyam ahar-āgame bhūtvā bhūtvā rātrer āgame pralīyante pralīya pralīya punar apy ahar-āgame ‚vaśaḥ karmādi-paratantraḥ san prabhavati nānya ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evam āśu-vināśitve ‚pi saṃsāra-stha na nivṛttiḥ kleśa-karmādibhir avaśatayā punaḥ punaḥ prādurbhāvāt prādurbhūtasya ca punaḥ kleśādi-vaśenaiva tirobhāvāt | saṃsāre viparivartamānānāṃ sarveṣām api prāṇinām asvātantryād avaśānām eva janma-maraṇādi-duḥkha-prabandha-sambandhād alam anena saṃsāreṇeti-vairāgyotpatty-arthaṃ samāna-nāma-rūpatvena ca punaḥ punaḥ prādurbhāvāt kṛta-nāśākṛtābhyāgama-parihārārthaṃ cāha bhūta-grāma iti | bhūta-grāmo bhūta-samudāyaḥ sthāvara-jaṅgama-lakṣaṇo yaḥ pūrvasmin kalpe sthitaḥ sa evāyam etasmin kalpe jāyamāno ‚pi na tu pratikalpam anyo ‚nyac ca | asat-kārya-vādānabhyupagamāt |

sūryā-candramasau dhātā yathā-pūrvam akalpayat |
divaṃ ca pṛthivīṃ cāntarikṣam atho suvaḥ || iti śruteḥ | (MahānārāyaṇaU 1.65)

samāna-nāma-rūpatvād āvṛttāv apy avirodhau darśanāt smṛteś ca (Vs 1.3.30) iti nyāyāc ca | avaśa ity avidyā-kāma-karmādi-paratantraḥ | he pārtha spaṣṭam itarat

 

Viśvanātha


evam eva bhūtānāṃ carācara-prāṇināṃ grāmaḥ samūhaḥ

 

Baladeva


ye pralīnās te punar na bhaviṣyantīti kṛta-hānyākṛtābhyāgama-śaṅkā syāt tāṃ nirasyann āha bhūteti | bhūta-grāmaḥ sthira-cara-prāṇi-samūho ‚vaśaḥ karmādhīnaḥ san tathā cedṛśa-janma-mṛtyu-pravāha-saṅkule prapañce ‚smin vivekināṃ vairāgyaṃ yuktam ity uktam

 
 

BhG 8.20

paras tasmāt tu bhāvo nyo vyakto vyaktāt sanātanaḥ
yaḥ sa sarveṣu bhūteṣu naśyatsu na vinaśyati

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tasmāt tu (but from that) yaḥ (which) avyaktāt paraḥ (supreme than the unmanifested) anyaḥ (other) avyaktaḥ (unmanifested) sanātanaḥ (eternal) bhāvaḥ (nature),
saḥ (that) sarveṣu bhūteṣu naśyatsu (when all creatures perish) na vinaśyati (it does not perish).

 

grammar

paraḥ para 1n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
bhāvaḥ bhāva 1n.1 m.state, existence, nature, emotions (from: bhū – to be);
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
avyaktaḥ a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 1n.1 m.unmanifested, invisible, unevolved;
avyaktāt a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 5n.1 m.than the unmanifested, invisible, unevolved;
sanātanaḥ sanātana 1n.1 m.eternal, primeval;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.which;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.ten;
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 m. loc.abs.in all;
bhūteṣu bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 7n.3 m. loc.abs.in beings;
naśyatsu naśyant (naś – to disappear, to be lost, to perish) PPr 7n.3 m. loc.abs.when perishing;
na av.not;
vinaśyati vi-naś (to destroy, to vanish, to be lost) Praes. P 1v.1it perishes;

 

textual variants


paras → parāt (than supreme);
‘vyakto vyaktāt‘vyaktāvyaktaḥ / puruṣākhyaḥ / vyaktāvyaktaḥ (unmanifested / called the Man / manifested and unmanifested);
sanātanaḥ → avyaktaḥ / avyaktāt / sanātanāt (unmanifested / than unmanifested / than eternal);
yaḥ sa sarveṣu → sarveṣvapi / yas tu sarveṣu / yaḥ samaṁ sarva- / sarva eveṣu (even if all / but which when all / which the same when all);
 
 

Śāṃkara


yad upanyastam akṣaram, tasya prāpty-upāyo nirdiṣṭa om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahma [gītā 8.13] ity ādinā | athedānīm akṣarasyaiva svarūpa-nirdidikṣayedam ucyate, anena yoga-mārgeṇedaṃ gantavyam iti—

paro vyatirikto bhinnaḥ | kutaḥ ? tasmāt pūrvoktāt | tu-śabdo’kṣarasya vivakṣitasyāvyaktād vailakṣaṇya-viśeṣaṇārthaḥ | bhāvo’kṣarākhyaṃ paraṃ brahma | vyatiriktatve saty api sālakṣaṇya-prasaṅgo’stīti tad-vinivṛtty-artham āha—anya iti | anyo vilakṣaṇaḥ | sa cāvyakto’nindriya-gocaraḥ | paras tasmād ity uktam | kasmāt punaḥ paraḥ ? pūrvoktād bhūta-grāma-bīja-bhūtād avidyā-lakṣaṇād avyaktāt | anyo vilakṣaṇo bhāva ity abhiprāyaḥ | sanātanaś cirantano yaḥ sa bhāvaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu brahmādiṣu naśyatsu na vinaśyati

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 8.21

 

Śrīdhara


lokānām anityatvaṃ prapañcya parameśvara-svarūpasya nityatvaṃ prapañcayati – para iti dvābhyām | tasmāc carācara-kāraṇa-bhūtād avyaktāt paras tasyāpi kāraṇa-bhūto yo ‚nyas tad-vilakṣaṇo ‚vyaktaś cakṣur-ādy-agocaro bhāvaḥ sanātano ‚nādiḥ | sa tu sarveṣu kārya-kāraṇa-lakṣaṇeṣu bhūteṣu naśyatv api na vinaśyati

 

Madhusūdana


eam avaśānām utpatti-vināśa-pradarśanenābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartina ity etad vyākhyātam adhunā mām upetya punar janma na vidyata ity etad vyācaṣṭe dvābhyāṃ paras tasmād iti | tasmāc carācara-sthūla-prapañca-kāraṇa-bhūtād dhiraṇyagarbhākhyād avyaktāt paro vyatiriktaḥ śreṣṭho vā tasyāpi kāraṇa-bhūtaḥ | vyatireke ‚pi sālakṣaṇyaṃ syād iti nety āha-anyo ‚tyanta-vilakṣaṇaḥ na tasya pratimā asti iti śruteḥ | avyakto rūpādi-hīnatayā cakṣur-ādy-agocaro bhāvaḥ kalpiteṣu sarveṣu kāryeṣu sad-rūpeṇānugataḥ | ataeva sanātano nityaḥ | tu-śabdo heyād anityād avyaktād upādeyatvaṃ ntiyasyāvyaktasya vailakṣaṇyaṃ sūcayati | etādṛśo yo bhāvaḥ sa hiraṇyagarbha iva sarveṣu bhūteṣu naśyatsv api na vinaśyati utpadyamāneṣv api notpadyata ity arthaḥ | hiraṇyagarbhasya tu kāryasya bhūtābhimānitvāt tad-utpatti-vināśābhyāṃ yuktāv evotpatti-vināśau na tu tad-anabhimānino ‚kāryasya parameśvarasyeti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tasmād ukta-lakṣaṇād avyaktāt prajāpater hiraṇyagarbhāt sakāśāt paraḥ śreṣṭaḥ | hiraṇyagarbhasyāpi kāraṇabhūto yo ‚nyaḥ khalv avyakto bhāvaḥ sanātano ‚nādiḥ

 

Baladeva


tad evaṃ karma-tantrāṇāṃ janma-vināśa-darśanena ābrahma-bhuvanāt ity etad vivṛtam | atha mām upetyaitad vivṛṇoti paras tasmād iti | tasmād utka-rūpād avyaktād brahmaṇo hiraṇyagarbhād anyo yo bhāvaḥ padārthaḥ paraḥ śreṣṭhas tato ‚tyanta-vilakṣaṇas tasyopāsya ity arthaḥ | ativailakṣaṇyam āha avyakta iti | ātam-vigrahatvāt pratyak ity arthaḥ | prasāditas tu pratyakṣo ‚pi bhavatīty uktaṃ prāk | sanātano ‚nādiḥ | sa khalu hiraṇyagarbha-paryanteṣu sarveṣu bhūteṣu na vinaśyati

 
 

BhG 8.21

avyakto kṣara ity uktas tam āhuḥ paramāṃ gatim
yaṃ prāpya na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṃ mama

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syntax


avyaktaḥ (unmanifested) akṣaraḥ iti (imperishable) uktaḥ (is called),
tam (that) paramām gatim (supreme goal) āhuḥ (they declared).
yam (that which) prāpya (after obtaining) na nivartante (they do not return),
tat (that) mama (my) paramam dhāma (supreme abode) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

avyaktaḥ a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 1n.1 m.unmanifested, invisible, unevolved;
akṣaraḥ a-kṣara 1n.1 m. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
uktaḥ ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 m.is said, called;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
āhuḥ ah (to speak – inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū) [Perf.] P 1v.3they spoke, they declared;
paramām paramā 2n.1 f. supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);
yam yat sn. 2n.1 m.that which;
prāpya pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after obtaining;
na av.not;
nivartante ni-vṛt (to stop, to turn back) Praes. Ā 1v.3they return;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
dhāma dhāman 1n.1 n.abode, house, state, majesty, splendour (from: dhā – to put);
paramam parama 1n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;

 

textual variants


yaṁ → yat / yaḥ (which / he who);
nivartante → nivarteta (he would not return);

The third and fourth pada of verse 8.21 are almost the same as the third and fourth pada of verse BhG 15.6 (the last pada relates to the fourth pada of: Kaṭhopaniṣad 3.9);

 
 

Śāṃkara


yo’sāv avyakto’kṣara ity uktas tam evākṣara-saṃjñakam avyaktaṃ bhāvam āhuḥ paramāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatim | yaṃ paraṃ bhāvaṃ prāpya gatvā na nivartante saṃsārāya, tad dhāma sthānaṃ paramaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ mama, viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padam ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


atha kaivalyaṃ praptānām api punarāvṛttir na vidyata ity aha

tasmād avyaktād acetanaprakṛtirūpāt puruṣārthatayā paraḥ utkṛṣṭo bhāvo ‚nyo jñānaikākāratayā tasmād visajātīyaḥ, avyaktaḥ kenacit pramāṇena na vyajyata ity avyaktaḥ, svasaṃvedyasvāsādhāraṇākāra ityarthaḥ; sanātanaḥ utpattivināśānarhatayā nityaḥ yaḥ sarveṣu viyadādibhūteṣu sakāraṇeṣu sakāryeṣu vinaśyatsu tatra tatra sthito ‚pi na vinaśyati; saḥ avyakto ‚kṣara ityuktaḥ, „ye tv akṣaram anirdeśyam avyaktaṃ paryupāsate”, „kūṭastho ‚kṣara ucyate” ityādiṣu taṃ vedavidaḥ paramāṃ gatim āhuḥ / ayam eva, „yaḥ prayāti tyajan dehaṃ sa yāti paramāṃ gatim” ity atra paramagatiśabdanirdiṣṭo ‚kṣaraḥ prakṛtisaṃsargaviyuktasvasvarūpeṇāvasthita ātmetyarthaḥ / yam evaṃbhūtaṃ svarūpeṇāvasthitaṃ prāpya na nivartante; tan mama paramaṃ dhāma paraṃ niyamanasthānam / acetanaprakṛtir ekaṃ niyamanasthānam; tatsaṃsṛṣṭarūpā jīvaprakṛtir dvitīyaṃ niyamanasthānam / acitsaṃsargaviyuktaṃ svarūeṇāvathitaṃ muktasvarūpaṃ paramaṃ niyamanasthānam ityarthaḥ / tac cāpunarāvṛttirūpam / atha vā prakāśavācī dhāmaśabdaḥ; prakāśaḥ ceha jñānam abhipretam; prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭāt parichinnajñānarūpād ātmano ‚paricchinnajñānarūpatayā muktasvarūpaṃ paraṃ dhāma

 

Śrīdhara


avināśe pramāṇaṃ darśayann āha avyakta iti | yo bhāvo ‚vyakto ‚tīndriyaḥ | akṣaraḥ praveśa-nāśa-śūnya iti | tathākṣarāt saṃbhavatīha viśvaṃ ity ādi-śrutiṣv akṣara ity uktaḥ | taṃ paramāṃ gatiṃ gamyaṃ puruṣārtham āhuḥ | puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcit sā kāṣṭhā sā parā gatiḥ ity-ādi-śrutayaḥ | parama-gatitvam evāha yaṃ prāpya na nivartanta iti | tac ca mamaiva dhāma svarūpam | mamety upacāre ṣaṣṭhī | rāhoḥ śira itivat | ato ‚ham eva paramā gatir ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yo bhāva ihāvyakta ity akṣara iti cokto ‚nyatrāpi śrutiṣu smṛtiṣu ca taṃ bhāvam āhuḥ śrutayaḥ smṛtayaś ca puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcit sā kāṣṭhā paramā gatiḥ ity ādyāḥ | paramām utpatti-vināśa-śūnya-sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-rūpāṃ gatiṃ puruṣārtha-viśrāntim | yaṃ bhāvaṃ prāpya na punar nivartante saṃsārāya tad-dhāma svarūpaṃ mama viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ sarvotkṛṣṭam | mama dhāmeti rāhoḥ śira itivad bheda-kalpanayā ṣaṣṭhī | ato ‚ham eva paramā gatir ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


pūrvokta-ślokoktam avyakta-śabdaṃ vyācaṣṭe avyakta iti | na kṣaratīty akṣaro nārāyaṇaḥ eko nārāyaṇa āsīn na brahmā na ca śaṅkaraḥ iti śruteḥ | mama paramaṃ dhāma nityaṃ svarūpam | yad vā akṣaraḥ paraṃ dhāma brahmaiva mad-dhāma mat-tejo-rūpam

 

Baladeva


yo bhāvo mayehāvyakta ity akṣara iti cocyate taṃ vedāntāḥ paramāṃ gatim āhuḥ puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcit sā kāṣṭhā paramā gatiḥ ity ādau | yaṃ bhāvaṃ prāpyopetya janāḥ punar na nivartante janma nāpnuvanti sa bhāvo ‚ham evety āha tad iti | tan mamaiva dhāma svarūpaṃ paramaṃ śrīmat ṣaṣṭhīyaṃ caitanyam ātmanaḥ svarūpam itivad avagantavyā

 
 

BhG 8.22

puruṣaḥ sa paraḥ pārtha bhaktyā labhyas tv ananyayā
yasyāntaḥ-sthāni bhūtāni yena sarvam idaṃ tatam

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!)
bhūtāni (beings) yasya (whose) antaḥ-sthāni (who stay within),
yena (by whom) idam sarvam (this all) tatam (spread),
saḥ tu (but he) paraḥ puruṣaḥ (supreme person) ananyayā bhaktyā (by unalloyed devotion) labhyaḥ (is to be obtained).

 

grammar

puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person, Man (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.that;
paraḥ para 1n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
bhaktyā bhakti 3n.1 f. by devotion, by love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
labhyaḥ labhya (labh – to obtain) PF 1n.1 m.to be obtained;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
ananyayā an-anyā 3n.1 f. by no other, by not devoted to anything else (from: anya – other);
yasya yat sn. 6n.1 m.whose;
antaḥ-sthāni antaḥ-stha 1n.3 n.; yāny antas tiṣṭhanti taniwho stay within (from: anta – end, limit, settlement, inside, nature, av. antaḥ – inside, within; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
yena yat sn. 3n.1 m.by whom;
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
tatam tata (tan – to spread, to pervade) [PP] 1n.1 n.spread, pervaded, covered over;

 

textual variants


sa paraḥ → sa parā / paramaḥ / sa paraṁ (supreme / that the most);
tu → hi (indeed);

… → after the second pada of verse BhG 8.22 there are two padas not found in critical edition:
yaṁ prāpya na punar-janma labhante yogino rjuna
O Arjuna, whom after attaining, the yogīs do not take re-birth.

 
 

Śāṃkara


tal-labdher upāya ucyate—

puruṣaḥ puri śayanāt pūrṇatvād vā | sa paraḥ pārtha, paro niratiśayaḥ, yasmāt puruṣān na paraṃ kiṃcit | sa bhaktyā labhyas tu jñāna-lakṣaṇayānanyayā ātma-viṣayayā | yasya puruṣasyāntaḥ-sthāni madhya-sthāni bhūtāni kārya-bhūtāni | kāryaṃ hi kāraṇasyāntarvarti bhavati | yena puruṣeṇa sarvam idaṃ jagat tataṃ vyāptam ākāśeneva ghaṭādi

 

Rāmānuja


jñāninaḥ prāpyaṃ tu tasmād atyantavibhaktam ity āha

„mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanaṃjaya / mayi sarvam idaṃ protaṃ sūtre maṇigaṇā iva // BhGR_1.”, „mām ebhyaḥ param avyayam” ityādinā nirdiṣṭasya yasya antassthāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni, yena ca pareṇa puruṣeṇa sarvam idaṃ tatam, sa paraḥ puruṣaḥ „ananyacetās satatam” ity ananyayā bhaktyā labhyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tat-prāptau ca bhaktir antaraṅgopāya ity uktam evety āha puruṣa iti | sa cāhaṃ paraḥ puruṣo ‚nanyayā | na vidyate ‚nyaḥ śaraṇatvena yasyāṃ tayaikānta-bhaktyaiva labhyaḥ | nānyathā | paratvam evāha yasya kāraṇa-bhūtasyāntar-madhye bhūtāni sthitāni | yena ca kāraṇa-bhūtenedaṃ sarvaṃ jagat tataṃ vyāptam

 

Madhusūdana


idānīm ananya-cetāḥ satataṃ yo māṃ smarati nityaśaḥ tasyāhaṃ sulabhaḥ iti prāg uktaṃ bhakti-yogam eva tat-prāpty-upāyam āha puruṣa sa iti | sa paro niratiśayaḥ puruṣaḥ paramātmāham evānanyayā na vidyate ‚nyho viṣayo yasyāṃ tayā prema-lakṣaṇayā bhaktyaiva labhyo nānyathā |sa ka ity apekṣāyām āha yasya purusasyāntaḥ-sthāny antarvartīni bhūtāni sarvāṇi kāryāṇi kāraṇāntarvartitvāt kāryasya | ataeva yena puruṣeṇa sarvam idaṃ kārya-jātaṃ tataṃ vyāptam –

yasmāt paraṃ nāparam asti kiṃcid yasmān nāṇīyo na jyāyo ‚sti kaścit |
vṛkṣa eva stabdho divi tisṭhaty ekas tenedaṃ pūrṇaṃ puruṣeṇa sarvam |
yat kiṃcit jagat sarvaṃ dṛśyate śrūyate ‚pi vā |
antar bahiś ca tat sarvaṃ vyāpya nārāyaṇaḥ sthitaḥ ||
sa paryagāc chukram ity-ādi-śrutibhyaś ca ||

 

Viśvanātha


sa ca mad-aṃśaḥ paramaḥ puruṣaḥ | na vidyate ‚nyat karma-yoga-kāmanādikaṃ yasyāṃ tayaiva | ataeva pūrvaṃ mayoktaṃ ananya-cetāḥ satatam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


at-prāptau bhakteḥ sūpāyatvam āha puruṣaḥ sa iti | sa mal-lakṣaṇaḥ puruṣo ‚nanyayā tad-ekāntayā ananya-cetāḥ satatam iti pūrvoditayā bhaktyaiva labhyo labdhuṃ śakyo yoga-bhaktyā tu duḥśakyā tat-prāptir ity arthaḥ | tal-lakṣaṇam āha yasyeti | sarvam idaṃ jagat yena tataṃ vyāptam | śrutiś caivam āha-

eko vaśī sarvagaḥ kṛṣṇa īḍya
eko ‚pi san bahudhā yo ‚vabhāti |
vṛkṣa iva stabdho divi tiṣṭhaty ekas
tenedaṃ pūrṇaṃ puruṣeṇa sarvam || ity ādyā

 
 

BhG 8.23

yatra kāle tv anāvṛttim āvṛttiṃ caiva yoginaḥ
prayātā yānti taṃ kālaṃ vakṣyāmi bharata-rṣabha

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syntax


he bharata-rṣabha (O best of the Bharatas!),
yatra tu (but in what) kāle (in time) prayātāḥ (departing) yoginaḥ (yogīs) anāvṛttim (to non-return) āvṛttim ca (and to return) yānti (they go),
tam kālam eva (just that time) vakṣyāmi (I will explain).

 

grammar

yatra av.where, in which place, when (correlative of: tatra);
kāle kāla 7n.1 m.in time;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
an-āvṛttim an-ā-vṛtti 2n.1 f.non-return, non-repetition (from: ā-vṛt – to return, to reverse);
āvṛttim ā-vṛtti 2n.1 f.return, repetition (from: ā-vṛt – to return, to reverse);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yoginaḥ yogin 1n.3 m.yogīs, those egaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
prayātāḥ prayāta (pra- – to go, to depart) [PP] 1n.3 m.departed, dead;
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
kālam kāla 2n.1 m. time;
vakṣyāmi vac (to declare) Fut. P 3v.1I will declare;
bharata-rṣabha bharata-rṣabha 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇām ṛṣabha itiO best of the Bharatas (from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; ṛṣabha – bull, the best of any kind);

 

textual variants


āvṛttiṁ → pravṛttiṁ (activity);
prayātā → prayāṁtā / prayatā (giving / eager);
yānti → yāti (he goes);
bharata-rṣabha → puruṣa-rṣabha (O best of men);
 
 

Śāṃkara


prakṛtānāṃ yogināṃ praṇavāveśita-brahma-buddhīnāṃ kālāntara-mukti-bhājāṃ brahma-pratipattaya uttaro mārgo vaktavya iti yatra kāle ity ādi vivakṣitārtha-samarpaṇārtham ucyate, āvṛtti-mārgopanyāsaḥ itara-mārga-stuty-artham ucyate—

yatra kāle prayātā iti vyavahitena saṃbandhaḥ | yatra yasmin kāle tv anāvṛttim apunar-janma āvṛttiṃ tad-viparītāṃ caiva | yogina iti yoginaḥ karmiṇaś cocyante | karmiṇas tu guṇataḥ karma-yogena yoginām iti viśeṣaṇād yoginaḥ | yatra kāle prayātā mṛtā yogino’nāvṛttiṃ yānti, yatra kāle ca prayātāḥ āvṛttiṃ yānti, taṃ kālaṃ vakṣyāmi bharatarṣabha

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 8.24

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ paramśvaropāsakās tat-padaṃ prāpya na nivartante | anye tv āvartanta ity uktam | tatra kena mārgeṇa gatā nāvartante | kena vā gatāś cāvartante | ity apekṣāyām āha yatreti | yatra yasmin kāle prayātā yogino ‚nāvṛttiṃ yānti yasmiṃś ca kāle prayātā āvṛttiṃ yānti taṃ kālaṃ vakṣyāmīty anvayaḥ | atra ca raśmy-anusārī ataś cāyane ‚pi dakṣiṇe iti sūcita-nyāyenottarāyaādi-kāla-viśeṣa-maraṇaṃ ca tv avivakṣitatvāt kāla-śabdena kālābhimāninībhir ātivāhikībhir devatābhiḥ prāpyo mārga upalakṣyate | ato ‚yam arthaḥ yasmin kālābhimāni-devatopalakṣite mārge prayātā yogina upāsakāḥ karmiṇaś ca yathākramam anāvṛttim āvṛttiṃ ca yānti | taṃ kālābhimāni-devatopalakṣitaṃ mārgaṃ kathayiṣyāmīti | agni-jyotiṣoḥ kālābhimānitvābhāve ‚pi bhūyasām aharādi-śabdoktānāṃ kālābhimānitvāt tat-sāhacaryād āmra-vanam ity ādivat kāla-śabdenopalakṣaṇam aviruddham

 

Madhusūdana


saguṇa-brahmopāsakās tat-padaṃ prāpya na nivartante kintu krameṇa mucyante | tatra tal-loka-bhogāt prāg-anutpanna-samyag-darśanānāṃ tesāṃ mārgāpekṣā vidyate na tu samyag-darśinām iva tad-anapekṣety upāsakānāṃ tal-loka-prāptaye deva-yāna-mārga upadiśyate | pitṛ-yāna-mārgopanyāsas tu tasya stutaye yatreti |

prāṇotkramaṇānantaraṃ yatra yasmin kāle kālābhimāni-devatopalakṣite mārge prayātā yogino dhyāyinaḥ karmiṇaś cānāvṛttim āvṛttiṃ ca yānti | deva-yāne pathi prayātāś ca karmiṇa āvṛttiṃ yānti | yadyapi deva-yāne ‚pi pathi prayātāḥ punar āvartante ity uktaṃ ābrahma-bhuvanā lokāḥ punar āvartinaḥ ity atra, tathāpi pitṛ-yāne pathi gatā āvartanta eva na ke ‚pi tatra krama-mukti-bhājaḥ | deva-yāne pathi gatās tu yadyapi kecid āvartante pratīkopāsakās taḍil-loka-paryantaṃ gatā hiraṇyagarbha-paryantam amānava-puruṣa-nītā api pañcāgni-vidyādy-upāsakā atat-kratavo bhogānte nivartanta eva tathāpi daharādy-upāsakāḥ krameṇa mucyante | bhogānta iti na sarva evāvartante | ataeva pitṛ-yānaḥ panthā niyamenāvṛtti-phalatvān nikṛṣṭaḥ | ayaṃ tu deva-yānaḥ panthā anāvṛtti-phalatvād atipraśasta iti stutir upapadyate keṣāṃcid āvṛttāv apy anāvṛtti-phalatvasyānapāyāt |

taṃ deva-yānaṃ pitṛ-yānaṃ ca kālaṃ kālābhimāni-devatopalakṣitaṃ mārgaṃ vakṣyāmi | he bharatarṣabha ! atra kāla-śabdasya mukhyārthatve ‚gnir-jyotir-dhūma-śabdānām upapattir gati-sṛti-śabdayoś ceti tad-anurodhenaikasmin kāla-pada eva lakṣaṇāśritā kālābhimāni-devatānāṃ mārga-dvaye ‚pi bāhulyāt | agni-dhūmayos tad-itarayoḥ sator api agnihotra-śabdavad eka-deśenāpy upalakṣaṇaṃ kāla-śabdena | anyathā prātar agni-devatāyā abhāvāt tat-prakhyaṃ cānya-śāstram (ṃī.da 1.4.4) ity anena tasya nāma-dheyatayā na syāt | āmra-vanam iti ca laukiko dṛṣṭāntaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu yaṃ prāpya na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṃ mama iti tva-uktyā tvad-bhaktās tvāṃ prāptā na punar āvartanta ity uktam | na tatra tva-prāntau kaścin mārga-niyama ity uktaḥ |tvad-bhaktānāṃ ca guṇātītatvāt tan-mārgo ‚pi guṇātīta eva avasīyate, na tu sāttviko ‚rcir-ādiḥ | yas tu mārgo yogino jñāninaḥ karmiṇaś cāsti tam ahaṃ jijñāse ity apekṣāyām āha yatreti | prāṇotkramaṇānantaraṃ tatra kālopalakṣite mārge prayātā anāvṛttim āvṛttiṃ ca yānti taṃ kālaṃ mārgaṃ vakṣya ity anvayaḥ

 

Baladeva


sva-bhaktānām āvṛttiḥ sva-vimukhānāṃ tv āvṛttir uktā | sā sā ca kena pathā gatānāṃ bhaved ity apekṣāyām āha yatreti | yogino bhaktāḥ kāmya-karmiṇaś ca | atra kāla-śabdena kālābhimānino devatoktāḥ | agni-dhūmayoḥ kālatvābhāvāt kāla-śabdenoktis tu bhūyasā mahad-ādi-śabdānāṃ rātry-ādi-śabdānāṃ ca kāla-vācitvāt tathā cārcir-ādibhir dhūmādibhiś ca devaiḥ pālitaḥ panthāḥ kāla-śabdenokto bodhyaḥ

 
 

BhG 8.24

agnir jyotir ahaḥ śuklaḥ ṣaṇ-māsā uttarāyaṇam
tatra prayātā gacchanti brahma brahma-vido janāḥ

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agniḥ (fire) jyotiḥ (light) ahaḥ (day) śuklaḥ (bright [fortnight]) ṣaṇ-māsāḥ uttarāyaṇam (six months of the northern path),
tatra (here) prayātā (departed) brahma-vidaḥ janāḥ (people who know Brahman) brahma (to Brahman) gacchanti (they go).

 

grammar

agniḥ agni 1n.1 m.fire (from: ag – to move tortuously);
jyotiḥ jyotiḥ 1n.1 n.light, brightness, fire, eye;
ahaḥ ahar / ahan 1n.1 n.day;
śuklaḥ śukla 1n.1 m.white, clear, bright fortnight (śukla-pakṣa – half the month when the Moon waxes);
ṣaṇ-māsāḥ ṣaṇ-māsa 1n.3 m.six months (from: ṣaṭ / ṣaṣ – six; mās – Moon, month, māsa – month);
uttarāyaṇam uttara-ayaṇa 1n.1 n.the northern path [of the Sun], from winter to summer solstice (from: uttara – higher, northern, better, comparative of: ud – upwards, above; ayana – a path, course);
tatra av.there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
prayātāḥ prayāta (pra- – to go, to depart) [PP] 1n.3 m.departed, dead;
gacchanti gam (to go) Praes. P 1v.3 they go;
brahma brahman 2n.1 n.to spirit (from: bṛh – to increase);
brahma-vidaḥ brahma-vit 1n.3 m.; ye brahma vidanti tewho know Brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
janāḥ jana 1n.3 m.people, men (from: jan – to be born, to produce);

 

textual variants


agnir jyotir → agni-jyotir (light of fire);
śuklaḥ → śuklā;
ṣaṇ-māsā → ṣaṇ-māsād (than the six-month period);
 
 

Śāṃkara


taṃ kālam āha—

agniḥ kālābhimāninī devatā | tathā jyotir api devataiva kālābhimāninī | athavā, agni-jyotiṣī yathā śrute eva devate | bhūyasā tu nirdeśo yatra kāle taṃ kālam iti āmra-vanavat | tathāhar devatāhar-abhimāninī | śuklaḥ śukla-pakṣa-devatā | ṣaṇ-māsā uttarāyaṇam, tatrāpi devataiva mārga-bhūtā [bhāvātmauttaṃ 4.3.4] iti sthito’nyatrāyaṃ nyāyaḥ | tatra tasmin mārge prayātā mṛtā gacchanti brahma brahma-vido brahmopāsakā brahmopāsana-parā janāḥ | krameṇeti vākya-śeṣaḥ | na hi sadyo-mukti-bhājāṃ samyag darśana-niṣṭhānāṃ gatir āgatir vā kvacid asti | na tasya prāṇā utkrāmanti [bhāvātmauttaṃ 4.4.6] iti śruteḥ | brahmasaṃlīnaprāṇaiva te brahmamayā brahma-bhūtaiva te |

 

Rāmānuja


athātmayāthātmyaviduḥ paramapuruṣaniṣṭasya ca sādharaṇīm arcirādikāṃ gatim āha dvayor apy arcirādikā gatiḥ śrutau śrutā / sā cāpunarāvṛttilakṣaṇā / yathā pañcāgnividyāyām, „tad ya itthaṃ vidur ye ceme ‚raṇye śraddhā tapa ity upāsate, te ‚rciṣam abhisaṃbhavanty arciṣo ‚haḥ” ityādau / arcirādikayā gatasya parabrahmaprāptir apunarāvṛttiś cāmnātā, „sa enān brahma gamayati etena pratipadyamānā imaṃ mānavam āvartaṃ nāvartante” iti / na ca prajāpativākyādau śrutaparavidyāṅgabhūtātmaprāptiviṣayeyam, „tad ya itthaṃ viduḥ” iti gatiśrtuiḥ, „ye ceme ‚raṇye śraddhā tapa ity upāsate” iti paravidyāyāḥ pṛthakchrutivaiyārthyāt / pañcāgnividyāyāṃ ca, „iti tu pañcamyām āhutāv āpaḥ puruṣavacaso bhavanti” iti, „ramaṇīyacaraṇāḥ … kapūyacaraṇāḥ” iti puṇyapāpahetuko manuṣyādibhāvo ‚pām eva bhūtāntarasaṃsṛṣṭānām, ātmanas tu tatpariṣvaṅgamātram iti cidacitor vivekam abhidhāya, „tad ya itthaṃ viduḥ ,,, te ‚rciṣam asaṃbhavanti … imaṃ mānavam āvartaṃ nāvartante” iti vivikte cidacidvastunī tyājyatayā prāpyatayā ca ya itthaṃ viduḥ te ‚rcirādinā gacchanti, na ca punar āvartanta ity uktam iti gamyate / ātmayāthātmyavidaḥ paramapuruṣaniṣṭhasya ca „sa enān brahma gamayati” iti brahmaprāptivacanād acidviyuktam ātmavastu brahmātmakatayā brahmaśeṣataikarasam ity anusandheyam; tatkratunyāyāc ca / paraśeṣataikarasatvaṃ ca „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan … yasyātmā śarīram” ityādiśrutisiddham /

atra kālaśabdo mārgasyāhaḥprabhṛtisaṃvatarāntakālābhimānidevatābhūyastayā mārgopalakṣaṇārthaḥ / yasmin mārge prayātā yogino ‚nāvṛttiṃ puṇyakarmāṇaś cāvṛttiṃ yānti taṃ mārgaṃ vakṣyāmītyarthaḥ / „agnir jyotir ahaś śuklaḥ ṣaṇmāsā uttarāyaṇam” iti saṃvatsarādīnāṃ pradarśanam

 

Śrīdhara


tatrānavṛtti-mārgam āha agnir iti | agni-jyotiḥ-śabdābhyāṃ te ‚rcir abhisambhavanti iti śruty-uktārcir-abhimāninī devatopalakṣyate | ahar iti divasābhimāninī | śukla iti śukla-pakṣābhimāninī | uttarāyaṇa-rūpāḥ ṣaṇ-māsā ity uttarāyaṇābhimāninī | etac cānyāsām api śruty-uktānāṃ saṃvatsara devalokādi-devatānam upalakṣaṇārtham | evaṃ bhūto yo mārgas tatra prayātā gatā bhagavad-upāsakā janā brahma prāpnuvanti | yatas te brahma-vidaḥ | tathā ca śrutiḥ – te ‚rciṣam abhi sambhavanti arciṣo ‚rahna āpūryamāṇa-pakṣam āpūryamāṇa-pakṣād yān ṣaṇ-māsānudaṅṅāditya eti māsebhyo deva-lokam iti | na hi sadyo-mukti-bhājāṃ samyag-darśana-niṣṭhānāṃ gatir vā kvacid asti, na tasya prāṇā utkrāmanti

 

Madhusūdana


tatropāsakānāṃ deva-yānaṃ panthānam āha agnir iti | agnir-jyotir ity arcir abhimāninī devatā lakṣyate | ahar ity ahar-abhimāninī śukla-pakṣa iti śukla-pakṣābhimāninī ṣaṇ-māsā uttarāyaṇam iti uttarāyaṇa-rūpa-ṣaṇmāsābhimāninī devataiva lakṣyate ātivāhikās tal-liṅgāt (MD 4.3.4) iti nyāyāt | etac cānyāsām api śruty-uktānāṃ devatānam upalakṣaṇārtham | tathā ca śrutiḥ – te ‚rciṣam abhi sambhavanti arciṣo ‚rahna āpūryamāṇa-pakṣam āpūryamāṇa-pakṣād yān ṣaḍ-uṅṅeti māsāṃs tān māsebhyaḥ saṃvatsaraṃ saṃvatsarād ādityam ādityāc candramasaṃ candramaso vidyutaṃ tat-puruṣo ‚mānavaḥ sa enān brahma gamayaty eṣa deva-patho brahma-patha etena pratipadyamānā imaṃ mānavam āvartaṃ nāvartante iti |

atra śruty-antarānusārāt saṃvatsarānantaraṃ deva-loka-devatā tato vāyu-devatā tata āditya ity ākare nirṇītam | evaṃ vidyuto ‚nantaraṃ varuṇendra-prajāpatayas tāvatā mārga-parva-pūrtiḥ | tatrārcir-ahaḥ-śukla-pakṣottarāyaṇa-devatā ihoktāḥ | saṃvatsaro deva-loko vāyur ādityaś candramā vidyud-varuṇa indraḥ prajāpatiś cety anuktā api draṣṭavyāḥ | tatra deva-yāna-mārge prayātā gacchanti brahma kāryopādhikaṃ kāryaṃ vādarir asya gaty-upapatteḥ (Vs 4.3.7) iti nyāyāt | nirupādhikaṃ tu brahma tad-dvāraiva krama-mukti-phalatvāt | brahma-vidaḥ saguṇa-brahmopāsakā janāḥ | atra etena pratipadyamānā imaṃ mānavam āvartaṃ nāvartanta iti śrutāv imam iti viśeṣaṇāt kalpāntare kecid āvartanta iti pratīyate | ataevātra bhagavatodāsitaṃ śrauta-mārga-kathanenaiva vyākhyānāt

 

Viśvanātha


atrānavṛtti-mārgam āha agnir iti | agni-jyotiḥ-śabdābhyāṃ te ‚rciṣam abhisambhavanti iti śruty-uktyārcir-abhimāninī devatopalakṣyate | ahar ity ahar-abhimāninī | śukla iti śukla-pakṣābhimāninī | uttarāyaṇa-rūpāḥ ṣaṇ-māsā ity uttarāyaṇābhimāninī devatā | etad-rūpo yo mārgas tatra prayātā brahma-vido jñānino brahma prāpnuvanti | tathā ca śrutiḥ – te ‚rciṣam abhi sambhavanti arciṣo ‚rahna āpūryamāṇa-pakṣam āpūryamāṇa-pakṣād yān ṣaṇ-māsānudaṅṅāditya eti mālebhyo deva-lokam iti

 

Baladeva


tatrānāvṛtti-patham āha agnir iti | agni-jyotiḥ-śabdābhyāṃ śruty-ukto ‚rcir-abhimānī deva upalakṣyate | ahar iti divasābhimānī śukla iti śukla-pakṣābhimāninī | ṣaṇ-māsā ity uttarāyaṇam iti ṣaṇmāsātmakottarāyaṇābhābhimānī | etac cānyeṣāṃ saṃvatsarādīnāṃ śruty-uktānām upalakṣaṇam | chāndogyāḥ paṭhanti – atha yad u caivāsmin śavyaṃ kurvanti yadi ca nārciṣam evābhisaṃbhavanty arciṣo ‚haraha āpūryamāṇa-pakṣam āpūryamāṇa-pakṣādyān ṣaḍ-udaṇṇeti māsāṃs tān māsebhyaḥ saṃvatsaraṃ saṃvatsarād ādityam ādityāc candramasaṃ candramaso vidyutaṃ tat puruṣo ‚mānavaḥ sa enān brahma gamayaty eṣa deva-patho brahma-patha etena pratipadyamānā imaṃ mānavam āvartaṃ nāvartanta iti | (4.15.5)

asyārthaḥ – asminn akṣi-stha-brahmopāsaka-gaṇe mṛte sati yadi putra-śiṣyādayaḥ śabyaṃ śaba-sambandhi karma dāhādi kurvanti | yadi ca na kurvanti | ubhayathāpy akṣatopāsti-phalās te tad-upāsakā arcir-ādibhir devais tam upāsyaṃ prayāntīti sphuṭam anyat | atra saṃvatsarādityayor madhye vāyu-loko niveśyaḥ | vidyutaḥ paratra kramād varuṇendra- prajāpatayo bodhyāḥ | śruty-antarād ity ākare vistaraḥ | amānavo nitya-pārṣadaḥ pareśasya hareḥ puruṣaḥ | ete ‚rcir-ādayo devā ity āha sūtra-kāraḥ – ātivāhikās tal-liṅgāt (Vs 4.3.4) iti | tathārcir-ādibhir bhagavan-nideśa-sthair dvādaśabhir devaiḥ sevyamānena pathā bhagavantaṃ tad-bhaktāḥ prayānti tataḥ punar nāvartanta iti | evam uktaṃ nirṇetṛbhiḥ-

arcir dina-sita-pakṣair ihottarāyaṇa-śaran-marud-ravibhiḥ |
vidhu-vidyud-varuṇndra-druhiṇaiś cāgāt padaṃ harer muktaḥ || iti

 
 

BhG 8.25

dhūmo rātris tathā kṛṣṇaḥ ṣaṇ-māsā dakṣiṇāyanam
tatra cāndra-masaṃ jyotir yogī prāpya nivartate

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syntax


dhūmaḥ (smoke) rātriḥ (night) tatha kṛṣṇaḥ (also dark [fortnight]) ṣaṇ-māsāḥ dakṣiṇāyanam (six months of the southern path),
tatra (here) yogī (a yogī) cāndramasam jyotiḥ (light of the Moon) prāpya (after obtaining) nivartate (he returns).

 

grammar

dhūmaḥ dhūma 1n.1 m.smoke (from: dhū – to shake, to kindle);
rātriḥ rātri 1n.1 f.night (from: – to grant or ram – to play, to rejoice);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
kṛṣṇaḥ kṛṣṇa 1n.1 m.black, dark, dark fortnight (kṛṣṇa-pakṣa – half the month when the Moon wanes);
ṣaṇ-māsāḥ ṣaṇ-māsa 1n.3 m.six months (from: ṣaṭ / ṣaṣ – six; mās – Moon, month, māsa – month);
dakṣiṇāyanam dakṣiṇa-ayaṇa 1n.1 n.the southern path [of the Sun], from summer to winter solstice (from: dakṣiṇa – right, southern, gift, walking round as a sign of respect; ayana – a path, course);
tatra av.there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
cāndramasam cāndra-masa 1n.1 n.pertaining to the Moon (from: candramas – Moon);
jyotiḥ jyotiḥ 1n.1 n.light, brightness, fire, eye;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
prāpya pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after obtaining;
nivartate ni-vṛt (to stop, to turn back) Praes. Ā 1v.1he returns;

 

textual variants


kṛṣṇaḥ → kṛṣṇā (dark);
dhūmo rātris tathā kṛṣṇaḥ → dhūmaḥ kṛṣṇas tathā rātriḥ (smoke, dark fortnight, also night);
nivartate → na muhyati (he does not get bewildered);
 
 

Śāṃkara


dhūmo rātrir dhūmābhimāninī rātry-abhimāninī ca devatā | tathā kṛṣṇaḥ kṛṣṇa-pakṣa-devatā | ṣaṇ-māsā dakṣiṇāyanam iti ca pūrvavat devataiva | tatra candramasi bhavaṃ cāndramasaṃ jyotiḥ phalam iṣṭādi-kārī yogī karmī prāpya bhuktvā tat-kṣayād iha punar nivartate

 

Rāmānuja


etac ca dhūmādimārgasthapitṛlokādeḥ pradarśanam / atra yogiśabdaḥ puṇyakarmasaṃbandhiviṣayaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


āvṛtti-mārgam āha dhūma iti | dhūmo dhūmābhimāninī devatā | rātry-ādi-śabdaiś ca pūrvavad eva rātri-kṛṣṇa-pakṣa-dakṣiṇāyana-rūpa-ṣaṇ-māsābhimāninyas tisro devatā upalakṣyante | etābhir devatābhir upalakṣito yo mārgas tatra prayātaḥ karma-yogī cāndramasaṃ jyotis tad-upalakṣitaṃ svarga-lokaṃ prāpya tatreṣṭāpūrta-karma-phalaṃ bhuktvā punar āvartate | tatrāpi śrutiḥ-te dhūmam abhi sambhavanti dhūmād rātriṃ rātrer apakṣīyamāṇa-pakṣam apakṣīyamāṇa-pakṣād yān ṣaṇmāsān dakṣiṇāditya eti māsebhyaḥ pitṛ-lokaṃ pitṛ-lokāt candraṃ te candraṃ prāpya annaṃ bhavanti iti | tad evaṃ nivṛtti-karma-sahitopāsanayā krama-muktiḥ kāmya-karmabhiś ca svarga-bhogānantaram āvṛttiḥ | niṣiddha-karmabhis tu naraka-bhogānāntaram āvṛttiḥ | kṣudra-karmaṇāṃ tu jantūnām atraiva punaḥ punar janmeti draṣṭavyam

 

Madhusūdana


deva-yāna-mārgastuty-arthaṃ pitṛ-yāna-mārgam āha dhūma iti | atrāpi dhūma iti dhūmābhimāninī devatā rātrir iti rātry-abhimāninī kṛṣṇa iti kṛṣṇa-pakṣābhimāninī | ṣaṇmāsā dakṣiṇāyanam iti dakṣiṇāyanābhimāninī lakṣyate etad apy anyāsāṃ śruty-uktānām upalakṣaṇam | tathā hi śrutiḥ — te dhūmam abhi sambhavanti dhūmād rātriṃ rātrer apara-pakṣam apara-kṣīyamāṇa-pakṣād yān ṣaḍ-dakṣiṇaiti māsāṃs tān anite saṃvatsaram abhiprāpnuvanti māsebhyaḥ pitṛ-lokaṃ pitṛ-lokād ākāśam ākāśāc candramasam eṣa somo rājā tad-devānām annaṃ taṃ devā bhakṣayanti tasmin yāvat saṃpātam uṣitvāthaitam evādhvyānaṃ punar nivartante iti | tatra tasmin pathi prayātāś cāndramasaṃ jyotiḥ phalaṃ yogī karma-yogīṣṭāpūrta-datta-kārī prāpya yāvat-sampātam uṣitvā nivartate | sampataty aneneti sampātaḥ karma | tasmād etasmād āvṛtti-mārgād anāvṛtti-mārgaḥ śreyān ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


karmiṇām āvṛtti-mārgam āha dhūma iti | dhūmābhimāninī devatā | rātry-ādi-śabdaiś ca pūrvavad eva tat-tad-abhimāninyas tisro devatā lakṣyante | etābhir devatābhir upalakṣito yo mārgas tatra prayātaḥ karma-yogī cāndramasaṃ jyotis tad-upalakṣitaṃ svarga-lokaṃ prāpya karma-phalaṃ bhuktvā nivartate

 

Baladeva


athāvṛtti-patham āha dhūmo rātrir iti | tatrāpi pūrvavat dhūma-rātri-kṛṣṇa-pakṣa-ṣaṇmāsātmaka-dakṣiṇāyanānām abhimānino devā lakṣyāḥ | saṃvatsara-pitṛ-lokākāśa-candramasāṃ śruty-uktānām upalakṣaṇam etat | chāndogyāḥ paṭhanti – atha ya ime grāma iṣṭā-pūrte dattam ity upāsate te dhūmam abhisambhavanti | dhūmād rātriṃ rātrer apara-pakṣam apara-pakṣādyān ṣaḍ-dakṣiṇaiti māsāṃs tān naite saṃvatsaram abhiprāpnuvanti || māsebhyaḥ pitṛ-lokaṃ pitṛ-lokād ākāśam ākāśāc candramasam eṣa somo rājā tad devānām annaṃ taṃ devā bhakṣayanti | tasmin yavāt saṃpātam uṣitvāthaitam evādhvānaṃ punar nivartante (5.10.3-5) iti |

tathā ca dhūmādibhiḥ pareśa-nideśasthair aṣṭabhir devaiḥ pālitena pathā kāmya-karmiṇaś candra-lokaṃ pāpya bhoga-kṣaye sati tasmāt punar nivartanta iti

 
 

BhG 8.26

śukla-kṛṣṇe gatī hy ete jagataḥ śāśvate mate
ekayā yāty anāvṛttim anyayāvartate punaḥ

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syntax


jagataḥ (of the world) ete hi śukla-kṛṣṇe gatī (indeed these two paths: bright and dark) śāśvate (eternal) mate (considered).
[tayor madhye] (of these two) ekayā (by one) anāvṛttim (non-return) yāti (he attains),
anyayā (by the other) punaḥ āvartate (again he returns).

 

grammar

śukla-kṛṣṇe śukla-kṛṣṇā 1n.2 f.; DV: śuklā ca kṛṣṇā cetidark and bright [path] (from: śukla – white, clear, bright fortnight; kṛṣṇa – black, dark, dark fortnight);
gatī gati 1n.2 f.moving, passages, means, refuges, goals (from: gam – to go);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
ete etat sn. 1n.2 f.these two;
jagataḥ jagat 6n.1 n.of the world (from: gam – to go);
śāśvate śāśvatā 1n.2 f.eternal, permanent (from: śaśvat – eternal, perpetual, numerous);
mate matā (man – to think) [PP] 1n.2 n.regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;
ekayā ekā sn. 3n.1 f.by one;
yāti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
anāvṛttim an-ā-vṛtti 2n.1 f.non-return, non-repetition (from: ā-vṛt – to return, to reverse);
anyayā anyā sn. 3n.1 f.by the other;
āvartate ā-vṛt (to return, to reverse) Praes. Ā 1v.1he returns;
punaḥ av.back, again;

 

textual variants


śukla-kṛṣṇe gatī śukla-kṛṣṇa-gatī (bright and dark paths);
śāśvateśāśvatī (eternal);
mate → same / mataḥ (the same / opinion);
ekayā yāty anāvṛttim → anayor yāty anāvṛttim / ekayānyātmanāvṛttim / ekayā yāṁty anāvṛttim (by these two he goes into non-return / by one and by one of other nature return / by oen he goes into non-return);
anyayāvartate punaḥ → ekayāvartate ‘nyayā / ādyayāvartate ‘nyayā (by one, he returns by the other / by the first, he returns by the other);
 
 

Śāṃkara


śukla-kṛṣṇe śuklā ca kṛṣṇā ca śukla-kṛṣṇe, jñāna-prakāśakatvāt śuklā, tadabhāvāt kṛṣṇā | ete śukla-kṛṣṇe hi gatī jagataḥ ity adhikṛtānāṃ jñāna-karmaṇoḥ, na jagataḥ sarvasyaiva ete gatī saṃbhavataḥ | śāśvate nitye, saṃsārasya nityatvāt, mate’bhiprete | tatraikayā śuklayā yāty anāvṛttim, anyayā itarayā āvartate punar bhūyaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


śuklā gatiḥ arcirādikā, kṛṣṇā ca dhūmādikā / śuklayānāvṛttiṃ yāti; kṛṣṇayā tu punar āvartate / ete śuklakṛṣṇe gatī jñānināṃ vividhānāṃ puṇyakarmaṇāṃ ca śrutau śāśvate mate / „tad ya itthaṃ vidur ye ceme ‚raṇye śraddhā tapa ity upāsate te ‚rciṣam abhisaṃbhavanti”, „atha ya ime grāma iṣṭāpūrte dattam ity upāsate te dhūmam abhisaṃbhavanti” iti

 

Śrīdhara


uktau mārgāv upasaṃharati śukleti | śuklārcir-ādi-gatiḥ prakāśa-mayatvāt kṛṣṇā dhūmādi-gatis tamo-mayatvāt | ete gatī mārgau jñāna-karmādhikāriṇo jagataḥ śāśvate anādī saṃmate saṃsārasyānāditvāt | tayor ekayā śuklayā anāvṛttiṃ mokṣaṃ yāti | anyayā kṛṣṇayā tu punar āvartate

 

Madhusūdana


uktau mārgāv upasaṃharati śukla-kṛṣṇe iti | śuklārcir-ādi-gatir jñāna-prakāśa-mayatvāt | kṛṣṇā dhūmādi-gatir jñāna-hīnatvena tamomayatvāt | te ete śukla-kṛṣṇe gatī mārgau hi prasiddhe sa-guṇa-vidyā-karmādhikāriṇoḥ | jagataḥ sarvasyāpi śāstra-jñasya śāśvate anādī mate saṃsārasyānāditvāt | tayor ekayā śuklayā yāty anāvṛttiṃ kaścit | anyayā kṛṣṇayā punar āvartate sarvo ‚pi

 

Viśvanātha


uktau mārgāv upasaṃharati śukla-kṛṣṇe iti | śāśvate anādī saṃmate saṃsārasyānāditvāt | ekayā śuklayā anāvṛttiṃ mokṣam anyayā kṛṣṇayā tu punaḥ punar atra jāyate

 

Baladeva


uktau panthānāv upasaṃharati śukleti | arcir-ādir gatiḥ śuklā prakāśa-mayatvāt dhūmādikā gatiḥ kṛṣṇā prakāśa-śūnyatvāt | gatiḥ panthā ete gatā jñāna-karmādhikāriṇo jagataḥ śāśvate anādī sammate tasyānāditvāt | sphuṭam anyat

 
 

BhG 8.27

naite sṛtī pārtha jānan yogī muhyati kaś-cana
tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu yoga-yukto bhavārjuna

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he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!), he arjuna (O Arjuna!)
ete sṛtī (these two paths) jānan (knowing) kaścana yogī (any yogī) na muhyati (is not bewildered).
tasmāt (therefore) sarveṣu kāleṣu (in every time) yoga-yuktaḥ (engaged in yoga) bhava (you must be).

 

grammar

na av.not;
ete etat sn. 2n.2 f.these two;
sṛtī sṛti 2n.2 f.paths (from: sṛ – to run, to flow, to move);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
jānan jānant (jña – to know, to understand) PPr 1n.1 m. [while] knowing;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
muhyati muh (to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) Praes. P 1v.1is bewildered, deluded, confused;
kaś-cana kim-cana sn. 1n.1 m.someone (from: kim – what?; -cana – indefinitive particle);
tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 m.in all;
kāleṣu kāla 7n.3 m.in times;
yoga-yuktaḥ yoga-yukta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yogena yuktaḥ iti engaged in yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;

 

textual variants


naite sṛtī → naite gatī / nate sṛte / nṛte sṛtī / naite nṛtī / ete sṛtī / naite satī (these two goals, not… / these two emanations, not… / these two human paths / these two shows / these two paths / these two being, not…);
 
 

Śāṃkara


na ete yathokte sṛtī mārgau pārtha jānan saṃsārāya ekā, anyā mokṣāyeti | yogī na muhyati kaścana kaścid api | tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu yoga-yuktaḥ samāhito bhavārjuna

 

Rāmānuja


etau mārgau jānan yogī prayāṇakāle kaścana na muhyati; api tu svenaiva devayānena pathā yāti / tasmād aharahar cirādigaticintanākhyayogayukto bhava

 

Śrīdhara


mārga-jñāna-kalaṃ darśayan bhakti-yogam upasaṃharati naite iti | ete sṛtī mārgau mokṣa-saṃsāra-prāpakau jānan kaścid api yogī na muhyati | sukha-buddhyā svargādi-phalaṃ na kāmayate | kintu parameśvara-niṣṭha eva bhavatīty arthaḥ | spaṣṭam anyat

 

Madhusūdana


gater upāsyatvāya tad-vijñānaṃ stauti naite iti | ete sṛtī mārgau he pārtha jana krama-mokṣāyaikā punaḥ saṃsārāyāpareti niścinvan yogī dhyāna-niṣṭho na muhyati kevalaṃ karma dhūmādi-mārga-prāpakaṃ kartavyatvena na pratyeti kaścana kaścid api | tasmād yogasthāpunar-āvṛtti-phalatvāt sarveṣu kāleṣu yoga-yuktaḥ samāhita-citto bhavāpunar-āvṛttaye he ‚rjuna

 

Viśvanātha


etan-mārga-dvaya-jñānaṃ vivekotpādakam atas tadvantaṃ stauti naite iti | yoga-yuktaḥ samāhita-citto bhava

 

Baladeva


etayoḥ pathor bodho viveka-hetur bhavatīti taṃ stauti naita iti | sṛtī panthāno jānan arcir-ādi-mokṣāya dhūmādiḥ saṃsārāyeti smaran kaścid api yogī mad-bhakto na muhyati dhūmādi-prāpakaṃ karma kartavyatvena na niścinotīty arthaḥ | yoga-yuktaḥ samādhi-niṣṭho bhavāpunar-āvṛttaye

 
 

BhG 8.28

vedeṣu yajñeṣu tapaḥsu caiva dāneṣu yat puṇya-phalaṃ pradiṣṭam
atyeti tat sarvam idaṃ viditvā yogī paraṃ sthānam upaiti cādyam

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syntax


vedeṣu (in the Vedas) yajñeṣu (in sacrifices) tapaḥsu (in austerities) dāneṣu ca eva (and indeed in charity) yat puṇya-phalam (whichever auspicious fruit) pradiṣṭam (ordained),
yogī (a yogī) idam (this) viditvā (after knowing) tat sarvam (this all) atyeti (he surpasses),
[tataś] ca (and then) ādyam (first) param sthānam (the supreme place) upaiti (he attains).

 

grammar

vedeṣu veda 7n.3 m.in the Vedas (vid – to know, to understand);
yajñeṣu yajña 7n.3 m.in sacrifices, in worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
tapaḥsu tapas 7n.3 n.in heat, in austerity (from: tap – to scorch);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
dāneṣu dāna 7n.3 n.in gifts, in charity (from: – to give);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.which;
puṇya-phalam puṇya-phala 2n.1 n.; [TP]: puṇyasya phalam itithe fruit of pious [acts] (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously, puṇya – good, meritorious, virtuous act, purity; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result);
pradiṣṭam pra-diṣta (pra-diś – to point out) [PP] 2n.1 n.pointed, ordained;
atyeti ati-i (to pass over) Praes. P 1v.1he surpasses;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
sarvam sarva sn. 2n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
idam idam sn. 2n.1 n.this;
viditvā vid (to know, to understand) absol.after knowing;
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
sthānam sthāna 2n.1 n.state, place, position (from: sthā – to stand);
upaiti upa-i (to go near, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he attains;
ca av.and;
ādyam ādya 2n.1 n.first, main, excellent;

 

textual variants


dāneṣu → dāne ca (and in charity);
puṇya-phalaṁ pradiṣṭampuṇya-phala-pradiṣṭam (fruit of the pious ordained);
atyeti → abhyeti / abhyetya / anveti (he comes near / after coming to / he follows);
cādyam → divyaṁ / śāṁtaṁ (divine / tranquil);
 
 

Śāṃkara


śṛṇu tasya yogasya māhātmyaṃ—

vedeṣu samyag-adhīteṣu yajñeṣu ca sādguṇyenānutiṣṭhiteṣu tapaḥsu ca sutapteṣu dāneṣu ca samyag-datteṣu yad eteṣu puṇya-phalaṃ puṇyasya phalaṃ puṇya-phalaṃ pradiṣṭaṃ śāstreṇa, atyety atītya gacchati sat sarvaṃ phala-jātam | idaṃ viditvā sapta-praśna-nirṇaya-dvāreṇoktam arthaṃ samyag avadhāryānuṣṭhāya yogī paraṃ prakṛṣṭam aiśvaraṃ sthānam upaiti ca pratipadyate | ādyam ādau bhavaṃ kāraṇaṃ brahmety arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


athādhyāyadvayoditaśāstrārthavedanaphalam āha

ṛgyajussāmātharvarūpavedābhyāsayajñatapodānaprabhṛtiṣu sarveṣu puṇyeṣu yat phalaṃ nirdiṣṭam, idam adhyāyadvayoditaṃ bhagavanmāhātmyaṃ viditvā tat sarvam atyeti etadvedanasukhātirekeṇa tat sarvaṃ tṛṇavan manyate / yogī jñānī ca bhūtvā jñāninaḥ prāpyaṃ param ādyaṃ sthānam upaiti

 

Śrīdhara


adhyāyārtham aṣṭa-praśnārtha-nirṇayaṃ saphalam upasaṃharati vedeṣv iti | vedeṣv adhyayanādibhḥ | yajñeṣv anuṣṭhānādibhiḥ | tapaḥsu kāya-śoṣaṇādibhiḥ | dāneṣu sat-pātre ‚rpaṇādibhiḥ | yat puṇya-phalam upadiṣṭaṃ śāstreṣu tat sarvam atyeti | tato ‚pi śreṣṭhaṃ yogaiśvaryaṃ prāpnoti | kiṃ kṛtvā ? idam aṣṭa-praśnārtha-nirṇayenoktaṃ tattvaṃ viditvā | tataś ca yogī jñānī bhūtvā param utkṛṣṭam ādyaṃ jagan mūla-bhūtaṃ sthānaṃ viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ prāpnoti

 

Madhusūdana


punaḥ śraddhānu-vṛddhy-arthaṃ yogaṃ stauti vedeṣv iti | vedeṣu darbha-pavitra-pāṇitva-prāṅ-mukhatva-gurv-adhīnatvādibhiḥ samyag-adhīteṣu, yajñeṣv aṅgopāṅga-sāhityena śraddhayā samyag-anuṣṭhiteṣu | tapaḥsu śāstrokteṣu mano-buddhy-ādyaikāgryeṇa śraddhayā sutapteṣu | dāneṣu tulā-puruṣādiṣu deśe kāle pātre ca śraddhayā samyag-dattesu yat-puṇya-phalaṃ puṇyasya dharmasya phalaṃ svarga-svārājyādi pradiṣṭaṃ śāstreṇa | atyety atikrāmati tat sarvam idaṃ pūrvokta-sapta-praśna-nirūpaṇa-dvāreṇoktaṃ viditvā samyag-anuṣṭhāna-prayantam avadhāryānuṣṭhāya ca yogī dhyāna-niṣṭhaḥ | na kevalaṃ tad atikrāmati paraṃ sarvotkṛṣṭam aiśvaraṃ sthānam ādyaṃ sarva-kāraṇam upaiti ca pratipadyate ca sarva-kāraṇaṃ brahmaiva prāpnotīty arthaḥ | tad anenādhyāyena dhyeyatvena tat-padārtho vyākhyātaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etad-adhyāyoktārtha-jñāna-phalam āha vedeṣv iti | tat sarvam atyeti atikramya ca yogī bhaktimān tato ‚pi śreṣṭhaṃ sthānam ādyam aprākṛtaṃ nityaṃ prāpnoti

 

Baladeva


saptamāṣṭamādhyāya-dvaya-jñāna-prakāram āha vedeṣv iti | vedeṣu brahmacarya-guru-śuśrūṣaṇādi-vidhinā samyag-adhīteṣu sarvāṅgoaa-saṃhāreṇa samyag-anuṣṭhiteṣu | tapaḥsu śāstroktena vidhinā samyak cariteṣu | dāneṣu deśa-kāla-pātra-parīkṣayā śraddhayā ca samyag-datteṣu yat puṇya-phalaṃ svarga-rājyādi-lakṣaṇaṃ pradiṣṭam uktam | tat sarvam abhyety atikramati | kiṃ kṛtvety āha idam iti | idam adhyāya-dvayoktaṃ bhagavato mama mad-bhakteś ca māhātmyaṃ sat-prasaṅgena viditvā tad-vedana-sukhātiriktaṃ tat sarvaṃ tṛṇāya manyata ity arthaḥ | tato yogī mad-bhaktimān bhūtvādyam anādi-parama-māyikaṃ mat-sthānam upaiti

 
 

BhG 8.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi triṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation

Thus [ends] the thirtieth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants

iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde prayāṇa-kāla-yogo / kṣara-nirdeśo / mahā-puruṣa-yogo / akṣara-brahma-yoga-jñānena parama-gati-prāpti-nirūpaṇaṃ / brahma-yogo / adhyātma-puruṣa-darśo / mahā-puruṣa-darśano / dhāraṇā-yogo / puruṣottama-yogaḥ / brahmākṣara-nirdeśo / puruṣa-yogo / atma-yogo / akṣara-brahma-yogo ‘ṣṭamo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the eighth chapter entitled: The Yoga of the Time of Death / Teaching about the Perishable / The Yoga of Great Man / Attaining the Highest Goal through Yoga of Imperishable Brahman / The Yoga of Brahman / Showing the Man and the Supreme Self / Showing of the Great Man / The Yoga of Steadiness / The Yoga of the Supreme Man / Teaching of the Imperishable Brahman / The Yoga of Man / The Yoga of the Self / The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 

Śrīdhara


aṣṭame ‚ṣṭa viśiṣṭe ‚ṣṭa-saṃpṛṣṭārtha-vinirṇayaiḥ |
akliṣṭam iṣṭa-dhāmāptiḥ spaṣṭitotkṛṣṭa-vartmanā ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmikṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
tāraka-brahma-yogo nāmāṣṭamo ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


bhaktānāṃ sarvataḥ śraiṣṭhyaṃ pūrvoktaṃ teṣv api sphuṭam |
ananya-bhaktasyety artho ‚trādhyāye vyañjito ‚bhavat ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
śrī-gītāsv asṭamo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām

 

Baladeva


kṛṣṇāṃśaḥ puruṣo yoga-bhaktyā labhyo ‚rcir-ādibhiḥ |
kṛṣṇas tv ananya-bhaktyaivety aṣṭamasya vinirṇayaḥ ||