atha navamo ‘dhyāyaḥ – rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhya-yogaḥ

Now the ninth chapter: “The Yoga of the King of Knowledge and of the King of Secret”

Śāṃkara


aṣṭame nāḍy-ādi-dvāreṇa dhāraṇā-yogaḥ saguṇa uktaḥ | tasya ca phalam agny-arcir-ādi-krameṇa kālāntare brahma-prāpti-lakṣaṇam evānāvṛtti-rūpaṃ nirdiṣṭam | tatrānenaiva prakāreṇa mokṣa-prāpti-phalam adhigamyate, nānyathā iti tad āśaṅkā-vyāvivartayiṣayā śrī-bhagavān uvāca

 

Rāmānuja


upāsakabhedanibandhanā viśeṣāḥ pratipāditāḥ / idānīm upāsyasya paramapuruṣasya māhātmyam, jñānināṃ viśeṣaṃ ca viśodhya bhaktirūpasyopāsanasya svarūpam ucyate

 

Śrīdhara


pareśaḥ prāpyate śuddha-bhaktyeti sthitam aṣṭame |
navame tu tad-aiśvaryam atyāścaryaṃ prapañcyate ||

 

Madhusūdana


pūrvādhyāye mūrdhany anāḍī-dvārakeṇa hṛdaya-kaṇṭha-bhrū-madhyādi-dhāraṇā-sahitena sarvendriya-dvāra-saṃyama-guṇakena yogena svecchayotkrānta-prāṇasyārcir-ādi-mārgeṇa brahma-lokaṃ prayātasya tatra samyag-jñānodayena kalpānte para-brahma-prāpti-lakṣaṇā krama-muktir vyākhyātā | tatra cānenaiva prakāreṇa muktir labhyate nānayathety āśaṅkya- ananya-cetāḥ satataṃ yo māṃ smarati nityaśaḥ | tasyāhaṃ sulabhaḥ ity ādinā bhagavat-tattva-vijñānāt sākṣān mokṣa-prāptir abhihitā | tatra cānanyā bhaktir asādhāraṇo hetur ity uktaṃ puruṣaḥ sa paraḥ pārtha bhaktyā labhyas tv ananyayā iti | tatra pūrvokta-yoga-dhāraṇā-pūrva-prāṇotkramaṇārcir-ādi-mārga-gamana-kāla-vilambādi-kleśam antareṇaiva sākṣān mokṣa-prāptaye bhagavat-tattvasya tad-bhakteś ca vistareṇa jñāpanāya navamo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | aṣṭame dhyeya-brahma-nirūpaṇena tad-dhyāna-niṣṭhasya gatir uktā | navame tu jñeya-brahma-nirūpaṇena jñāna-niṣṭhasya gatir ucyata iti saṅkṣepaḥ | tatra vakṣyamāṇa-jñāna-stuty-arthās trīn ślokān |

 

Viśvanātha


ārādhyatve prabhor dāsair aiśvaryaṃ yad apekṣitam |
tat śuddha-bhakter utkarṣaś cocyate navame sphuṭam ||

 

Baladeva


bhakty-uddīpti-karaṃ svasya pāramaiśvaryam adbhutam |
sva-bhakteś ca mahotkarṣaṃ navame harir ūcivān ||

 
 

BhG 9.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
idaṃ tu te guhyatamaṃ pravakṣyāmy anasūyave
jñānaṃ vijñāna-sahitaṃ yaj jñātvā mokṣyase śubhāt

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
[aham] (I) idam guhya-tamam (this most secret) vijñāna-sahitam tu jñānam (knowledge along with wisdom) te anasūyave (to you non-envious) pravakṣyāmi (I will declare).
yat [jñānam] (which knowledge) jñātvā (after knowing) [tvam] (you) aśubhāt (from inauspiciousness) mokṣyase (you will be liberated).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
guhyatamam guhyatama 2n.1 n.the most secret (from: xguh – to cover, to hide, PF guhya – to be hidden, secret, mystery; superlative of: guhya – guhya-tara, guhya-tama);
pravakṣyāmi pra-vac (to declare, to speak) Fut. P 3v.1I will declare;
anasūyave an-asūyu 4n.1 m.to one who is free from spite, envy, ill-will (asūya – to be displeased);
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
vijñāna-sahitam vijñāna-sahita 2n.1 n.; vijñānena sahitam itialong with wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; vi-jñāna – comprehension, understanding, wisdom; sahita – suffix: along with, joined, attended by);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
mokṣyase muc (to liberate) Fut. pass. 2v.1you will be liberated;
aśubhāt aśubha 5n.1 n.from the inauspicious (from: śubh – to shine, śubha – splendid, pleasant, auspicious, good);

 

textual variants


anasūyaveanasūyate (to the non-envious);
jñānaṁ vijñāna-sahitaṁjñāna-vijñāna-sahitaṁ (along with knowledge and wisdom);

The fourth pada of verse 9.1 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 4.16;

 
 


Śāṃkara


idaṃ brahma-jñānaṃ vakṣyamāṇam uktaṃ ca pūrveṣu adhyāyeṣu, tat buddhau saṃnidhīkṛtya idam ity āha | tu-śabdo viśeṣa-nirdhāraṇārthaḥ | idam eva tu samyag-jñānaṃ sākṣāt mokṣa-prāpti-sādhanaṃ vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti [gītā 7.12], ātmaivedaṃ sarvaṃ [candrhāuttaṃ 7.25.2] ekam evādvitīyaṃ [candrhāuttaṃ 6.2.1] ity ādi-śruti-smṛtibhyaḥ | nānyat, atha te ye’nyathāto vidur anya-rājānas te kṣayya-lokā bhavanti [candrhāuttaṃ 7.25.2] ity ādi-śrutibhyaś ca | te tubhyaṃ guhyatamaṃ gopyatamaṃ pravakṣyāmi kathayiṣyāmy anasūyave’sūyā-rahitāya | kiṃ tat ? jñānam | kiṃ-viśiṣṭaṃ ? vijñāna-sahitam anubhava-yuktam, yaj jñātvā prāpya mokṣyase ’śubhāt saṃsāra-bandhanāt

 

Rāmānuja


idaṃ tu guhyatamaṃ bhaktirūpam upāsanākhyaṃ jñānaṃ vijñānasahitam upāsanagataviśeṣajñānasahitam, anasūyave te pravakṣyāmi madviṣayaṃ sakaletaravisajātīyam aparimitaprakāraṃ māhātmyaṃ śrutvā, evam eva saṃbhavatīti manvānāya te pravakṣyāmītyarthaḥ / yaj jñānam anuṣṭhānaparyantaṃ jñātvā matprāptivirodhinaḥ sarvasmād aśubhān mokṣyase

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ tāvat saptamāṣṭamayoḥ svīyaṃ pārameśvaraṃ tattvaṃ bhaktyaiva sulabhaṃ nānyathā ity uktvā idānīm acintyaṃ svakīyam aiśvaryaṃ bhakteś cāsādhāraṇaṃ prabhāva`aprapañcayiṣyan bhagavān uvāca idam iti | viśeṣeṇa jñāyate ‚neneti vijñānam upāsanam | tat-sahitaṃ jñānam īśvara-viṣayam | idaṃ tv anusūyave punaḥ punaḥ sva-māhātmyam evopadiśatīty evaṃ parama-kāruṇike mayi doṣa-dṛṣṭi-rahitāya | tubhyaṃ vakṣyāmi | tu-śabdo vaiśiṣṭye

 

Madhusūdana


idaṃ prāg bahudhoktam agre ca vakṣyamāṇam adhunocyamānaṃ jñānaṃ śabda-pramāṇakaṃ brahma-tattva-viṣayakaṃ te tubhyaṃ pravakṣyāmi | tu-śabdaḥ pūrvādhyāyoktād dhyānāj jñānasya vailakṣaṇyam āha | idam eva samyag-jñānaṃ sākṣān mokṣa-prāpti-sādhanaṃ na tu dhyānaṃ tasyājñānānivartakatvāt | tat tv antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhi-dvāredam eva jñānaṃ sampādya krameṇa mokṣaṃ janayatīty uktam |

kīdṛśaṃ jñānaṃ guhyatamaṃ gopanīyatamam atirahasyatvāt | yato vijñāna-sahitaṃ brahmānubhava-paryantam | īdṛśam atirahasyam apy ahaṃ śiṣya-guṇādhikyād vakṣyāmi tubhyam anasūyave | asūyā guṇeṣu doṣa-dṛṣṭis tad-āviṣkaraṇādi-phalā | sarvadāyam ātmaiśvarya-khyāpanenātmānaṃ praśaṃsati mat-purastād ity evaṃ rūpā tad-rahitāya | anenārjuava-saṃyamāv api śiṣya-guṇau vyākhyātau | punaḥ kīdṛśaṃ jñānaṃ yaj jñātvā prāpya mokṣyase sadya eva saṃsāra-bandhanād aśubhāt sarva-duḥkha-hetoḥ

 

Viśvanātha


karma-jñāna-yogādibhyaḥ sakāśāt bhakter eve utkarṣaḥ | sā ca bhaktiḥ pradhānībhūtā kevalā ceti saptamāṣṭamayor uktam | tatrāpi kevalāyā atiprabalāyā jñānavad antaḥkaraṇa-śuddhy-ādy-anapekṣinyā bhakteḥ spaṣṭatayā eva sarvotkarṣaḥ | tasyām apekṣitam aiśvaryaṃ ca vaktuṃ navamo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | sarva-śāstra-sāra-bhūtasya gītā-śāstrasyāpi madhyam adhyāya-ṣaṭkam eva sāram | tasyāpi madhyamau navama-daśamāv eva sārāv ity ato ‚tra nirūpayiṣyamāṇam arthaṃ stauti idaṃ tv iti tribhiḥ |

dvitīya-tṛtīyādhyāyādiṣu yad uktaṃ mokṣopayogi-jñānaṃ guhyam | saptamāṣṭamayor mat-prāpty-upayogi-jñānaṃ jñāyate ‚nena bhagavat-tattvam iti jñānaṃ bhakti-tattvaṃ guhyataram | atra tu kevala-śuddha-bhakti-lakṣaṇaṃ jñānaṃ guhyatamaṃ prakarṣeṇaiva tubhyaṃ vakṣyāmi | atra tu jñāna-śabdena bhaktir avaśyaṃ vyākhyeyā, na tu prathama-ṣaṭkoktaṃ prasiddhaṃ jñānam | para-śloke ‚vyayam anaśvaram iti viśeṣaṇa-dānād guṇātītatva-lābhād guṇātītā bhaktir eva | na tu jñānam, tasya sāttvikatvāt | aśraddadhānāḥ puruṣā dharmasyāsya ity agrima-śloke dharma-śabdenāpi bhaktir evocyate | anasūyave ‚matsarāyety anyo ‚pīdam amatsarāyaivopadiśed iti vidhir vyañjitaḥ | vijñāna-sahitaṃ mad-aparokṣānubhava-paryantam ity arthaḥ | aśubhāt saṃsārād bhakti-pratibandhakād antarāyād vā

 

Baladeva


vijñānānanda-ghano ‚saṅkhyeya-kalyāṇa-guṇa-ratnālayaḥ sarveśvaro ‚haṃ śuddha-bhakti-sulabha iti saptamādibhyām abhidhāyedānīṃ bhakter uddīpakaṃ nijaiśvaryaṃ tasyāḥ prabhāva`acābhidhāsyann ādau tāṃ stauti idam iti tribhiḥ | idaṃ jñānaṃ mat-kīrtanādi-lakṣaṇa-bhakti-rūpam | paratra dharmasyāsya ity ukteḥ | kīrtanādeś cic-chakti-vṛttitvāt | jñāyate ‚nena iti nirukteś ca | tat kila guhyatamam | dvitīyādāv upadiṣṭaṃ mad-aiśvarya-jñānaṃ guhyataram ity arthaḥ | navamādāv upadeśyaṃ tu kevala-bhakti-lakṣaṇam idaṃ jñānaṃ guhyatamam ity arthaḥ | tac ca vijñāna-sahitaṃ mad-anubhavāvasānaṃ te vakṣyāmi | kīdṛśāyety āha anasūyava iti | mad-guṇeṣu doṣāropa-rahitāya durgamasya sva-rahasyasyānukampayopadeṣṭari mayi nijaiśvarya-prakhyāpanenātmānaṃ praśaṃsasīti doṣa-dṛṣṭi-śūnyāyety arthaḥ | tenānyo ‚py etad anasūyaṃ prati brūyād iti darśitam | yaj jñātvā tvam aśubhāt saṃsārān mokṣyase

 
 


BhG 9.2

rāja-vidyā rāja-guhyaṃ pavitram idam uttamam
pratyakṣāvagamaṃ dharmyaṃ susukhaṃ
kartum avyayam

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syntax


idam [jñānam] (this knowledge) uttamam (the highest) rāja-guhyam (king of secrets) rāja-vidyā (king of knowledge) pavitram (purifying) pratyakṣāvagamam (understood by perception) dharmyam (lawful) kartuṁ su-sukham (very easy to do) avyayam (imperishable) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

rāja-vidyā rāja-vidyā 1n.1 f.; [TP]: vidyānāṁ rājetiking of knowledge (from: raj – to reign, rājan – king; vid – to know, to understand, vidyā – knowledge, learning; a compound in which the first element dominates – pūrva-pada-pradhāna);
rāja-guhyam rāja-guhya 1n.1 n.; [TP]: guhyānāṁ rājetiking of secrets (from: raj – to reign, rājan – king; xguh – to cover, to hide, PF guhya – to be hidden, secret, mystery; a compound in which the first element dominates – pūrva-pada-pradhāna);
pavitram pavitra 1n.1 n. – means of purification, purity (from: – to purify);
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
uttamam uttama 1n.1 n.uppermost, highest, most elevated (superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
pratyakṣāvagamam praty-akṣa-avagama 1n.1 n.; BV: yasya pratyakṣeṇāvagamo ‘sti tatthat understanding which [is born] through perception (from: xīkṣ – to see, akṣa – an eye, a sense organ, praty-akṣa – present before the eyes, perceptible, direct, a type of valid cognition – pramāṇa; ava-xgam – to go down, to understand, avagama – understanding, comprehension);
dharmyam dharmya 1n.1 n. lawful, righteous (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law);
susukham su-sukha 1n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
kartum kṛ (to do) [inf.] – to do;
avyayam a-vyaya 1n.1 n.unchangeable, imperishable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


uttamam → adbhutaṁ / avyayaṁ (wonderful / imperishable);
pratyakṣāvagamaṁpratyakṣyāvagamaṁ / praty-akṣara-gamaṁ (comprehended by direct experience / going to imperishability);
dharmyaṁ → dharmaṁ (the law);
susukhaṁ → sasukhaṁ (along with happiness);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tac ca—

rāja-vidyā vidyānāṃ rājā, dīpty-atiśayavattvāt | dīpyate hīyam atiśayena brahma-vidyā sarva-vidyānām | tathā rāja-guhyaṃ guhyānāṃ rājā | pavitraṃ pāvanam idam uttamaṃ sarveṣāṃ pāvanānāṃ śuddhi-kāraṇaṃ brahma-jñānam utkṛṣṭatamam | aneka-janma-sahasra-saṃcitam api dharmādharmādi sa-mūlaṃ karma kṣaṇa-mātrād eva bhasmīkarotīty ataḥ kiṃ tasya pāvanatvaṃ vaktavyaṃ ? kiṃ ca—pratyakṣāvagamaṃ pratyakṣeṇa sukhāder ivāvagamo yasya tat pratyakṣāvagamam | aneka-guṇavato’pi dharma-viruddhatvaṃ dṛṣṭam, na tathātma-jñānaṃ dharma-virodhi, kiṃtu dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetam | evam api, syād duḥkha-saṃpādyam ity ata āha—susukhaṃ kartum, yathā ratna-viveka-vijñānam | tatrālpāyāsānām anyeṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ sukha-saṃpādyānām alpa-phalatvaṃ duṣkarāṇāṃ ca mahā-phalatvaṃ dṛṣṭam iti, idaṃ tu sukha-saṃpādyatvāt phala-kṣayāt vyetīti prāpte, āha—avyayam iti | nāsya phalataḥ karmavat vyayo’stīty avyayam | ataḥ śraddheyam ātma-jñānam

 

Rāmānuja


rājavidyā vidyānāṃ rājā, rājaguhyaṃ guhyānāṃ rājā / rājñāṃ vidyeti vā rājavidyā / rājāno hi vistīrṇāgādhyamanasaḥ / mahāmanasām iyaṃ vidyetyarthaḥ / mahāmanasa eva hi gopanīyagopanakuśalā iti teṣām eva guhyam / idam uttamaṃ pavitraṃ matprāptivirodhyaśeṣakalmaṣāpaham / pratyakṣāvagamam / avagamyata ity avagamaḥ viṣayaḥ; pratyakṣabhūto ‚vagamaḥ viṣayo yasya jñānasya tat pratyakṣāvagamam / bhaktirūpeṇopāsanenopāsyamāno ‚haṃ tādānīm evopāsituḥ pratyakṣatām upagato bhavāmītyarthaḥ / athāpi dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetam / dharmatvaṃ hi niśśreyasasādhanatvam / svarūpeṇaivātyarthapriyatvena tadānīm eva maddarśanāpādanatayā ca svayaṃ niśśreyasarūpam api niratiśayaniśśreyasarūpātyantikamatprāptisādhanam ityarthaḥ / ata eva susukhaṃ kartuṃ susukhopādānam / atyarthapriyatvenopādeyam / avyayam akṣayam; matprāptiṃ sādhayitvā+api svayaṃ na kṣīyate / evaṃrūpam upāsanaṃ kurvato matpradāne kṛte ‚pi kiṃcit kṛtaṃ mayā+asyeti me pratibhātītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca rājavidyeti | idaṃ jñānaṃ rāja-vidyā vidyānāṃ rājā | rāja-guhyaṃ guhyānāṃ ca rājā | vidyāsu gopyeṣu ca atirahasyaṃ śreṣṭham ity arthaḥ | rāja-dantāditvād upasarjanasya paratvam | rājñāṃ vidyā rājñāṃ guhyam iti vā | uttamaṃ pavitram idam atyanta-pāvanam | jñānināṃ pratyakṣāvagamaṃ ca | pratyakṣaḥ spaṣṭo ‚vagamo ‚vabodho yasya tat pratyakṣāvagamam | dṛṣṭa-phalam ity arthaḥ | dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetam | vedokta-sarva-dharma-phalatvāt | kartuṃ ca susukhaṃ kartuṃ śakyam ity arthaḥ | avyayaṃ cākṣaya-phalatvāt

 

Madhusūdana


punas tadābhimukhyāya taj-jñānaṃ stauti rājeti | rāja-vidyā sarvāsāṃ vidyānāṃ rājā sarvāvidyānāśakatvāt | vidyāntarasyāvidyaika-deśa-virodhitvāt | tathā rāja-guhyaṃ sarveṣāṃ guhyānāṃ rājā | aneka-janma-kṛta-sukṛta-sādhyatvena bahubhir ajñātatvāt | rāja-dantāditvād upasarjanasya para-nipātaḥ | pavitram idam uttamaṃ prāyaścittair hi kiṃcid ekam eva pāpaṃ nivartyate | nivṛttaṃ ca tat-sva-kāraṇe sūkṣma-rūpeṇa tiṣṭhaty eva | yataḥ punas tat-pāpam upacinoti puruṣaḥ | idaṃ tv aneka-janma-sahasra-sañcitānāṃ sarveṣām api pāpānāṃ sthūla-sūkṣmāvasthānāṃ tat-kāraṇasya cājñānasya ca sadya evocchedakam | ataḥ sarvottamaṃ pāvanam idam eva |

na cātīndriye dharma ivātra kasyacit sandehaḥ svarūpataḥ phalataś ca pratyakṣatād ity āha pratyakṣāvagamam avagamyate,nenety avagamo mānam avagamyate prāpyata ity avagamaḥ phalaṃ pratyakṣāvagamo mānam asminn iti svarūpataḥ sākṣi-pratyakṣatvam | pratyakṣo ‚vagamo ‚syeti phalataḥ sākṣi-pratyakṣatvam | mayedaṃ viditvam ato naṣṭam idānīm atra mamājñānam iti hi sārvalaukikaḥ sākṣy-anubhavaḥ |

evaṃ lokānubhava-siddhatve ‚pi taj-jñānaṃ dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetam aneka-janma-saṃcita-niṣkāma-dharma-phalam | tarhi duḥsampādaṃ syān nety āha | susukhaṃ kartuṃ gurūpadarśita-vicāra-sahakṛtena vedānta-vākyena sukhena kartuṃ śakyaṃ na deśa-kālādi-vyavadhānam apekṣate pramāṇa-vastu-paratantratvāj jñānasya | evam anāyāsa-sādhyatve svalpa-phalatvaṃ syād atyāyāsa-sādhyānām eva karmaṇāṃ mahā-phalatva-darśanād iti nety āha avyayam | evam anāyāsa-sādhyasyāpy asya phalato vyahto nāstīty avyayam akṣaya-phalam ity arthaḥ | karmaṇā tv atimahatām api kṣayi-phalatvam eva yo vā etad akṣaraṃ gārgy aviditvāsmil loke juhoti yajate tapas tapyate bahūni varṣa-sahasrāṇy antavad evāsya tad bhavati iti [BAU 3.7.10] śruteḥ | tasmāt sarvotkṛṣṭatvāc chraddheyam evātma-jñānam

 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca | idaṃ jñānaṃ rāja-vidyā vidyā upāsanā vividhā eva bhaktayaḥ tāsāṃ rājā | rāja-dantāditvād para-nipātaḥ | guhyānāṃ rājeti bhakti-mātram evātiguhyaṃ tasya bahuvidhasyāpi rājā iti atiguhyatamam | pavitram idam iti sarva-pāpa-prāyaścittatvāt tvaṃ padārtah-jñānāc ca sakāśād api pāvitrya-karam | aneka-janma-sahasra-sañcitānāṃ sarveṣām api pāpānāṃ sthūla-sūkṣmāvasthānāṃ tat-kāraṇasya cājñānasya ca sadya evocchedakam | ataḥ sarvottamaṃ pāvanam idam eva iti madhusūdana sarasvatīpādāḥ | pratyakṣa evāvagamo ‚nubhavo yasya tat |

bhaktiḥ pareśānubhavo viraktir
anyatra caiṣa trika eka-kālaḥ |
prapadyamānasya yathāśnataḥ syus
tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭiḥ kṣud-apāyo ‚nu-ghāsam || [BhP 11.2.42]

ity ekādaśoketḥ pratipadam eva bhajanānurūpa-bhagavad-anubhava-lābhāt | dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetaṃ sarva-dharmākaraṇe ‚pi sarva-dharma-siddheḥ –

yathā taror mūla-niṣecanena
tṛpyanti tat-skandha-bhujopaśākhāḥ |
prāṇopahārāc ca yathendriyāṇāṃ
tathaiva sarvārhaṇam acyutejyā || [BhP 4.31.14] iti nāradokteḥ |

kartuṃ susukham iti karma-jñānādāv iva nātra ko ‚pi kāra-vāṅ-mānasa-kleśātiśayaḥ śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhakteḥ śrotrādīndriya-vyāpāra-mātratvāt | avyayaṃ karma-jñānādivan na naśvaraṃ nirguṇatvāt

 

Baladeva


rāja-vidyeti | vidyānāṃ śāṇḍilya-vaiśvānara-daharādi-śabda-pūrvāṇāṃ rājā rāja-vidyā | guhyānāṃ jīvātma-yāthātmyādi-rahasyānāṃ rājā rāja-guhyam idaṃ bhakti-rūpaṃ jñānam | rāja-dantāditvād upasarjanasya para-nipātaḥ | tathātve pratipādayituṃ viśinaṣṭi – uttamaṃ pavitraṃ liṅga-deha-paryanta-sarva-pāpa-praśamanāt | yad uktaṃ pādme-

aprārabdha-phalaṃ pāpaṃ kūṭaṃ bījaṃ phalonmukham |
krameṇaiva pralīyante viṣṇu-bhakti-ratātmanām || iti |

kramo ‚tra parṇa-śataka-vedhavad bodhyaḥ | pratyakṣāvagamam avagamyata ity avagamo viṣayaḥ | sa yasmin pratyakṣe ‚sti śravaṇādike ‚bhyastyamāne tasmiṃs tad-viṣayaḥ puruṣottamo ‚ham āvirbhavāmi | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ – prakāśaś ca karmaṇy abhyāsāt iti | dharmyaṃ dharmād anapetaṃ guru-śuśrūṣādi-dharmair nityaṃ puṣyamāṇam | śrutiś ca ācāryavān puruṣo veda ity ādyā |

kartuṃ susukhaṃ sukha-sādhyam | śrotrādi-vyāpāra-mātratvāt tulasī-pātrāmbu-culuka-mātropakaraṇatvāc ca | avyayam avināśi-mokṣe ‚pi tasyānuvṛtteḥ | evaṃ vakṣyati bhaktyā mām abhijānāti ity ādinā | karma-yogādikaṃ tu nedṛśam ato ‚sya rāja-vidyātvam | tatrāhuḥ rājñāṃ vidyā, rājñāṃ guhyam iti rājñām ivodāra-cetasāṃ kāruṇikānām iva divam api tucchīkurvatām iyaḥ vidyā na tu śīghraṃ putrādi-lipsayā devān abhyarcatāṃ dīna-cetasāṃ karmiṇām | rājāno hi mahāratnādi-sampad apy anihnuvānāḥ sva-mantraṃ yathātiyatnān nihnūyate tathānyāṃ vidyām anihnuvānā mad-bhaktā etām atiyatnān nihnuvīrann iti | samānam anyat

 
 

BhG 9.3

aśraddadhānāḥ puruṣā dharmasyāsya paraṃtapa
aprāpya māṃ nivartante mṛtyu-saṃsāra-vartmani

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syntax


he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!),
asya dharmasya (of this dharma) aśraddadhānāḥ (who are faithless) puruṣāḥ (people) mām (me) aprāpya (after not obtaining)
mṛtyu-saṁsāra-vartmani (on the path of cycles of death) nivartante (they return).

 

grammar

aśraddadhānāḥ a-śrad-dadhāna 1n.3 m.who are faithless (from: śrat- – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith], PPr dadhāna – putting);
puruṣāḥ puruṣa 1n.3 m.people (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
dharmasya dharma 6n.1 m.of the law, of dharma (from: dhṛ – to hold);
asya idam sn. 6n.1 m.of this;
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
aprāpya na pra-āp (to obtain) absol. –  after not obtaining;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
nivartante ni-vṛt (to stop, to turn back) Praes. Ā 1v.3they return;
mṛtyu-saṁsāra-vartmani mṛtyu-saṁsāra-vartman 7n.1 n.; [TP]: mṛtyoḥ saṁsārasya vartmanītion the path of cycles of death (from: mṛ – to die, mṛtyu – death; sam-xsṛ – to flow together, to undergo transmigration; saṁsāra – passing, transmigration, world; vṛt – to move, to happen, to act, vartman – track of a wheel, path, way, course);

 

textual variants


dharmasyāsyajñānasyāsya (of this knowledge);

 
 

Śāṃkara


ye punaḥ—

aśraddadhānāḥ śraddhā-virahitā ātma-jñānasya dharmasyāsya svarūpe tat-phale ca nāstikāḥ pāpa-kāriṇaḥ, asurāṇām upaniṣadaṃ deha-mātrātma-darśanam eva pratipannāḥ | asutṛpaḥ pāpāḥ puruṣā aśraddadhānāḥ | paraṃtapa ! aprāpya māṃ parameśvaram, mat-prāptau naivāśaṅketi mat-prāpti-mārga-bheda-bhakti-mātram apy aprāpya ity arthaḥ | nivartante niścayena vartante | kva ?—mṛtyu-saṃsāra-vartmani mṛtyu-yuktaḥ saṃsāro mṛtyu-saṃsāras, tasya vartma naraka-tiryag-ādi-prāpti-mārgaḥ, tasminn eva vartanta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


asyopāsanākhyasya dharmasya niratiśayapriyamadviṣayatayā svayaṃ niratiśayapriyarūpasya paramaniśśreyasarūpamatprāptisādhanasyāvyayasyopādānayogyadaśāyāṃ prāpya aśraddadhānāḥ viśvāsapūrvakatvarārahitāḥ puruṣāḥ mām aprāpya mṛtyurūpe saṃsāravartmani nitarāṃ vartante / aho mahad idam āścaryam ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


nanv evam asyātisukaratve ke nāma saṃsāriṇaḥ syuḥ | tatrāha aśraddadhānā iti | asya bhakti-sahita-jñāna-lakṣaṇasya | dharmasyeti karmaṇi ṣaṣṭhī | imaṃ dharmam aśraddadhānā āstikyenāsvīkurvanta upāyāntarair mat-prāptaye kṛta-prayatnā api mām aprāpya mṛtyu-yukte saṃsāra-vartmani nimitte nivartante | mṛtyu-vyāpte saṃsāra-mārge paribhramantīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evam asya sukaratve sarvotkṛṣṭatve ca sarve ‚pi kuto ‚tra na pravartante, tathā ca na ko ‚pi saṃsārī syād ity ata āha aśraddadhānā iti | asyātma-jñānākhyasya dharmasya svarūpe sādhane phale ca śāstra-pratipādite ‚pi aśraddadhānā veda-virodhi-kuhetu-darśana-dūṣitāntaḥkaraṇatayā prāmāṇyam amanyamānāḥ pāpa-kāriṇo ‚sura-sampadam ārūḍhāḥ sva-mati-kalpitenopāyena kathaṃcid yatamānā api śāstra-vihitopāyābhāvād aprāpya māṃ mat-prāpti-sādhanam apy alabdhvā nivartante niścayena vartante | kva mṛtyu-yukte saṃsāra-vartmani sarvadā janana-maraṇa-prabandhena nāraki-tiryag-ādi-yoniṣv eva bhramantīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanv evam asyātisukha-karatve sati ko nāma saṃsārī syāt | tatrāha aśraddadhānā iti | asyeti karmaṇi ṣaṣṭhī ārṣī | imaṃ dharmam aśraddadhānāḥ śāstra-vākyaiḥ pratipāditaṃ bhakteḥ sarvotkarṣaṃ stuty-artha-vādam eva manyamānā āstikyena na svīkurvanti ye, ta upāyāntarair mat-prāptaye kṛta-prayatnā api mām aprāpya mṛtyu-vyāpte saṃsāra-vartmani nitarām atiśayena vartante

 

Baladeva


nanv evaṃ sukare dharme sthite na ko ‚pi saṃsāred iti cet tatrāha aśraddadhānā iti | dharmasyeti karmaṇi ṣaṣṭhī | imaṃ mad-bhakti-lakṣaṇaṃ dharmam śruty-ādi-prasiddha-prabhāvam apy aśraddadhānā dṛḍha-viśvāsena tam agṛhṇataḥ stuti-mātram evaitad iti ye manyante, te mat-prāptaye sādhanāntarāṇy anutiṣṭhanto ‚pi bhakty-avahelanān mām aprāpya mṛtyu-yukte saṃsāra-vartmani nitarām vartante

 
 

BhG 9.4

mayā tatam idaṃ sarvaṃ jagad avyakta-mūrtinā
mat-sthāni sarva-bhūtāni na cāhaṃ teṣv avasthitaḥ

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syntax


avyakta-mūrtinā mayā (by my unmanifested form) idam sarvam jagat (this whole world) tatam (spread) [asti] (it is).
sarva-bhūtāni (all creatures) mat-sthāni (situated in me) [santi] (they are),
aham ca (but I) teṣu (in them) na avasthitaḥ (I am not situated).

 

grammar

mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
tatam tata (tan – to spread, to pervade) [PP] 1n.1 n.spread, pervaded, covered over;
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
jagat jagat 6n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
avyakta-mūrtinā a-vyakta-mūrti 3n.1 m.; yasya mūrtir avyaktāsti tenaby that whose form is unmanfested (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible, [PP] vyakta – visible, manifest; mūrti – form, shape, embodiment);
mat-sthāni mat-stha 1n.3 n.; mayi avasthitānīti – which are situated in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; sthā – to stand, -stha – suffix: being in);
sarva-bhūtāni sarva-bhūta 1n.3 n.; KD: sarvāṇi bhūtānītiall creatures (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
teṣu tat sn. 7n.3 m.in them;
avasthitaḥ avasthita (ava-sthā – to be present) [PP] 1n.1 m.situated;

 

textual variants


sarvaṁ → kṛtsnaṁ (whole);
avyakta-mūrtināavyaya-mūrtinā (by imperishable form);
teṣv avasthitaḥ → te vyavasthitaḥ;
na cāhaṁ teṣv avasthitaḥ → na ca teṣv vyavasthitaḥ (but I am not situated in them);
 
 



Śāṃkara


stutyārjunam abhimukhīkṛtyāha—

mayā mama yaḥ paro bhāvas tena tataṃ vyāptaṃ sarvam idaṃ jagad avyakta-mūrtinā | na vyaktā mūrtiḥ svarūpaṃ yasya mama so’ham avyakta-mūrtis tena mayāvyakta-mūrtinā, karaṇāgocara-svarūpeṇety arthaḥ | tasmin mayy avyakta-mūrtau sthitāni mat-sthāni, sarva-bhūtāni brahmādīni stamba-paryantāni | na hi nirātmakaṃ kiṃcit bhūtaṃ vyavahārāyāvakalpate | ato mat-sthāni mayātmanā ātmavattvena sthitāni | ato mayi sthitānīty ucyante | teṣāṃ bhūtānām aham evātmā ity atas teṣu sthita iti mūḍha-buddhīnām avabhāsate | ato bravīmi—na cāhaṃ teṣu bhūteṣv avasthitaḥ | mūrtavat saṃśleṣābhāvena ākāśasyāpy antaratamo hy aham | na hy asaṃsargi vastu kvacit ādheya-bhāvenāvasthitaṃ bhavati

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 9.5

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ vaktavyatayā prastutasya jñānasya stutyā śrotāram abhimukhīkṛtya tad eva jñānaṃ kathayati mayeti dvābhyām | avyaktā ‚tīndriyā mūrtiḥ svarūpaṃ yasya | tādṛśena mayā kāraṇa-bhūtena sarvam idaṃ jagat tataṃ vyāptam | tat sṛṣṭvā tad evānuprāviśat ity ādi śruteḥ | ataeva kāraṇa-bhūte mayi tiṣṭhantīti mat-sthāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni carācarāṇi | evam api ghaṭādiṣu kāryeṣu mṛttikeva teṣu bhūteṣu nāham avasthitaḥ | ākāśavad asaṅgatvāt

 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ vaktavyatayā pratijñātasya jñānasya vidhi-mukhenetara-niṣedha-mukhena ca stutyābhimukhīkṛtam arjunaṃ prati tad evāha dvābhyām mayeti | idaṃ jagat sarvaṃ bhūta-bhautika-tat-kāraṇa-rūpaṃ dṛśya-jātaṃ mad-ajñāna-kalpitaṃ māyādhiṣṭhānena paramārtha-satā sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇa ca tataṃ vyāptaṃ rajju-khaṇḍeneva tad-ajñāna-kalpitaṃ sarpa-dhārādi | tvayā vāsudevena paricchinnena sarvaṃ jagat kathaṃ vyāptaṃ pratyakṣa-virodhād iti nety āha avyaktā sarva-karaṇāgocarībhūtā sva-prakāśādvaya-caitanya-sad-ānanda-rūpā mūrtir yasya tena mayā vyāptam idaṃ sarvaṃ na tv anena dehenety arthaḥ | ata eva santīva sphurantīva mad-rūpeṇa sthitāni mat-sthāni sarva-bhūtāni sthāvarāṇi jaṅgamāni ca | paramārthatas tu na ca naivāhaṃ teṣu kalpiteṣu bhūtesv avasthitaḥ kalpitākalpitayoḥ sambandhāyogāt | ataevoktaṃ yatra yad adhyastaṃ tat-kṛtena guṇena doṣeṇa vāṇu-mātreṇāpi na sa sambadhyata iti

 

Viśvanātha


yad dāsya-bhaktāv etan-mātraṃ mad-aiśvarya-jñānaṃ mad-bhaktair apekṣitavyam ity āha saptabhiḥ | avyaktā ‚tīndriyā mūrtiḥ svarūpaṃ yasya tena mayā kāraṇa-bhūtena sarvam idaṃ jagat tataṃ vyāptam | ataeva mat-sthāni mayi kāraṇa-bhūte pūrṇa-caitanya-svarūpe sthitāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni carācarāṇi santi | evam api ghaṭādiṣu sva-kāryeṣu mṛgādivatteṣu bhūteṣu nāham avasthito ‚saṅgatvāt

 

Baladeva


atha sva-bhakty-uddīpakam adbhuta-svaiśvaryam āha mayeti | avyaktā indriyāgrāhyā mūrtiḥ svarūpaṃ yasya tena mayā sarvam idaṃ jagat tataṃ dhartuṃ niyantuṃ ca vyāptam | ataeva sarvāṇi carācarāṇi bhūtāni vyāpake dhārake niyāmake ca mayi sthitāni bhavantīti teṣāṃ sthitis tad-adhīnā nety arthaḥ | iha nikhila-jagad-antaryāmiṇā svāṃśenāntaḥ praviśya niyacchāmi dadhāmi cety uktam | āha caivaṃ śrutiḥ yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhat ity ādinā | ihāpi vakṣyati viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ity ādi

 
 


BhG 9.5

na ca mat-sthāni bhūtāni paśya me yogam aiśvaram
bhūta-bhṛn na ca bhūta-stho mamātmā bhūta-bhāvanaḥ

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syntax


bhūtāni ca (and beings) mat-sthāni (in me situated) na [asti] (they are not).
me (my) aiśvaram yogam (yogic power) paśya (you must see),
mama (my) ātmā (self) bhūta-bhṛt (who maintains beings) bhūta-bhāvanaḥ ca (and who creates beings),
[kintu] na (but not) bhūta-sthaḥ (situated in beings).

 

grammar

na av.not;
ca av.and;
mat-sthāni mat-stha 1n.3 n.; mayi avasthitānīti – which are situated in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; sthā – to stand, -stha – suffix: being in);
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
aiśvaram aiśvara 2n.1 m.majesty, supremacy, might (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
bhūta-bhṛt bhūta-bhṛt 1n.1 m.; yo bhūtāni bibhrati saḥ – who maintains beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, bhṛt – suffix: bearer, holder);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
bhūta-sthaḥ bhūta-stha 2n.1 m.yo bhūteṣu tiṣṭhati saḥwho is situated in beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
bhūta-bhāvanaḥ bhūta-bhāvana 1n.1 m.; yo bhūtāni bhāvayati saḥwho creates beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; caus [PP] bhāvana – causing to be, creator, imagination);

 

textual variants


mamātmā → bhūtātmā / dharmātmā (self of beings / self of the law);

The second pada of verse 9.5 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 11.8;

… → verse, not found in critical edition, after verse 9.5:
sarva-gaḥ sarva-vaś cādyaḥ sarva-kṛt sarva-darśanaḥ
sarva-jñaḥ sarva-darśī ca sarvātmā sarvato-mukhaḥ

[He] goes everywhere, can do everything, creates everything and shows everything,
knows everything, sees everything, his self is everywhere and his faces are everywhere.

 
 



Śāṃkara


ata evāsaṃsargitvān mama—

na ca mat-sthāni bhūtāni brahmādīni | paśya me yogaṃ yuktiṃ ghaṭānaṃ me mama aiśvaram īśvarasyemam aiśvaram, yogam ātmano yāthātmyam ity arthaḥ | tathā ca śrutir asaṃsargitvād asaṅgatāṃ darśayati—asaṅgo na hi sajjate [bhāvātmauttaṃ 3.9.26] iti | idaṃ cāścaryam anyat paśya—bhūta-bhṛd asaṅgo’pi san bhūtāni bibharti | na ca bhūta-sthaḥ | yathoktena nyāyena darśitatvāt bhūta-sthatvānupapatteḥ | kathaṃ punar ucyate’sau mamātmeti ? vibhajya dehādi-saṅghātaṃ tasminn ahaṃkāram adhyāropya loka-buddhim anusaran vyapadiśati mamātmeti, na punar ātmana ātmānya iti lokavad ajānan | tathā bhūta-bhāvano bhūtāni bhāvayaty utpādayati vardhayatīti vā bhūta-bhāvanaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


śṛṇu tāvat prāpyabhūtasya mamācintyamahimānam

idaṃ cetanācetanātmakaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagad avyaktamūrtinā aprakāśitasvarūpeṇa mayā antaryāmiṇā, tatam asya jagato dhāraṇārthaṃ niyamanārthaṃ ca śeṣitvena vyāptam ityarthaḥ / yathāntaryāmibrāhmaṇe, „yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhan … yaṃ pṛthivī na veda”, „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan … yam ātmā na veda” iti cetanācetanavastujātair adṛṣṭeṇāntaryāmiṇā tatra tatra vyāptir uktā / tato matsthāni sarvabhūtāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni mayy antaryāmiṇi sthitāni / tatraiva brāhmaṇe, „yasya pṛthivī śarīraṃ … yaḥ pṛthivīm antaro yamayati, yasyātmā śarīraṃ … ya ātmānam antaro yamayati” iti śarīratvena niyāmyatvapratipādanāt tadāyatte sthitiniyamane pratipādite; śeṣitvaṃ ca / na cāhaṃ teṣv avasthitaḥ ahaṃ tu na tadāyattasthitiḥ; matsthitau tair na kaścid upakāra ityathaḥ / na ca matsthāni bhūtāni na ghaṭādīnāṃ jalāder iva mama dhārakatvam / katham? matsaṅkalpena / paśya mamāiśvaraṃ yogam anyatra kutracid asaṃbhāvanīyaṃ madasādhāraṇam āścaryaṃ yogaṃ paśya / ko ‚sau yoga? bhūtabhṛn na ca bhūtastho mamātmā bhūtabhāvanaḥ / sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ bhartāham; na ca taiḥ kaścid api mamopakāraḥ / mamātmaiva bhūtabhāvanaḥ mama manomayas saṅkalpa eva bhūtānāṃ bhāvayitā dhārayitā niyantā ca

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca na ceti | na ca mayi sthitāni bhūtāni | asaṅgatvād eva mama | nanu tarhi vyāpakatvam āśrayatvaṃ ca pūrvoktaṃ viruddham ity āśaṅkyāha paśyeti | me mama aiśvaryam asādhāraṇaṃ yogaṃ yuktim aghaṭana-ghaṭanā-cāturyaṃ paśya | madīya-yoga-māyā-vaibhavasyāvirtarkyatvān na kiñcid viruddham ity arthaḥ | anyad apy āścaryaṃ paśyety āha bhūteti | bhūtāni bibharti dhārayatīti bhūta-bhṛt | bhūtāni bhāvayati pālayatīti bhūta-bhāvanaḥ | evaṃ bhūto ‚pi mamātmā paraṃ svarūpaṃ bhūtastho na bhavatīti | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ – yathā dehaṃ bibhrat pālayaṃś ca jīvo ‚haṅkāreṇa tat-saṃśliṣṭas tiṣṭhaty evam ahaṃ bhūtāni dhārayan pālayann api teṣu na tiṣṭhāmi | nirahaṅkāratvād iti

 

Madhusūdana


ataeva na ceti | diviṣṭha ivāditye kalpitāni jala-calanādīni mayi kalpitāni bhūtāni paramārthato mayi na santi | tvam arjunaḥ prākṛtīṃ manuṣya-buddhiṃ hitvā paśya paryālocaya me yogaṃ prabhāvam aiśvaram aghaṭana-ghaṭanā-cāturyaṃ māyāvina iva mamāvalokayety arthaḥ | nāhaṃ kasyacid ādheyo nāpi kaasyacid ādhāras tathāpy ahaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu mayi ca sarvāṇi bhūtānīti mahatīyaṃ māyā | yato bhūtāni sarvāṇi kāryāṇy upādānatayā bibharti dhārayati poṣayatīti ca bhūta-bhṛt | bhūtāni sarvāṇi kartṛtayotpādayatīti bhūta-bhāvanaḥ | evam abhinna-nimittopādāna-bhūto ‚pi mamātmā mama parmaārtha-svarūpa-bhūtaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-ghano ‚saṅgādvitīya-svarūpatvāc ca bhūtasthaḥ paramārthato na bhūta-sambandhī svapna-dṛg iva na paramārthataḥ sva-kalpita-sambandhīty arthaḥ | mamātmeti rāhoḥ śira itivat kalpanayā ṣaṣṭhī

 

Viśvanātha


tata eva mayi sthitāny api bhūtāni na mat-sthāni mamāsaṅgatvād eveti bhāvaḥ | nanu tarhi tava jagad-vyāpakatvam jagad-āśrayatvaṃ ca pūrvoktaṃ viruddham ity āha paśya me yogam aiśvaram asādhāraṇaṃ yogaiśvaryam aghaṭita-ghaṭanā-cāturya-mayam | anyad apy āścaryaṃ paśyety āha bhūtāni bibharti dhārayatīti bhūta-bhṛt | bhūtāni bhāvayati pālayatīti bhūta-bhāvanaḥ | evaṃ bhūto ‚pi mamātmā bhūta-stho na bhavatīti mameti bhagavati deha-dehi-vibhāgābhāvāt | rāhoḥ śiraḥ itivad abhede ‚pi ṣaṣṭhī | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ – yathā jīvo dehaṃ dadhat pālayann api tasmin āsaktyā deha-stha eva bhavati, evam ahaṃ bhūtāni dadhat pālayann api māyika-sarva-bhūta-śarīro ‚pi na tatrastho niḥsaṅgatvād iti

 

Baladeva


nanv atiguruṃ bhāraṃ vahatas te mahān khedaḥ syād iti cet tatrāha na ceti | ghaṭādāv udakādīnīva bhāra-bhūtāni cabhūtāni saṃsṛṣṭāni mayi na santi | tarhi mat-sthāni saarva-bhūtānīty-ukti-viruddheteti mayi na santi | tarhi mat-sthāni sarva-bhūtānīty-uktir viruddheteti cet tatraha paśyeti | mamaiśvaraṃ mad-asādhāraṇaṃ yogaṃ paśya jānīhi yujyate ‚nena durghaṭeṣu kāryeṣu iti nirukter yogo ‚vicintya-śakti-vapuḥ satya-saṅkalpatā-lakṣaṇo dharamas tam ity arthaḥ | etad eva visphuṭayati bhūta-bhṛd iti bhūta-bhṛt bhūtānāṃ dhārakaḥ pālakaś cāhaṃ bhūtastho bhūta-saṃpṛkto naiva bhavāmi | yato mām ātmā mana eva bhūta-bhāvanaḥ satya-saṅkalpatā -lakṣaṇenaiśvareṇa yogenaivāhaṃ bhūtānāṃ dhāraṇaṃ pālanaṃ ca karomi, na tu sva-mūrti-vyāpāreṇety arthaḥ | śrutiś caivam āha – etasya vā akṣarasya praśāsane gārgi sūryācandram asau vidhṛtau tiṣṭhata etasya vā akṣarasya praśāsane gārgi dyāv āpṛthivyau vidhṛte tiṣṭhataḥ [BAU 3.7.9] ity ādinā | yadyapi svarūpān na mano bhinnaṃ, tathāpi sattā satīty ādivad viśeṣād vāstavaṃ bheda-kāryam ādāyaiva tathoktaṃ bodhyam

 
 



BhG 9.6

yathākāśa-sthito nityaṃ vāyuḥ sarvatra-go mahān
tathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni mat-sthānīty upadhāraya

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syntax


yathā (as) sarvatra-gaḥ (everywhere going) mahān (great) vāyuḥ (the wind) nityam (constantly) ākāśa-sthitaḥ (situated in the sky),
tathā (so) sarvāṇi bhūtāni (all creatures) mat-sthāni iti (in me situated) upadhāraya (you must consider).

 

grammar

yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
ākāśa-sthitaḥ ākāśa-sthita 1n.1 m.; [TP]: ākāśe sthita itisituated in the sky (from: ākāśa – space, ether, sky; sthā – to stand, [PP] sthita – situated);
nityam av.constantly, eternally (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
vāyuḥ vāyu 1n.1 m.the wind (from: – to blow);
sarvatra-gaḥ sarvatra-ga 1n.1 m.; yaḥ sarvatra gacchati sawhich goes everywhere (from: sarva – all; av. – everywhere, in every case; indeclinable locative with an ending –tra; gam – to go, -ga – suffix: moving, going);
mahān mahant 1n.1 m. great (from: mah – to magnify);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
sarvāṇi sarva sn. 1n.3 n.all;
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n. creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
mat-sthāni mat-stha 1n.3 n.; mayi avasthitānīti – which are situated in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; sthā – to stand, -stha – suffix: being in);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
upadhāraya upa-dhṛ (to hold up) Imperat. caus. 2v.1you must consider;

 

textual variants


nityaṁ changes with vayuḥ;
upadhāraya → avadhāraya (you must consider);

… → verse, not found in critical edition, after verse 9.6:
evaṁ hi sarva-bhūteṣu carāmy anabhilakṣitaḥ
bhūta-prakṛtim āsthāya sahaiva ca vinaiva ca

Indeed when I, unperceived, establish the nature of beings
along with [them] and without [them], I wander in all beings.

 
 


Śāṃkara


yathoktena śloka-dvayenoktam arthaṃ dṛṣṭantenopapādayann āha—

yathā loke ākāśa-sthita ākāśe sthito nityaṃ sadā vāyuḥ sarvatra gacchatīti sarvatra-go mahān parimāṇataḥ, tathā ākāśavat sarva-gate mayy asaṃśleṣeṇaiva sthitānīty evam upadhāraya vijānīhi

 

Rāmānuja


sarvasyāsya svasaṅkalpāyattasthitipravṛttitve nidarśanam āha

yathā ākaśe anālambane mahān vayuḥ sthitaḥ sarvatra gacchati; sa tu vāyur nirālambano madāyattasthitir ity avaśyābhyupagamanīyaḥ evam eva sarvāṇi bhūtāni tair adṛṣṭe mayi sthitāni mayaiva dhṛtānīty upadhāraya / yathā+āhur vedavidaḥ, „meghodayaḥ sāgarasannivṛttir indor vibhāgaḥ sphuritāni vāyoḥ / vidyudvibhaṅgo gatir uṣṇaraśmer viṣṇor vicitrāḥ prabhavanti māyāḥ” iti viṣṇor ananyasādhāraṇāni mahāścaryāṇītyarthaḥ / śrutir api, „etasya vā akṣarasya praśāsane gārgi sūryācandramasau vidhṛtau tiṣṭhataḥ”, „bhīṣā+asmād vātaḥ pavate,bhīṣodeti sūryaḥ, bhīṣā+asmād agniś cendraś ca” ityādikā

 

Śrīdhara


asaṃśliṣṭayor apy ādhārādheya-bhāvaṃ dṛṣṭāntenāha yayeti | avakāśaṃ vināvasthānānupapatter nityam ākāśe sthito vāyuḥ sarvatra-go ‚pi mahān api nākāśena saṃśliṣyate | niravayavatvena saṃśleṣāyogāt | tathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni mayi sthitānīti jānīhi

 

Madhusūdana


asaṃśliṣṭayor apy ādhārādheya-bhāvaṃ dṛṣṭāntenāha yatheti | yathaivāsaṅga-svabhāva ākāśe sthito nityaṃ sarvadotpatti-sthiti-saṃhāra-kāleṣu vātīti vāyuḥ sarvadā calana-svabhāvaḥ | ataeva sarvatra gacchatīti sarvatra-gaḥ | mahān parimāṇataḥ | etādṛśo ‚pi na na kadāpy ākāśena saha saṃsṛjyate | tathaivāsaṅga-svabhāve mayi saṃśleṣam antareṇaiva sarvāṇi bhūtāny ākāśādīni mahānti sarvatragāni ca sthitāni nāpi sthitānīty upadhāraya vimṛśyāvadhāraya

 

Viśvanātha


asaṅge mayi bhūtāni sthitāny api na sthitāni, teṣv apy ahaṃ sthito ‚pi na sthita ity atra dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | yathaivāsaṅga-svabhāve ākāśe nityaṃ vātīti vāyuḥ sarvadā calana-svabhāvaḥ | ataeva sarvatra gacchatīti sarvatra-go mahān parimāṇataḥ yathā svākāśasya asaṅgatvāt tatra sthito ‚pi na sthitaḥ | ākāśo ‚pi vāyau sthito ‚pi na sthito ‚saṅgatvād eva tathaivāsaṅga-svabhāve mayi sarvāṇi bhūtāni ākāśādīni mahānti sarvatragāni sthitāni nāpi sthitānīty upadhāraya vimṛśya niścinu | nanu tarhi paśya me yogam aiśvaram iti bhagavad-uktaṃ yogaiśvaryasyātarkyatvaṃ kathaṃ siddham abhūt ? dṛṣṭānta-lābhāt | ucyate – ākāśasya jaḍatvā evāsaṅgatvam | cetanasya tv asaṅgatvaṃ jagad-adhiṣṭhānādhiṣṭhātṛtve parameśvaraṃ vinā nānyatrāstīty atarkyatvaṃ siddham eva | tad apy ākāśa-dṛṣṭānto loka-buddhi-praveśārtha eva jñeyaḥ

 

Baladeva


carācarāṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ mat-saṅkalpāyattā sthitir vṛttiś cety atra dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | yathā nirālambe mahaty ākāśe nirālambo mahān vāyuḥ sthitaḥ sarvatra gacchati | tasya tasya ca nirālambatayā sthitir mat-saṅkalpād eva pravṛttiś cety antaryāmi-brāhmaṇāt yad bhīṣā vātaḥ pavate iti śruty-antarāc copadhārayeti, tathā sarvāṇi sthira-carāṇi bhūtāni mat-sthāni tair ansaṃtuṣṭe mayi sthitāni mayaiva saṅkalpa-mātreṇa dhṛtāni nityamitāni cety upadhāraya | anyathā ākāśādīni vibhraṃśerann iti

 
 


BhG 9.7

sarva-bhūtāni kaunteya prakṛtiṃ yānti māmikām
kalpa-kṣaye punas tāni kalpādau visṛjāmy aham

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he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
kalpa-kṣaye (at the end of kalpa) sarva-bhūtāni (all creatures) māmikām prakṛtim (to my nature) yānti (they go),
punaḥ (again) kalpādau (at the beginning of kalpa) [aham] (I) tāni (them) visṛjāmi (I let go).

 

grammar

sarva-bhūtāni sarva-bhūta 1n.3 n.; KD: sarvāṇi bhūtānītiall creatures (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
māmikām māmikā 2n.1 f.my, mine (from: māmaka – my, mine);
kalpa-kṣaye kalpa-kṣaya 7n.1 m.; [TP]: kalpasya kṣaya itiin decay of kalpa (from: kḷp – to be fit for, to correspond, to be able, kalpa – proper, a rule, a period of time equal to a thousand yugas = one day of Brahmā; kṣi – to decrease, PF kṣaya – diminution, destruction);
punaḥ av.back, again;
tāni tat sn. 2n.3 n.them;
kalpādau kalpa-ādi 7n.1 m.; [TP]: kalpasyādav itiin the beginning of kalpa (from: kḷp – to be fit for, to correspond, to be able, kalpa – proper, a rule, a period of time equal to a thousand yugas = one day of Brahmā; ādi – beginning, origin);
visṛjāmi vi-sṛj (to let go, to emit) Praes. P 3v.1I let go, I emit, I create;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


māmikām → māmakīṁ / māmakāṁ (mine);
kalpa-kṣaye → alpa-kṣaye (in small destruction);
 
 


Śāṃkara


evaṃ vāyur ākāśe iva mayi sthitāni sarva-bhūtāni sthiti-kāle | tāni—

sarva-bhūtāni kaunteya prakṛtiṃ triguṇātmikām aparāṃ nikṛṣṭaṃ yānti māmikāṃ madīyāṃ kalpa-kṣaye pralaya-kāle | punar bhūyas tāni bhūtāni utpatti-kāle kalpādau visṛjāmi utpādayāmy ahaṃ pūrvavat

 

Rāmānuja


sakaletaranirapekṣasya bhagavatas saṅkalpāt sarveṣāṃ sthitiḥ pravṛttiś coktā tathā tat saṅkalpād eva sarveṣām utpattipralayāv apīty āha

sthāvarajaṅgamātmakāni sarvāṇi bhūtāni, māmikām maccharīrabhūtām, prakṛtiṃ tamaśśabdavācyāṃ nāmarūpavibhāgānarhām, kalpakṣaye caturmukhāvasānasamaye matsaṅkalpād yānti; tāny eva bhūtāni kalpādau punar visṛjyāmy aham; yathā+āha manuḥ „āsīd idaṃ tamobhūtaṃ … so ‚bhidhyāya śarīrāt svāt” iti / śrutir api „yasyāvyaktaṃ śarīram”, „avyaktam akṣare līyate, akṣaraṃ tamasi līyate” ityādikā, „tam āsīt tamasā gūḍham agre praketam” iti ca

 

Śrīdhara


tad evam asaṅgasyaiva yogamāyayā sthiti-hetutvam uktam | tayaiva sṛṣṭi-prayala-hetutvaṃ cāha sarveti | kalpa-kṣaye pralaya-kāle sarvāṇi bhūtāni prakṛtiṃ yānti | triguṇātmikāyāṃ māyāyāṃ līyante | punaḥ kalpādau sṛṣṭi-kāle tāni visṛjāmi viśeṣeṇa sṛjāmi

 

Madhusūdana


evam utpatti-kāle sthiti-kāle ca kalpitena prapañcenāsaṅgasyātmano ‚saṃśleṣam uktvā pralaye ‚pi tam āha sarvetei | sarvāṇi bhūtāni kalpa-kṣaye pralaya-kāle māmikāṃ mac-chaktitvena kalpitāṃ prakṛtiṃ triguṇātmikāṃ māyāṃ sva-kāraṇa-bhūtāṃ yānti tatraiva sūkṣma-rūpeṇa līyanta ity arthaḥ | he kaunteyety uktārtham | punas tāni kalpādau sarga-kāle visṛjāmi prakṛtāv avibhāgāpannāni vyanajmi ahaṃ sarvajñaḥ sarva-śaktir īśvaraḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanv adhunā dṛśyamāny etāni bhūtāni tvayi sthitānīty avagamyate | mahā-pralaye kva yāsyantīty apekṣāyām āha sarveti | māmikāṃ madīyāṃ mama triguṇātmikāyāṃ māyā-śaktau līyanta ity arthaḥ | punaḥ kalpa-kṣaye pralayānte sṛṣṭi-kāle tāni viśeṣeṇa sṛjāmi

 

Baladeva


sva-saṅkalpād eva bhūtānāṃ sthitir uktā | atha tasmād eva teṣāṃ sarga-pralayāv āha sarveti | he kaunteya ! kalpa-kṣaye caturmukhāvasāna-kāle sarvāṇi bhūtāni mat-saṅkalpād eva māmikāṃ prakṛtiṃ yānit | prakṛti-śaktike mayi vilīyante kalpādau punas tāny aham eva bahu syām iti saṅkalpa-mātreṇa vaividhyena sṛjāmi
 
 

BhG 9.8

prakṛtiṃ svām avaṣṭabhya visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ
bhūta-grāmam imaṃ kṛtsnam avaśaṃ prakṛter vaśāt

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syntax


[aham] (I) svām prakṛtim (own nature) avaṣṭabhya (after holding)
prakṛteḥ (of the nature) vaśāt (because of the contol) avaśam (helpless) imam kṛtsnam (this whole) bhūta-grāma (multitude of beings) punaḥ punaḥ (again and again) visṛjāmi (I emit).

 

grammar

prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
svām svā sn. 2n.1 f.own;
avaṣṭabhya ava-stambh (to support, to hold) absol.after holding;
visṛjāmi vi-sṛj (to let go, to emit) Praes. P 3v.1I let go, I emit, I create;
punaḥ punaḥ av.back, again (repetition meaning continuity);
bhūta-grāmam bhūta-grāma 2n.1 m.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ grāmam itimultitude of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; grāma – collection, multitude, village);
imam idam sn. 2n.1 m.this;
kṛtsnam kṛtsna 2n.1 m.whole;
avaśam avaśa 2n.1 m. unwilling, helpless (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command, vaśa – wish, power, control, dominion);
prakṛteḥ prakṛti 6n.1 f.of nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
vaśāt vaśa 5n.1 m. because of the control (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command);

 

textual variants


avaṣṭabhya → adhiṣṭhāya (in that rendering the first pada of verse 9.8 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 4.6) / apaṣṭabhya (after governing / after controlling);
imaṃ → idaṃ (this);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evam avidyā-lakṣaṇāṃ—

prakṛtiṃ svāṃ svīyām avaṣṭabhya vaśīkṛtya visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ prakṛtito jātaṃ bhūta-grāmaṃ bhūta-samudāyam imaṃ vartamānaṃ kṛtsnam avaśam asvatantram | avidyādi-doṣaiḥ paravaśīkṛtam | prakṛter vaśāt svabhāva-vaśāt

 

Rāmānuja


svakīyāṃ vicitrapariṇāminīṃ prakṛtim avaṣṭabhya aṣṭadhā pariṇāmyy imaṃ caturvidhaṃ devatiryaṅmanuṣyasthāvarātmakaṃ bhūtagrāmaṃ madīyāyā mohinyā guṇamayyāḥ prakṛter vaśād avaśaṃ punaḥ punaḥ kāle kāle visṛjāmi

 

Śrīdhara


nanv asaṅgo nirvikāraś ca tvaṃ kathaṃ sṛjasīty apekṣāyām āha – prakṛtim iti | svāṃ svīyāṃ svādhīnāṃ prakṛtim avaṣṭabhyādhiṣṭhāya | pralaye līnaṃ santaṃ caturvidham imaṃ sarvaṃ bhūta-grāmaṃ karmādi-paravaśaṃ punaḥ punar vividhaṃ sṛjāmi | viśeṣeṇa sṛjāmi iti vā | katham ? prakṛter vaśāt prācīna-karma-nimitta-tat-tat-svabhāva-vaśāt

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ-nimittā parameśvara-stheyaṃ sṛṣṭir na tāvat sva-bhogārthā tasya sarva-sākṣi-bhūta-caitanya-mātrasya bhoktṛtvābhāvāt tathātve vā saṃsāritveneśvaratva-vyāghātāt | nāpy anyo bhoktā yad artheyaṃ sṛṣṭiḥ | cetanāntarābhāvāt | īśvarasyaiva sarvatra jīva-rūpeṇa sthitatvāt | acetanasya cābhoktṛtvāt | ataeva nāpavargārthāpi sṛṣṭiḥ | bandhābhāvād apavarga-virodhitvāc cety ādy-anupapattiḥ sṛṣṭer māyā-mayatvaṃ sādhayantī nāsmākaṃ pratikūleti na parihartavyety abhipretya māyāmayatvān mithyātvaṃ prapañcasya vaktum ārabhate tribhiḥ prakṛtim iti |

prakṛtiṃ māyākhyām anirvacanīyāṃ svāṃ svasmin kalpitām avaṣṭabhya svasattā-sphūrtibhyāṃ dṛḍhīkṛtya tasyāḥ prakṛter māyāyā vaśād avidyāsmitā-rāga-dveṣābhiniveśa-kāraṇāvaraṇa-vikṣepātmaka-śakti-prabhāvāj jāyamānam imaṃ sarva-pramāṇa-saṃnidhāpitaṃ bhūta-grāmam ākāśādi-bhūta-samudāyam ahaṃ māyāvīva punaḥ punar visṛjāmi vividhaṃ sṛjāmi kalpanā-mātreṇa svapna-dṛg iva ca svapna-prapañcam

 

Viśvanātha


nanv asaṅgo nirvikāraś ca tvaṃ kathaṃ sṛjasīty apekṣāyām āha – prakṛtim iti | svāṃ svīyām avaṣṭabhyādhiṣṭhāya prakṛter vaśāt svīya-svabhāva-vaśāt prācīna-karma-nimittād iti yāvat | avaśaṃ karmādi-paratantram

 

Baladeva


prakṛtim iti | svām ātmīyāṃ tri-guṇāṃ prakṛtim avaṣṭabhyādhiṣṭhāya saṅkalpa-mātreṇa mahad-ādyān manā pariṇamayyemaṃ caturvidham bhūta-grāmaṃ visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ kāle kāle | kīdṛśam ity āha prakṛteḥ prācīna-karma-vāsanāyā vaśāt prabhāvād avaśaṃ paratantraṃ tathā cācintya-śakter asaṅga-svabhāvasya mama saṅkalpa-mātreṇa tat tat kurvato na tat-saṃsarga-gandho na ca ko ‚pi kheda-leśa iti
 
 


BhG 9.9

na ca māṃ tāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya
udāsīnavad āsīnam asaktaṃ teṣu karmasu

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syntax


he dhanaṁjaya (O winner of wealth!),
tāni ca karmāṇi (and those activities) teṣu karmasu (in those activities) asaktam (unattached) udāsīna-vat āsīnam (being as if neutral) mām (me) na nibadhnanti (they do not bind).

 

grammar

na av.not;
ca av.and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
tāni tat sn. 1n.3 n.those;
karmāṇi karman 1n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
nibadhnanti ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. P 1v.3they bind;
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.O winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥ – one who wins wealth; dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
udāsīnavat av.as if neutral (from: ud-ās – to sit away, udāsīna – indifferent, neutral; -vat – suffix: as, like);
āsīnam āsīna 2n.1 m.being seated, being present (from: ās – to sit, to exist);
asaktam a-sakta (sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace) [PP] 2n.1 m.unattached;
teṣu tat sn. 7n.3 n.in those;
karmasu karman 7n.3 n.in activities (from: kṛ – to do);

 

textual variants


ca → tu (but);
teṣu → tena (by that);

The second pada of verse 9.9 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 4.41;
the third pada of verse 9.9 is the same as the first pada of verse BhG 14.23;

 
 


Śāṃkara


tarhi tasya te parameśvarasya bhūta-grāmam imaṃ viṣamaṃ vidadhataḥ, tan-nimittābhyāṃ dharmādharmābhyāṃ saṃbandhaḥ syād itīdam āha bhagavān—

na ca mām īśvaraṃ tāni bhūta-grāmasya viṣama-sarga-nimittāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya | tatra karmaṇām asaṃbandhitve kāraṇam āha—udāsīnavat āsīnaṃ yathā udīsīna upekṣakaḥ kaścit tadvad āsīnam ātmano’vikriyatvāt | asaktaṃ phalāsaṅga-rahitam, abhimāna-varjitam, ahaṃ karomīti teṣu karmasu | ato’nyasyāpi kartṛtvābhimānābhāvaḥ phalāsaṅgābhāvaś cāsaṃbandha-kāraṇam, anyathā karmabhir badhyate mūḍhaḥ kośa-kāravad ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ tarhi viṣamasṛṣṭyādīni karmāṇi naighṛṇyādyāpādanena bhavantaṃ badhnantīty atrāha

na ca tāni viṣamasṛṣṭyādīni karmāṇi māṃ nibadhnanti mayi nairghṛṇyādikaṃ nāpādayanti, yataḥ kṣetrajñānāṃ pūrvakṛtāny eva karmāṇi devādiviṣamabhāvahetavaḥ; ahaṃ tu tatra vaiṣamye asaktaḥ tatrodāsīnavad āsīnaḥ; yathā +āha sūtrakāraḥ „vaiṣamyanairghṛṇye na sāpekṣatvāt”, na karmāvibhāgād iti cen nānāditvāt” iti

 

Śrīdhara


nanv evaṃ nānā-vidhāni karmāṇi kurvatas tava jīvavad-bandhaḥ kathaṃ na syād iti ? ata āha na ca mām iti | tāni viśva-sṛṣṭy-ādīni karmāṇi māṃ na nibadhnanti | karmāsaktir hi baddha-hetuḥ sā cāpta-kāmatvān mama nāsti | ata udāsīnatvānupapatter udāsīnavat sthitam ity uktam

 

Madhusūdana


ataḥ na ceti | na ca naiva sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralayākhyāni tāni māyāvineva svapna-dṛśeva ca mayā kriyamāṇāni māṃ nibandhnanti anugraha-nigrahābhyāṃ na sukṛta-duṣkṛta-bhāginaṃ kurvanti mithyā-bhūtatvāt | he dhanañjaya yudhiṣṭhira-rājasūyārthaṃ sarvān rājño jitvā dhanam āhṛtavān iti mahān prabhāvaḥ sūcitaḥ protsāhanārtham |

tāni karmāṇi kuto na badhnanti tatrāha udāsīnavad āsīnam | yathā kaścid upekṣako dvayor vivadamānayor jaya-parājayāsaṃsargī tat-kṛta-harṣa-viṣādābhyām asaṃsṛṣṭo nirvikāra āste tadvan nirvikāratayāsīnam | dvayor vivadamānayor ihābhāvād upekṣakatva-mātra-sādharmyeṇa vati-pratyayaḥ | ataeva nirvikāratvāt teṣu sṛṣṭy-ādi-karmasv asaktam ahaṃ karomīty abhimāna-lakṣeṇa saṅgena rahitaṃ māṃ na nibadnanti karmāṇīti yuktam eva | anyasyāpi hi kartṛtvābhāve phala-saṅgābhāve ca karmāṇi na bandha-kāraṇānīty uktam anena | tad-ubhaya-sattve tu kośa-kāra iva karmabhir badhyate mūḍha ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanv evaṃ ca nānā-karmāṇi kurvatas tava jīvavad-bandhaḥ kathaṃ na syād ? ata āha na ceti | tāni sṛṣṭy-ādīni | karmāsaktir hi baddha-hetuḥ sā cāpta-kāmatvān mama nāsti | udāsīnavad iti | anya udāsīno yathā vivadamānānāṃ duḥkha-śokādi-saṃsṛṣṭo na bhavati tathaivāham ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu viṣamāṇi sṛṣṭi-poālana-lakṣaṇāni vaiṣamyādinā tvāṃ badhnīyur iti cet tatrāha na ceti | tāni viṣama-sṛṣṭy-ādīni karmāṇi na mayi vaiṣamyādi-prasañjayanti | tatra hetu-garbha-viśeṣaṇam udāsīnavad iti | jīvānāṃ deva-mānava-tiryag-ādi-bhāve tat-tad-abhyudaya-tāratamye ca teṣāṃ pūrvārjitāni karmāṇy eva kāraṇāni | ahaṃ tu teṣu viṣameṣu karmasv audāīnyena sthito ‚sakta iti na mayi vaiṣamyādi-doṣa-gandhaḥ | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ vaiṣamya-nairghṛṇye na [Vs. 2.1.35] ity ādinā | udāsīnatve kartṛtvaṃ na siddhyed ata uktam udāsīnavad iti
 
 

BhG 9.10

mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram
hetunānena kaunteya jagad viparivartate

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
mayā (by me) adhyakṣeṇa (by supervisor) prakṛtiḥ (nature) sa-carācaram [viśvam] (the world with moving and non-moving [creatures]) sūyate (it gives birth).
[evam] (thus) anena hetunā (for this reason) jagat (world) viparivartate (it revolves).

 

grammar

mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
adhyakṣeṇa adhi-akṣa 3n.1 m. by an eye-witness, by supervisor (adhi – over, above; xīkṣ – to see, akṣa – an eye, a sense organ);
prakṛtiḥ prakṛti 1n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
sūyate (to beget, to produce) Praes. Ā 1v.1it gives birth;
sa-carācaram sa-cara-acara 2n.1 n.; DV / BV: yat caraiś cācaraiś ca sahāsti tatbeing with the moving and non-moving [creatures] (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; car –to move, to go, cara – moving, living; a-cara – non-moving, not living);
hetunā hetu 3n.1 m.by the cause, on account of;
anena idam sn. 3n.1 m.by this;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
jagat jagat 1n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
viparivartate vi-pari-vṛt (to revolve, to move, to return) Praes. Ā 1v.1it revolves;

 
 


Śāṃkara


tatra bhūta-grāmam imaṃ visṛjāmy udāsīnavad āsīnam iti ca viruddham ucyate, iti tat-parihārārtham āha—

mayādhyakṣeṇa sarvato dṛśi-mātra-svarupeṇāvikriyātmanādhyakṣeṇa mayā, mama māyā triguṇātmikāvidyā-lakṣaṇā prakṛtiḥ sūyate utpādayati sa-carācaraṃ jagat | tathā ca mantra-varṇaḥ—

eko devaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu gūḍhaḥ
sarva-vyāpī sarva-bhūtāntarātmā |
karmādhyakṣaḥ sarva-bhūtādhivāsaḥ
sākṣī cetā kevalo nirguṇaś ca || [śāstrvetuttaṃ 6.11] iti |

hetunā nimittenānenādhyakṣatvena kaunteya jagat sa-carācaraṃ vyaktāvyaktātmakaṃ viparivartate sarvāvasthāsu | dṛśi-karmatvāpatti-nimittā hi jagataḥ sarvā pravṛttiḥ—aham idaṃ bhokṣye, paśyāmīdam, śṛṇomīdam, sukham anubhavāmi, duḥkham anubhavāmi, tad-artham idaṃ kariṣye, idaṃ jñāsyāmi, ity ādyāvagati-niṣṭhāvagaty-avasānaiva | yo asyādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman [rādhāk 8.7.17.7, sthitaittbhāv 2.8.9] ity ādayaś ca mantrā etam arthaṃ darśayanti | tataś caikasya devasya sarvādhyakṣa-bhūta-caitanya-mātrasya paramārthataḥ sarva-bhogānabhisaṃbandhino’nyasya cetanāntarasyābhāve bhoktur anyasyābhāvāt | kiṃ-nimitteyaṃ sṛṣṭir ity atra praśna-prativacane’nupapanne, ko addhā veda ka iha pravocat | kuta ājātā kuta iyaṃ visṛṣṭiḥ [rādhāk 8.7.17.8] ity ādi-mantra-varṇebhyaḥ | darśitaṃ ca bhagavatā—ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ [gītā 5.15] iti

 

Rāmānuja


tasmāt kṣetrajñakarmānuguṇaṃ madīyā prakṛtiḥ satyasaṅkalpena mayā+adhyakṣeṇekṣitā sacarācaraṃ jagat sūyate / anena kṣetrajñakarmānuguṇamadīkṣaṇena hetunā jagat parivartata iti matsvāmyaṃ satyasaṅkalpatvaṃ nairghṛṇyādidoṣarahitatvam ity evam ādikaṃ mama vasudevasūnor aiśvaraṃ yogaṃ paśya / yathā+āha śrutiḥ, „asmān māyī sṛjate viśvam etat tasmiṃś cānyo māyayā sanniruddhaḥ / māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu mheśvaram // BhGR_1.” iti

 

Śrīdhara


tad evopapādayati mayeti | mayādhyakṣeṇādhiṣṭhātrā nimitta-bhūtena prakṛtiḥ sa-carācaraṃ viśvaṃ sūyate janayati | anena mad-adhiṣṭhānena hetunedaṃ jagad viparivartate punaḥ punar jāyate | sannidhi-mātreṇādhiṣṭhātṛtvāt kartṛtvam udāsīnatvaṃ cāviruddham iti bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


bhūta-grāmam imaṃ visṛjāmy udāsīnavad āsīnam iti ca paraspara-viruddham iti śaṅkā-parihārārthaṃ punar māyāmayatvam eva prakaṭayati mayeti | mayā sarvato-dṛśi-mātra-svarūpeṇāvikriyeṇādhyakṣeṇa niyantrā bhāsakenāvabhāsitā prakṛtis triguṇātmikā sattvāsattvādibhir anirvācyā māyā sūyata utpādayati sa-carācaraṃ jagan māyāvinādhiṣṭhiteva māyā kalpita-gaja-turagādikam | na tv ahaṃ sva-kārya-māyābhāsanam antareṇa karomi vyāpārāntaram | hetunā nimittenānenādhyakṣatvena he kaunteya ! jagat sa-carācaraṃ viparivartate vividhaṃ parivartate janmādi-vināśāntaṃ dity-āder iva kartṛtvābhāvād udāsīnavad āsīnam ity uktam iti na virodhaḥ | tad uktam –

asya dvaitendra-jālasya yad upādāna-kāraṇam |
ajñānaṃ tad upāśritya brahma kāraṇam ucyate || iti |

śruti-smṛti-vādāś cātrārthe sahasraśa udāhāryāḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartus tavedam audāsīnyaṃ na pratyemīty ata āha mayeti | adhyakṣeṇa mayā nimitta-bhūtena prakṛtiḥ sa-carācaraṃ jagat sūyate | prakṛtir eva jagat janayati | mamātrādhyakṣatā-mātram | yathā kasyacid ambarīṣāder iva bhūpateḥ prakṛtibhir eva rājya-kṛtyaṃ nirvāhyate | atrodāsīnasya bhūpateḥ sattā-mātram iti yathā tasya rāja-siṃhāsane sattā-mātreṇa vinā prakṛtibhiḥ kim api na śakyate kartum | tathaiva mamādhiṣṭhāna-lakṣaṇam adhyakṣatvaṃ vinā prakṛtir api jaḍā kim api kartuṃ na śaknotīti bhāvaḥ | anena mad-adhiṣṭhānena hetunedaṃ jagat viparivartate punaḥ punar jāyate

 

Baladeva


tat pratipādayati mayeti | satya-saṅkalpena prakṛty-adhyakṣeṇa mayā sarveśvareṇa jīva-pūrva-pūrva-karmānuguṇatayā vīkṣitā prakṛtiḥ sa-carācaraṃ jagat sūyate janayati | viṣama-guṇā satī anena jīva-pūrva-karmānuguṇena mad-vīkṣaṇena hetunā taj jagad viparivartate punaḥ punar udbhavati | he kaunteya | śrutiś caivam āha-
vikāra-jananīm ajñām aṣṭa-rūpām ajāṃ dhruvām |
dhyāyate ‚dhyāsitā tena tanyate preritā punaḥ |
sūyate puruṣārthaṃ ca tenaivādhiṣṭhitā jagat ||

iti sannidhi-mātreṇādhiṣṭhātṛtvāt kartṛtvam udāsaniṃ ca na viruddham | yathā sannidhi-mātreṇagandhaḥ kṣobhāya jāyate ity ādi smaraṇāc caitad evaṃ mad-adhiṣṭhātṛ-mātraṃ khalu prekṛter apekṣyam | mad-vinā kim api kartuṃ na sā prabhavet na hy asati rājñaḥ siṃhāsanādhiṣṭhātṛtve tad-amātyāḥ kārye prabhavaḥ

 
 

BhG 9.11

avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam
paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto mama bhūta-maheśvaram

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syntax


mama param bhāvam (my superior nature) bhūta-maheśvaram (as the supreme lord of beings) ajānantaḥ (those who do not know)
mūḍhāḥ (fools) mām mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam (me having taken human body) avajānanti (they despise).

 

grammar

avajānanti ava-jñā (to disrespect, to despise) Praes. P 1v.3they disrespect, they despise;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
mūḍhāḥ mūḍha (muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.3 m. bewildered, fools;
mānuṣīm mānuṣī 2n.1 f.human (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person, mānuṣa – human);
tanum tanu 2n.1 f.thin, small, body, form (from: tan – to spread out);
āśritam āśrita (ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 2n.1 m.taken shelter (of whom? – requires accusative);
param para 2n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
bhāvam bhāva 2n.1 m.state, existence, nature (from: bhū – to be);
ajānantah a-jānant (jña – to know, to understand) PPr 1n.3 m.those who do not know;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
bhūta-maheśvaram bhūta-maha-īśvara 2n.1 m.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ mahāntam īṣvaram iti the supreme lord of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; mah – to magnify, mahant – great; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);

 

textual variants


mānuṣīṁ tanummānuṣī-tanum (human body);
āśritam → āsthitaṁ / āśritāḥ (situated / sheltered);
paraṁ bhāvam para-bhāvam (superior nature);
mama bhūta-maheśvaram → mamāvyayam anuttamaṁ (in this rendering the fourth pada of verse 9.11 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 7.24) / sarva-bhūta-maheśvaraṁ (my imperishable and unsurpassed / the supreme lorg of all beings);

The third pada of verse 9.11 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 7.24);

 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ māṃ nitya-śuddha-buddham ukta-svabhāvaṃ sarvajñaṃ sarva-jantūnām ātmānam api santaṃ—

avajānanty avajñāṃ paribhavaṃ kurvanti māṃ mūḍhā avivekinaḥ | mānuṣīṃ manuṣyasaṃbandhinīṃ tanuṃ deham āśritam, manuṣyadehena vyavaharantamity etat, paraṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ bhāvaṃ param ātma-tattvam ākāśa-kalpam ākāśād apy antaratamam ajānanto mama bhūta-maheśvaraṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ mahāntam īśvaraṃ svātmānam | tataś ca tasya mamāvajñāna-bhāvanena āhatās te varākāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ māṃ bhūtamaheśvaraṃ sarvajñaṃ satyasaṅkalpaṃ nikhilajagadekakāraṇaṃ paramakāruṇikatayā sarvasamāśrayaṇīyatvāya mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritaṃ svakṛtaiḥ pāpakarmabhir mūḍhā avajānanti prākṛtamanuṣyasamaṃ manyante / bhūtamaheśvarasya mamāpārakāruṇyodāryasauśīlyavātsalyanibandhanaṃ manuṣyatvasamāśrayaṇalakṣaṇam imaṃ paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto manuṣyatvasamāśrayaṇamātreṇa mām itarasajātīyaṃ matvā tiraskurvantītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


nanv evaṃbhūtaṃ parameśvaraṃ tvāṃ kim iti kecin nādriyante ? tatrāha avajānantīti dvābhyām | sarva-bhūta-maheśvara-rūpaṃ madīyaṃ paraṃ bhāvaṃ tattvam ajānanto mūḍhā mūrkhā mām avajānanti mām avamanyante | avajñāne hetuḥ śuddha-sattva-mayīm api tanuṃ bhaktecchā-vaśān manuṣyākārām āśritavantam iti

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-svabhāvaṃ sarva-jantūnām ātmānam ānanda-ghanam anantam api santam avajānantīti | avajānanti māṃ sākṣād īśvaro ‚yam iti nādriyante nindanti vā mūḍhā avivekino janāḥ | teṣām avajñā-hetuṃ bhramaṃ sūcayati mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritaṃ manuṣyatayā pratīyamānāṃ mūrtim ātmecchayā bhaktānugrahārthaṃ gṛhītavantaṃ manuṣyatayā pratīyamānena dehena vyavaharantam iti yāvat | tataś ca manuṣyo ‚yam iti bhrāntyācchāditāntaḥkaraṇā mama paraṃ bhāvaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ paāramarthikaṃ tattvaṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ mahāntarm īśvaram ajānanto yan nādriyante nindanti vā tad-anurūpam eva mūḍhatvasya

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ca satyam ananta-koṭi-brahmāṇḍa-vyāpī saccid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ kāraṇārṇava-śāyī mahā-puruṣaḥ sva-prakṛtyā jagat sṛjatīti yaḥ prasiddhaḥ | sa eva hi bhavān | kintu vasudeva-sūnos taveyaṃ mānuṣī tanur ity etad-aṃśenaiva kecit tava nikarṣaṃ vadantīty ata āha avajānantīti | mama mānuṣyās tanor asyā paraṃ bhāvaṃ kāraṇārṇava-śāyi-mahā-puruṣādibhyo ‚py utkṛṣṭaṃ svarūpam ajānanta eva te | kīdṛśam ? bhūtaṃ satyaṃ yad brahma tac ca tan maheśvaraṃ ceti | tan maheśvara-padaṃ satyāntara-vyāvartakam atra jñeyam yukte kṣmādāvṛte bhūtam iti amaraḥ |

tam ekaṃ govindaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaṃ vṛndāvana-sura-bhūruha-bhāvanāsīnaṃ satataṃ sa-marud-gaṇo ‚haṃ paramayā stutyā toṣayāmi iti (GTU 1.33) śruteḥ |

narākṛti para-brahma iti smṛteś ca |

mamāsyā mānuṣyās tanoḥ saccid-ānanda-mayatvaṃ mad-abhijṇa-bhaktair ucyata eva, tathā sarva-brahmāṇḍa-vyāpitvaṃ ca bālye yan-mātrā śrī-yaśodayā dṛṣṭam eva | yad vā mānuṣīṃ tanum eva viśinaṣṭi param utkṛṣṭaṃ bhāvaṃ sattāṃ viśuddhaṃ sattvaṃ saccidānanda-svarūpam ity arthaḥ | bhāvaḥ sattā svabhāvābhiprāyaḥ ity amaraḥ | paraṃ bhāvam api viśinaṣṭi mama bhūta-maheśvaraṃ mama sṛjyāni bhūtāni ye brahmādyās teṣām api mahāntam īśvaram | tasmāt jīvasyeva mama parameśvarasya tanur na bhinnā | tanur evāham | aham eva tanuḥ sākṣād brahmaiva śābdaṃ brahma dadhad vapuḥ [BhP 3.21.8] iti mad-abhijña-śukokter iti bhavādṛśais tu viśvasyatām iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanv īdṛśa-mahimānaṃ tvāṃ kim iti kecin nādriyante ? tatrāha avajānantīti | bhūta-maheśvaraṃ nikhila-jagad-eka-svāminaṃ satya-saṅkalpaṃ sarvajñaṃ mahā-kāruṇikaṃ ca māṃ mūḍhās te ‚vajānanti | atra prakāraṃ darśayan viśinaṣṭi mānuṣīm iti mānuṣa-sanniveśinīṃ mānuṣa-ceṣṭā-bahulāṃ tanuṃ śrī-mūrtim āśritaṃ tādātmya-sambandhena nityaṃ prāptaṃ mām itara-rāja-kumāra-tulyaḥ kaścid ugra-puṇyo manuṣyo ‚yam iti buddhyāvamanyanta ity arthaḥ | mānuṣī tanuḥ khalu pāñcabhautikyena na ca bhagavat-tanus tādṛk sac-cid-ānanda-rūpāya kṛṣṇāya iti, tam ekaṃ govindaṃ sac-cid-ānanda-vigraham iti śravaṇāt | tathātve tad-avajñātṝṇāṃ mauḍhyāndhya-yogād brahmādi-vandyatvāyogāc ca |

evaṃ buddhis teṣāṃ kuto yayā te mūḍhā bhaṇyante ? tatrāha param iti | param asādhāraṇaṃ bhāvaṃ svabhāvam ajānantaḥ mānuṣākṛtes tasya jñānānndātmatva-sarveśatva-mokṣadatvādi-svabhāvānabhijñānād ity arthaḥ | evaṃ ca sati tanum āśritam ity ukti-viśeṣa-vibhātaṃ bheda-kāryam ādāya bodhyā | yat tu vasudeva-sūnor dvārakādhipateḥ sūtikā-gṛhāvirbhūtam eva svarūpaṃ naijaṃ caturbhujatvāt tato vrajaṃ gacchataḥ svarūpaṃ tu mānuṣaṃ dvibhujatvād ata uktam babhūva prākṛtaḥ śiśuḥ itivat | asti tan-niravadhānam mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam iti tad-ukteḥ | tenaiva rūpeṇa catur-bhujena iti pārtha-vākyāc ca tasmān mānuṣya-saṃniveśitvam eva tat-tanor manuṣyatvam ity uktam yatrāvatīrṇaṃ kṛṣṇākhyaṃ paraṃ brahma narākṛti iti śrī-vaiṣṇave | gūḍhaṃ paraṃ brahma manuṣya-liṅgam iti śrī-bhāgavate ca | manuṣya-ceṣṭā-prācyuryāc ca tasyās tattvam | yathā manuṣyo ‚pi rājā devavat siṃhavac ca viceṣṭanān nṛ-devo nṛ-siṃhaś ca vyapadiśyate |

tasmād dvibhujaś caturbhujaś ca sa manuṣya-bhāvenokta-hetu-dvayād vyapadiśyaḥ | na khalu bhuja-bhūmnā pareśatvam | kārtavīryādau vyabhicārāt | vibhu-caitanyatvaṃ jagaj janmādi-hetutvaṃ vā paraśatvam | tac ca dvibhuje tasminn asty eva tac chrutaṃ na ca dvibhujatvaṃ sādi –

sat-puṇḍarīka-nayanaṃ meghābhaṃ vaidyutāmbaram |

dvi-bhujaṃ mauna-mudrāḍhyaṃ vana-mālinam īśvaram || [GTU 1.9]

iti tasyānādi-siddhatva-śravaṇāt prākṛtaḥ śiśur ity atra prakṛtyā svarūpeṇaiva vyaktaḥ śiśur ity evārthaḥ | tasmād vaidūrya-maṇau nānā-rūpāṇi iva tasmin dvibhujatvādīni yugapat siddhāny eva yathārucy-upāsyānīti śāntoditatva-nityoditatva-kalpanā dūrotsāritā

 
 


BhG 9.12

moghāśā mogha-karmāṇo mogha-jñānā vicetasaḥ
rākṣasīm āsurīṃ caiva prakṛtiṃ mohinīṃ śritāḥ

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syntax


[te] (they) moghāśāḥ (whose hopes are vain) mogha-karmāṇa (whose activities are vain) mogha-jñānāḥ (whose knowledge is vain) vicetasaḥ (thoughtless)
mohinīm (bewildering) rākṣasīm (hellish) āsurīm ca eva (and just demoniac) prakṛtim (nature) śritāḥ (taken shelter of).

 

grammar

moghāśāḥ moghāśa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām āśā moghāḥ santi te whose hopes are vain (from: mogha – vain, useless; – to reach, to eat, to enjoy, āśa – gain, food, āśā – hope, desire);
mogha-karmāṇaḥ mogha-karman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ karmāṇi moghāni santi tewhose activities are vain (from: mogha – vain, useless; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result);
mogha-jñānāḥ mogha-jñāna 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ jñānaṁ mogham asti tewhose knowledge is vain (from: mogha – vain, useless; jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence);
vicetasaḥ vi-cetas 1n.3 m.those thoughtless, perplexed, ignorant (from: cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
rākṣasīm rākṣasī 2n.1 f.hellish, demoniac (from: rakṣ – to protect, rakṣas – protector, evil being, rākṣasa – forest demons eating humans);
āsurīm āsurī 2n.1 f.demoniac, pertaining to the opponents of divinities (from: asura – rival of divinities, demon);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
mohinīm mohinī 2n.1 f.bewildering (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, PPr mohin – bewildering);
śritāḥ śrita (śri – to lean on, to rest on) [PP] 1n.3 m.taken shelter, leaned (of whom? – requires accusative);

 

textual variants


mogha-jñānā → mogha-jñāna- / moha-jñānā (vain knowledge / those whose knowledge is false);
rākṣasīṁ and āsurīṁ change the place;
rākṣasīm āsurīṁ caiva → rākṣasī mām upāśritya;
mohinīṁmohanīṁ (bewildering);
śritāḥ → sthāḥ (situated);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kathaṃ ?—

moghāśā vṛthā āśā āśiṣo yeṣāṃ te moghāśāḥ | tathā mogha-karmāṇo yāni cāgnihotrādīni tair anuṣṭhīyamānāni karmāṇi tāni ca, teṣāṃ bhagavat-paribhavāt, svātma-bhūtasyāvajñānāt moghāny eva niṣphalāni karmāṇi bhavantīti mogha-karmāṇaḥ | tathā mogha-jñānā moghaṃ niṣphalaṃ jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ te mogha-jñānāḥ, jñānam api teṣāṃ niṣphalam eva syāt | vicetaso vigata-vivekāś ca te bhavantīty abhiprāyaḥ | kiṃ ca—te bhavanti rākṣasīṃ rakṣasāṃ prakṛtiṃ svabhāvam āsurīm asurāṇāṃ ca prakṛtiṃ mohinīṃ moha-karīṃ dehātma-vādinīṃ śritāḥ āśritāḥ, | chindhi, bhindhi, piba, khāda, parasvam apahara, ity evaṃ vadana-śīlāḥ krūra-karmāṇo bhavantīty arthaḥ | asuryā nāma te lokāḥ [īnāṃśauttaṃ 3] iti śruteḥ

 

Rāmānuja


mama manuṣyatve paramakāruṇyādiparatvatirodhānakarīṃ rākṣasīm āsurīṃ ca mohinīṃ prakṛtim āśritāḥ, moghāśāḥ moghvāñ chitāḥ niṣphalavāñ chitāḥ, moghkarmāṇaḥ moghārambhāḥ, moghajñānāḥ sarveṣu madīyeṣu carācareṣv artheṣu viparītajñānatayā niṣphalajñānāḥ, vicetasaḥ tathā sarvatra vigatayāthātmyajñānāḥ māṃ sarveśvaram itarasamaṃ matvā mayi ca yat kartum icchanti, yad uddiśyārambhān kurvate, tat sarvaṃ moghaṃ bhavatītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca moghāśā iti | matto ‚nyad devatāntaraṃ kṣipraṃ phalaṃ dāsyatīty evaṃ bhūtā moghā niṣphalaivāśā yeṣāṃ te | ataeva mad-vimukhatvān moghāni niṣphalāni karmāṇi yeṣāṃ te | mogham eva nānā-kutarkāśritaṃ śāstra-jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ te | ataeva vicetaso vikṣipta-cittāḥ | sarvatra hetuḥ rākṣasīṃ tāmasīṃ hiṃsādi-pracurām āsurīṃ ca rājasīṃ kāma-darpādi-bahulāṃ mohinīṃ buddhi-bhraṃśa-karīṃ prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ śritā āśritāḥ santaḥ | mām avajānantīti pūrveṇānvayaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


te ca bhagavad-avajñāna-nindana-janita-mahā-durita-pratibaddha-buddhayo nirantaraṃ niraya-nivāsārhā eva moghāśā iti | īśvaram antareṇa karmāṇy eva naḥ phalaṃ dāsyantīty evaṃrūpā moghā niṣphalaivāśā phala-prārthanā yeṣāṃ te | ataeveśvara-vimukhatvān moghāni śrama-mātra-rūpāṇy agnihotrādīni karmāṇi yeṣāṃ te | tathā mogham īśvarāpratipādaka-kutarka-śāstra-janitaṃ jñānaṃ yeṣāṃ te | kuta evaṃ yato vicetaso bhagavad-avajñāna-janita-durita-pratibaddha-viveka-vijñātāḥ | kiṃ ca te bhagavad-avajñāna-vaśād rākṣasīṃ tāmasīm avihita-hiṃsā-hetu-dveṣa-pradhānām āsurīṃ ca rājasīṃ śāstrānabhyanujñāta-viṣaya-bhoga-hetu-rāga-pradhānāṃ ca mohinīṃ śāstrīya-jñāna-bhraṃśa-hetuṃ prakṛtiṃ svabhāvam āśritā eva bhavanti | tataś ca – trividhaṃ narakasyedaṃ dvāraṃ nāśanam ātmanaḥ | kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobhaḥ ity ukta-naraka-dvāra-bhāgitayā naraka-yātanām eva te satatam anubhavantīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ye mānuṣīṃ māyā-mayīṃ tanum āśrito ‚yam īśvara iti matvā tvām avajānanti | teṣāṃ kā gatis tatrāha moghāśā iti | yadi bhaktā api syus tad api moghāśā bhavanti | mat-sālokyādim abhivāñchitaṃ na prāpnuvanti | yadi te karmiṇas tadā mogha-karmāṇaḥ karma-phalaṃ svargādikaṃ na labhante | yadi te jñāninas tarhi mogha-jñānā jñāna-phalaṃ mokṣaṃ na vidanti | tarhi te kiṃ prāpunvantīty ata āha rākṣasīm iti | te rākṣasīṃ prakṛtiṃ rākṣasānāṃ svabhāvaṃ śritāḥ prāptā bhavantīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu pāñcabhautika-mānuṣa-tanum ānugra-puṇyaḥ puru-tejāḥ ko ‚py ayam iti bhāvena tvām avajānatāṃ kā gatiḥ syāt tatrāha mogheti | yadi te īśvara-bhaktā api syus tad api moghāśā niṣphala-mokṣa-vāñchāḥ syuḥ | yadi te ‚gni-hotrādi-karma-niṣṭhās tadā mogha-karmāṇaḥ pariśrama-rūpāgnihotrādikāḥ syuḥ | yadi te jñānāya vedāntādi-śāstra-pariśīlanas tadā mogha-jñānā niṣphala-tad-bodhāḥ syuḥ | evaṃ kutaḥ ? yatas te vicetasaḥ | nitya-siddha-manuṣya-saṃniveśi-sākṣāt-para-brahma-mad-avajñā-janita-pāpa-pratibaddha-viveka-jñānā ity arthaḥ | ataevam uktaṃ bṛhad-vaiṣṇave-

yo vetti bhautikaṃ dehaṃ kṛṣṇasya paramātmanaḥ |
sa sarvasmād bahiṣkāryaḥ śrauta-smārt a-vidhānataḥ |
mukhaṃ tasyāvalokyāpi sa-celaṃ snānam ācaret || iti |
tarhi te kiṃ phalaṃ labhante ? tatrāha rākṣasīṃ hiṃsādi-pracurām tāmasīm āsurīṃ kāma-garvādi-pracurāṃ rājasīṃ mohinīṃ viveka-vilopinṃ prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ śritā narake nivāsārhās tiṣṭhanti

 
 


BhG 9.13

mahātmānas tu māṃ pārtha daivīṃ prakṛtim āśritāḥ
bhajanty ananya-manaso jñātvā bhūtādim avyayam

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!)
daivīṁ prakṛtim (of divine nature) āśritāḥ tu (but who took refuge) ananya-manasaḥ (whose minds are on nothing else) mahātmānaḥ (great-souled ones)
mām (me) bhūtādim (beig the origin of beings) avyayam (unchangeable) jñātvā (after knowing) bhajanti (they worship).

 

grammar

mahātmānaḥ mahā-ātman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā mahān asti tethose whose selves are great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
daivīm daivī 2n.1 f.divine, pertaining to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
āśritāḥ āśrita (ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.3 m.those who took refuge, who approached (whom? – requires accusative);
bhajanti bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. P 1v.3they worship;
ananya-manasaḥ an-anya-manas 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ mano ‘nyasmin nāsti te whose minds are on nothing else (from: anya – other, ananya – no other, unique, undistracted, not devoted to anything else; man – to think, manas – the mind);
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
bhūtādim bhūtādi 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya bhūtānām ādir asti tamwho is the origin of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


mahātmānas → mahātmanas (those of great spirit);
māṁ → me (my);
āśritāḥ → āsthitā / āśritaṁ (situated / under shelter);
bhajantibhajaṁte (they worship);
jñātvā → bhūtvā (after being);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ye punaḥ śraddadhānā bhagavad-bhakti-lakṣaṇe mokṣa-mārge pravṛttāḥ—

mahātamānas tv akṣudra-cittāḥ mām īśvaraṃ pārtha daivīṃ devānāṃ prakṛtiṃ śama-dama-dayā-śraddhādi-lakṣaṇām āśritāḥ santo bhajanti sevante’nanya-manaso’nanya-cittā jñātvā bhūtādiṃ bhūtānāṃ viyad-ādīnāṃ prāṇināṃ cādiṃ kāraṇam avyayam

 

Rāmānuja


ye tu svakṛtaiḥ puṇyasañcayaiḥ māṃ śaraṇam upagamya vidhvastasamastapāpabandhā daivīṃ prakṛtim āśritā mahātmānaḥ, te, bhūtādim avyayam vāṅmanasāgocaranāmakarmasvarūpaṃ paramakāruṇikatayā sādhuparitrāṇāya manuṣyatvenāvatīrṇaṃ māṃ jñātvā+ananyamanaso māṃ bhajante; matpriyatvātirekeṇa madbhajanena vinā manasaś cātmanaś ca bāhyakaraṇānāṃ ca dhāraṇam alabhamānā madbhajanaikaprayojanā bhajante

 

Śrīdhara


ke tarhi tvām ārādhayantīti | ata āha – mahātmāna iti | mahātmānaḥ kāmādy-anabhibhūta-cittāḥ | ataeva madh-vyatirekena nāsty anyasmin mano yeṣām | te tu bhūtādiṃ jagat-kāraṇam avyayaṃ ca māṃ jñātvā bhajanti

 

Madhusūdana


bhagavad-vimukhānāṃ phala-kāmanāyās tat-prayuktasya nitya-naimittika-kāmya-karmānuṣṭhānasya tat-prayuktasya śāstrīya-jñānasya ca vaiyarthyāt pāralaukika-phala-tat-sādhana-śūnyās te | nāpy aihalaukikaṃ kiṃcit phalam asti teṣāṃ viveka-vijñāna-śūnyatayā vicetaso hi te | ataḥ sarva-puruṣārtha-bāhyāḥ śocyā eva sarveṣāṃ te varākā ity uktam | adhunā ke sarva-puruṣārtha-bhājo ‚śocyā ye bhagavad-eka-śaraṇā ityucyate mahātmāna iti |

mahān aneka-janma-kṛta-sukṛtaiḥ saṃskṛtaḥ kṣudra-kāmādy-anabhibhūta ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ yeṣāṃ te ‚ataeva abhayaṃ sattva-saṃśuddhiḥ ity ādi-vakṣyamāṇāṃ daivīṃ sāttvikīṃ prakṛtim āśritāḥ | ataevānyasmin mad-vyatirikte nāsti mano yeṣāṃ te bhūtādiṃ sarva-jagat-kāraṇam avyayam avināśinaṃ ca mām īśvaraṃ jñātvā bhajanti sevante

 

Viśvanātha


tasmād ye mahātmāno yādṛcchika-mad-bhakta-kṛpayā mahātmatvaṃ prāptās te tu mānuṣā api daivīṃ prakṛtiṃ devānāṃ svabhāvaṃ prāptāḥ satto māṃ mānuṣākāram eva bhajante | na vidyate ‚nyatra jñāna-karmāṇy akāmanādau mano yeṣāṃ te | māṃ bhūtādiṃ mayā tatam idaṃ sarvaṃ ity ādi mad-aiśvarya-jñānena bhūtānāṃ brahmādi-stamba-paryantānāṃ kāraṇam | avyayaṃ saccidānanda-vigrahatvād anaśvaraṃ jñātveti mamāvyayatve mad-bhaktair etāvan-mātraṃ maj-jñānam apekṣitavyam | iyam eva tvaṃ padārtha-jñāna-karmādy-anapekṣā bhaktir ananyā sarva-śreṣṭhā rāja-vidyā rāja-guhyam iti draṣṭavyam

 

Baladeva


tarhi ke tvām ādiryante ? tatrāha mahātmāna iti | ye narākṛti-para-brahma-mat-tattvavit sat-prasaṅgena tādṛśa-man-niṣṭhayā vistīrṇāgādha-manaso madīye ‚pi sahasra-śīrṣādy-ākāre ‚rucayas te manuṣyā api daivīṃ prakṛtim āśritāḥ santo narākṛtiṃ māṃ madhya-bhūtādi-vidhi-rudrādi-sarva-kāraṇam avyayaṃ nityaṃ ca jñātvā niścitya bhajanti sevante | ananya-manaso narākāra eva mayi nikhāta-cittāḥ
 
 


BhG 9.14

satataṃ kīrtayanto māṃ yatantaś ca dṛḍha-vratāḥ
namasyantaś ca māṃ bhaktyā nitya-yuktā upāsate

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syntax


satataṁ (constantly) mām (me) kīrtayantaḥ (praising)
dṛḍha-vratāḥ (whose vows are firm) yatantaḥ ca (those endeavouring)
bhaktyā (with devotion) namasyantaḥ ca (who are bowing down)
nitya-yuktāḥ (always engaged) mām (me) upāsate (they worship).

 

grammar

satatam av.constantly (from: sa-tata – constant, uninterrupted);
kīrtayantaḥ kīrtayant (kīrt – to call, to praise, to glorify) PPr 1n.3 m. praising, glorifying;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
yatantaḥ yatant (yat – to endeavour) PPr 1n.3 m. those endeavouring, striving;
ca av.and;
dṛḍha-vratāḥ dṛḍha-vrata 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ vratāni dṛḍhāni santi tewhose vows are firm (from: dṛṁh – to make strong, [PP] dṛḍha – firm, hard, not to be bent; vṛ – to choose, to like or vṛ – to cover, to restrain, vrata – austerity, a vow);
namasyantaḥ namasyant (namasya – to bow down) PPr 1n.3 m. who are bowing down;
ca av.and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
bhaktyā bhakti 3n.1 f.with devotion, with love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
nitya-yuktāḥ nitya-yukta 1n.3 m.; nityaṁ yuktā itithose always engaged (from: av. nityam – constantly, eternally; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
upāsate upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;

 

textual variants


kīrtayanto māṁkīrtayaṁtaś ca (and glorifying);
yatantaś ca → yataṁto māṁ / yajaṁtaś ca / yatamānā (endeavouring to attain me / worshipping me / whose minds are restrained);
dṛḍha-vratāḥ → yata-vratāḥ (whose vows are restrained);

The fourth pada of verse BhG 9.14 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 12.2.

 
 


Śāṃkara


kathaṃ ?—

satataṃ sarvadā bhagavantaṃ brahma-svarūpaṃ māṃ kīrtayantaḥ, yatantaś ca indriyopasaṃhāra-śama-dama-dayāhiṃsādi-lakṣaṇair dharmaiḥ prayatantaś ca, dṛḍha-vratā dṛḍhaṃ sthiram acālyaṃ vrataṃ yeṣāṃ te dṛḍha-vratā namasyantaś ca māṃ hṛdayeśayam ātmānaṃ bhaktyā nitya-yuktāḥ santa upāsate sevante

 

Rāmānuja


atyarthamatpriyatvena matkīrtanayatananamaskārair vinā kṣaṇāṇumātre ‚py ātmadhāraṇam alabhamānāḥ, madguṇaviśeṣavācīni mannāmāni smṛtvā pulakāñcitasarvāṅgāḥ harṣagadgadakaṇṭhāḥ, nārāyaṇakṛṣṇavāsedevety evam ādīni satataṃ kīrtayantaḥ, tathaiva yatantaḥ matkarmasv arcanādikeṣu, tadupakāreṣu bhavananandanavanakaraṇādikeṣu ca dṛḍhasaṅkalpā yatamānāḥ, bhaktibhārāvanamitamanobuddhyabhimānapadadvayakaradvayaśirobhir aṣṭāṅgair acintitapāṃsukardamaśarkarādike dharātale daṇḍavat praṇipatantaḥ, satataṃ māṃ nityayuktāḥ nityayogaṃ kāṅkṣamāṇā ātmāntaṃ maddāsyavyavasāyinaḥ upāsate

 

Śrīdhara


teṣāṃ bhajana-prakāram āha satatam iti dvābhyām | satataṃ sarvadā stotra-mantrādibhiḥ kīrtayantaḥ kecin mām upāsate sevante | dṛḍhāni vratāni niyamā yeṣāṃ tādṛśāḥ santaḥ | yatantaś ca īśvara-pūjādiṣu indiryopasaṃhārādiṣu prayatnaṃ kurvantaḥ | kecid bhaktyā namasyantaḥ praṇamantaś ca | anye nitya-yuktā anavaratam avahitā sevante | bhaktyeti nitya-yuktā iti ca kīrtanādiṣv api draṣṭavyam

 

Madhusūdana


te kena prakāreṇa bhajantīty ucyate dvābhyām satatam iti | satataṃ sarvadā brahma-niṣṭhaṃ gurum upasṛtya vedānta-vākya-vicāreṇa gurūpasadanetara-kāle ca praṇava-japopaniṣad-āvartanādibhir māṃ sarvopaniṣat-pratipādyaṃ brahma-svarūpaṃ kīrtayanto vedānta-śāstrādhyayana-rūpa-śravaṇa-vyāpāra-viṣayīkurvanta iti yāvat | tatha dṛḍha-vratā dṛḍhāni pratipakṣaiś cālayitum aśakyāni ahiṃsā-satyāsteya-brahmacaryāparigrahādīni vratāni yeṣāṃ te śama-damādi-sādhana-sampannā iti yāvat | tathā coktaṃ patañjalinā ahiṃsāstayāsteya-brahmacaryāparigrahā yamāḥ [Ys 2.30] te ty jāti-deśa-kāla-samayānavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā mahā-vratam [Ys 2.31] iti | jātyā brāhmaṇatvādikayā deśena tīrtyādinā kālena caturdaśyādinā samayena yajñādy-anyatvenānavacchinnā ahiṃsādayaḥ sārvabhaumāḥ kṣipta-mūḍha-vikṣipta-bhūmiṣv api bhāvyamānāḥ kasyām api jātau kasminn api deśe kasminn api kāle yajñādi-prayojane ‚pi hiṃsāṃ na kariṣyāmīty evaṃ-rūpeṇa kiṃcid apy aparyudasya sāmānyena pravṛttā ete mahā-vratam ity ucyante ity arthaḥ |

tathā namasyantaś ca māṃ kāya-vāṅ-manobhir namaskurvantaś ca māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevaṃ sakala-kalyāṇa-guṇa-nidhānam iṣṭa-devatā-rūpeṇa guru-rūpeṇa ca sthitam | ca-kārāt-

śravaṇaṃ kīrtanaṃ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇaṃ pāda-sevanam |
arcanaṃ vandanaṃ dāsyaṃ sakhyam ātma-nivedanam || [BhP 7.5.23]

iti vandana-sahacaritaṃ śravaṇādy api bodhavyam | arcanaṃ pāda-sevanam ity api guru-rūpe tasmin sukaram eva |

atra mām iti punar vacanaṃ sa-guṇa-rūpa-parāmarśārtham | anyathā vaiyarthya-prasaṅgāt | tathā bhaktyā mad-viṣayeṇa pareṇa premṇā nitya-yuktāḥ sarvadā saṃyuktāḥ etena sarva-sādhana-pauṣkalyaṃ pratibandhakābhāvaś ca darśitaḥ |

yasya deve parā bhaktiḥ yathā deve tathā gurau |
tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ || [ŚvetU 6.23]

patañjalinā coktaṃ tataḥ pratyak-cetanādhigamo ‚py antarāyābhāvaś ca [Ys 1.29] iti | tata īśvara-praṇidhānāt pratyak-cetanasya tvaṃ-poada-lakṣyasyādhigamaḥ sākṣātkāro bhavati | antarāyāṇāṃ vighnānāṃ cābhāvo bhavatīti sūtrasyārthaḥ |

tad evaṃ śama-damādi-sādhana-sampannā vedānta-śravaṇa-manana-parāyaṇāḥ parameśvare parama-gurau premṇā namaskārādinā ca vigata-vighnāḥ paripūrṇa-sarva-sādhanāḥ santo mām upāsate vijātīya-pratyayānantaritena sajātīya-pratyaya-pravāheṇa śravaṇa-mananottara-bhāvinā satataṃ cintayanti mahātmānaḥ | anena nididhyāsanaṃ carama-sādhanaṃ darśitam | etādṛśa-sādhana-pauṣkalye sati yad vedānta-vākyajam akhaṇḍa-gocaraṃ sākṣātkāra-rūpam ahaṃ brahmāsmīti jñānaṃ tat-sarva-śaṅkā-kalaṅkāspaṣṭaṃ sarva-sādhana-phala-bhūtaṃ svotpatti-mātreṇa dīpa iva tamaḥ sakalam ajñānaṃ tat-kāryaṃ ca nāśayatīti nirapekṣam eva sākṣān-mokṣa-hetur na tu bhūmi-jaya-krameṇa bhrū-madhye prāṇa-praveśanaṃ mūrdhanyayā nāḍyā prāṇotkramaṇam arcir-ādi-mārgeṇa brahma-loka-gamanaṃ tad-bhogānta-kāla-vilambaṃ vā pratīkṣate | ato yat-prāk-pratijñātam idaṃ tu te guhyatamaṃ pravakṣyāmy uanasūyave jñānam iti tad etad uktam | phalaṃ cāsyāśubhān mokṣaṇaṃ prāg uktam evetīha punar noktam | evam atrāyaṃ gambhīro bhagavato ‚bhiprāyaḥ | uttānārthyas tu prakaṭa eva

 

Viśvanātha


bhajantīty uktam | tad-bhajanam eva kim ity ata āha satataṃ sadeti nātra karma-yoga iva kāla-deśa-pātra-śuddhādy-apekṣā kartavyety arthaḥ |

na deśa-niyamas tatra na kāla-niyamas tatha |
nocchiṣṭhādau niṣedho ‚ sti śrī-harer nāmni lubdhaka || iti smṛteḥ |

yatanto yatamānaḥ | yathā kuṭumba-pālanārthaṃ dīnā gṛhasthā dhanika-dvārādau dhanārthaṃ yatante, tathaiva mad-bhaktāḥ kīrtanādi-bhakti-prāpty-arthaṃ bhakta-sabhādau yatante. prāpya ca bhaktim adhīyamānam śāstram paṭhata iva punaḥ punar abhyasyanti ca | etāvanti nāma-grahaṇāni, etāvatyaḥ praṇatayaḥ, etāvatyaḥ paricaryāś cāvaśya-kartavyā ity evaṃ dṛḍhāni vratāni niyamā yeṣāṃ te. yad vā, dṛḍhāny apatitāny ekādaśy-ādi-vratāni niyamā yeṣāṃ te.| namasyantaś ca ca-kāraḥ śravaṇa-pāda-sevanādy-anukta-sarva-bhakti-saṅgrahārthaḥ | nitya-yuktā bhāvinaṃ man-nitya-saṃyogam ākāṅkṣanta āśaṃsāyāṃ bhūtavac ceti vartamāne ‚pi bhūta-kālikaḥ kta-pratyayaḥ | atra māṃ kīrtayanta eva mām upāsata iti mat-kīrtanādikam eva mad-upāsanam iti vākyārthaḥ | ato mām iti na paunruktyam āśaṅkanīyam

 

Baladeva


bhakti-prakāram āha satatam iti dvayena | satataṃ sarvadā deśa-kālādi-viśuddhi-nairapekṣeṇa māṃ kīrtayantaḥ sudhā-madhurāṇi mama kalyāṇa-guṇa-karmānubandhīni govinda-govardhanoddharaṇādīni nāmāny uccair uccārayanto mām upāsate | namasyantaśc a mad-arcanā-niketeṣu gatvā dhūli-paṅkāpteṣu bhū-taleṣu daṇḍavat-praṇipatanto bhaktyā prīti-bhareṇa | kīrtayanto mām upāsata iti mat-kīrtanādikam eva mad-upāsanam iti vākyārthaḥ | ato mām iti na paunaruktyam | ca-śabdo ‚nuktānāṃ śravaṇārcana-vandanādīnāṃ samuccāyakaḥ | yatantaḥ samānāśayaiḥ sādhubhiḥ sārdhaṃ mat-svarūpa-guṇādi-yāthātmya-nirṇayāya yatamānāḥ | dṛḍha-vratā dṛḍhāny askhalitāny ekādaśī-janmāṣṭamy-upoṣaṇādīni vratāni yeṣāṃ te | nitya-yuktā bhāvinaṃ man-nitya-saṃyogaṃ vāñchantaḥ āśaṃsāyāṃ bhūtavac ca [Pāṇ 3.3.132] iti sūtrād vartamāne ‚pi bhūta-kālika-kta-pratyayaḥ
 
 

BhG 9.15

jñāna-yajñena cāpy anye yajanto mām upāsate
ekatvena pṛthaktvena bahudhā viśvato-mukham

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syntax


anye ca api (and others) jñāna-yajñena (by the sacrifice of knowledge) yajantaḥ (worshipping),
[kecana] (some) ekatvena (through oneness),
[apare] (still others) pṛthaktvena (through diversity),
bahudhā (in many ways) mām viśvato-mukham (me whose faces are everywhere) upāsate (they worship).

 

grammar

jñāna-yajñena jñāna-yajña 3n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānena yajñeneti by the sacrifice of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship);
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
anye anya sn. 1n.3 m.others;
yajantaḥ yajant (yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) PPr 1n.3[while] worshipping;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
upāsate upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;
ekatvena ekatva abst. 3n.1 n.through oneness (from: eka – one);
pṛthaktvena pṛthaktva abst. 3n.1 n.through diversity (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one);
or av. (3n.1) – separately, one by one (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one);
bahudhā av. in many ways, manifold (from: bahu – many; -dhā – suffix to form manifold numerals);
viśvato-mukham viśvato-mukha 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya mukhāni viśvataḥ santi tamwhose faces are everywhere (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world, av. viśvatas – from all sides, everywhere; mukha – face);

 

textual variants


cāpy anye → vāpy anye (on the other hand others);
yajanto → yajaṁte (they sacrifice);
 
 



Śāṃkara


te kena kena prakāreṇa upāsate ity ucyate—

jñāna-yajñena jñānam eva bhagavad-viṣayaṃ yajñas tena jñāna-yajñena, yajantaḥ pūjayantaḥ mām īśvaraṃ cāpy anye’nyām upāsanāṃ parityajyopāsate | tac ca jñānaṃ—ekatvenaikam eva paraṃ brahmeti paramārtha-darśanena yajanta upāsate | kecic ca pṛthaktvena āditya-candrādi-bhedena sa eva bhagavān viṣṇur avasthita ity upāsate | kecit bahudhāvasthitaḥ sa eva bhagavān sarvato-mukho viśva-rūpa iti taṃ viśva-rūpaṃ sarvato-mukhaṃ bahudhā bahu-prakāreṇopāsate

 

Rāmānuja


anye ‚pi mahātmanaḥ pūrvoktaiḥ kīrtanādibhir jñānākhyena yajñena ca yajanto mām upāsate / katham? bahudhā pṛthaktvena jagadākāreṇa, viśvatomukham viśvaprakāram avasthitaṃ mām ekatvenopāsate / etad uktaṃ bhavati bhagavān vāsudeva eva nāmarūpavibhāgānarhātisūkṣmacidacidvastuśarīras san satyasaṅkalpo vividhavibhaktanāmarūpasthūlacidacidvastuśarīraḥ syām iti saṃkalpya sa eka eva devatiryaṅmanuṣyasthāvarākhyavicitrajagaccharīro ‚vatiṣṭhata ity anusaṃdadhānāś ca mām upāsate iti

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca jñāneti | vāsudevaḥ sarvam ity evaṃ sarvātmatva-darśanaṃ jñānam | tad eva yajñaḥ | tena jñāna-yajñena māṃ yajantaṃ pūjayanto ‚nye ‚py upāsate | tatrāpi kecid ekatvenābheda-bhāvanayā | kecit pṛthaktvena pṛthag-bhāvanayā dāso ‚ham iti | kecit tu viśvato-mukhaṃ sarvātmakaṃ māṃ bahudhā brahma-rudrādi-rūpeṇopāsate

 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ ye evam ukta-śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanāsamarthās te ‚pi vividhā uttamā madhyamā mandāś ceti sarve ‚pi svānurūpyeṇa mām upāsata ity āha jñāna-yajñeneti | anye pūrvokta-sādhanānuṣṭhānāsamarthā jñāna-yajñena tvaṃ vā aham asmi bhagavo devate ahaṃ vai tvam asi ity ādi-śruty-uktam ahaṅgrahopāsanaṃ jñānaṃ sa eva parameśvara-yajana-rūpatvād yajñas tena | ca-kāra evārthe | api-śabdaḥ sādhanāntara-tyāgārthaḥ | kecit sādhanāntara-nispṛhāḥ santa upāsyopāsakābheda-cintā-rūpeṇa jñāna-yajñenaikatvena bheda-vyāvṛttyā mām evopāsate cintayanty uttamāḥ | anye tu kecin madhyamāḥ pṛthaktvenopāsyopāsakayor bhedena ādityo brahmety ādeśaḥ [ChāU 3.19.1] ity ādi-śruty-uktena pratīkopāsana-rūpeṇa jñāna-yajñena mām evopāsate | anye tv ahaṅgrahopāsane pratīkopāsane vāsamarthāḥ kecin mandā kāṃcid anyāṃ devatāṃ copāsīnāḥ kānicit karmāṇi vā kurvāṇā bahudhā tais tair bahubhiḥ prakārair viśva-rūpaṃ sarvātmānaṃ māma evopāsate | tena tena jñāna-yajñeneti uttarottarāṇāṃ krameṇa pūrva-pūrva-bhūmi-lābhaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tad evam atrādhyāye pūrvādhyāye cānanya-bhakta eva mahātma-śabda-vācya ārtādi-sarva-bhaktebhyo nyūnāḥ | ahaṅgrahopāsakāḥ pratīkopāsakā viśvarūpopāsakās tān darśayati jñāna-yajñeneti | anye na mahātmanaḥ pūrvokta-sādhanānuṣṭhānāsamarthaḥ ity arthaḥ | jñāna-yajñena tvaṃ vā aham asmi bhagavo devatā ahaṃ vai tvam asi ity ādi śruty-uktam ahaṅgrahopāsanaṃ jñānam | sa eva parameśvara-yajana-rūpatvād yajñas tena | ca-kāra evārthe | api śabdaḥ sādhanāntara-tyāgārthaḥ | ekatvena upāsyopāsakayor abheda-cintana-rūpeṇa | tato ‚pi nyūnā anye pṛthaktvena bheda-cintana-rūpeṇa ādityo brahmety-ādeśaḥ [ChāU 3.19.1] ity ādi śruty-uktena pratīkopāsanena jñāna-yajñena | anye tato ‚pi mandā bahudhā bahubhiḥ prakārair viśvatomukhaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ sarvātmānaṃ māma evopāsate iti madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādānāṃ vyākhyā |

atra nādevo devam arcayet iti tāntrika-dṛṣṭyā gopālo ‚ham iti bhāvanāvattve yā gopālopāsanā sā ahaṅgrahopāsanā | tathā yaḥ parameśvaro viṣṇuḥ sa hi sūrya eṣa nānyaḥ | sa hi indra eva nānyaḥ | sa hi soma eva nānyaḥ ity evaṃ bhedenaikasyā eva bhagavad-vibhūter yā upāsanā sā pratīkopāsanā | viṣṇuḥ sarva iti samasta-vibhūty-upāsanā viśvarūpopāsaneti jñāna-yajñasya traividhyam | yad vā ekatvena pṛthaktvena ity eka eva ahaṅgrahopāsanā gopālo ‚haṃ gopālasya dāso ‚ham ity ubhaya-bhāvanā-mayī samudra-gāminī nadīva samudra-bhinno ‚bhinnā ceti | tadā ca jñāna-yajñasya traividhyam

 

Baladeva


evaṃ kevala-svarūpa-niṣṭhān kīrtanādi-śuddha-bhakti-pradhānān mahātma-śabditān abhidhāya guṇī-bhūta-tat-kīrtanādi-jñāna-pradhānān bhaktān āha jñāneti | pūrvato ‚nye kecana bhaktāḥ pūrvoktena kīrtanādi-jñāna-yajñena ca yajanto mām upāsate | tatra prakāram āha bahudhā bahu-prakāreṇa pṛthaktvena prapañcākāreṇa pradhāna-mahad-ādyātmanā viśvatomukham indrādi-daivatātmanā cāvasthitaṃ mām ekatvenopāsate | ayam atra niṣkarṣaḥ – sūkṣma-cid-acic-chaktimān satya-saṅkalpaḥ kṛṣṇo bahu syām iti svīyena saṅkalpena sthūla-cid-acic-chaktimān eka eva brahmādi-stambānta-vicitra-jagad-rūpatayāvatiṣṭhata ity anusandhinā tādṛśasya mama kīrtanādinā ca mām upāsata iti
 
 


BhG 9.16

ahaṃ kratur ahaṃ yajñaḥ svadhāham aham auṣadham
mantroham aham
evājyam aham agnir ahaṃ hutam

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syntax


aham (I) kratuḥ (oblation) [asmi] (I am),
aham (I) yajñaḥ (sacrifice) [asmi] (I am),
aham (I) svadhā (oblation for the ancestors) [asmi] (I am),
aham (I) auṣadham (herb) [asmi] (I am),
aham (I) mantraḥ (sacred formula) [asmi] (I am),
aham eva (I indeed) ājyam (clarified butter) [asmi] (I am),
aham (I) agniḥ (fire) [asmi] (I am),
aham (I) hutam (offered in sacrifice) [asmi] (I am).
 

grammar

aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
kratuḥ kratu 1n.1 m.intention, desire, will, sacrificial rite, oblation (from: kṛ – to do);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
yajñaḥ yajña 1n.1 m. sacrifice, worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
svadhā svadhā 1n.1 f.self-power, oblation for the ancestors;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
auṣadham auṣadha 1n.1 n.herb, medicine (from: oṣadhi – herb);
mantrah mantra 1n.1 m.sacred formula (from: mantr – to think, to advise);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ājyam ājya 1n.1 n.clarified butter, oblation of milk (from: añj – to decorate);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
agniḥ agni 1n.1 m.fire (from: ag – to move tortuously);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
hutam huta (from: hu – to offer into fire) [PP] 1n.1 n. offered in sacrifice;

 
 



Śāṃkara


yadi bahubhiḥ prakārair upāsate, kathaṃ tvām eva upāsata iti | ata āha—

ahaṃ kratuḥ śrauta-karma-bhedo’ham eva | ahaṃ yajñaḥ smārtaḥ | kiṃ ca svadhānnam aham, pitṛbhyo yad dīyate | aham auṣadhaṃ sarva-prāṇibhir yat adyate tat auṣadha-śabda-śabditaṃ vrīhi-yavādi-sādhāraṇam | athavā svadheti sarva-prāṇi-sādhāraṇam annam, auṣadham iti vyādhy-upaśamanārthaṃ bheṣajam | mantro’ham, yena pitṛbhyo devatābhyaś ca havir dīyate | aham eva ājyaṃ haviś ca | aham agniḥ, yasmin hūte haviḥ so’gnir aham | ahaṃ hutaṃ havana-karmaś ca

 

Rāmānuja


tathā hi viśvaśarīro ‚ham evāvasthita ity āha

ahaṃ kratuḥ ahaṃ jyotiṣṭomādikaḥ kratuḥ; aham eva mahāyajñaḥ; aham eva pitṛgaṇapuṣṭidā svadhā; auṣadhaṃ haviś cāham eva; aham eva ca mantraḥ; aham eva ca ājyam / pradarśanārtham idam somādikaṃ ca havir aham evetyarthaḥ; aham āhavanīyādiko ‚gniḥ; homaś cāham eva

 

Śrīdhara


sarvātmatāṃ prapañcayati ahaṃ kratur iti caturbhiḥ | kratuḥ śrauto ‚gniṣṭomādiḥ | yajñaḥ smārtaḥ pañca-mahā-yajñādiḥ | svadhā pitry-arthaṃ śrāddhādiḥ | auṣadham auṣadhi-prabhavam annam | bheṣajaṃ vā | mantro yājya-purodho-vākyādiḥ | ājyaṃ homādi-sādhanam | agnir āhavanīyādiḥ | hutaṃ homaḥ | etat sarvam aham eva

 

Madhusūdana


yadi bahudhopāsate tarhi kathaṃ tvām evety āśaṅkyātmano viśvarūpatvaṃ prapañcayati caturbhiḥ aham iti | sarvasva-rūpo ‚ham iti vaktavye tat tad eka-deśa-kathanam avayutyānuvādena vaiśvānare dvādaśaka-pāle ‚ṣṭākapālatvādi-kathanavat | kratuḥ śrauto ‚gniṣṭomādiḥ | yajñāḥ smārto vaiśvadevādir mahā-yajñatvena śruti-smṛti-prasiddhaḥ | svadhā ‚nnaṃ pitṛbhyo dīyamānam | auṣadham auṣadhi-prabhavam annaṃ sarvaiḥ prāṇibhir bhujyamānaṃ bheṣajaṃ vā | mantro yājyāpuronuvākyādir yenoddiśya havir dīyate devebhyaḥ | ājyaṃ ghṛtaṃ sarva-havir upalakṣaṇam idam | agnir āhavanīyādir haviṣprakṣepādhikaraṇam | hutaṃ havanaṃ haviṣprakṣepaḥ etat sarvam ahaṃ parameśvara eva | etad ekaika-jñānam api bhagavad-upāsanam iti kathayituṃ pratyekam ahaṃ-śabdaḥ | kriyā-kāraka-phala-jātaṃ kim api bhagavad atiriktaṃ nāstīti saumāyārthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 9.18

 

Baladeva


commentary under the verse BhG 9.19
 
 


BhG 9.17

pitāham asya jagato mātā dhātā pitā-mahaḥ
vedyaṃ pavitram oṃ-kāra ṛk sāma yajur eva ca

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syntax


aham (I) asya jagataḥ (of this world) pitā (father) mātā (mother) dhātā (creator) pitāmahaḥ (grandfather) [asmi] (I am).
[aham] (I) vedyam (to be known) pavitram (purity) oṁ-kāraḥ (syllable OM) ṛk (Rig) sāma (Sama) yajuḥ ca eva (and indeed Yajur) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

pitā pitṛ 1n.1 m.father;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
jagataḥ jagat 6n.1 n.of the world, of the mankind (from: gam – to go);
mātā mātṛ 1n.1 f.mother;
dhātā dhātṛ 1n.1 m.maintainer, creator, constructor (from: dhā – to put);
pitā-mahaḥ pitā-maha 1n.1 m.grandfather (from: pitṛ – father; mah – to magnify, mahant – great);
vedyam vedya (vid – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be understood;
pavitram pavitra 1n.1 n. – means of purification, purity (from: – to purify);
oṁ-kāraḥ oṁ-kāra 1n.1 m.syllable OM (from: om – święta głoska OM, praṇava; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer; a word suffixed to a letter);
ṛk ṛk 1n.1 m.Rigveda (from: ṛc – praise, a type of hymn);
sāma sāma 1n.1 m.Samaveda (from: sāman – tune, a type of hymn);
yajuḥ yajuḥ 1n.1 m.Yajurveda (from: yajus – worship, a type of hymn);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


pitāham asya → pitā-mahasya (of grandfather);
mātā dhātādhātā mātā (creator, mother);
vedyaṁ pavitram oṁ-kāra → vedaṁ pavitram oṁ-kāra /vedyaṁ pavitram oṁ-kāram ([I am] the Veda, purity, syllable OM / [I am] to be known, purity, syllable OM);
sāma yajur yajuḥ sāma (Yajur- and Samaveda);
ṛk sāma yajur eva ca → ‘tharva-ṛg-sāma vai yajuḥ ([I am] Atharva-, Rig-, Sama- and indeed Yajurveda);
 
 



Śāṃkara


pitā janayitāham asya jagataḥ, mātā janayitrī, dhātā karma-phalasya prāṇibhyo vidhātā, pitāmahaḥ pituḥ pitā, vedyaṃ veditavyam, pavitraṃ pāvanam oṃkāraḥ, ṛk sāma yajue eva ca

 

Rāmānuja


asya sthāvarajaṅgamātmakasya jagataḥ, tatra tatra pitṛtvena, mātṛtvena, dhātṛtvena, pitāmahatvena ca vartamāno ‚ham eva / atra dhātṛśabdo mātāpitṛvyatirikte utpattiprayojake cetanaviśeṣe vartate / yat kiñcid vedavedyaṃ pavitram pāvanam,tad aham eva / vedakaś ca vedabījabhūtaḥ praṇavo ‚ham eva / ṛksāmayajurātmako vedaś cāham eva

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca piteti | dhātā karma-phala-vidhātā | vedyaṃ jñeyaṃ vastu | pavitraṃ śodhakam | prāyaścittātmakaṃ vā | oṅkāraḥ praṇavaḥ | ṛg-ādayo vedāś cāham eva | spaṣṭam anyat

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca | asya jagataḥ sarvasya prāṇi-jātasya pitā janayitā | mātā janayitrī | dhātā poṣayitā tat-tat-karma-phala-vidhātā vā | pitāmahaḥ pituḥ pitā | vedyaṃ vedayitavyaṃ vastu | pūyate ‚neneti pavitraṃ pāvanaṃ śuddhi-hetur gaṅgā-snāna-gāyatrī-japādi | veditavye brahmaṇi vedana-sādhanam oṃkāraḥ | niyatākṣara-pādā ṛk | gīti-viśiṣṭā saiva sāma | sāma-padaṃ tu gīti-mātrasyaivābhidhāyakam ity anyat | gīti-rahitam aniyatākṣaraṃ yajuḥ | etat trividhaṃ mantra-jātaṃ karmopayogi | ca-kārād atharvāṅgiraso ‚pi gṛhyante | eva-kāro ‚ham evety avadhāraṇārthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 9.18
 

Baladeva


commentary under the verse BhG 9.19
 
 


BhG 9.18

gatir bhartā prabhuḥ sākṣī nivāsaḥ śaraṇaṃ suhṛt
prabhavaḥ pralayaḥ sthānaṃ nidhānaṃ bījam avyayam

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syntax


[aham] (I) gatiḥ (path) bhartā (sustainer) prabhuḥ (master) sākṣī (witness) nivāsaḥ (abode) śaraṇam (shelter) suhṛt (well-wisher) prabhavaḥ (source) pralayaḥ (end) sthānam (immovable state) nidhānam (storage place) avyayam (unchangeable) bījam (seed) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

gatiḥ gati 1n.1 f.moving, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);
bhartā bhartṛ 1n.1 m.sustainer (from: bhṛ – to hold);
prabhuḥ pra-bhu 1n.1 m.perfect, powerful, rich, master, lord (from: pra- – prefix: in front, much; bhū – to be);
sākṣī sākṣin 1n.1 m.eye-witness (from: sa-akṣa – with eyes);
nivāsaḥ nivāsa 1n.1 m.house, abode (from: ni-vas – to dwell, to spend time);
śaraṇam śaraṇa 1n.1 n.shelter, refuge, protection (from: śri – to turn towards, to lean on, to rest on, to resort);
suhṛt su-hṛt 1n.1 m.well-wisher (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; hṛt – heart);
prabhavaḥ prabhava 1n.1 m.birth, source (from: pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce);
pralayaḥ pralaya 1n.1 m.annihilation, dissolution, end, death (from: pra- – to dissolve, to vanish);
sthānam sthāna 1n.1 n.staying, place, position, abode (from: sthā – to stand);
nidhānam nidhāna 1n.1 n.storage place, receptacle, treasure (from: ni-dhā – to put, to deposit);
bījam bīja 1n.1 n.seed, semen, source;
avyayam a-vyaya 1n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


pralayaḥpralaya- / pralayaṁ (dissolution);
prabhavaḥ pralayaḥ sthānaṁ prabhava-pralaya-sthānaṁ (origin, end and maintenance);
nidhānaṁ → nidānaṁ (the first cause);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

gatiḥ karma-phalam, bhartā poṣṭā, prabhuḥ svāmī, sākṣī prāṇināṃ kṛtākṛtasya, nivāso yasmin prāṇino nivasanti, śaraṇam ārtānām, prapannānām ārti-haraḥ | suhṛt pratyupakārānapekṣaḥ sann upakārī, prabhava utpattir jagataḥ, pralayaḥ pralīyate’smin iti, tathā sthānaṃ tiṣṭhaty asminn iti, nidhānaṃ nikṣepaḥ kālāntaropabhogyaṃ prāṇinām, bījaṃ praroha-kāraṇaṃ praroha-dharmiṇām, avyayaṃ yāvat-saṃsāra-bhāvitvāt avyayam, na hy abījaṃ kiṃcit prarohati | nityaṃ ca praroha-darśanād bīja-saṃtatir na vyetīti gamyate

 

Rāmānuja


gamyata iti gatiḥ; tatra tatra prāpyasthānam ityarthaḥ; bhartā dhārayitā, prabhuḥ śāsitā, sākṣī sākṣāddṛṣṭā, nivāsaḥ vāsasthānaṃ veśmādi / śaraṇam / iṣṭasya prāpakatayā+aniṣṭasya nivāraṇatayā ca samāśrayaṇīyaś cetanaḥ śaraṇam / sa cāham eva; sukṛd dhitaiṣī, prabhavapralayasthānam yasya kasyacid yatra kutracid utpattipralayayor yat sthānam, tad aham eva / nidhānaṃ nidhīyata iti nidhānam, utpādyam upasaṃhāryaṃ cāham evetyarthaḥ; avyayaṃ bījam tatra tatra vyayarahitaṃ yat kāraṇam, tad aham eva

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca gatir iti | gamyata iti gatiḥ phalam | bhartā poṣaṇa-kartā | prabhur niyantā | sākṣī śubhāśubha-draṣṭā | nivāso bhoga-sthānam | śaraṇaṃ rakṣakaḥ | suhṛd dhita-kartā | prakarṣeṇa bhavaty aneneti prabhavaḥ sraṣṭā | pralīyate ‚neneti pralayaḥ saṃhartā | tiṣṭhaty asminn iti sthānam ādhāraḥ | nidhīyate ‚sminn iti nidhānaṃ laya-sthānam | bījaṃ kāraṇam | tathāpy avyayam avināśi | na tu brīhy-ādi-bījavan naśvaram ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca gatir iti | gamyata iti gatiḥ karma-phalam |

brahmā viśva-sṛjo dharmo mahān avyaktam eva ca |
uttamāṃ sāttvikīm etāṃ gatim āhur manīṣiṇaḥ || ity [Manu 12.50] evaṃ manvādy-uktam |

bhartā poṣṭā sukha-sādhanasyaiva dātā | prabhuḥ svāmī madīyo ‚yam iti svīkartā | sākṣī sarva-prāṇināṃ śubhāśubha-draṣṭā | nivasanty asminn iti nivāso bhoga-sthānam | śīryate duḥkham asminn iti śaraṇaṃ prapannānām ārti-hṛt | suhṛt pratyupakārānapekṣaḥ sannupakārī | prabhava utpattiḥ | pralayo vināśaḥ | sthānaṃ sthitḥ | yad vā prakarṣeṇa bhavanty aneneti prabhavaḥ sraṣṭā | prakarṣeṇa līyante ‚neneti pralayaḥ saṃhartā | tiṣṭhanty asminn iti sthānam ādhāraḥ | nidhīyate nikṣipyate tat-kāla-bhogyatayā kālāntaropabhogyaṃ vastv asminn iti nidhānaṃ sūkṣma-rūpa-sarva-vastv-adhikaraṇaṃ pralaya-sthānam iti yāvat | śaṅkha-padmādi-nidhir vā | bījam utpatti-kāraṇam | avyayam avināśi na tu brīhy-ādivad vinaśvaram | tenānādy-anantaṃ yat kāraṇaṃ tad apy aham eveti pūrveṇaiva sambandhaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


bahudhopāsate kathaṃ tvām evety āśaṅkyātmano viśvarūpatvaṃ prapañcayati caturbhiḥ | kratuḥ śrauto ‚gniṣṭomādiḥ yajñaḥ smārto vaiśvadevādiḥ | auṣadham auṣadhi-prabhavam annam | pitā vyaṣṭi-samaṣṭi-sarva-jagad-utpādanāt | mātā jagato ‚sya svakukṣi-madhya eva dhāraṇāt | dhātā jagato ‚sya poṣaṇāt | pitāmahaḥ jagat sraṣṭuḥ brahmaṇo ‚pi janakatvāt | vedyaṃ jñeyaṃ vastu | pavitraṃ śodhakaṃ vastu | gatiḥ phalam | bhartā patiḥ | prabhur niyantā | sākṣī śubhāśubha-draṣṭā | nivāsa āspadam | śaraṇaṃ vipadbhyas trātā | suhṛn nirupādhi-hita-kārī | prabhavādyāḥ sṛṣṭi-saṃhāra-sthitayaḥ kriyāś cāham | nidhānaṃ nidhiḥ padma-śaṅkhādiḥ | bījaṃ kāraṇam | avyayam avināśi na tu brīhy-ādivan naśvaram

 

Baladeva


commentary under the verse BhG 9.19
 
 



BhG 9.19

tapāmy aham ahaṃ varṣaṃ nigṛhṇāmy utsṛjāmi ca
amṛtaṃ caiva mṛtyuś ca sad asac cāham arjuna

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
aham (I) tapāmi (I burn),
aham (I) varṣam (rain) utsṛjāmi (I let go) nigṛhṇāmi ca (and I hold back),
[aham] ca eva (and I indeed) amṛtam (immortality) mṛtyuḥ ca (and death) [asmi] (I am),
[aham] (I) sat (existence) asat ca (and non-existence) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

tapāmi tap (to scorch) Praes. P 3v.1I burn
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
varṣam varṣa 2n.1 m.rain, rainy season, year (from: vṛṣ – to rain);
nigṛhṇāmi ni-grah (to hold back) Praes. P 3v.1I hold back
utsṛjāmi ut-sṛj (to let go, to emit) Praes. P 3v.1I let go, I emit;
ca av.and;
amṛtam a-mṛta 2n.1 n.not dead, nectar, immortality (from: mṛ – to die; [PP] mṛta – dead);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
mṛtyuḥ mṛtyu 1n.1 m.death (from: mṛ – to die);
ca av.and;
sat sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 n.being, existing, true, the essence;
asat a-sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 n.untrue, non-existing (from: sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
ca av.and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;

 

textual variants

utsṛjāmi → utsṛjāni;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

tapāmy aham ādityo bhūtvā kaiścit raśmibhir ulbaṇaiḥ | ahaṃ varṣaṃ kaiścid raśmibhir utsṛjāmi | utsṛjya punar nigṛhṇāmi kaiścid raśmibhir aṣṭabhir māsaiḥ punar utsṛjāmi prāvṛṣi | amṛtaṃ caiva devānām, mṛtyuś ca martyānām | sad yasya yat saṃbandhitayā vidyamānaṃ tat, tad-viparītam asac caivāham arjuna | na punar atyantam evāsad bhagavān, svayaṃ kārya-kāraṇe vā sad-asatī

 

Rāmānuja


agnyādityādirūpeṇāham eva tapāmi; grīṣmādāv aham eva varṣaṃ nigṛhṇāmi / tathā varṣāsu cāham evotsṛjāmi / amṛtaṃ caiva mṛtyuś ca / yena jīvati loko yena ca mriyate, tadubhayam aham eva / kim atra bahunoktena; sadasac cāham eva / sad yad vartate, asad yad atītam anāgataṃ ca sarvāvasthāvasthitacidacidvastuśarīratayā tat tat prakāro ‚ham evāvasthita ityarthaḥ / evaṃ bahudhā pṛthaktvena vibhaktanāmarūpāvasthitakṛtsnajagaccharīratayā tatprakāro ‚ham evāvasthita ity ekatvajñānenānanusaṃdadhānāś ca mām upāsate

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca tapāmy aham iti | ādityātmanā sthitvā nidāgha-kāle tapāmi jagatas tāpaṃ karomi | vṛṣṭi-samaye ca varṣam utsṛjāmi vimuñcāmi | kadācit tu varṣaṃ nigṛhṇāmy ākarṣāmi | amṛtaṃ jīvanaṃ mṛtyuś ca nāśaḥ | sat sthūlaṃ dṛśyam | asac ca sūkṣma-dṛśyam | etaṃ sarvam aham eveti | evaṃ matvā mām eva bahudhopāsata iti pūrvenaivānvayaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca tapāmy aham iti | tapāmy aham ādityaḥ san | tataś ca tāpa-vaśād ahaṃ varṣaṃ pūrva-vṛṣṭi-rūpaṃ rasaṃ pṛthivyā nigṛhṇāmy ākarṣāmi kaiścid raśmibhir aṣṭasu māseṣu | punas tam eva nigṛhītaṃ rasaṃ caturṣu māseṣu kaiścid raśmibhir utsṛjāmi ca vṛṣṭi-rūpeṇa prakṣipāmi ca bhūmau | amṛtaṃ ca devānāṃ sarva-prāṇināṃ jīvanaṃ vā | eva-kārasyāham ity anena sambandhaḥ | mṛtyuś ca martyānāṃ sarva-prāṇināṃ vināśo vā | sat yat sambandhitayā yad vidyate tat tatra sat | asac ca yat-sambandhitayā yac ca vidyate tat tatrāsat | etaṃ sarvam aham eva he ‚rjuna | tasmāt sarvātmānaṃ māṃ viditvā sva-svādhikārānusāreṇa bahubhiḥ prakārair mām evopāsata ity upapannam

 

Viśvanātha


ādityo bhūtvā nidāghe tapāmi prāvṛṣi varṣam utsṛjāmi | kadācic caiva graha-rūpeṇa varṣaṃ nigṛhṇāmi ca | amṛtaṃ mokṣaṃ mṛtyuḥ saṃsāraḥ | sad asat sthūla-sūkṣmaḥ | etat sarvam aham eveti matvā viśvatomukhaṃ mām upāsata iti pūrvenānvayaḥ

 

Baladeva


aham eva jaga-rūpatayāvasthita ity etat pradarśayati aham iti caturbhiḥ | kratur jyotiṣṭomādiḥ śrauto, yajño vaiśvadevādiḥ smārtaḥ | svadhā pitr-arthe śrāddhādiḥ | auṣadham bheṣajam auṣadhi-prabhavam annaṃ vā | mantro yājyāpuro nu vākyādir yenoddiśya havir devebhyo dīyate | ājyaṃ ghṛta-homādi-sādhanam | agnir homādi-kāraṇam āhavanīyādiḥ | hutaṃ homo haviḥ-prakṣepaḥ | etat sarvātmanāham evāsthitaḥ | pitāham iti | asya sthira-carasya jagatas tatra tatra pitṛtvena mātṛtvena pitāmahatvena cāham eva sthitaḥ | dhātā dhārakatvena poṣakatvena ca tatra tatra sthito rājādiś cāham eva cid-acic-chaktimatas tad-antaryāmiṇo mat teṣām anatirekāt vedyaṃ jñeyaṃ vastu pavitraṃ śuddhikaraṃ gaṅgādi-vāri | jñeye brahmaṇi jñāna-hetur oṅkāraḥ sarva-veda-bīja-bhūtaḥ | ṛg-ādis trividho vedaś ca-śabdād atharva ca grāhyam | teṣu niyatākṣaraḥ pādā ṛk, saiva gīti-viśiṣṭā sāma, sāma-padaṃ tu gītimātrasyaiva vācakam ity anyat | gīti-śūnyam amitākṣaraṃ yajuḥ | etat trividhaṃ karmopayogi-mantra-jātam aham evety arthaḥ |

gatiḥ sādhya-sādhana-bhūtā gamyata iyam anayā ca iti nirukteḥ | bhartā patiḥ | prabhur niyantā | sākṣī śubhāśubha-draṣṭā | nivāso bhoga-sthānaṃ nivasaty atra iti nirukteḥ | śaraṇaṃ prapannārti-hṛta śīrṣyate duḥkham asmin iti nirukteḥ | suhṛn nimitta-hita-kṛt | prabhavādyāḥ svarga-pralaya-sthitayaḥ kriyāḥ | nidhānaṃ nidhir mahā-padmādir nava-vidhaḥ | bījaṃ kāraṇam avyayam avināśi | na tu brīhy-ādivad vināśi |

tapāmīti | sūrya-rūpeṇāham eva nidāghe jagat tapāmi | prāvṛṣi varṣam jalaṃ visṛjāmi megha-rūpeṇa varṣaṃ nigṛhṇāmi ākarṣāmi | amṛtaṃ mokṣaṃ | mṛtyuḥ saṃsāraḥ | sat sthūlaṃ | asat sūkṣmam | etat sarvam aham eva tathā caivaṃ bahuvidha-nāma-rūpāvastha-nikhila-jagad-rūpatayā sthita eka eva śaktimān vāsudeva ity ekatvānusandhinā jñāna-yajñena caike yajanto mām upāsate

 
 


BhG 9.20

trai-vidyā māṃ soma-pāḥ pūta-pāpā yajñair iṣṭvā svar-gatiṃ prārthayante
te puṇyam āsādya surendra-lokam aśnanti divyān divi deva-bhogān

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syntax


trai-vidyāḥ (knowers of threefold knowledge) yajñaiḥ (with sacrifices) mām (me) iṣṭvā (after worshipping)
soma-pāḥ (drinking soma) pūta-pāpāḥ (purified of the sins) svar-gatim (heavenly goal) prārthayante (they pray for).
te (they) puṇyam surendra-lokam (the noble world of the lord of divinities) āsādya (after attaining)
divi (in heaven) divyān deva-bhogān (divine enjoments of divinities) aśnanti (they enjoy).

 

grammar

trai-vidyāḥ trai-vidya 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ tisro vidyā [ṛg-yajuḥ-sāmākhyāḥ] santi tewho have three kinds of knowledge [called Rig, Yajur and Sama] (from: tri – three; vid – to know, to understand, vidyā – knowledge, wisdom);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
soma-pāḥ soma-pa 1n.3 m.; ye somaṁ pibantīti drinking soma (from: soma – sok ofiarny, nektar, Moon; – pić, -pa – suffix: drinking);
pūta-pāpāḥ pūta-pāpa 1n.3 m.; KD / BV: yeṣāṁ pūtāni pāpāni santi te whose sins are purified (from: – to purify, [PP] pūta – purified; pāpa – evil, sin);
yajñaiḥ yajña 3n.3 m. with sacrifices (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
iṣṭvā yaj (to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) absol.after worshipping;
svar-gatim svar-gati 2n.1 f.path to heaven (from: sūr – to hurt, to be firm, sūra – the sun, a wise man, svar – heaven; gam – to go, gati – moving, passage, means, refuge, goal);
prārthayante pra-arth (to strive to obtain, to desire, to request) Praes. Ā 1v.3they request, they pray;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
puṇyam puṇya 2n.1 m.good, meritorious, pious, pure (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously);
āsādya ā-sad (to settle down, to attain) absol.after attaining;
surendra-lokam sura-indra-loka 2n.1 m.; [TP]: surāṇām indrasya lokam itithe world of the lord of divinities (from: sur – to reign or svar – heaven, sura – divinity; ind – to be powerful, indra – king, the best, lord of heaven; loka – world);
aśnanti (to reach, to eat, to enjoy) Praes. P 1v.3they reach, they enjoy;
divyān divya 2n.3 n.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
divi div 7n.1 f.in heaven (from: div – to shine);
deva-bhogān deva-bhoga 2n.3 m.; [TP]: devānāṁ bhogān itienjoyments of the divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoga – enjoyment, luxuries, wealth);

 

textual variants


trai-vidyā → trī vidyā (three types of knowledge);
soma-pāḥ → soma-pā;
pūta-pāpā → dhūta-pāpā (whose sin is shaken off);
prārthayanteprārthayaṁti (they pray);
surendra-lokam → surendra-lokān (worlds of the lord of divinities);
deva-bhogān → deha-bhogān (bodily enjoyments);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ye pūrvoktair nivṛtti-prakārair ekatva-pṛthaktvādi-vijñānair yajñair māṃ pūjayanta upāsate jñāna-vidaḥ, te yathā-vijñānaṃ mām eva prāpnuvanti | ye punar ajñāḥ kāma-kāmāḥ—

traividyā ṛg-yajuḥ-sāma-vido māṃ vasv-ādi-deva-rūpiṇaṃ somapāḥ somaṃ pibantīti somapāḥ, tenaiva soma-pānena pūta-pāpāḥ śuddha-kilbiṣāḥ, yajñair agniṣṭomādibhir iṣṭvā pūjayitvā svar-gatiṃ svarga-gamanaṃ svar eva gatiḥ svar-gatis tām, prārthayante | te ca puṇyaṃ puṇya-phalam āsādya saṃprāpya surendra-lokaṃ śatakratoḥ sthānam aśnanti bhuñjate divyān divi bhavān aprākṛtān deva-bhogān devānāṃ bhogān

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 9.21
 

Śrīdhara


tad evam avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā ity ādi śloka-dvayena kṣipra-phalāśayā devatāntaraṃ yajanto māṃ nādriyanta ity abhaktā darśitāḥ | mahātmānas tu māṃ pārthety ādinā ca mad-bhaktā uktāḥ | tatraikatvena pṛthaktvena vā ye parameśvaraṃ na bhajanti teṣāṃ janma-mṛtyu-pravāho durvāra ity āha traividyā iti dvābhyām | ṛg yajuḥ sāma lakṣaṇās tisro vidyāyeṣāṃ te trividyāḥ | trividyā eva traividyāḥ | svārthe tad-dhitaḥ | trisro vidyā adhīyate jānanti vā | traividyā veda-trayokta-karma-parāḥ ity arthaḥ | veda-traya-vihita-yajñair mām iṣṭvā mamaiva rūpaṃ devatānataram ity ajānanto ‚pi vastuta indrādi-rūpeṇa mām eveṣṭvā sampūjya | yajña-śeṣaṃ somaṃ pibantīti somapāḥ | tenaiva pūta-pāpāḥ śodhita-kalmaṣāḥ santaḥ svargatiṃ svargaṃ prati gatiṃ ye prārthayante te puṇya-phala-rūpaṃ surendra-lokaṃ svargam āsādya prāpya | divi svarge | divyānuttamān devānāṃ bhogān | aśnanti bhuñjate

 

Madhusūdana


evam ekatvena pṛthaktvena bahudhā ceti trividhā api niṣkāmāḥ santo bhagavantam upāsīnāḥ sattva-śuddhi-jñānotpatti-dvāreṇa krameṇa mucyante | ye tu sakāmāḥ santo na kenāpi prakāreṇa bhagavantam upāsate kintu sva-sva-kāma-sādhanāni kāmyāny eva karmāṇy anutiṣṭhanti te sattva-śodhakābhāvena jñāna-sādhanam anadhirūṇāḥ punaḥ punar janma-maraṇa-prabandhena sarvadā saṃsāra-duḥkham evānubhavantīty āha traividyeti dvābhyām |

ṛg-veda-yajur-veda-sāma-veda-lakṣaṇā hautrādhvarya-vaudgātra-pratipatti-hetavas tisro vidyā yeṣāṃ te tri-vidyās tri-vidyā eva svārthika-tad-dhitena traividyās tisro vidyā vidantīt vā veda-traya-vido yājñikā yajñair agniṣṭomādibhiḥ krameṇa savana-traye vasu-rudrād ity arūpiṇaṃ mām īśvaram iṣṭvā tad-rūpeṇa mām ajānanto ‚pi vastu-vṛttena pūjayitvābhiṣutya hutvā ca somaṃ pibantīti somapāḥ santas tenaiva soma-pānena pūta-pāpā nirasta-svarga-bhoga-pratibandhaka-pāpāḥ sakāmatayā svar-gatiṃ prārthayante na tu sattva-śuddhi-jñānotpatty-ādi | te divi svarge loke puṇyaṃ puṇya-phalaṃ sarvotkṛṣṭaṃ surendra-lokaṃ śata-kratoḥ sthānam āsādya divyān manuṣyair alabhyān deva-bhogān deva-dehopabhogyān kāmān aśnanti bhuñjate

 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ trividhopāsanāvanto ‚pi bhaktā eva mām eva parameśvaraṃ jānanto mucyante | ye tu karmiṇas te na mucyanta evety āha dvābhyāṃ traividyā iti | ṛg-yajuḥ-sāma-lakṣaṇās tisro vidyā adhīyante jānanti vā traividyā veda-trayokta-karma-parā ity arthaḥ | yajñair mām iṣṭvendrādayo mamaiva rūpāṇi ity ajānanto ‚pi vastuta indrādi-rūpeṇa mām eveṣṭvā yajña-śeṣaṃ somaṃ pibantīti somapās te puṇyaṃ prāpya

 

Baladeva


evaṃ svabhaktānāṃ vṛttam abhidhāya teṣām eva viśeṣaṃ bodhayituṃ sva-vimukhānāṃ vṛttim āha traividyā iti dvābhyām | tisṝṇāṃ vidyānāṃ samāhāras trividyaṃ | tad ye ‚dhīyante vidanti ca te traividyāḥ | tad adhīte tad veda iti sūtrād aṇ | ṛg-yajuḥ-sāmokta-karma-parā ity arthaḥ | trayī-vihitair jyotiṣṭomādibhir yajñair mām iṣṭvendrādayo mamaiva rūpāṇy avidvanto ‚pi vastutas tat-tad-rūpeṇāvasthitaṃ mām evāradhyety arthaḥ | somapā yajña-śeṣaṃ somaṃ pibantaḥ | pūta-pāpā vinaṣṭ-svargādi-prāpti-virodha-kalmaṣāḥ santo ye svargatiṃ prārthayante te puṇyam ity ādi visphuṭārthaḥ | mayaiva dattam iti śeṣaḥ

 
 


BhG 9.21

te taṃ bhuktvā svarga-lokaṃ viśālaṃ kṣīṇe puṇye martya-lokaṃ viśanti
evaṃ trayī-dharmam anuprapannā gatāgataṃ kāma-kāmā labhante

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syntax


te (they) tam viśālam svarga-lokam (that extensive world of heaven) bhuktvā (after enjoying)
puṇye kṣīṇe (when the pious deeds are exhausted) martya-lokam (the world of mortals) viśanti (they enter).
evam (thus) trayī-dharmam anuprapannāḥ (who followed the principles of the three [Vedas]) kāma-kāmāḥ (desiring pleasures) gatāgatam (going and coming) labhante (they obtain).

 

grammar

te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
bhuktvā bhuj (to eat, to enjoy) absol.after eating, after enjoying;
svarga-lokam svarga-loka 2n.1 m.; [TP]: svargasya lokam itithe world of heaven (from: sūr – to hurt, to be firm, sūra – the sun, a wise man, svar – heaven, svar-ga – leading to heaven, heaven; loka – world);
viśālam viśāla 2n.1 m.wide, extensive, great, mighty (from: viś – to enter, or vi-śṛ);
kṣīṇe kṣīṇa 7n.1 m. loc.abs.when it is perished, lost, exhausted (from: kṣi – to destroy);
puṇye puṇya 7n.1 m. loc.abs.in good, in meritorious, in pious, in pure (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously);
martya-lokam martya-loka 2n.1 m.; [TP]: martyānāṁ lokam itithe world of mortals (from: mṛ – to die, mṛtyu – death, martya – mortal; loka – world);
viśanti viś (to enter) Praes. P 1v.3they enter;
evam av.thus;
trayī-dharmam trayī-dharma 2n.1 m.; [TP]: [veda-] traya [-vihitaṁ] dharmam iti the law [established] in the three [Vedas] (from: tri – three; traya – triple, f. trayī – triple, the three Vedas; dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law);
anuprapannāḥ anu-pra-panna (anu-pra-pat – to enter, to follow) [PP] 1n.3 m.who followed;
gatāgataṁ gata-āgata 2n.1 n.; DV: gataṁ cāgataṁ cetigoing nad coming (from: gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone; ā-gam – to come);
kāma-kāmāḥ kāma-kāma 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ kāmānāṁ kāmo sti te those who desire pleasures (from: kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure);
labhante labh (to obtain) Praes. Ā 1v.3they obtain;

 

textual variants


kṣīṇe puṇyepuṇye kṣīṇe (when the pious deeds are exhausted);
martya-lokaṁmartya-loke (in the world od mortals);
evaṁ trayī-dharmam evaṁ hī trayī dharmyam / evaṁ hī trai-dharmyam (thus indeed the threefold law);
anuprapannā → anupraviṣṭā (who entered);
gatāgataṁ → gatāgatiṁ (going and coming);
kāma-kāmā → kāma-kāmaṁ ([they obtain] the desire of pleasure);
 
 



Śāṃkara


te taṃ bhuktvā svarga-lokaṃ viśālaṃ vistīrṇaṃ kṣīṇe puṇye martya-lokaṃ viśanti āviśanti | evaṃ yathoktena prakāreṇa trayī-dharmaṃ kevalaṃ vaidikaṃ karmānuprapannā gatāgataṃ gataṃ cāgataṃ ca gatāgataṃ gamanāgamanaṃ kāma-kāmāḥ kāmān kāmayanta iti kāma-kāmā labhante gatāgatam eva, na tu svātantryaṃ kvacil labhanta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ mahātmanāṃ jñānināṃ bhagavadanubhavaikabhogānāṃ vṛttam uktvā teṣām eva viśeṣaṃ darśayitum ajñānāṃ kāmakāmānāṃ vṛttam āha

ṛgyajussāmarūpās tisro vidyāḥ trividyam; kevalaṃ trividyaniṣṭhās traividyāḥ, na tu trayyantaniṣṭhāḥ / trayyantaniṣṭhā hi mahātmanaḥ pūrvoktaprakāreṇa nikhilavedavedyaṃ mām eva jñātvā+atimātramadbhaktikāritakīrtanādibhir jñānayajñena ca madekaprāpyā mām evopāsate / traividyās tu vedapratipādyakevalendrādiyāgaśiṣṭasomān pibantaḥ, pūtapāpāḥ svargādiprāptivirodhipāpāt pūtāḥ, taiḥ kevalendrādidevatyatayā+anusaṃhitair yajñair vastutas tadrūpaṃ mām iṣṭvā, tathāvasthitaṃ mām ajānantaḥ svargagatiṃ prārthayante / te puṇyam duḥkhāsaṃbhinnaṃ surendralokaṃ prāpya tatra tatra divyān devabhogān aśnanti / te taṃ viśālaṃ svargalokaṃ bhuktvā tadanubhavahetubhūte puṇye kṣīṇe punar api martyalokaṃ viśanti / evaṃ trayyantasiddhajñānavidhurāḥ kāmyasvargādikāmāḥ kevalaṃ trayīdharmam anuprapannāḥ gatāgataṃ labhante alpāsthirasvargādīn anubhūya punaḥ punar nivartanta ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tataś ca te tam iti | te svarga-kāmās taṃ prārthitaṃ vipulaṃ svarga-lokaṃ tat-sukhaṃ bhuktvā bhoga-prāpake puṇye kṣīṇe sati martya-lokaṃ viśanti | punar apy evam eva veda-traya-vihitaṃ dharmam anugatāḥ kāma-kāmā bhogān kāmayamānā gatāgataṃ yātāyātaṃ labhante

 

Madhusūdana


tataḥ kim aniṣṭam iti tadāha te tam iti | te sakāmās taṃ kāmyena puṇyena prāptaṃ viśālaṃ vistīrṇaṃ svarga-lokaṃ bhuktvā tad-bhoga-janake puṇye kṣīṇe sati tad-deha-nāśāt punar deha-grahaṇāya martya-lokaṃ viśanti punar garbha-vāsādi-yātanā anubhavantīty arthaḥ | punaḥ punar evam ukta-prakāreṇa | hiḥ prasiddhy-arthaḥ | traidharmyaṃ hautrādhvaryavaudgātra-dharma-trayāha jyotirṣṭomādikaṃ kāmyaṃ karma | trayī-dharmam iti pāṭhe ‚pi trayyā veda-trayeṇa pratipāditaṃ dharmam iti sa evārthaḥ | anupapannā anādau saṃsāre pūrva-pratipatty-apekṣayānu-śabdaḥ | pūrva-pratipatty-anantaraṃ manuṣya-lokam āgatya punaḥ pratipannāḥ | kāma-kāmā divyān bhogān kāmayamānā evaṃ gatāgataṃ labhante karma kṛtvā svargaṃ yānti tata āgatya punaḥ karma kurvantīty evaṃ garbha-vāsādi-yātanā-pravāhas teṣām aniśam anuvartata ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


gatāgataṃ punaḥ punar mṛtyu-janmanī

 

Baladeva


tataś ca te tam iti te svarga-prārthakāḥ prārthitaṃ taṃ svarga-lokaṃ bhuktvā tat-prāpake puṇye kṣīṇe sati martya-lokaṃ viśanti pañcāgni-vidyokta-rītyā bhuvi brāhmaṇādi-janmāni labhante punar apy evam eva trayī-vihitaṃ dharmam anutiṣṭhantaḥ kāma-kāmāḥ svarga-bhogecchavo gatāgataṃ labhante saṃsarantīty arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 9.22

ananyāś cintayanto māṃ ye janāḥ paryupāsate
teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ yoga-kṣemaṃ vahāmy aham

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syntax


ye janāḥ (those people who) ananyāḥ (unalloyed) mām (me) cintayantaḥ ([while] contemplating) [mām] (me) paryupāsate (they worship),
aham (I) teṣām nityābhiyuktānām (for those always engaged) yoga-kṣemam (gain and safety) vahāmi (I carry).

 

grammar

ananyāḥ an-anya 1n.3 m. unalloyed (from: anya – other);
cintayantaḥ cintayant (cint – to think, to consider) PPr. 1n.3 m.[while] contemplating;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
janāḥ jana 1n.3 m.people, men (from: jan – to be born, to produce);
paryupāsate pari-upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;
teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m. of them;
nityābhiyuktānām nitya-abhi-yukta 6n.3 m. nityam abhiyuktā itiof those always engaged (from: av. nityam – constantly, eternally; abhi-yuj – to join, [PP] abhi-yukta – engaged);
yoga-kṣemam yoga-kṣema 2n.1 n.; DV: yogaṁ ca kṣemaṁ ceti gain and safety (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; kṣema – safety, peace, comfortable state);
vahāmi vah (to carry) Praes. P 3v.1I carry;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


ananyāś cintayanto māṁ ananyāś ca viraktā māṁ (and unalloyed, neutral, me…);
vahāmy → dadāmy (I give);
 
 


Śāṃkara


ye punar niṣkāmāḥ samyag-darśinaḥ—

ananyā apṛthag-bhūtāḥ paraṃ devaṃ nārāyaṇam ātmatvena gatāḥ santaś cintayanto māṃ ye janāḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ paryupāsate, teṣāṃ paramārtha-darśināṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ satatābhiyogināṃ yoga-kṣemaṃ yogo’prāptasya prāpaṇaṃ kṣemas tad-rakṣaṇaṃ tad-ubhayaṃ vahāmi prāpayāmy aham | jñānī tv ātmaiva me mataṃ [gītā 7.18] sa ca mama priyaḥ [gītā 7.17] yasmād tasmāt te mamātma-bhūtāḥ priyāś ceti |

nanv anyeṣām api bhaktānāṃ yoga-kṣemaṃ vahaty eva bhagavān | satyaṃ vahaty eva | kiṃtv ayaṃ viśeṣaḥ—anye ye bhaktās te ātmārthaṃ svayam api yoga-kṣemam īhante | ananya-darśinas tu nātmārthaṃ yoga-kṣemam īhante | na hi te jīvite maraṇe vātmano gṛddhiṃ kurvanti | kevalam eva bhagavac-charaṇās te | ato bhagavān eva teṣāṃ yoga-kṣemaṃ vahatīti

 

Rāmānuja


mahātmanas tu niratiśayapriyarūpamaccintanaṃ kṛtvā mām anavadhikātiśayānandaṃ prāpyana punar āvartanta iti teṣāṃ viśeṣaṃ darśayati

ananyāḥ ananyaprayojanāḥ, maccintanena vinā+ātmadhāraṇālābhān maccintanaikaprayojanāḥ māṃ cintayanto ye mahātmāno janāḥ paryupāsate sarvakalyānṇaguṇānvitaṃ sarvavibhūtiyuktaṃ māṃ parita upāsate, anyūnam upāsate, teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānām mayi nityābhiyogaṃ kāṅkṣamāṇānām, aham matprāptilakṣaṇaṃ yogam, apunarāvṛttirūpaṃ kṣemam ca vahāmi

 

Śrīdhara


mad-bhaktās tu mat-prasādena kṛtārthā bhavantīty āha ananyāḥ iti | ananyā nāsti mad-vyatirekeṇānyat kāmayaṃ yeṣāṃ te | tathābhūtā ye janā māṃ cintayantaḥ sevante teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ sarvadā mad-eka-niṣṭhānāṃ yogaṃ dhanādi-lābhaṃ kṣemaṃ ca tat-pālanaṃ mokṣaṃ vā | tair aprārthitam apy aham eva vahāmi prāpayāmi

 

Madhusūdana


niṣkāmāḥ samyag-darśinas tu ananyā iti | anyo bheda-dṛṣṭi-viṣayo na vidyate yaṣāṃ te ‚nanyāḥ sarvādvaita-darśinaḥ sarva-bhoga-niḥspṛhāḥ | aham eva bhagavān vāsudevaḥ sarvātmā na mad-vyatiriktaṃ kiṃcid astīti jñātvā tam eva pratyañcaṃ sadā cintayanto māṃ nārāyaṇam ātatvena ye janāḥ sādhana-catuṣṭaya-sampannāḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ pari sarvato ‚navacchinnatayā paśyanti te mad-ananyatayā kṛtakṛtyā eveti śeṣaḥ |

advaita-darśana-niṣṭhānām atyanta-niṣkāmānāṃ teṣāṃ svayam aprayatamānāṃ kathaṃ yoga-kṣemau syātām ity ata āha teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ nityam anavaratam ādareṇa dhyāne vyāpṛtānāṃ deha-yātrā-mātrārtham apy aprayatamānānāṃ yogaṃ ca kṣemaṃ ca | alabdhasya lābhaṃ labdhasya parirakṣaṇaṃ ca śarīra-sthity-arthaṃ yoga-kṣemam akāmayamānānām api vahāmi prāpayāmy ahaṃ sarveśvaraḥ |

teṣāṃ jñānī nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir viśiṣyate |
priyo hi jñānino ‚tyartham ahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ || [Gītā 7.17] iti hy uktam |

yadyapi sarveṣām api yoga-kṣemaṃ vahati bhāgavāṃs tathāpy anyeṣāṃ prayatnam utpādya tad-dvārā vahati jñānināṃ tu tad-arthaṃ prayatnam utpādya vahatīti viśeṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


mad-ananya-bhaktānāṃ sukhaṃ tu na karma-prāpyaṃ kintu mad-dattam evety āha ananyā iti | nityam eva sadaivābhiyuktānāṃ paṇḍitānām iti tad anye nityam apaṇḍitā iti bhāvaḥ | yad vā nitya-saṃyoga-spṛhāvatāṃ yogo dhanādi-lābhaḥ kṣemaṃ tat-pālanaṃ ca tair tair anapekṣitam apy aham eva vahāmy atra karomīty aprayujya vahāmīti prayogāt teṣāṃ śarīra-poṣaṇa-bhāro mayaivohyate yathā svakalatra-putrādi-poṣaṇa-bhāro gṛhastheneti bhāvaḥ | na ca anyeṣām iva teṣām api yoga-kṣemaṃ karma-prāpyam evety ata ātmārāmasya sarvetodāsīnasya parameśvarasya tava kiṃ tad-vahaneneti vācyam | bhaktir asya bhajanaṃ tad ihāmutropādhi-nairāsyenāmuṣmin manaḥ-kalpanam etad eva naiṣkarmyam | iti śruter mad-anya-bhaktānāṃ niṣkāmatvena naiṣkarmyāt teṣu dṛṣṭaṃ sukhaṃ mad-dattam eva | tatra mama sarvatrodāsīnasyāpi sva-bhakta-vātsalyam eva hetur jñeyaḥ | na caivaṃ tvayi sveṣṭa-deve sva-nirvāha-bhāraṃ dadānās te bhaktāḥ prema-śūnyā iti vācyam | tair mayi sva-bhārasya sarvathaivānarpaṇāt mayaiva svecchayā grahaṇāt | na ca saṅkalpa-mātreṇa viśva-sṛṣṭy-ādi kartuṃ mamāyaṃ bhāro jñeyaḥ | yad vā bhakta-janāsaktasya mama sva-bhogya-kāntābhāra-vahanam iva tadīya-yoga-kṣema-vahanam atisukha-pradam iti

 

Baladeva


atha sva-bhaktānāṃ viśeṣaa nirūpayati ananyā iti | ye janā ananyā mad-eka-prayojanā māṃ cintayanto dhyāyantaḥ paritaḥ kalyāṇa-guṇa-ratnāśrayatayā vicitrādbhuta-līlā-pīyūṣāśrayatayā divya-vihbūty-āśrayatayā copāsate bhajanti teṣāṃ nityaṃ sarvadaiva mayy abhiyuktānāṃ vismṛta-deha-yātrāṇām aham eva yoga-kṣemam annādy-āharaṇaṃ tat-saṃrakṣaṇaṃ ca vahāmi | atra karomīty anuktvā vahāmīty uktis tu tat-poṣaṇa-bhāro mayaiva voḍhavyo gṛhasthasyeva kuṭumba-poṣaṇa-bhāra iti vyanakti | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ svāminaḥ phala-śruter ity ātreyaḥ [Vs 3.4.44] iti | atrāhuḥ teṣāṃ nityaṃ mayā sārdham abhiyogaṃ vāñchatāṃ yogaṃ mat-prāpti-lakṣaṇaṃ kṣemaṃ ca matto ‚punar-āvṛtti-lakṣaṇam aham eva vahāmi | teṣāṃ mat-prāpaṇa-bhāro mamaiva | na tv arcir-āder deva-gaṇasyeti | evam evābhidhāsyati dvādaśe – ye tu sarvāṇi karmāṇi ity ādi-dvayena | sūtrakāro ‚py evam āha viśeṣaṃ ca darśayati [Vs 4.3.16] iti
 
 


BhG 9.23

ye py anya-devatā-bhaktā yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ
te pi mām eva kaunteya yajanty avidhi-pūrvakam

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
ye anya-devatā-bhaktāḥ api (although those devotees of other divinities) śraddhayā anvitāḥ (endowed with faith) yajante (they worship),
te api (even they) avidhi-pūrvakam (not according to rule) mām eva (just me) yajanti (they worship).

 

grammar

ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
anya-devatā-bhaktāḥ anya-devatā-bhakta 1n.3 m.; [TP]: anyāsāṁ devatānāṁ bhaktā itidevotees of other divinities (from: anya – other; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity, devatā – divinity; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
yajante yaj (to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they offer in sacrifice;
śraddhayā śrad-dhā 3n.1 f.with faith (from: śrat – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]);
anvitāḥ anvita (anu-i – to go along) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are endowed (with what? – requires instrumental);
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
yajanti yaj (to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship) Praes. P 1v.3they worship, they offer in sacrifice;
avidhi-pūrvakam av.not according to rule (from: vidhi – a rule, formula, injunction; pūrvaka – previous, ancient, suffix: according to;

 

textual variants


ye py anya-devatā-bhaktā ye tv anya-devatā bhaktā (but those who worship other divinities);
yajanty avidhi-pūrvakamyajaṁti vidhi-pūrvakam / yajante ‘vidhi-pūrvakam (they worship according to rule / they worship not according to rule);

The second pada of verse 9.23 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 17.1;

 
 


Śāṃkara


nanv anyāpi devatās tvam eva cet tad-bhaktāś ca tvām eva yajante | satyam evaṃ—

ye’py anya-devatā-bhaktā anyāsu devatāsu bhaktā anya-devatā-bhaktāḥ santo yajante pūjayanti śraddhayā āstikya-buddhyānvitā anugatāḥ, te’pi mām eva kaunteya yajanty avidhi-pūrvakam avidhir ajñānaṃ tat-pūrvakaṃ yajanta ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


ye tv indrādidevatābhaktāḥ kevalatrayīniṣṭhāḥ śraddhayā+anvitāḥ indrādīn yajante, te ‚pi pūrvoktena nyāyena sarvasya maccharīratayā madātmakatvena, indrādiśabdānāṃ ca madvācitvād vastuto mām eva yajante; api tv avidhipūrvakaṃ yajante / indrādīnāṃ devatānāṃ karamsvārādhyatayā anvayaṃ yathā vedāntavākyāni, „caturhotāro yatra saṃpadaṃ gacchanti deaiḥ” ityādīni vidadhati, na tatpūrvakaṃ yajante / vedāntavākyajātaṃ hi paramapuruṣaśarīratayā+avasthitānām indrādīnām ārādhyatvaṃ vidadhad atmabhūtasya paramapuruṣasyaiva sākṣād ārādhyatvaṃ vidadhāti / caturhotāraḥ agnihotradarśapūrṇamāsādīni karmāṇi, yatra paramātmany ātmatayā+avasthite saty eva taccharīrabhūtendrādidevaiḥ; saṃpadaṃ gacchanti indrādidevānām ārādhanāny etāni karmāṇītīmāṃ saṃpadaṃ gacchantītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


nanu ca tvad-vyatirekeṇa vastuto devatāntarasyābhāvādindrādi-sevino ‚pi tvad-bhaktā eveti kathaṃ te gatāgataṃ labheran ? tatrāha ye ‚pīti | śraddhayopetā bhaktāḥ santo ye janā anya-devatā indrādi-rūpā yajante te ‚pi mām eva yajantīti satyaṃ kintu avidhi-pūrvakam | mokṣa-prāpakaṃ vidhiṃ vinā yajanti | atas te punar āvartante

 

Madhusūdana


nanv anyā api devatās tvam eva tvad-vyatiriktasya vastv-antarasyābhāvāt | tathā ca devatāntara-bhaktā api tvām eva bhajanta iti na ko ‚pi viśeṣaḥ syāt | tena gatāgataṃ kāma-kāmā vasu-rudrādityādi-bhaktā labhante | ananyāś cintayanto māṃ tu kṛta-kṛtyā iti katham uktaṃ tatrāha ye ‚pīti | yathā mad-bhaktā mām eva yajanti tathā ye ‚nya-devatānāṃ vasv-ādīnāṃ bhaktā yajante jyotiṣṭomādibhiḥ śraddhayāstikya-buddhyā ‚nvitāḥ | te ‚pi mad-bhaktā iva he kaunteya tat-tad-devatā-rūpeṇa sthitaṃ mām eva yajanti pūjayanti | avidhi-pūrvakam avidhir ajñānaṃ tat-pūrvakaṃ sarvātmatvena mām ajñātvā mad-bhinnatvena vastv-ādīn kalapayitvā yajantīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ca jñāna-yajñena cāpy anye ity anena tvayā svasyaivopāsanā trividhoktā | tatra bahudhā viśvato-mukham iti tṛtīyāyā upāsanāyā jñāpanārtham | ahaṃ kratur ahaṃ yajñaḥ ity ādi svasya viśva-rūpatvaṃ darśitaṃ | ataḥ karma-yogena karmāṅga-bhūtendrādi-yājakās tathā prādhānyenaiva devatāntara-bhaktā api tvad-bhaktā eva | kathaṃ tarhi te na mucyante ? yad uktaṃ tvayā gatāgataṃ kāma-kāmā labhante iti | antavat tu phalaṃ teṣām iti ca | tatrāha ye ‚pīti satyaṃ mām eva yajantīti | kintv avidhi-pūrvakam mat-prāpakaṃ vidhiṃ vinaiva yajanty ataḥ punar āvartante

 

Baladeva


nanv indrādi-yājino ‚pi vastutas tvad-yājina eva teṣāṃ kuto gatāgatam iti cet tatrāha ye ‚pīti | ye janā anya-devatā-bhaktāḥ kevaleṣv indrādiṣu bhaktimantaḥ śraddhayā ataeva phala-pradā iti dṛḍha-viśvāsenopetāḥ santo yajante yajñais tān arcayanti | te ‚pi mām eva yajanti iti satyam etat | kintv avidhi-pūrvakaṃ te yajanti yena vidhinā gatāgata-nivartakā mat-prāptiḥ syāt taṃ vidhiṃ vinaiva | atas tat te labhante
 
 


BhG 9.24

ahaṃ hi sarva-yajñānāṃ bhoktā ca prabhur eva ca
na tu mām abhijānanti tattvenātaś cyavanti te

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syntax


aham hi (I indeed) sarva-yajñānām (of all sacrifices) bhoktā ca (and enjoyer) prabhuḥ eva ca (and certainly master).
[te tu] (but they) tattvena (truly) mām (me) na abhijānanti (they do not distinguish),
ataḥ [te] (for this reason they) cyavanti (they fall).

 

grammar

aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
sarva-yajñānām sarva-yajña 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ yajñānām itiof all sacrifices (from: sarva – all, whole; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu);
bhoktā bhoktṛ 1n.1 m.one who eats, enjoys (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy);
ca av.and;
prabhuḥ pra-bhu 1n.1 m.perfect, powerful, rich, master, lord (from: pra- – prefix: in front, much; bhū – to be);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
na av.not;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
abhijānanti abhi-jñā (to distinguish) Praes. P 1v.3they distinguish, they understand;
tattvena av.truly (from: tat – to, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality);
ataḥ av.from this, hence, therefore (indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
cyavanti cyu (to fall, to go) Praes. P 1v.3they fall;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;

 

textual variants


sarva-yajñānāṁsarva-bhūtānāṁ (of all beings);
cyavanti → calaṁti / vyacaṁti / cavaṁti / calaṁte (they shake / they bend / they shake);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kasmāt te’vidhi-pūrvakaṃ yajanta ity ucyate | yasmāt—

ahaṃ hi sarva-yajñānāṃ śrautānāṃ smārtānāṃ ca sarveṣāṃ yajñānāṃ devatātmatvena bhoktā ca prabhur eva ca | mat-svāmiko hi yajñaḥ, adhiyajño’ham evātra [gītā 8.4] iti hy uktam | tathā na tu mām abhijānanti tattvena yathāvat | ataś cāvidhi-pūrvakam iṣṭvā yāga-phalāc cyavanti pracyavante te

 

Rāmānuja


atas traividyā indrādiśarīrasya paramapuruṣasyārādhanāny etāni karmāṇi; ārādhyaś ca sa eveti na jānanti, te ca parimitaphalabhāginaś cyavanasvabhāvāś ca bhavanti; tad āha

prabhur eva ca tatra tatra phalapradātā cāham eva ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


etad eva vivṛṇoti aham iti | sarveṣāṃ yajñānāṃ tat-tad-devatā-rūpeṇāham eva bhoktā | prabhuś ca svāmī | phala-dātā cāpy aham evety arthaḥ | evambhūtaṃ māṃ te tattvena yathāvan nābhijānanti | ataś cyavanti pracyavante punar āvartante | ye tu sarva-devatāsu mām evātaryāminaṃ paśyanto yajanti te tu nāvartante

 

Madhusūdana


avidhi-pūrvakatvaṃ vivṛṇvan phala-pracyutim amīṣām āha aham hīti | ahaṃ bhagavān vāsudeva eva sarveṣāṃ yajñānāṃ śrautānāṃ smārtānāṃ ca tat-tad-devatā-rūpeṇa bhoktā ca svenāntaryāmi-rūpeṇādhiyajñatvāt prabhuś ca phala-dātā ceti prasiddham etat | devatāntara-yājinas tu mām īdṛśaṃ tattvena bhoktṛtvena prabhutvena ca bhagavān vāsudeva eva vastv-ādi-rūpeṇa yajñānāṃ bhoktā svena rūpeṇa ca phala-dātā na tad-anyo ‚sti kaścid ārādhya ity evaṃ-rūpeṇa na jānanti | ato mat-svarūpāparijñānān mahatāyāseneṣṭvāpi mayy anarpita-karmāṇas tat-tad-deva-lokaṃ dhūmādi-mārgeṇa gatvā tad-bhogānte cyavanti pracyavante tad-bhoga-janaka-karma-kṣayāt tad-dehādi-viyuktāḥ punar deha-grahaṇāya manuṣya-lokaṃ pratyāvartante | ye tu tat-tad-devatāsu bhagavantam eva sarvāntaryāmiṇaṃ paśyanto yajante te bhagavad-arpita-karmāṇas tad-vidyā-sahita-karma-vaśād arcir-ādi-mārgeṇa brahma-lokaṃ gatvā tatrotpanna-samyag-darśanās tad-bhogānte mucyanta iti vivekaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


avidhi-pūrvakatvaṃ evāha aham iti | devatāntara-rūpeṇāham eva bhoktā prabhuḥ svāmī phala-dātā cāham evati | māṃ tu tattvena na jānanti | yathā sūryasyāham upāsakaḥ | sūrya eva mayi prasīdatu | sūrya eva mad-abhīṣṭaṃ phalaṃ dadātu | sūrya eva parameśvara iti teṣāṃ buddhiḥ | na tu parameśvaro nārāyaṇa eva sūryaḥ | sa eva tādṛśa-śraddhotpādakaḥ | sa eva mahyaṃ sūryopāsanā-phala-pradaḥ | iti buddhi-ratas tattvato mad-abhijñānābhāvāt te cyavante | bhagavān nārāyaṇa eva sūryādi-rūpeṇārādhyate iti bhāvanayā viśvato-mukhaṃ mām upāsīnās tu mucyanta eva | tasmān mad-vibhūtiṣu sūryādiṣu pūjā mad-vibhūti-jñāna-pūrvikaiva kartavyā | na tv anyathā iti dyotitam

 

Baladeva


avidhi-pūrvakatāṃ darśayati ahaṃ hīti | aham evendrādi-rūpeṇa sarveṣāṃ yajñānāṃ bhoktā prabhuḥ svāmī pālakaḥ phaladaś cety evaṃ tattvena māṃ nābhijānanti | atas te cyavanti saṃsaranti

 
 

BhG 9.25

yānti deva-vratā devān pitṝn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ
bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā yānti mad-yājino pi mām

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syntax


deva-vratāḥ ([making] vows to divinities) devān (to divinities) yānti (they go),
pitṛ-vratāḥ ([making] vows to ancestors) pitṝn (to ancestors) yānti (they go),
bhūtejyāḥ ([making] offering to spirits) bhūtāni (to spirits) yānti (they go),
mad-yājinaḥ api (but my worshippers) mām (to me) yānti (they go).

 

grammar

yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
deva-vratāḥ deva-vrata 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ deveṣu vratāni santi tewhose vows are to the divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; vṛ – to choose, to like or vṛ – to cover, to restrain, vrata – austerity, a vow);
devān deva 2n.3 m.to gods, to divinities (from: div – to shine, to play);
pitṝn pitṛ 2n.3 m.to fathers, to ancestors;
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
pitṛ-vratāḥ pitṛ-vrata 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ pitṛṣu vratāni santi tewhose vows are to the ancestors (from: pitṛ – father, ancestor; vṛ – to choose, to like or vṛ – to cover, to restrain, vrata – austerity, a vow);
bhūtāni bhūta 2n.3 n.to spirits (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
bhūtejyāḥ bhūta-ijya 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ bhuteṣv ijyāsti tewhose worship is to the spirits (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; beings, spirits; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, ijyā – offering, gift, worship);
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
mad-yājinaḥ mad-yājin 1n.3 m.; [TP]: ye māṁ yajantīti tewho worship me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1to me;

 
 



Śāṃkara


ye’py anya-devatā-bhakti-mattvenāvidhi-pūrvakaṃ yajante, teṣām api yāga-phalam avaśyaṃbhāvi | kathaṃ ?—

yānti gacchanti deva-vratā deveṣu vrataṃ niyamo bhaktiś ca yeṣāṃ te deva-vratā devān yānti | pitṝn agniṣv āttādīn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ śrāddhādi-kriyā-parāḥ pitṛ-bhaktāḥ | bhūtāni vināyaka-mātṛ-gaṇa-catur-bhaginyādīni yānti bhūtejyā bhūtānāṃ pūjakāḥ | yānti mad-yājino mad-yajana-śīlā vaiṣṇavā mām eva yānti | samāne’py āyāse mām eva na bhajante’jñānāt, tena te’lpa-phala-bhājo bhavantīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


aho mahad idaṃ vaicitryam, yad ekasminn eva karmaṇi vartamānāḥ saṅkalpamātrabhedena kecid atyalpaphalabhāginaś cyavanasvabhāvāś ca bhavanti; kecana anavadhikātiśayānandaparamapuruṣaprāptirūpaphalabhāgino ‚punarāvartinaś ca bhavantīty āha

vrataśabdaḥ saṅklpavācī; devavratāḥ darśapūrṇamāsādibhiḥ karmabhiḥ indrādīn yajāmahe iti indrādiyajanasaṅkalpā ye, te indrādīn devān yānti / ye ca pitṛyajñādibhiḥ pitQn yajāmahe iti pitṛyajanasaṅkalpāḥ, te pitQn yānti / ye ca „yakṣarakaṣaḥpiśācādīni bhūtāni yajāmahe” iti bhūtayajanasaṅkalpāḥ, te bhūtāni yānti / ye te tair eva yajñaiḥ „devapitṛbhūtaśarīrakaṃ paramātmānaṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevaṃ yajāmahe” iti māṃ yajante, te madyājino mām eva yānti / devādivratāḥ devādīn prāpya tais saha parimitaṃ bhogaṃ bhuktvā teṣāṃ vinaśakāle tais saha vinaṣṭā bhavanti / madyājinas tu mām anādinidhanaṃ sarvajñaṃ satyasaṅkalpam anavadhikātiśayāsaṃkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇagaṇamahodadhim anavadhikātiśayānandaṃ prāpya na punar nivartanta ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tad evopapādayati yāntīti | deveṣv indrādiṣu vrataṃ niyamo yeṣāṃ te antavanto devān yānti | ataḥ punar āvartante | pitṝṣu vrataṃ yeṣāṃ śrāddhādi-kriyā-parāṇāṃ te pitṝn yānti | bhūteṣu vinārakamātṛpaṇādiṣu ijyā pūjā yeṣāṃ te bhūtejyā bhūtāni yānti | māṃ yaṣṭuṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te mad-yājinaḥ | te mām evākṣayaṃ paramānanda-svarūpaṃ yānti

 

Madhusūdana


devatāntara-yājinām anāvṛtti-phalābhāve ‚pi tat-tad-devatāyām ānurūpa-kṣudra-phalāvāptir dhruveti vadan bhagavad-yājināṃ tebhyo vailakṣaṇyam āha yāntīti | avidhi-pūrvaka-yājino hi trividhā antaḥkaraṇopādhi-guṇa-traya-bhedāt | tatra sāttvikā deva-vratāḥ | devā vasu-rudrādityādayas tat-sambandhi-vrataṃ baly-upahāra-pradakṣiṇa-prahvī-bhāvādi-rūpaṃ pūjanaṃ yeṣāṃ te tān eva devān yānti taṃ yathā yathopāsate tad eva bhavati iti śruteḥ | rājasās tu pitṛ-vratāḥ śrāddhādi-kriyābhir agniṣv āttādīnāṃ pitṝṇām ārādhakās tān eva pitṝn yānti | tathā tāmasā bhūtejyā yakṣa-rakṣo-vināyaka-mātṛ-gaṇādīnāṃ bhūtānāṃ pūjakās tāny eva bhūtāni yānti | atra deva-pitṛ-bhūta-śabdānāṃ tat-sambandhi-lakṣaṇayoṣṭra-mukha-nyāyena samāsaḥ | madhyama-pada-lopi-samāsānaṅgīkārān prakṛti-vikṛti-bhāvābhāvena ca tādarthya-caturthī-samāsāyogāt | ante ca pūjāvācījyāśabda-prayogāt pūrva-paryāya-dvaye ‚pi vrata-śabdaḥ pūjā-para eva |

evaṃ devatāntarārādhanasya tat-tad-devatā-rūpatvam antavat phalam uktvā bhagavad-ārādhanasya bhagavad-rūpatvam anantaṃ phalam āha māṃ bhagavantaṃ yaṣṭuṃ pūjayituṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ te mad-yājinaḥ sarvāsu devatāsu bhagavad-bhāva-darśino bhagavad-ārādhana-parāyaṇā māṃ bhagavantam eva yānti | samāne ‚py āyāse bhagavantam anataryāmiṇam ananta-phala-dam anārādhya devatāntaram ārādhyāntavat-phalaṃ yāntīty aho durdaiva-vaibhavam ajñānām ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ca tat-tad-devatā-pūjā-paddhatau yo yo vidhir uktas tenaiva vidhinā sā sā devatā pūjyata eva | yathā viṣṇu-pūjā-paddhatau ya eva vidhis tenaiva vaiṣṇavā viṣṇuṃ pūjayanti | ato devatāntara-bhaktānāṃ ko doṣa iti cet satyam | tarhi tāṃ tāṃ devatāṃ tad-bhaktāḥ prāpnuvanty eva ity ayaṃ nyāya eva ity āha yāntīti | tena tat-tad-devatānām api naśvaratvāt tat-tad-devatā-bhaktāḥ katham anaśvaro bhavantu ? ahaṃ tv anaśvaro nityo mad-bhaktā apy anaśvarāḥ iti te nityā eveti dyotitam | bhavān ekaḥ śiṣyate śeṣa-saṃjñaḥ [BhP 10.3.25] iti | eko nārāyaṇa evāsīn na brahmā na ca śaṅkaraḥ iti | parārdhānte so ‚budhyata gopa-rūpo me purastād āvirbabhūva [GTU 1.25] iti | na cyavante ca mad-bhaktā mahati pralaye ‚pi [SkandaP Kāśī-khaṇḍe] ity ādi śruti-smṛtibhyaḥ

 

Baladeva


vastuto mama tat tad devatādi-rūpatayā sthitatve ‚pi tad-rūpatayā maj-jñānābhāvād eva temāṃ nāpnuvantīty āha yāntīti | atrādy-apaaryāye vrata-śabdaḥ pūjābhidhāyī paratrejyā-śabdāt | deva-vratā deva-pūjakāḥ sāttvika-darśa-paurṇamāsy-ādi-karmabhir indrādīn yajantas tān eva yānti | pitṛ-vratā rājasāḥ śrāddhādi-karmabhiḥ pitṝn yajantas tān eva yānti | bhūtejyās tāmasās tat-tad-balibhir yakṣa-rakṣo-vināyakān pūjayantas tāny eva bhūtāni yānti | mad-yājinas tu nirguṇāḥ sulabhair dravyair mām arcayanto mām eva yānti | apir avadhāraṇe | ayam arthaḥ – indrādīnāṃ vayam upāsakās ta evāsmākam īśvarāḥ pūjābhiḥ prasīdantaḥ phalāny abhīṣā̆tāni dadyur iti mad-anya-deva-sevakānāṃ bhāvanā | sarva-śaktiḥ sarveśvaro vāsudevas tad-devatādi-rūpeṇāvasthito ‚smat-svāmī sulabhopacāraiḥ karmabhir ārādhitaḥ sarvāṇy asmad-abhīṣṭāni dadyād iti mat-sevakānāṃ bhāvanā | tataś ca samānāny eva karmāṇy anutiṣṭhanto ‚pi devādi-sevino mad-bhāvanā-vaimukhyāt tān nijeṣṭān evācirāyuṣo ‚lpa-vibhūtīn āsādya taiḥ saha parimitān bhogān bhuktvā tad-vināśe vinaśyanti | mat-sevinas tu mām anādi-nidhanaṃ satya-saṅkalpam ananta-vibhūtiṃ vijñānānanda-mayaṃ bhakta-vatsalaṃ sarveśvaraṃ prāpya mattaḥ punar na nivartante | mayā sākam anantāni sukhāni anubhavante mad-dhāmni divye vilasantīti
 
 


BhG 9.26

patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyaṃ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati
tad ahaṃ bhakty-upahṛtam aśnāmi prayatātmanaḥ

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) bhaktyā (with devotion) me (me) patram (a leaf) puṣpam (a flower) phalam (a fruit) toyam (water) prayacchati (he gives),
aham (I) [tasya] prayatātmanaḥ (of the one who offered his self as a gift) tat bhakty-upahṛtam (that offered with devotion) aśnāmi (I eat).

 

grammar

patram patra / pattra 2n.1 n.a leaf, petal;
puṣpam puṣpa 2n.1 n. a flower (from: puṣ to flourish,);
phalam phala 2n.1 n.a fruit (from: phal – to ripen);
toyam toya 2n.1 n.water;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
me asmat sn. 4n.1me (shortened form of: mahyam);
bhaktyā bhakti 3n.1 f.with devotion, with love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
prayacchati pra-yam (to give) Praes. P 1v.1he gives;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
bhakty-upahṛtam bhakty-upahṛta 2n.1 n.; [TP]: bhaktyopahṛtam iti offered with devotion (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakti – devotion, love, fondness; upa-hṛ – to carry near, to offer, [PP] upa-hṛta – carried, offered);
aśnāmi (to reach, to eat, to enjoy) Praes. P 3v.1I eat, I enjoy;
prayatātmanaḥ prayata-ātman 6n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā prayato ‘sti tasyawhose self is offered as a gift (from: pra-yam – to offer, to give, to hold [PP] prayata – offered as a gift; ātman – self);

 

textual variants


bhakty-upahṛtam → bhaktyāpahṛtam (taken with devotion);
 
 



Śāṃkara


na kevalaṃ mad-bhaktānām anāvṛtti-lakṣaṇam ananta-phalam, sukhārādhanaś cāham | kathaṃ ?—

patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyam udakaṃ yaḥ me mahyaṃ bhaktyā prayacchati, tat ahaṃ patrādi bhaktyā upahṛtaṃ bhakti-pūrvakaṃ prāpitaṃ bhakty-upahṛtam aśnāmi gṛhṇāmi prayatātmanaḥ śuddha-buddheḥ

 

Rāmānuja


madyājinām ayam api viśeṣo ‚stīty āha

sarvasulabhaṃ patraṃ vā puṣpaṃ vā phalaṃ vā toyaṃ vā yo bhaktyā me prayacchati atyarthamatpriyatvena tatpradānena vinā+ātmadhāraṇam alabhamānatayā tadekaprayojano yo me patrādikaṃ dadāti; tasya prayatātmanaḥ tatpradānaikaprayojanatvarūpaśuddhiyuktamanasaḥ, tat tathāvidhabhaktyupahṛtam, aham sarveśvaro nikhilajagadudayavibhavalayalīlā+avāptasamastakāmaḥ satyasaṅkalpo ‚navadhikātiśayāsaṃkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇagaṇaḥ svābhāvikānavadhikātiśayānandasvānubhave vartamāno ‚pi, manorathapathadūravarti priyaṃ prāpyaivāśnāmi / yathoktaṃ mokṣadharme, „yāḥ kriyāḥ saṃprayuktās syur ekāntagatabuddhibhiḥ / tāḥ sarvāḥ śirasā devaḥ pratigṛhṇāti vai svayam” iti

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ sva-bhaktānām akṣaya-phalam uktam | anāyāsatvaṃ ca sva-bhakter darśayati patram iti | patra-puṣpādi-mātram api mahyaṃ bhaktyā prītyā yaḥ prayacchati tasy aprayatātmanaḥ śuddha-cittasya niṣkāma-bhaktasya tat-patra-puṣpādikaṃ bhaktyā tena upahṛtaṃ samarpitam aham aśnāmi | na hi mahā-vibhūti-pateḥ parameśvarasya mama kṣudra-devatānām iva bahu-vitta-sādhya-yogādibhiḥ paritoṣaḥ syāt | kintu bhakti-mātreṇa | ato bhaktena samarpitaṃ yat kiñcit patrādi-mātram api tad-anugrahārtham evāśnāmīti bhāvaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ devatāntarāṇi parityajyānanta-phalatvād bhagavata evārādhanaṃ kartavyam atisukaratvāc cety āha patram iti | patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyam anyad vānāyāsa-labhyaṃ yat kiṃcid vastu yaḥ kaścid api naro me mahyam ananta-mahā-vibhūti-pataye parameśvarāya bhaktyā na vāsudevāt param asti kiṃcit iti buddhi-pūrvikayā prītyā pracchatīśvarāya bhṛtyavad upakalpayati mat-svatvānā āspada-dravyābhāvāt sarvasyāpi jagato mayaivārjitatvāt | ato madīyam eva sarvaṃ mahyam arpayati janaḥ | tasya prītyā prayacchataḥ prayatātmanaḥ śuddha-buddhes tat-patra-puṣpādi-tuccham api vastu ahaṃ sarveśvaro ‚śnāmi aśanavat prītyā svīkṛtya tṛpyāmi | atra vācasyātyanta-tiraskārād aśana-lakṣitena svīkāra-viśeṣeṇa prīty-atiśaya-hetutvaṃ vyajyate | na ha vai devā aśnanti na pibanty etad evāmṛtaṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛpyanti iti śruteḥ |

kasmāt tuccham api tad aśnāsi ? yasmād bhakty-upahṛtaṃ bhaktyā prītyā samarpitaṃ tena prītyā samarpaṇaṃ mat-svīkāra-nimittam ity arthaḥ | atra bhaktyā prayacchatīty uktvā punar bhakty-upahṛtam iti vadann abhaktasya brāhmaṇatva-tapasvitvādi mat-svīkāra-nimittaṃ na bhavatīti parisaṅkhyāṃ sūcayati | śrīdāma-brāhmaṇānīta-taṇḍula-kaṇa-bhakṣaṇavat prīti-viśeṣa-pratibaddha-bhakṣyābhakṣya-vijñāno bāla iva mātrādy-arpitaṃ patra-puṣpādi bhaktārpitaṃ sākṣād eva bhakṣayāmīti vā | tena bhaktir eva mat-paritoṣa-nimittaṃ na tu devatāntaravad baly-upahārādi bahu-vitta-vyayāyāsa-sādhyaṃ kiṃcid iti devatāntaram apahāya mām eva bhajetety abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


varaṃ devāntara-bhaktāvāyāsādhikyaṃ na tu mad-bhaktāv ity āha patram iti | atra bhaktyeti karaṇam | tṛtīyāyāṃ bhakty-upahṛtam iti paunaruktaṃ syāt | ataḥ sahārthe tṛtīyā | bhaktyā sahito mad-bhaktā ity arthaḥ | tena mad-bhakta-bhinno janas tātkālikyā bhaktyā yat prayacchati tat tenopahṛtam api patra-puṣpādikaṃ naivāśnāmīti dyotitam | tataś ca mad-bhakta eva patrādikaṃ yad dadāti tat tasyāham aśnāmi yathocitam upayuñje | kīdṛśam ? bhaktyopahṛtam | na tu kasyacid anurodhādinā dattam ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca mad-bhaktasyāpy apavitra-śarīratve sati nāśnāmīty āha prayatātmanaḥ śuddha-śarīrasyeti rajaḥsvalādayo vyāvṛttāḥ | yad vā prayatātmanaḥ śuddhāntaḥkaraṇasya mad-bhaktaṃ vinā nānyaḥ śuddhāntaḥkaraṇa iti | dhautātmā puruṣaḥ kṛṣṇa-pāda-mūlaṃ na muñcati [BhP 2.8.5] iti parīkṣid-ukter mat-pāda-sevā-tyāgāsāmārthyam eva śuddha-cittatva-cihnam | ataḥ kvacit kāma-krodhādi-sattve ‚pi utkhāta-daṃṣṭroraga-daṃśavat tasyākiṃcit-karatvaṃ jñeyam

 

Baladeva


evam akṣayānanta-phalatvān mad-bhaktiḥ kāryety uktvā sukha-sādhyatvāc ca sā kāryety āha patram iti | patraṃ vā puṣpaṃ vānyad vā | yat sulabhaṃ vastu yo bhaktyā prīti-bhareṇa me sarveśvarāya prayacchati, tasya bhakty-upahṛtaṃ prīty-arpitaṃ tat-tad-ananta-vibhūtiḥ pūrṇa-kāmo ‚py aham aśnāmi yathocitam upabhuñje | tat-prīty-udita-kṣut-tṛṣṇaḥ san tad-bhaktyāveśāt tat sarvam admīti vā | tasya kīdṛśasyety āha prayatātmano viśuddha-manaso niṣkāmasyety arthaḥ | tathī̀a ca niṣkāmeṇa mad-anuraktenārpitaṃ tad aśnāmi | tad-viparītenārpitaṃ tu nāśnāmīty uktam | bhaktyā ity uktvāpi punar bhakty-upahṛtam ity uktir bhaktir eva mat-toṣikā | na tu divjatva-tapasvitvād iti sūcayati | iha satatam ananyaḥ patram ity ādibhis tribhir uktā kīrtanādi-rūpa-viśuddha-bhaktir arpitaiva kriyeta, na tu kṛtvārpiteti |

iti puṃsārpitā viṣṇau bhaktiś cen nava-lakṣaṇā |
kriyeta bhagavaty addhā tan manye ‚dhītam uttamam [BhP 7.5.19]

iti prahlāda-vākyāt | atas tathātra nokteḥ

 
 


BhG 9.27

yat karoṣi yad aśnāsi yaj juhoṣi dadāsi yat
yat tapasyasi kaunteya tat kuruṣva mad-arpaṇam

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
yat karoṣi (what you do), yat aśnāsi (what you eat), yat juhoṣi (what you sacrifice), yat dadāsi (what you give), yat tapasyasi (what austerity you undergo),
tat [sarvam eva] (all that indeed) mad-arpaṇam (an offering to me) kuruṣva (you must do).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
karoṣi kṛ (to do) Praes. P 2v.1you do;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
aśnāsi (to reach, to eat, to enjoy) Praes. P 2v.1you eat;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
juhoṣi hu (to offer into fire) Praes. P 2v.1you sacrifice;
dadāsi (to give) Praes. P 2n.1you give;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
tapasyasi tapasya (podejmować ascezę) [denom.] Praes. P 2v.1you undergo austerity (from: tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
kuruṣva kṛ (to do) Imperat. Ā 2v.1you must do;
mad-arpaṇam mad-arpaṇa 1n.1 n.; [TP]: mayy arpaṇam itian offering to me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; – to go, to reach, arpaṇa – offering, delivering, entrusting);

 
 



Śāṃkara


yataḥ evam, ataḥ—

yat karoṣi svataḥ prāptam, yad aśnāsi, yac ca juhoṣi havanaṃ nirvartayasi śrautaṃ smārtaṃ vā, yad dadāsi prayacchasi brāhmaṇādibhyo hiraṇyānnājyādi, yat tapasyasi tapaś carasi kaunteya, tat kuruṣva mad-arpaṇaṃ mat-samarpaṇam

 

Rāmānuja


yasmāj jñānināṃ mahātmanāṃ vāṅmanasāgocaro ‚yaṃ viśeṣaḥ, tasmāt tvaṃ ca jñānī bhūtvā uktalakṣaṇabhaktibhārāvanamitātmā ātmīyaḥ kīrtanayatanārcanapraṇāmādikaṃ satataṃ kurvāṇo laukikaṃ vaidikaṃ ca nityanaimittikaṃ karma cetthaṃ kurv ity āhā

yad dehayātrāśeṣabhūtaṃ laukikaṃ karma karoṣi, yac ca dehadhāraṇāyāśnāsi, yac ca vaidikaṃ homadānatapaḥprabhṛti nityanaimittikaṃ karma karoṣi, tat sarvaṃ madarpaṇaṃ kuruṣva / arpyata ity arpaṇam sarvasya laukikasya vaidikasya ca karmaṇaḥ kartṛtvaṃ bhoktṛtvam ārādhyatvaṃ ca yathā mayi samarpitaṃ bhavati tathā kuru / etad uktaṃ bhavati yāgadānādiṣu ārādhyatayā pratīyamānānāṃ devādīnāṃ karmakartur bhoktuḥ tava ca madīyatayā matsaṅkalpāyattasvarūpasthitipravṛttitayā ca mayy eva paramaśeṣiṇi paramakartari tvāṃ ca kartāraṃ bhoktāram ārādhakam, ārādhyaṃ ca devatājātam, ārādhanaṃ ca kriyājātaṃ sarvaṃ samarpaya; tava manniyāmyatāpūrvakamaccheṣataikarasatām ārādhyādes caitatsvabhāvagarbhatām atyarthaprītiyukto ‚nusaṃdhatsva iti

 

Śrīdhara


na ca patra-puṣpādikam api yajñārtha-paśu-somādi-dravyavan mad-artham evodyamair āpādya samarpaṇīyam | kiṃ tarhi ? yat karoṣīti svabhāvataḥ śāstrato vā yat kiñcit karma karoṣi | tathā yad aśnāsi | yaj juhoṣi | yad dadāsi | yat tapasyasi tapaḥ karoṣi | tat sarvaṃ mayy arpitaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ kuruṣva

 

Madhusūdana


kīdṛśaṃ te bhajanaṃ tad āha yat karoṣīti | yat karoṣi śāstrād ṛte ‚pi rāgāt prāptaṃ gamanādi yad aśnāsi svayaṃ tṛpty-arthaṃ karma-siddhy-arthaṃ vā | tathā yaj juhoṣi śāstra-balān nityam agnihotrādi-homaṃ nirvartayasi | śrauta-smārta-sarva-homopalakṣaṇam etat | tathā yad dadāsi atithi-brāhmaṇādibhyo ‚nna-hiraṇyādi | tathā yat tapasyasi pratisaṃvatsaram ajñāta-prāmādika-pāpa-nivṛttaye cāndrāyaṇādi carasi ucchṛṅkhala-pravṛtti-nirāsāya śarīrendriya-saṃghātaṃ saṃyamayasīti vā | etac ca sarveṣāṃ nitya-naimittika-karmaṇām upalakṣaṇam | tena yat tava prāṇi-svabhāva-vaśād vināpi śāstram avaśyambhāvi gamanāśanādi, yac ca śāstra-vaśād avaśyambhāvi homa-dānādi he kaunteya tat sarvaṃ laukikaṃ vaidikaṃ ca karmānyenaiva nimittena kriyamāṇaṃ mad-arpaṇaṃ mayy arpitaṃ yathā syāt tathā kuruṣva | ātmanepadena samarpaka-niṣṭham eva samarpaṇa-phalaṃ na tu mayi kiṃcid iti darśayati | avaśyambhāvināṃ karmaṇāṃ mayi parama-gurau samarpaṇam eva mad-bhajanaṃ na tu tad-arthaṃ pṛthag-vyāpāraḥ kaścit kartavya ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ca ārto jijñāsur arthārthī jñānī ity ārabhya etāvatīṣu tvad-uktāsu bhaktiṣu madhye khalv ahaṃ kāṃ bhaktiṃ karavai ? ity apekṣāyāṃ bho arjuna sāmprataṃ tāvat tava karma-jñānādīnāṃ tyaktum aśakyatvāt sarvotkṛṣṭāyāṃ kevalāyām ananya-bhaktau nādhikāro nāpi nikṛṣṭāyāṃ sakāma-bhaktau | tasmāt tvaṃ niṣkāmāṃ karma-jñāna-miśrāṃ pradhānī-bhūtām eva bhaktiṃ kurv ity āha yat karoṣīti dvābhyām | laukikaṃ vaidikaṃ vā yat karma tvaṃ karoṣi | yad aśnāsi vyavahārato bhojana-pānādikaṃ yat karoṣi tat tapasyasi tapaḥ karoṣi tat sarvaṃ mayy evāpaṇaṃ yasya tad yathā syāt tathā kuru | na cāyaṃ niṣkāma-karma-yyoga eva, na tu bhakti-yoga iti vācyam | niṣkāma-karmibhiḥ śāstra-vihitaṃ karmaiva bhagavaty arpyate, na tu vyavahārikaṃ kim api kṛtam | tathaiva sarvatra dṛṣṭeḥ | bhaktais tu svātma-manaḥ-prāṇendriya-vyāpāra-mātram eva sveṣṭa-deve bhagavaty arpyate | yad uktaṃ bhakti-prakaraṇa eva –

kāyena vācā manasendriyair vā
buddhyātmanā vānusṛta-svabhāvāt |
karoti yad yat sakalaṃ parasmai
nārāyaṇāyeti samarpayet tam || [BhP 11.2.34] iti |

nanu ca juhoṣīti havanam idam arcana-bhakty-aṅga-bhūtaṃ viṣṇūddeśayakam eva | tapasyasīti | tapo ‚py etad ekādaśy-ādi-vrata-rūpam eva | ata iyam ananyaiva bhaktiḥ kim iti nocyate ? satyam ananyā bhaktir hi kṛtvāpi na bhagavaty arpyate, kintu bhagavaty arpitaiva jñāyate | yad uktaṃ śrī-prahlādena – śravaṇaṃ kīrtanaṃ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇam ity atra iti puṃsārpitā viṣṇau bhaktiś cen nava-lakṣaṇā kriyeta [BhP 7.5.18-19] ity asya vyākhyā ca śrī-svāmi-caraṇānāṃ bhagavati viṣṇau bhaktiḥ kriyate, sā cārpitaivaa satī yadi kriyeta, na tu kṛtā satī paścād arpyate ity ataḥ padyam idaṃ na kevalāyāṃ paryavased iti

 

Baladeva


satatam ity ādibhir nirapekṣāṇāṃ bhaktir mayā tvāṃ praty uktā | tvayā tu pariniṣṭhitena kīrtanādikāṃ bhaktiṃ kurvatāpi loka-saṅgrahāya nikhila-karmārpaṇān mamāpi bhaktiḥ kāryeti bhāvenāh yad iti | yat tvaṃ deha-yātrā-sādhakaṃ laukikaṃ karma karoṣi, yac ca deha-dhāraṇārtham annādikam aśnāsi, tathā yaj juhoṣi vaidikam agnihotrādi-homam anutiṣṭhasi, yac ca sat-pātrebhyo ‚nna-hiraṇyādikaṃ dadāsi, pratyabdam ajñāta-durita-kṣataye cāndrāyaṇādy ācarasi, tat sarvaṃ mad-arpaṇaṃ yathā syāt tathā kuruṣva | tena man-nimittasyāsya lokasya saṅkgrahāt tvayi mat-prasādo bhūyān bhāvīti | na ceyaṃ sarva-karmārpaṇa-rūypā bhaktiḥ sa-niṣṭhānām iti vācyam, tair vaidikānām eva tatrārpyamāṇāt | kintu pariniṣṭhitānām eveyam | tair yat karoṣi ity ādi svāmi-nirdeśena sarva-karmaṇāṃ tatrārpaṇāt | te hi svāmino loka-saṅgrahaṃ prayāsam apaninīṣavas tathā tāny ācarantas taṃ prasādayantīti
 
 


BhG 9.28

śubhāśubha-phalair evaṃ mokṣyase karma-bandhanaiḥ
saṃnyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā vimukto mām upaiṣyasi

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syntax


evam [kurvan tvam] (if you will do like that) śubhāśubha-phalaiḥ (from good and bad results) karma-bandhanaiḥ (from the bondage of activities) mokṣyase (you will be liberated).
sannyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā (whose self is engaged in yoga of renunciation) vimuktaḥ [san] (being liberated) mām (me) upaiṣyasi (you will attain).

 

grammar

śubhāśubha-phalaiḥ śubha-aśubha 3n.3 n.; DV / KD: śubhair ca aśubhair ca phalair itifrom good and bad fruits (from: śubh – to shine, śubha – splendid, pleasant, auspicious, good; phal – to ripen, phala – fruit, result);
or DV / BV: yeṣāṁ śubhaṁ ca aśubhaṁ ca phale staḥ taiḥ from these that have good and bad fruit;
evam av.thus;
mokṣyase muc (to liberate) Fut. pass. 2v.1you will be liberated;
karma-bandhanaiḥ karma-bandhana 3n.3 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ bandhanair itifrom the bondage of activities (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; bandh – to bind, to fetter, bandhana – bondage, fetters);
saṁnyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā saṁnyāsa-yoga-yukta-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā saṁnyāsya yoge yukto ’sti saḥwhose self is engaged in yoga of renunciation (from: sam-ni-as – to lay aside, to renounce, to give up, saṁnyāsa laying aside, resignation, renunciation; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with; ātman – self);
or: BV: yasyātmā saṁnyāse yogena yukto ‘sti saḥwhose self is joined with austerity by yoga;
vimuktaḥ vimukta (vi-muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.1 m.liberated;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
upaiṣyasi upa-i (to go near, to attain) Fut. P 2v.1you will attain;

 

textual variants


-phalair evaṁ-phalair eva (just from fruits);
upaiṣyasi → upeṣyasi (you will act to attain);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ kurvatas tava yat bhavati, tat sṛṇu—

śubhāśubha-phalaiḥ śubhāśubhe iṣṭāniṣṭe phale yeṣāṃ tāni śubhāśubha-phalāni karmāṇi taiḥ śubhāśubha-phalaiḥ karma-bandhanaiḥ karmāṇy eva bandhanāni karma-bandhanāni taiḥ karma-bandhanair evaṃ mad-arpaṇaṃ kurvan mokṣyase | so’yaṃ saṃnyāsa-yogo nāma, saṃnyāsaś cāsau mat-samarpaṇatayā karmatvād yogaś cāsāv iti, tena saṃnyāsa-yogena yukta ātmāntaḥ-karaṇaṃ yasya tava sa tvaṃ saṃnyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā san vimuktaḥ karma-bandhanair jīvann eva patite cāsmin śarīre mām upaiṣyasi āgamiṣyasi

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ saṃnyāsākhyayogayuktamanāḥ ātmānaṃ maccheṣatāmanniyāmyataikarasaṃ karma ca sarvaṃ madārādhanam anusaṃdadhāno laukikaṃ vaidikaṃ ca karma kurvan śubhāśubhaphalair anantaiḥ prācīnakarmākhyair bandhanair matprāptivirodhibhis sarvair mokṣyase; tair vimukto mām evopaiṣyasi

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ ca yat phalaṃ prāpsyasi tat śṛṇu śubhāśubheti | evaṃ kurvan karma-bandhanaiḥ karma-nimittair iṣṭāniṣṭa-phalairmukto bhaviṣyasi karmaṇāṃ mayi samarpitatvena tava tat-phala-sambandhānupapatteḥ | taiś ca vimuktaḥ san | saṃnyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā saṃnyāsaḥ karmaṇāṃ mad-arpaṇam | sa eva yogaḥ | tena yukta ātmā cittaṃ yasya | tathābhūtas tvaṃ māṃ prāpsyasi

 

Madhusūdana


etādṛśasya bhajanasya phalam āha śubhāśubheti | evam anāyāsa-siddhe ‚pi sarva-karma-samarpaṇa-rūpe mad-bhajane sati śubhāśubhe iṣṭāniṣṭhe phale yeṣāṃ taiḥ karma-bandhanair bandha-rūpaiḥ karmabhir mokṣyase mayi samarpitaatvāt tava tat-sambandhānupapatteḥ karmabhis tat-phalaiś ca na saṃsrakṣyase | tataś ca saṃnyāsa-yoga-yuktātmā saṃnyāsaḥ sarva-karmaṇāṃ bhagavati samarpaṇaṃ sa eva yoga iva citta-śodhakatvād yogas tena yuktaḥ śodhita ātmāntaḥkaraṇaṃ yasya sa tvaṃ tyakta-sarva-karmā vā karma-bandhanair jīvann eva vimuktaḥ san samyag-darśanenājñānāvaraṇa-nivṛttyā mām upaiṣyasi sākṣāt-kariṣyasy ahaṃ brahmāsmīti | tataḥ prārabdha-karma-kṣayāt patite ‚smin śarīre videha-kaivalya-rūpaṃ mām upaiṣyasi | idānīm api mad-rūpaḥ san sarvopādhi-nivṛttyā māyika-bheda-vyavahāra-viṣayo na bhaviṣyasīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


śubhāśubha-phalair anantaiḥ karma-rūpair bandhanair vimokṣyase | bhaktir asya bhajanam | tad ihāmutropādhi-nairāsyenaivāmuṣmin manaḥ-kalpanam | etad eva ca naiṣkarmyam [GTU 1.14] iti śruteḥ | saṃnyāsaḥ karma-phala-tyāgaḥ sa eva yogas tena yukta ātmā mano yasya saḥ | na kevalaṃ mukta eva bhaviṣyasy api tu vimukto mukteṣv api viśiṣṭaḥ san mām upaiṣyasi sākṣāt paricarituṃ man-nikaṭam eṣyasi –

muktānām api siddhānāṃ nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇaḥ
sudurlabhaḥ praśāntātmā koṭiṣv api mahāmune || [BhP 6.14.5] iti smṛteḥ |
muktiṃ dadāti karhicit sma na bhakti-yogam [BhP 5.6.18] iti śukokteḥ |
mukteḥ sakāśād api sākṣān mat-prema-sevāyā utkarṣo ‚yam eveti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


īdṛśa-bhakteḥ phalam āha śubheti | evaṃ man-nideśa-kṛtāyāṃ sarva-karmārpaṇa-lakṣaṇāyāṃ bhaktau satyāṃ karma-rūpair bandhanais tvaṃ mokṣyase | kīdṛśair ity āha śubhetīṣṭāniṣṭa-phalais tat-prāpti-pratīpaiḥ prācīnair ity arthaḥ | kīdṛśas tvam ity āha saṃnyāseti mayi karmārpaṇaṃ saṃnyāsaḥ | sa eva citta-viśodhakatvād yogas tad-yukta ātmā mano yasya saḥ | na kevalaṃ mukta eva karmabhir bhaviṣyasy api tu vimuktaḥ san mām upaiṣyasi | mukteṣu viśiṣṭaḥ san māṃ sākṣāt sevituṃ mad-antikaṃ prāpsyasi
 
 


BhG 9.29

samo haṃ sarva-bhūteṣu na me dveṣyo sti na priyaḥ
ye bhajanti tu māṃ bhaktyā mayi te teṣu cāpy aham

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syntax


aham (I) sarva-bhūteṣu (for all beings) samaḥ (the same) [asmi] (I am),
me (for me) dveṣyaḥ priyo [] (enemy or dear) na asti (there is not).
ye tu (but those who) mām (me) bhaktyā (with devotion) bhajanti (they worship)
te (they) mayi [vartante] (they are in me),
aham api ca (and me, too) teṣu [varte] (I am in them).

 

grammar

samaḥ sama sn. 1n.1 n.the same, equal, equivalent;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
sarva-bhūteṣu sarva-bhūta 7n.3 m.; sarveṣu bhūteṣu itiof all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
na av.not;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
dveṣyaḥ dveṣya (dviṣ – to hate) PF 1n.1 m.hatred, enmity, foe;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
na av.not;
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
bhajanti bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. P 1v.3they worship;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
bhaktyā bhakti 3n.1 f.with devotion, with love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
teṣu tat sn. 7n.3 m.in them;
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


samo ‘haṃ samūhaṃ (aggregate);
dveṣyo sti → dveṣo ‘sti (hatred is);
na priyaḥ → mat-priyaḥ (dear to me);
tu → ca (and);
 
 



Śāṃkara


rāga-dveṣavāṃs tarhi bhagavān, yato bhaktān anugṛhṇāti, netarān iti tan na—

samas tulyo’haṃ sarva-bhūteṣu | na me dveṣyo’sti na priyaḥ | agnivad ahaṃ—dūra-sthānāṃ yathāgniḥ śītaṃ nāpanayati, samīpam upasarpatām apanayati | tathāhaṃ bhaktān anugṛhṇāmi, netarān | ye bhajanti tu mām īśvaraṃ bhaktyā mayi te—svabhāvata eva, na mama rāga-nimittaṃ—vartante | teṣu cāpy ahaṃ svabhāvata eva varte, netareṣu | naitāvatā teṣu dveṣo mam

 

Rāmānuja


mamemaṃ paramam atilokaṃ svabhāvaṃ śṛṇu

devatiryaṅmanuṣyasthāvarātmanā+avasthiteṣu jātitaś cākārataḥ svabhāvato jñānataś cātyantotkṛṣṭāpakṛṣṭarūpeṇa vartamāneṣu sarveṣu bhūteṣu samāśrayaṇīyatve samo ‚ham; ayaṃ jātyākārasvabhāvajñānādibhir nirkṛṣṭa iti samāśrayaṇe na me dveṣyo ‚sti udvejanīyatayā na tyājyo ‚sti / tathā samāśritatvātirekeṇa jātyādibhir atyantotkṛṣṭo ‚yam iti tadvyuktatayā samāśrayaṇe na kaścit priyo ‚sti na saṃgrāhyo ‚sti / api tu atyarthamatpriyatvena madbhajanena vinā+ātmadhāraṇālābhān madbhajanaikaprayojanā ye māṃ bhajante, te jātyādibhir utkṛṣṭā apakṛṣṭā vā matsamānaguṇavad yathāsukhaṃ mayy eva vartante / aham api teṣu madutkṛṣṭeṣv iva varte

 

Śrīdhara


yadi bhaktebhya eva mokṣaṃ dadāsi nābhaktebhyas tarhi tavāpi kiṃ rāda-dveṣādi-kṛtaṃ vaiṣamyam asti ? nety āha samo ‚ham iti | samo ‚haṃ sarveṣv api bhūteṣu | ato me mama priyaś ca dveṣyaś ca nāsty eva | evaṃ saty api ye māṃ bhajanti te bhaktā mayi vartante | aham api teṣv anugrāhakatayā varte | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ – yathā agneḥ svalevakeṣv eva tamaḥ-śītādi-duḥkham apākurvato ‚pi na vaiṣamyam | yathā vā kalpa-vṛkṣasya | tathaiva bhakta-pakṣa-pātino ‚pi mama vaiṣamyaṃ nāsty eva | kintu mad-bhakter evāyaṃ mahimeti

 

Madhusūdana


yadi bhaktān evānugṛhṇāsi nābhaktān | tato rāga-dveṣavattvena kathaṃ parameśvaraḥ syā iti nety āha samo ‚ham iti | sarveṣu prāṇiṣu samas tulyo ‚haṃ sad-rūpeṇa sphuraṇa-rūpeṇānanda-rūpeṇa ca svābhāvikenaupādhikena cāntaryāmitvena | ato namama dveṣa-viṣayaḥ prīti-viṣayo vā kaścid asti sāvitrasyeva gagana-maṇḍala-vyāpinaḥ prakāśāsya | tarhi kathaṃ bhaktābhaktayoḥ phala-vaiṣamyaṃ tatrāha ye bhajanti tu ye tu bhajanti sevante māṃ sarva-karma-samarpaṇa-rūpayā bhaktyā | abhaktāpekṣayā bhaktānāṃ viśeṣa-dyotanārthas tu-śabdaḥ | ko ‚sau ? mayi te ye mad-arpitair niṣkāmaiḥ karmabhiḥ śodhitāntaḥkaraṇās te nirasta-samasta-rajas-tamo-malasya sattvodrekeṇātisvacchasyāntaḥkaraṇasya sadā mad-ākārā vṛttim upainpan-mānenotpādayanto mayi vartante | aham apy atisvacchāyāṃ tadīya-citta-vṛttau pratibimbitas teṣu varte | ca-kāro ‚vadhāraṇārthas ta eva mayi teṣv evāham iti |

svacchasya hi dravyasyāyam eva svabhāvo yena sambadhyate tad-ākāraṃ gṛhṇātīti | svaccha-dravya-sambaddhasya ca vastuna eṣa eva svabhāvo yat tatra pratiphalatīti | tathāsvaccha-dravyasyāpy eṣa eva svabhāvo yat sva-sambaddhasyākāraṃ na gṛhṇātīti | asvaccha-dravya-sambaddhasya ca vastuna eṣa eva svabhāvo yat tatra na pratiphalatīti | yathā hi sarvatra vidyamāno ‚pi sāvitraḥ prakāśaḥ svacche darpaṇādāv evābhivyajyate na tv asvacche ghaṭādau | tāvatā na darpaṇe rajyati na vā dveṣṭi ghaṭam | evaṃ sarvatra samo ‚pi svacche bhakta-citte ‚bhivyajyamāno ‚svacche cābhakti-citte ‚nabhivyajya-māno ‚haṃ na rajyāmi kutracit | na vā dveṣmi kaṃcit | sāmagrī-maryādayā jāyamānasya kāraysāparyanuyojyatvāt | vahnivat kalpa-taruvac cāvaiṣamyaṃ vyākhyeyam

 

Viśvanātha


nanu bhaktān eva vimuktīkṛtya svaṃ prāpayasi | na tv abhaktān iti cet tarhi tavāpi kiṃ rāga-dveṣādi-kṛtaṃ vaiṣamyam asti ? nety āha samo ‚ham iti | te bhaktā mayi vartante ‚ham api teṣu varta iti vyākhyāne bhagavaty eva sarva-jagad vartata eva | bhagavān api sarva-jagatsu vartata eveti nāsti viśeṣaḥ | tasmāt ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham [Gītā 4.11] iti nyāyena | mayi te āsaktā bhaktā vartante yathā tathāhamapi teṣv āsakta iti vyākhyeyam | atra kalpa-vṛkṣādi-dṛṣṭāntas tv ekāṃśenaiva jñeyaḥ | na hi kalpa-vṛkṣa-phalākāṅkṣayā tad āśritā āsajjanti | nāpi kalpa-vṛkṣaḥ svāśriteṣv āsaktaḥ | nāpi sa āśritasya vairiṇo dveṣṭi | bhagavāṃs tu svabhakta-vairiṇaṃ svahastenaiva hinasti | yad uktaṃ prahrādāya yadā druhyed dhaniṣye ‚pi varorjitam [BhP 7.4.28] iti kecit tu tu-kārasya bhinnopakramārthatvam ākhyāya bhakta-vātsalya-lakṣaṇaṃ tu vaiṣamyaṃ mayi vidyata eveti tac ca bhagavato bhūṣaṇaṃ, na tu dūṣaṇam iti vyācakṣate | tathā hi bhagavato bhakta-vātsalyam eva prasiddham | na tu jñāni-vātsalyaṃ yogi-vātsalyaṃ vā, yathā hy anyo janaḥ sva-dāseṣv eva vatsalo nānya-dāseṣu, tathaiva bhagavān api sva-bhakteṣv eva vatsalo na rudra-bhakteṣu nāpi devī-bhakteṣv iti

 

Baladeva


nanu bhaktān eva vimocyāntikaṃ nayasi | nābhaktān iti tavāpi kiṃ sarveśvarasya rāga-dveṣa-kṛtaṃ vaiṣamyam asti ? tatrāha samo ‚ham iti | deva-manuṣya-tiryak-sthāvarādiṣu jātyākṛti-svabhāvair viṣameṣu sarveṣu bhūteṣu tat-tat-karmānuguṇyena sṛṣṭi-pālana-kṛt sarveśvaro ‚haṃsamaḥ parjanya iva nānā-vidheṣu tat-tad-bījeṣu, na teṣu me ko ‚pi dveṣyaḥ priyo vety arthaḥ | bhaktānām abhaktebhyo viśesaṃ bodhayitum iha tu-śabdaḥ | ye tu māṃ bhajanti śravaṇādi-bhaktibhir anukūlayanti, te bhaktyānuraktyā mayi vartante | teṣv ahaṃ ca sarveśvaro ‚pi bhaktyā varte, maṇi-suvarṇa-nyāyena bhagavato ‚pi bhakteṣu bhaktir asti | bahgavān bhakta-bhaktimān ity ādi śrī-śuka-vākyād iti premṇā mitho vartana-viśeṣo darśitaḥ | anyathā tv aviśeṣāpattiḥ | tasya pratijñā tv īdṛśy evāvagamyate ye yathā mām ity ādinā | kalpa-druma-dṛṣṭānto ‚py atrāṃśika eva | tatra mithaḥ prītya-apratīteḥ pakṣapātāpratīteś ca | tathā ca sarvatrāviṣame ‚pi mayi svāśrita-vātsalya-lakṣaṇaṃ vaiṣamyam astīty uktam | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ upapadyate cābhyupalabhyate ca [Vs 2.1.37] iti |

nanu bhakter api karmatvānusāreṇa teṣu tad-vātsalyān na tal-lakṣaṇe tad iti | cen maivam etat | svarūpa-śakti-vṛtter bhakteḥ karmānyatvāt | śrutiś ca sac-cid-ānandaika-rase bhakti-yoge tiṣṭhati [GTU 2.78] iti | na ca svarūpa-prayuktatvād dūṣaṇam etad iti vācyam | guṇa-śreṣṭhatvena stūyamānatvāt

 
 


BhG 9.30

api cet sudurācāro bhajate mām ananya-bhāk
sādhur eva sa mantavyaḥ samyag vyavasito hi saḥ

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syntax


cet (if) su-durācāraḥ api (even a bad person) ananya-bhāk (who worships no one else) mām (me) bhajate (he worships)
saḥ (he) sādhuḥ eva (just saintly) mantavyaḥ (to be considered),
saḥ hi (he indeed) samyak (properly) vyavasitaḥ (resolved).

 

grammar

api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
cet av.if;
su-durācāraḥ su-dur-ācāra 1n.1 m.whose conduct is very bad (from: su – prefix: greatly; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; ā-car – to come near to; ācāra – good conduct);
bhajate bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.1he worships;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
ananya-bhāk an-anya-bhaj 1n.1 m.; yo ‘nyaṁ na bhajatīti saḥ who worships no one else (from: anya – other, ananya – no other, unique, undistracted, not devoted to anything else; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship);
sādhuḥ sādhu 1n.1 m.right; noble man, saint (from: sādh – to succeed);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
mantavyaḥ mantavya (man – to think) PF 1n.1 m.to be thought, to be considered;
samyak av.properly, entirely, the same (from: añc – to bend, to move, to go, samy-añc – going along, united, whole, proper);
vyavasitaḥ vi-ava-sita (vi-ava-so – to settle down, to determine) [PP] 1n.1 m.resolved;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;

 

textual variants

vyavasito → vyavahito (separated);

 
 



Śāṃkara


sṛṇu mad-bhakter māhātmyaṃ—

api cet yady api sudurācāraḥ suṣṭhu durācāro’tīva kutsitācāro’pi bhajate mām ananya-bhāk ananya-bhaktiḥ san, sādhur eva samyag-vṛtta eva sa mantavyo jñātavyaḥ | samyag yathāvad vyavasito hi saḥ, yasmāt sādhu-niścayaḥ saḥ

 

Rāmānuja


tatrāpi

tatra tatra jātiviśeṣe jātānāṃ yaḥ samācāra upādeyaḥ pariharaṇīyaś ca, tasmād ativṛtto ‚py uktaprakāreṇa mām ananyabhāk bhajanaikaprayojano bhajate cet, sādhur eva saḥ vaiṣṇavāgresara eva saḥ / mantavyaḥ bahumantavyaḥ pūrvoktais sama ityarthaḥ / kuta etat? samyagvyavasito hi saḥ yato ‚sya vyavasāyaḥ susamīcīnaḥ bhagavān nikhilajagadekakāraṇabhūtaḥ paraṃ brahma nārāyaṇaś carācarapatir asmatsvāmī mama gurur mama suhṛn mama paramaṃ bhogyam iti sarvair duṣprāpo ‚yaṃ vyavasāyas tena kṛtaḥ; tatkāryaṃ cānanyaprayojanaṃ nirantaraṃ bhajanaṃ tasyāsti ataḥ sādhur eva; bahumantavyaḥ / asmin vyavasāye, tatkārye coktaprakārabhajane saṃpanne sati tasyācāravyatikramaḥ svalpavaikalyam iti na tāvatā+anādaraṇīyaḥ, api tu bahumantavya evetyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


api ca mad-bhakter evāyam avitarkyaṃ prabhāva iti darśayann āha api ced iti | atyantaṃ durācāro ‚pi naro yadyap apṛthaktvena pṛthag-devatāpi vāsudeva eveti buddhyā devatāntara-bhaktim akurvan mām eva parameśvaraṃ bhajate tarhi sādhuḥ śreṣṭha eva sa mantavyaḥ | yato ‚sau samyag-vyavasitaḥ parameśvara-bhajanenaiva kṛtārtho bhaviṣyāmīti śobhanam adhyavasāyaṃ kṛtavān

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca mad-bhakter evāyaṃ mahimā yat same ‚pi vaiṣamyam āpādayati śṛṇu tan-mahimānam api ced iti | yaḥ kaścit sudurācāro ‚pi ced ajāmilādir ivānanya-bhāk san māṃ bhajate kutaścid bhāgyodayāt sevate sa prāg asādhur api sādhur eva mantavyaḥ | hi yasmāt samyag-vyavasitaḥ sādhu-niścayavān saḥ

 

Viśvanātha


sva-bhakteṣv āsaktir mama svābhāviky eva bhavati, sā durācāre ‚pi bhakte nāpayāti | tam apy utkṛṣṭam eva karomīty āha api ced iti | sudurācāraḥ para-hiṃsā para-dāra-para-dravyādi-grahaṇa-parāyaṇe ‚pi māṃ bhajate cet, kīdṛg-bhajanavān ity ata āha, ananya-bhāk matto ‚nya-devatāntaram | mad-bhakter anyat karma-jñānādikam, mat-kāmanāto ‚nyāṃ rājyādi-kāmanāṃ na bhajate, sa sādhuḥ |

nanv etādṛśe kadācāre dṛṣṭe sati, kathaṃ sādhutvam ? tatrāha, mantavyo mananīyaḥ | sādhutvenaiva sa jñeya iti yāvat | mantavyam iti vidhi-vākyam anyathā pratyavāyaḥ syāt | atra mad-ājñaiva pramāṇam iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu tvāṃ bhajate ity etad-aṃśena sādhuḥ para-dārādi-grahaṇāṃśenāsādhuś ca sa mantavyas tatrāha eveti | sarveṇāpy aṃśena sādhur eva mantavyaḥ | kadāpi tasyāsādhutvaṃ na draṣṭavyam iti bhāvaḥ | samyag vyavasitaṃ niścayo yasya saḥ | dustyajena sva-pāpena narakaṃ tiryag-yonir vā yāmi aikāntikaṃ śrī-kṛṣṇa-bhajanaṃ tu naiva jihāsāmīti sa śobhanam adhyavasāyaṃ kṛtavān ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


mama śuddha-bhakti-vaśyatā-lakṣaṇaḥ svabhāvo dustyaja eva | yad ahaṃ jugupsita-karmaṇy api bhakte ‚nurajyaṃs tam utkarṣayāmīti pūrvārthaṃ puṣṇann āha api ced iti | ananya-bhāk janaś cet sudurācāro ‚tivigarhita-karmāpi san māṃ bhajate mat-kīrtanādibhir māṃ sevate tad api sa sādhur eva mantavyaḥ | matto ‚nyāṃ devatāṃ na bhajty āśrayatīti mad-ekāntī mām eva svāminaṃ parama-pumarthaṃ ca jānann ity arthaḥ | ubhayathā vartamāno ‚pi sādhutvena sa pūjya iti bodhayitum eva-kāraḥ | tasya tathātve manane mantavya iti sva-nideśa-rūpo vidhiś ca darśitaḥ | itarathā pratyavāyād iti bhāvaḥ | ubhayathāpi vartamānasya sādhutvam evety atroktaṃ hetuṃ puṣṇann āha samyag iti | yad asau samyag-vyavasito mad-ekānta-niṣṭhā-rūpa-śreṣṭha-niścayavān ity arthaḥ | evam uktaṃ nārasiṃhe-

bhagavati ca harāv ananya-cetā
bhṛśam alino ‚pi virājate manuṣyaḥ |
na hi śaśa-kaluṣa-cchaviḥ kadācit
timira-parābhavatām upaiti candraḥ || iti

 
 


BhG 9.31

kṣipraṃ bhavati dharmātmā śaśvac-chāntiṃ nigacchati
kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati

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syntax


[sa] (he) kṣipram (quickly) dharmātmā (righteous) bhavati (he becomes),
[sa] (he) śaśvac-chāntim (eternal peace) nigacchati (he obtains).
he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
me (my) bhaktaḥ (devotee) na praṇaśyati [iti] (he does not perish) [tat] pratijānīhi (that you must promise).

 

grammar

kṣipram av.quickly, immediately (from: kṣipra – quick);
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1he becomes;
dharmātmā dharma-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā dharme ‘sti saḥ whose self is in the law (from: dhṛ to hold, dharma – the law; ātman – self);
śaśvac-chāntim śaśvac-chānti 2n.1 f.eternal peace (from: śaśvat – eternal, perpetual, numerous; śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy, śānti – tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death);
nigacchati ni-gam (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
pratijānīhi prati-jñā (to promise) Imperat. P. 2v.1you must promise;
na av.not;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
bhaktaḥ bhakta (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) [PP] 1n.1 m.distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving;
praṇaśyati pranaś (to disappear, to be lost, to perish) Praes. P 1v.1he perishes;

 

textual variants


nigacchati → niyacchati (he stops);
pratijānīhi → pratijāne ‘haṁ (I promise);
me bhaktaḥ → mad-bhaktaḥ (my devotee);
 
 



Śāṃkara


utsṛjyaś ca bāhyāṃ durācāratām antaḥ samyag-vyavasāya-sāmarthyāt—

kṣipraṃ śīghraṃ bhavati dharmātmā dharma-citta eva | śaśvan nityaṃ śāntiṃ copaśamaṃ nigacchati prāpnoti | sṛṇu paramārtham, kaunteya pratijānīhi niścitāṃ pratijñāṃ kuru, na me mama bhakto mayi samarpitāntarātmā mad-bhakto na praṇaśyatīti

 

Rāmānuja


nanu „nāvirato duścaritān nāśānto nāsamāhitaḥ / nāśantamānaso vā+api prajñānenainam āpnuyāt // BhGR_1.” ityādiśruteḥ ācāravyatikrama uttarottarabhajanotpattipravāhaṃ niruṇaddhīty atra āha

matpriyatvakāritānanyaprayojanamadbhajanena vidhūtapāpatayaiva samūlonmūlitarajastamoguṇaḥ kṣipraṃ dharmātmā bhavati kṣipram eva virodhirahitasaparikaramadbhajanaikamanā bhavati / evaṃrūpabhajanam eva hi „dharmasyāsya parantapa” iti upakrame dharmaśabdoditam / śaśvacchāntiṃ nigacchati śaśvatīm apunarāvartinīṃ matprāptivirodhyācāranivṛttiṃ gacchati / kaunteya tvam evāsminn arthe pratijñāṃ kuru madbhaktāv upakrānto virodhyācāramiśro ‚pi na naśyati; api tu madbhaktimāhātmyena sarvaṃ virodhijātaṃ nāśayitvā śāśvatīṃ virodhinivṛttim adhigamya kṣipraṃ paripūrṇabhaktir bhavatīti

 

Śrīdhara


nanu kathaṃ samīcīnādhyavasāya-mātreṇa sādhur mantavyaḥ ? tatrāha kṣipram iti | sudurācāro ‚pi māṃ bhajan śīghraṃ dharma-citto bhavati | tataś ca śaśvac-chāntiṃ cittopaplavoparama-rūpāṃ parameśvara-niṣṭhāṃ nitarāṃ gacchati prāpnoti | kutarka-karkaśa-vādino naitātmanyerann iti śaṅkākulam arjunaṃ protsāhayati he kaunteya paṭahādi-mahā-ghoṣa-pūrvakaṃ vivadamānānāṃ sabhāṃ gatvā bāhum utkṣipya niḥśaṅkaṃ pratijānīhi pratijñāṃ kuru | katham ? me parameśvarasya bhaktaḥ sudurācāro ‚pi na praṇaśyati | api tu kṛtārtha eva bhavatīti | tataś ca te taṃ prauḍhi-vijṛmbha-vidhvaṃsita-kutarkāḥ santo niḥsaṃśayaṃ tvām eva gurutvenāśrayeran

 

Madhusūdana


asmād eva samyag-vyavasāyāt sa hitvā durācāratāṃ kṣipram iti | cira-kālam adharmātmāpi mad-bhajana-mahimnā kṣipraṃ śīghram eva bhavati dharmātmā dharmānugat-citto durācāratvaṃ jhaṭity eva tyaktvā sad-ācāro bhavatīty arthaḥ | kiṃ ca śaśvan nityaṃ śāntiṃ viṣaya-bhogaspṛhā-nivṛttiṃ nigacchati nitarāṃ prāpnoty atinirvedāt |

kaścit tvad-bhaktaḥ prāg abhyastaṃ durācāratvam atyajan na bhaved api dharmātmā | tathā ca sa naśyed eveti nety āha bhaktānukampāparavaśatayā kupita iva bhagavān | naitad āścaryaṃ manvīthā he kaunteya niścitam evedṛśaṃ mad-bhakter māhātmyam | ato vipratipannānāṃ purastād api tvaṃ pratijānīhi sāvajñaṃ sa-garvaṃ ca pratijñāṃ kuru | na me vāsudevasya bhatko ‚tidurācāro ‚pi prāṇa-saṅkaṭam āpanno ‚pi sudurlabham ayogyaḥ san prārtahaymāno ‚pi atimūḍho ‚śaraṇo ‚pi na praṇaśyati kiṃ tu kṛtārtha eva bhavatīti | dṛṣṭāntāś cājāmila-prahlāda-dhruva-gajendrādayaḥ prasiddhā eva | śāstraṃ ca na vāsudeva-bhaktānām aśubhaṃ vidyate kvacit iti

 

Viśvanātha


nanu tādṛśasyādharmiṇaḥ kathaṃ bhajanaṃ tvaṃ gṛhṇāsi ? kāma-krodhādi-dūṣitāntaḥkaraṇena niveditam anna-pānādikaṃ katham aśnāsīty ata āha kṣipraṃ śīghram eva sa dharmātmā bhavati | atra kṣipraṃ bhāvī sa dharmātmā śaśvac-chāntiṃ gamiṣyatīti aprayujya bhavati gacchatīti vartamāna-prayogāt adharma-karaṇānantaram eva mām anusmṛtya kṛtānutāpaḥ kṣipram eva dharmātmā bhavati | hanta hanta mat-tulyaḥ ko ‚pi bhakta-lokaṃ kalaṅkayann adhamo nāsti | tad vidyām iti śaśvat punaḥ punar api śāntiṃ nirvedaṃ nitarāṃ gacchati | yad vā kiyataḥ samayād anantaraṃ tasya bhāvi dharmātmatvaṃ tadānīm api sūkṣma-rūpeṇa vartata evaṃ tan manasi bhakteḥ preveśāt yathā pīte mahauṣadhi sati tadānīṃ kiya-kāla-paryantaṃ naśyad-avastho jvara-dāho viṣa-dāho vā vartamāno ‚pi na gaṇyata iti dhvaniḥ |

tataś ca tasya bhaktasya durācāratva-gamakāḥ kāma-krodhādyā utkhāta-daṃṣṭroraga-daṃśavad akiñcitkarā eva jñeyā iti anudhvaniḥ | ataeva śaśvat sarvadaiva śāntiṃ kāma-krodhādy-upaśamaṃ nitarāṃ gacchaty atiśayena prāpnotīti durācāratva-daśāyām api sa śuddhāntaḥkaraṇa eva ucyata iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu yadi sa dharmātmā syāt tadā nāsti ko ‚pi vivādaḥ | kintu kaścid durācāra-bhakto maraṇa-paryantam api durācāratvaṃ na jahāti, tasya kā vārtā ity ato bhakta-vatsalo bhagavān sa-prauḍhi sa-kopam ivāha kaunteyeti | mama bhakto na praṇaśyati | tad api prāṇa-nāśe adhaḥpātaṃ na yāti | kutarka-karkaśa-vādino naitan manyerann iti śoka-śaṅkā-vyākulam arjunaṃ protsāhayati he kaunteya paṭahakāhalādi-mahā-ghoṣa-pūrvakaṃ vivadamānānāṃ sabhāṃ gatvā bāhum utkṣipya niḥśaṅkaṃ pratijānīhi pratijñāṃ kuru | katham ? me mama parameśvarasya bhakto durācāro ‚pi na praṇeśyety api tu kṛtārtha eva bhavati | tataś ca te taṃ prauḍhi-vijṛmbhita-vidhvaṃsita-kutarkāḥ santo niḥsaṃśayaṃ tvām eva gurutvenāśrayeran iti svāmi-caraṇāḥ |

nanu kathaṃ bhagavān svayam apratijñāya pratijñātum arjunam evātidideśa | yathaivāgre mām evaiṣyasi satyaṃ te pratijāne priyo ‚si me iti vakṣyate | tathaivātrāpi kaunteya pratijāne ‚haṃ na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati iti kathaṃ noktam ? ucyate – bhagavatā tadānīm eva vicāritaṃ bhakta-vatsalena mayā sva-bhaktāpakarṣa-leśam apy asahiṣṇunā sva-pratijñāṃ khaṇḍayitvāpi svāpa-karṣam aṅgīkṛtyāpi bhakta-pratijñaiva rakṣitā bahutra | yathā tatraiva bhīṣma-yuddhe sva-pratijñām apy apākṛtya bhīṣma-pratijñaiva rakṣiṣyate, bahirmukhā vādino vaitaṇḍikā mat-pratijñāṃ śrutvā hasiṣyanti arjuna-pratijñā tu pāṣāṇa-rekhaiveti te pratiyanti | ato ‚rjunam eva pratijñāṃ kārayāmīti | atra etādṛśa-durācārasyāpi ananya-bhakti-śravaṇād ananya-bhaktābhidhāyaka-vākyeṣu sarvatra na vidyate ‚nyat-strī-putrādyāsakti-vidharma-śoka-moha-kāma-krodhādikaṃ yatreti kupaṇḍita-vyākhyā na grāhyeti

 

Baladeva


iti | sudurācāro ‚pi māṃ bhajan śīghraṃ dharma-citto bhavati | tataś ca śaśvac- chāntiṃ cittopaplavoparama-rūpāṃ parameśvara-niṣṭhāṃ nitarāṃ gacchati prāpnoti | kutarka-karkaśa-vādino naitātmanyerann iti śaṅkākulam arjunaṃ protsāhayati he kaunteya paṭahādi-mahā-ghoṣa-pūrvakaṃ vivadamānānāṃ sabhāṃ gatvā bāhum utkṣipya niḥśaṅkaṃ pratijānīhi pratijñāṃ kuru | katham ? me parameśvarasya bhaktaḥ sudurācāro ‚pi na praṇaśyati | api tu kṛtārtha eva bhavatīti | tataś ca te tvat prauḍhi-vijṛmbha-vidhvaṃsita-kutarkāḥ santo niḥsaṃśayaṃ tvām eva gurutvenāśrayeran
 
 


BhG 9.32

māṃ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ
striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrās te pi yānti parāṃ gatim

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
ye api pāpa-yonayaḥ (even those of low birth) striyaḥ (women) vaiśyāḥ (vaiśyas) tathā śūdrāḥ (and śūdras) syuḥ (they may be),
te api (they, too) mām hi (in me indeed) vyapāśritya (aftre taking shelter)
parām gatim (to the supreme goal) yānti (they go).

 

grammar

mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
vyapāśritya vi-apa-ā-śri (to go to for refuge, to have recourse to) absol.after taking shelter – of whom? – requires accusative);
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
syuḥ as (to be) Pot. P 1v.3they may be;
pāpa-yonayaḥ pāpa-yoni 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ yoniḥ pāpā asti tewho are of sinful birth (from: pāpa – evil, sin; yoni – womb, source, origin);
striyaḥ strī 1n.3 f.women (from: – to beget, to produce);
vaiśyāḥ vaiśya 1n.3 m.producers, farmers, traders (viś – to enter);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
śūdrāḥ śūdra 1n.3 m.servants;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, way, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


vyapāśritya → vyupāśritya (after taking shelter);
te pi yānti te yāṁti (they go);

The third pada of verse 9.32 is similar to the third pada of verses: BhG 6.45, 13.28, 16.22;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

māṃ hi yasmāt pārtha vyapāśritya mām āśrayatvena gṛhītvā ye’pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ pāpā yonir yeṣāṃ te pāpa-yonayaḥ syur bhaveyuḥ | pāpa-yonayaḥ pāpā yonir yeṣāṃ te pāpa-yonayaḥ pāpa-janmānaḥ | ke te ? ity āha—striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrās te’pi yānti gacchanti parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatim

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 9.33
 

Śrīdhara


svācāra-bhraṣṭaṃ mad-bhaktiḥ pavitrīkarotīti kim atra citram ? yato mad-bhaktir duṣkulān apy anadhikāriṇo ‚pi saṃsārān mocayatīty āha māṃ hīti | ye ‚pi pāpa-yonayaḥ syur nikṛṣṭa-janmāno ‚ntyajādayo bhaveyuḥ | ye ‚pi vaiśyāḥ kevalaṃ kṛṣyādi-niratāḥ | striyaḥ śūdrāś cāpy adhyayanādi-rahitāḥ | te ‚pi māṃ vyāpāśritya saṃsevya parāṃ gatiṃ yānti | hi niścitam

 

Madhusūdana


evam āgantuka-doṣeṇa duṣṭānāṃ bhagavad-bhakti-prabhāvān nistāram uktvā svābhāvika-doṣeṇa duṣṭānām api tam āha māṃ hīti | hi niścitaṃ he pārtha māṃ vyapāścitya śaraṇam āgatya ye ‚pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayo ‚ntyajās tiryañco vā jāti-doṣeṇa duṣṭāḥ | tathī̀a vedādhyayanādi-śūnyatayā nikṛṣṭāḥ striyo vaiśyāḥ kṛṣyādi-mātra-ratāḥ | tathā śūdrā jātito ‚dhyayanādy-abhāvena ca parama-gaty-ayogyās te ‚pi yānti parāṃ gatim | api-śabdāt prāg-ukta-durācārā api

 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ karmaṇā durācārāṇām āgantukān doṣān mad-bhaktir na gaṇayati iti kiṃ citram ? yato jātyaiva durācārāṇāṃ svābhāvikān api doṣān mad-bhaktir na gaṇayatīty āha mām iti | pāpa-yonayo ‚ntyajā mlecchā api | yad uktam-

kirāta-hūṇāndhra-pulinda-pulkaśā
ābhīra-śumbhā yavanāḥ khasādayaḥ |
ye ‚nye ca pāpā yad-apāśrayāśrayāḥ
śudhyanti tasmai prabhaviṣṇave namaḥ || [BhP 2.4.18] iti |

aho bata śva-paco ‚to garīyān
yaj-jihvāgre vartate nāma tubhyam |
tepus tapas te juhuvuḥ sasnur āryā
brahmānūcur nāma gṛṇanti ye te || [BhP 3.33.6-7]

kiṃ punaḥ strī-vaiśyādyā aśuddhy-alīkādimantaḥ

 

Baladeva


mahā-ghoṣa-pūrvakaṃ vivadamānānāṃ sabhāṃ gatvā bāhum utkṣipya niḥśaṅkaṃ pratijānīhi pratijñāṃ kuru sarveśvaro ‚haṃ mad-ekāntināṃ āgantuka-doṣān vidhunomīti kiṃ citram ? yad atipāpino ‚pi mad-bhakta-prasaṅgād vidhūtāvidyā vimucyanta ity āha māṃhīti | ye pāpa-yonayo ‚ntyajāḥ sahaja-durācārāḥ syus te ‚pi mad-bhakta-prasaṅgena māṃ sarveśaṃ vasudeva-sutaṃ vyapāśritya śaraṇam āgatya parāṃ yogi-durlabhāṃ gatiṃ mat-prāptiṃ yānti hi niścitam etat | evam āha śrīmān śukaḥ-

kirāta-hūṇāndhra-pulinda-pulkaśā
ābhīra-śumbhā yavanāḥ khasādayaḥ |
ye ‚nye ca pāpā yad-apāśrayāśrayāḥ
śudhyanti tasmai prabhaviṣṇave namaḥ || [BhP 2.4.18] iti |

atrāsya lokasyānityatvaṃ kaṇṭhato bruvan harir mithyātvaṃ tasya nirāsāt

 
 


BhG 9.33

kiṃ punar brāhmaṇāḥ puṇyā bhaktā rāja-rṣayas tathā
anityam asukhaṃ lokam imaṃ prāpya bhajasva mām

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syntax


puṇyāḥ brāhmaṇāḥ (pious brahmins) bhaktāḥ (devotees) tathā rāja-rṣayaḥ (as well as kingly seers) kim punaḥ (how muh more).
[tvam] (you) imam anityam (this temporary) asukham lokam (unhappy world) prāpya (after obtaining)
mām (me) bhajasva (you must worship).

 

grammar

kim punaḥ av.how much more;
brāhmaṇāḥ brāhmaṇa 1n.3 m. brahmins (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas);
puṇyāḥ puṇya 1n.3 m.those good, meritorious, pious, pure (from: – to purify, or puṇ – to act piously);
bhaktāḥ bhakta (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) [PP] 1n.3 m.worshippers, devotees, those loving;
rāja-rṣayaḥ rāja-rṣi 1n.3 m.; [TP]: rājñām ṛṣaya itithe sages among the kings (from: raj – to reign, rājan – king; ṛṣ – to flow, to move quickly, or dṛś – to see; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
or KD: rājānaś cāsav ṛṣayaś ca they are kings and sages;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
anityam a-nitya 2n.1 m.temporary (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
asukham a-sukha 2n.1 m.unhappy (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
lokam loka 2n.1 m. world;
imam idam sn. 2n.1 m.this;
prāpya pra-āp (to obtain) absol.after obtaining;
bhajasva bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Imperat. Ā 2v.1you must worship;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;

 

textual variants


imaṁ prāpya → anuciṁtya / idaṁ prāpya (after considering / this after obtaining);
bhajasva → bhajaṁti (they worship);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ punar brāhmaṇāḥ puṇyāḥ puṇya-yonayo bhaktā rājarṣayas tathā rājānaś ca te ṛṣayaś ceti rājarṣayaḥ | yata evam, ato’nityaṃ kṣaṇa-bhaṅguram asukhaṃ ca sukha-varjitam imaṃ lokaṃ manuṣya-lokaṃ prāpya puruṣārtha-sādhanaṃ durlabhaṃ manuṣyatvaṃ labdhvā bhajasva sevasva mām

 

Rāmānuja


striyo vaiśyāḥ śūdrāś ca pāpayonayo ‚pi māṃ vyapāśritya parāṃ gatiṃ yānti; kiṃ punaḥ puṇyayonayo brāhmaṇā rājarṣayaś ca madbhaktim āsthitāḥ / atas tvaṃ rājarṣir asthiraṃ tāpatrayābhihatatayā asukhaṃ cemaṃ lokaṃ prāpya vartamāno māṃ bhajasva

 

Śrīdhara


yadaivaṃ tadā sat-kulāḥ sad-ācārāś ca mad-bhaktāḥ parāṃ gatiṃ yānti iti kiṃ vaktavyam ity āha kiṃ punar iti | puṇyāḥ sukṛtino brāhmaṇāḥ | tathā rājānaś ca ta ṛṣayaś ca kṣatriyāḥ | evaṃ bhūtāḥ parāṃ gatiṃ yāntīti kiṃ punar vaktavyam ity arthaḥ | atas tvam imaṃ rājarṣi-rūpaṃ dehaṃ prāpya labdhvā māṃ bhajasva | kiṃcānityam adhruvam asukhaṃ sukha-rahitaṃ cemaṃ martya-lokaṃ prāpya anityatvād vilambam akurvan asukhatvāc ca sukhārtham udyamaṃ hitvā mām eva bhajasvety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ cet puṇyāḥ sadācārā uttama-yonayaś ca brāhmaṇās tathā rājarṣayaḥ sūkṣma-vastu-vivekinaḥ kṣatriyā mama bhaktāḥ parāṃ gatiṃ yāntīti kiṃ punar vācyam atra kasyacid api sandehābhāvād ity arthaḥ | yato mad-bhakter īdṛśo mahimāto mahatā pratnenemaṃ lokaṃ sarva-puruṣārtha-sādhana-yogyam atidurlabhaṃ ca mauṣya-deham anityam āśu-vināśinam asukhaṃ garbha-vāsādy-aneka-duḥkha-bahulaṃ labdhvā yāvad ayaṃ na naśyati tāvad atiśīghram eva bhajasva māṃ śaraṇam āśrayasva | anityatvād aukhatvāc cāsya vilambaṃ sukhārtham udyamaṃ ca mā kārṣīs tvaṃ ca rājarṣir ato mad-bhajanenātmānaṃ saphalaṃ kuru | anyathā hy etādṛśaṃ janma niṣphalam eva te syād ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tato ‚pi kiṃ punar brāhmaṇāḥ puṇyāḥ sat-kulāḥ sadācārāś ca ye bhaktāḥ | tasmāt tvaṃ māṃ bhajasva

 

Baladeva


kim iti | yady evaṃ tarhi brāhmaṇā rājarṣayaḥ kṣatriyāś ca sat-kulāḥ puṇyāḥ sad-ācāriṇo bhaktāḥ santaḥ parāṃ gatiṃ yāntīti kiṃ punar vācyam ? nāsty atra saṃśaya-leśo ‚pi | tasmāt tvam api rājarṣir imaṃ lokaṃ prāpya māṃ bhajasva anityaṃ naśvaram asukham īṣat sukhaṃ vināśiny alpa-sukhe ‚smin loke rājya-spṛhāṃ vihāya nityam anantānandaṃ mām upāsya prāpnuhīti tvarātra vyajyate | atrāsya lokasyānityatvaṃ kaṇṭhato bruvan harir mithyātvaṃ tasya nirāsāt
 
 


BhG 9.34

man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṃ namas kuru
mām evaiṣyasi yuktvaivam ātmānaṃ mat-parāyaṇaḥ

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syntax


man-manāḥ (with mind in me) mad-bhaktaḥ (my devotee) mad-yājī (my worshipper) bhava (you must be),
mām (me) namas (obeisance) kuru (you must do).
evam (thus) mat-parāyaṇaḥ (for whom I am the supreme goal) ātmānam (self) yuktvā (after engaging)
mām eva (just to me) eṣyasi (you will go).

 

grammar

man-manāḥ man-manas 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya mano mayy asti saḥ whose mind is in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; man – to think, manas – the mind);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;
mad-bhaktaḥ mad-bhakta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mama bhakta itimy devotee (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
mad-yājī mad-yājin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: yo mām yajata iti saḥwho worships me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
namaḥ namaḥ 2n.1 n.obeisance, salutation (from: nam – to bend, to bow);
kuru kṛ (to do) Imperat P 2v.1you must do;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
eṣyasi i (to go) Praes. Fut. P 2v.1you will go;
yuktvā yuj (to yoke, to join, to engage) absol.after joining aftre engaging;
evam av.thus;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
mat-parāyaṇaḥ mat-parāyaṇa 1n.3 m.; BV: yasyāhaṁ parāyaṇam asmi saḥfor whom I am the supreme goal; devoted to me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; ayana – a path; parāyaṇa – supreme path, the final goal; in compounds: fully dedicated to);

 

textual variants


yuktvaivam → satyaṁ te / yuṁktvaiva / muktvaiva (truth, to you / … / just after liberating);
mat-parāyaṇaḥmat-parāyaṇam (for which [self] I am the supreme goal);
ātmānaṁ mat-parāyaṇaḥ → pratijāne priyosi me (I promise, you are dear to me);

The first and second pada of verse 9.34 are the same as the first and second pada of verse BhG 18.65, in some renderings the other two padas are the same, too.

 
 



Śāṃkara


kathaṃ ?—

mayi vāsudeve mano yasya tava sa tvaṃ man-manā bhava | tathā mad-bhakto bhava | mad-yājī mad-yajana-śīlo bhava | mām eva ca namaskuru | mām eveśvarasyāgamiṣyasi yuktvā samādhāya cittam | evam ātmānaṃ mām ahaṃ hi sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām ātmā parā ca gatiḥ param ayanaṃ taṃ mām evambhūtam eṣyastīty atītena padena sambandhaḥ | mat-parāyaṇaḥ sann ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


bhaktisvarūpam āha

manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṃ namaskuru |
mām evaiṣyasi yuktvaivam ātmānaṃ matparāyaṇaḥ || BhG_9.34 ||

manmanā bhava mayi sarveśvareśvare, nikhilaheyapratyanīkakalyāṇaikatāne, sarvajñe, satyasaṅkalpe nikhilajagadekakāraṇe, parasmin brahmaṇi, puruṣottame, puṇḍarīkadalāmalāyatākṣe, svacchanīlajīmūtasaṅkāśe, yugapaduditadinakarasahasrasadṛśatejasi, lāvaṇyāmṛtamahodadhau, udārapīvaracaturbāhau, atyujjvalapītāmbare, amalakirīṭamakarakuṇḍalahārakeyūrakaṭakabhūṣite, apārakāruṇyasauśīlyasaundaryamādhuryagāmbhīryāudāryavātsalyajaladhau, anālocitaviśeṣāśeṣalokaśaraṇye sarvasvāmini tailadhārāvad avicchedena niviṣṭamanā bhava / tad eva viśinaṣṭi madbhaktaḥ atyarthamatpriyatvena yukto manmanā bhavetyarthaḥ / punar pi viśinaṣṭi madyājī anavadhikātiśayapriyamadanubhavakāritamadyajanaparo bhava / yajanaṃ nāmaparipūrṇaśeṣavṛttiḥ / aupacārikasāṃsparśikābhyavahārikādisakalabhogapradānarūpo hi yāgaḥ / yathā madanubhavajanitanirvadhikātiśayaprītikāritamadyajanaparo bhavasi, tathā manmanā bhavety uktaṃ bhavati / punar api tad eva viśinaṣṭi māṃ namaskuru / anavadhikātiśayapriyamadanubhavakāritātyarthapriyāśeṣaśeṣavṛttau aparyavasyan mayy antarātmani atimātraprahvībhāvavyavasāyaṃ kuru / matparāyaṇaḥ aham eva param ayanaṃ yasyāsau matparāyaṇaḥ; mayā vinā+ātmadhāraṇāsaṃbhāvanayā madāśraya ityarthaḥ / evam ātmānaṃ yuktvā matparāyaṇas evam anavadhikātiśayaprītyā madanubhavasamarthaṃ manaḥ prāpya mām evaiṣyasi / ātmaśabdo hy atra manoviṣayaḥ / evaṃrūpeṇa manasā māṃ dhyātvā mām anubhūya mām iṣṭvā māṃ namaskṛtya matparāyaṇo mām eva prāpsyasītyarthaḥ / tad evaṃ laukikāni śarīradhāraṇārthāni, vaidikāni ca nityanaimittikāni karmāṇi matprītaye maccheṣataikaraso mayaiva kārita iti kurvan satataṃ matkīrtanayatananamaskārādikān prītyā kurvāṇo manniyāmyaṃ nikhilajagan maccheṣataikarasam iti cānusandhānaḥ atyarthapriyamadguṇagaṇaṃ cānusandhāyāharahar uktalakṣaṇam idam upāsanam upādadāno mām eva prāpsyasi

 

Śrīdhara


bhajana-prakāraṃ daśrayann upasaṃharati man-manā iti | mayy eva mano yasya sa man-manāḥ tādṛśas tvaṃ bhava | tathā mamaiva bhaktaḥ sevako bhava | mad-yājī mat-pūjana-śīlo bhava | mām eva ca namaskuru | evam ebhiḥ prakārair mat-parāyaṇaḥ sann ātmānaṃ mano mayi yuktvā samādhāya mām eva paramānanda-rūpam eṣyasi prāpsyasi

 

Madhusūdana


bhajana-prakāraṃ darśayann upasaṃharati man-manā bhaveti | rāja-bhaktasyāpi rāja-bhṛtyasya putrādau manas tathā sa tan-manā api na tad-bhakta ity ata uktaṃ man-manā bhava mad-bhakta iti | tathā mad-yājī mat-pūjana-śīlo māṃ namaskuru mano-vāk-kāyaiḥ | evam ebhiḥ prakārair mat-parāyaṇo mad-eka-śaraṇaḥ sann ātmānam antaḥkaraṇaṃ yuktvā mayi samādhāya mām eva paramānanda-ghanaṃ sva-prakāśaṃ sarvopadrava-śūnyam abhayam eṣyasi prāpsyasi

 

Viśvanātha


bhajana-prakāraṃ darśayann upasaṃharati man-manā iti | evam ātmānaṃ mano dehaṃ ca yuktvā mayi niyojya

 

Baladeva


atha pariniṣṭhitasyārjunasyābhīṣṭāṃ śuddhāṃ bhaktim upadiśann upasaṃharati man-manā iti | rāja-bhakto ‚pi rāja-bhṛtyaḥ patnyādi-manās tathā sa tan-manā api na tad-bhakto bhavati | tvaṃ tu tad-vilakṣaṇa-bhāvena man-manā mad-bhakto bhava | mayi nīlotpala-śyāmalatvādi-guṇavati vasudeva-sūnau sva-svāmitva-sva-pumarthatva-buddhyānavacchinna-madhu-dhārāvat satataṃ mano yasya saḥ | tathā mad-yājī tādṛśasyātimātra-priyasya mamārcane nirato bhava | tādṛśaṃ mām atipremṇā namaskuru daṇḍavat praṇama | evam ātmānaṃ mano dehaṃ ca yuktā mayi nivedya mat-parāyaṇo mad-ekāśrayaḥ san mām upaiṣyasi | eṣā bhaktir arpitaiva kriyeteti bodhyam
 
 


BhG 9.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi ekatriṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation

Thus [ends] the thirty-first chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants

iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde bhaktiyogo / rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhya-yogo / rāja-guhya-rāja-yogo / brahma-vidyā-yogo / rāja-guhya-yogo / prakṛti-yogo / prakṛti-puruṣa-yogo / rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhyo / rāja-yogo / ātma-nirṇaya-yogo / śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvādo navamo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the ninth chapter entitled: The Yoga of Devotion / The Yoga of the King of Knowledge and the King of Secret / The Yoga of the King of Secret / The Yoga  of Knowledge of Brahman / The Yoga of the King of Secret / The Yoga of Nature / The Yoga of Nature and th Man / The King of Knowledge and the King of Secret / The Royal Yoga/ The Yoga of Deducting the Self.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


nijam aiśvaryam āścaryaṃ bhakteś cādbhuta-vaibhavam |
navame rāja-guhyākhye kṛpayāvocad acyutaḥ ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhya-yogo nāma navamo ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


śrī-govinda-padāravinda-makarandāsvāda-śuddhāśayāḥ
saṃsārāmbudhim uttaranti sahasā paśyanti pūrṇaṃ mahaḥ |
vedāntair avadhārayanti paramaṃ śreyas tyajanti bhramaṃ
dvaitaṃ svapna-samaṃ vidanti vimalāṃ vindanti cānandatām ||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām adhikāri-bhedena rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhya-yogo nāma navamo ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


pātrāpātra-vicāritvaṃ sva-sparśāt sarva-śodhanam |
bhakter evātraitad asyāḥ rāja-guhyatvam īkṣyate ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu navamo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||

 

Baladeva


pātrāpātra-dhiyā śūnyā sparśāt sarvāgha-nāśinī |
gaṅgeva bhaktir eveti rāja-guhyam iha smṛtā ||