atha daśamo ‘dhyāyaḥ – vibhūti-yogaḥ

Now the tenth chapter: “The Yoga of Power”


Śāṃkara


saptame’dhyāye bhagavatas tattvaṃ vibhūtayaś ca prakāśitāḥ, navame ca | athedānīṃ yeṣu yeṣu bhāveṣu cintyo bhagavāṃs te te bhāvā vaktavyāḥ | tattvaṃ ca bhagavato vaktavyam uktam api, durvijñeyatvāt, ity ataḥ śrī-bhagavān uvāca

 

Rāmānuja


bhaktiyogaḥ saparikara uktaḥ / idānīṃ bhaktyutpattaye tadvivṛddhaye ca bhgavato niraṅkuśāiśvaryādikalyāṇaguṇagaṇānantyam, kṛtsnasya jagatas taccharīratayā tadātmakatvena tatpravartyatvaṃ ca prapañcyate

 

Śrīdhara


uktāḥ saṅkṣepataḥ pūrvaṃ saptamādau vibhūtayaḥ |
daśame tā vitanyante sarvatreśvara-dṛṣṭaye ||

 

Viśvanātha


aiśvaraṃ jñāpayitvoce bhaktiṃ yat saptamādiṣu |
sa-rahasyaṃ tad evoktaṃ daśame sa-vibhūtikam ||

 

Baladeva


saptamādau nijaiśvaryaṃ bhakti-hetuṃ yad īritam |
vibhūti-kathanenātra daśame tat prapuṣyate ||
 
 

BhG 10.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
bhūya eva mahābāho śṛṇu me paramaṃ vacaḥ
yat te haṃ prīyamāṇāya vakṣyāmi hita-kāmyayā

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
bhūya eva (certainly again) me (my) paramam vacaḥ (supreme word) śṛṇu (you must listen).
yat (that which) te prīyamāṇāya (to you who is taking pleasure) aham (I) hita-kāmyayā (with desire for benefit) vakṣyāmi (I will speak).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
paramam parama 2n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
vacaḥ vacas 2n.1 n.word, the speech (from: vac – to speak);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
prīyamāṇāya prīyamāṇa (prī – to please) PPr 4n.1 m.to one who is taking pleasure, to one who is loving;
vakṣyāmi vac (to declare) Fut. P 3v.1I will declare;
hita-kāmyayā hita-kāmyā 3n.1 f.; [TP]: hitasya kāmyayeti with desire for benefit (from: dhā – to put, [PP] hita – set, beneficial, useful, friendly; kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – desire, love, pleasure, kāmyā – desire, intention, suffix in instrumental: with desire for);

 

textual variants


yat te → tat te (that to you);
prīyamāṇāyaprayamāṇāya / preyamāṇāya / priyamāṇāya;

The second pada of verse 10.1 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 18.64;

 
 



Śāṃkara


bhūya eva bhūyaḥ punar he mahābāho sṛṇu me madīyaṃ paramaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ niratiśaya-vastunaḥ prakāśakaṃ vaco vākyaṃ yat paramaṃ te tubhyaṃ prīyamāṇāya—mad-vacanāt prīyase tvam atīvāmṛtam iva piban, tataḥ—vakṣyāmi hita-kāmyayā hitecchayā

 

Rāmānuja


mama māhātmyaṃ śrutvā prīyamāṇāya te madbhaktyutpattivivṛddhirūpahitakāmanayā bhūyo manmāhātmyaprapañcaviṣayam eva paramaṃ vaco yad vakṣyāmi; tad avahitamanāś śṛṇu

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ tāvat saptamādibhir adhyāyair bhajanīyaṃ parameśvara-tattvaṃ nirūpitam | tad-vibhūtayaś ca saptame raso ‚ham apsu kaunteya [Gītā 7.8] ity ādinā saṅkṣepato darśitāḥ | aṣṭame ca adhiyajño ‚ham evātra [Gītā 8.4] ity ādinā | navame ca ahaṃ kratur ahaṃ yajña [Gītā 9.16] ity ādinā | idānīṃ tā eva vibhūtīḥ prapañcayiṣyan sva-bhakteś cāvaśya-karaṇīyatvaṃ varṇayiṣyan bhagavān uvāca bhūya eveti | mahāntau yuddhādi-svadharmānuṣṭhāne mahat-paricaryāyāṃ vā kuśalau bāhū yasya tathā he mahābāho ! bhūya eva punar api me vacaḥ śṛṇu | kathambhūtam ? paramaṃ paramātma-niṣṭham | mad-vacanāmṛtenaiva prītiṃ prāpunvate te tubhyaṃ hita-kāmyayā hitecchayā yad ahaṃ vakṣyāmi

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ saptamāṣṭama-navamais tat-padārthasya bhagavatas tattvaṃ sopādhikaṃ nirupādhikaṃ ca darśitam | tasya ca vibhūtayaḥ sopādhikasya dhyāne nirupādhikasya jñāne copāya-bhūtā raso ‚ham apsu kaunteya [Gītā 7.8] ity ādinā saptame, ahaṃ kratur ahaṃ yajña [Gītā 9.16] ity ādinā navame ca saṅkṣepeṇoktāḥ | athedānīṃ tāsāṃ vistaro vaktavyo bhagavato dhyānāya tattvam api durvijṇiyatvāt punas tasya vaktavyaṃ jñānāyeti daśamo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | tatra prathamam arjunaṃ protsāhayitum bhūya eveti | bhūya eva punar api he mahābāho śṛṇu me mama paramaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ vacaḥ | yat te tubhyaṃ prīyamāṇāya mad-vacanād amṛta-pānād iva prītam anubhavate vakṣyāmy ahaṃ paramāptas tava hita-kāmyayeṣṭa-prāptīcchayā

 

Viśvanātha


ārādhyatva-jñāna-kāraṇam aiśvaryaṃ yad eva pūrvatra saptamādiṣūktam | tad eva sa-viśeṣaṃ bhakti-matām ānandārthaṃ prapañcayiṣyan parokṣa-vādā ṛṣayaḥ parokṣaṃ ca mama priyam [BhP 11.21.35] iti nyāyena kiñcid durbodhatayaivāha bhūya iti | punar api rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhyam idam ucyate ity arthaḥ | he mahābāho ! iti yathā bāhu-balaḥ sarvādhikyena tvayā prakāśitaṃ, tathaivaitad buddhyā buddhi-balam api savārdhikyena prakāśayitavyam iti bhāvaḥ | śṛṇv iti śṛṇvantam api taṃ vakṣyamāṇe ‚rthe samyag avadhāraṇārtham | paramaṃ pūrvoktād apy utkṛṣṭam | te tvām ativismitīkartuṃ kriyārthopapadasya ca [Pāṇ 2.3.14] iti caturthī | yataḥ prīyamāṇāya premavate

 

Baladeva


pūrva-pūrvatra svaiśvarya-nirūpaṇa-saṃbhinnā saparikarā sva-bhaktir upadiṣṭā | idānīṃ tasyā utpattaye vivṛddhaye ca svāsādharaṇīḥ prāk saṃkṣipyoktāḥ sva-vibhūti-vistareṇa varṇayiṣyan bhagavān uvāca bhūya iti | he mahābāho ! bhūya eva punar api me paramaṃ vacaḥ śṛṇu | śṛṇvantaṃ prati śṛṇv ity uktir upadeśye ‚rthe samavadhānāya | paramaṃ śrīmat mad-divya-vibhūti-viṣayakaṃ yad vacas te tubhyam ahaṃ hita-kāmyayā vakṣyāmi | kriyārthopapada ity ādi sūtrāc caturthī | vijñam api tvāṃ vismitaṃ kartum ity arthaḥ | hita-kāmyayā mad-bhakty-utpatti-tad-vṛddhi-rūpa-tvat-kalyāṇa-vāñchā | te kīdṛśāyety āha prīyamāṇāyeti pīyūṣa-pānād iva mad-vākyāt prītiṃ vindate
 
 


BhG 10.2

na me viduḥ sura-gaṇāḥ prabhavaṃ na maha-rṣayaḥ
aham ādir hi devānāṃ maha-rṣīṇāṃ ca sarvaśaḥ

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syntax


sura-gaṇāḥ (hosts of divinities) maharṣayaḥ [ca] (and great sages) me (my) prabhavam (source) na viduḥ (they did not learned).
aham hi (I indeed) devānām (of the divinities) maharṣīṇām ca (and of great sages) sarvaśaḥ (in every respect) ādiḥ (the beginning) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

na av.not;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know, they learned;
sura-gaṇāḥ sura-gaṇa 1n.3 m.; [TP]: surāṇāṁ ganā itihosts of divinities (from: sura – god, divinity; gaṇ – to count, to sum up, gaṇa – group, flock, troop, series, class);
prabhavam prabhava 2n.1 m.birth, source (from: pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce);
na av.not;
maha-rṣayaḥ maha-rṣi 1n.3 m.great sages (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ṛṣ – to flow, to move quickly, or dṛś – to see; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
ādiḥ ādi 1n.1 m.beginning, origin;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
devānām deva 6n.3 m.of the gods, divinities (from: div – to shine, to play);
maha-rṣīṇām maha-rṣi 6n.3 m.of great sages (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ṛṣ – to flow, to move quickly, or dṛś – to see; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
ca av.and;
sarvaśaḥ av.completely, entirely, altogether, on all sides (from: sarva – all, whole);

 

textual variants


prabhavaṁ → prabhāvaṁ (power);
na maha-rṣayaḥno maha-rṣayaḥ / ca maha-rṣayaḥ (our [source], great sages / and great sages);
hi → ca (and);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kim-artham ahaṃ vakṣyāmīty ata āha—

na me vidur na jānanti sura-gaṇā brahmādayaḥ | kiṃ te na viduḥ ? mama prabhavaṃ prabhāvaṃ prabhu-śakty-atiśayam, athavā prabhavaṃ prabhavanam utpattim | nāpi maharṣayo bhṛgv-ādayo viduḥ | kasmāt te na vidur ity ucyate—aham ādiḥ kāraṇaṃ hi yasmād devānāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ ca sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakāraiḥ

 

Rāmānuja


suragaṇā maharṣayaś cātīndriyārthadarśino ‚dhikatarajñānā api me prabhavaṃ prabhāvaṃ na viduḥ mama nāmakarmasvarūpasvabhāvādikaṃ na jānanti; yatas teṣāṃ devānāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ ca sarvaśo ‚ham ādiḥ teṣāṃ svarūpasya jñānaśaktyādeś cāham ādiḥ; teṣāṃ devatvamaharṣitvādihetubhūtapuṇyānuguṇaṃ mayā dattaṃ jñānaṃ parimitam; atas te parimitajñānā matsvarūpādikaṃ yathāvan na jānanti

 

Śrīdhara


uktasyāpi punar vacane durjñeyatvaṃ hetum āha na me vidur iti | me mama prakṛṣṭaṃ bhavaṃ janma-rahitasyāpi nānā-vibhūtibhir āvirbhāvaṃ sura-gaṇā api maharṣayo ‚pi bhṛgv-ādayo na jānanti | tatra hetuḥ — ahaṃ hi sarva-devānāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ cādiḥ kāraṇam | sarvaśaḥ sarvaiḥ prakāraiḥ utpādakatvena buddhy-ādi-pravartakatvena ca | ato mad-anugrahaṃ vinā māṃ ke ‚pi na jānantīty arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


prāg-bahudhoktam eva kim arthaṃ punar vakṣyasīty ata āha na me vidur iti | prabhavaṃ prabhāvaṃ prabhu-śakty-atiśayaṃ prabhavanam utpattim aneka-vibhūtibhir āvirbhāvaṃ vā sura-gaṇā indrādayo maharṣayaś ca bhṛgv-ādayaḥ sarvajñā api na me viduḥ | teṣāṃ tad-ajñāne hetum āha ahaṃ hi yasmāt sarveṣāṃ devānāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ ca sarvaśaḥ sarvaiḥ prakārair utpādakatvena buddhyādi-pravartakatvena ca nimittatvenopādānatvena ceti vādiḥ kāraṇāt | ato mad-vikārās te mat-prabhāvaṃ na jānantīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etac ca kevalaṃ mad-anugrahātiśayenaiva vedyaṃ nānyathety āha na me iti | mama prabhavaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ sarvaṃ vilakṣaṇaṃ bhavaṃ devakyāṃ janma deva-gaṇā na jānanti, te viṣayāviṣṭatvān na jānantu | ṛṣayas tu jānīyus tatrāha na maharṣayo ‚pi | tatra hetuḥ aham ādiḥ kāraṇaṃ sarvaśaḥ sarvair eva prakāraiḥ | na hi pitur janma-tattvaṃ putrā jānantīti bhāvaḥ | na hi te bhagavan vyaktiṃ vidur devā na dānavā [Gītā 10.14] ity agrimānuvādād atra prabhava-śabdasyānyārthatā na kalpyā

 

Baladeva


etac ca mad-bhaktānukampāṃ vinā durvijñānam iti bhāvavān āha na me iti | sura-gaṇā brahmādayo maharṣayaś ca sanakādayaḥ me prabhavaṃ prabhutvena bhavam anādi-divya-svarūpa-guṇa-vibhūti-mattayāvartanam iti yāvat na vidur na jānanti | kuta ity āha aham ādir iti | yad ahaṃ teṣām ādiḥ pūrva-kāraṇaṃ sarvaśaḥ sarvaiḥ prakārair utpādakatayā buddhy-ādi-dātṛtayā cety arthaḥ | devatvādikam aiśvaryādikaṃ ca mayaiva tebhyas tat-tad-ārādhana-tuṣṭena datta-mataḥ sva-pūrva-siddhaṃ māṃ mad-aiśvaryaṃ ca te na viduḥ | śrutiś caivam āha –

ko addhā veda ka iha prāvocat
kuta ā jātā kuta iyaṃ visṛṣṭiḥ |
arvāg-devā asya visarjanāya
athā ko veda yata ābabhūva [Rv 8.7.17, Taitt.Br. 2.8.9.76] iti,

naitad devā āpnuvan pūrvam arśat iti caivam ādyā

 
 


BhG 10.3

yo mām ajam anādiṃ ca vetti loka-maheśvaram
asaṃmūḍhaḥ sa martyeṣu sarva-pāpaiḥ pramucyate

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yaḥ (he who) mām (me) anādim (beginningless) ajam (unborn) loka-maheśvaraṁ ca (the great lord of the worlds) vetti (he knows),
saḥ (he) martyeṣu (among the mortals) asammūḍhaḥ (not bewildered) sarva-pāpaiḥ (from all sins) pramucyate (he is released).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
ajam a-ja 2n.1 m.unborn (from: jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
anādim an-ādi 2n.1 m.with no beginning (from: ādi – beginning, origin);
ca av.and;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
loka-maheśvaram loka-mahā-īśvara 2n.1 m.; [TP]: lokānāṁ mahāntam īśvaram iti the great lord of the worlds (from: loka – world; mah – to magnify, mahant – great; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
asaṁmūḍhaḥ a-saṁ-mūḍha (sam-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.1 m.not bewildered;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
martyeṣu martya (mṛ to die) PF 7n.3 m.among the mortals;
sarva-pāpaiḥ sarva-pāpa 3n.3 n.; sarvaiḥ pāpair itifrom all sins (from: sarva – all, whole; pāpa – evil, sin);
pramucyate pra-muc (to liberate, to release) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is released (from what? – pass. requires instrumental or ablative);

 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

yaḥ mām ajam anādiṃ ca, yasmāt aham ādir devānāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ ca, na mamānyaḥ ādiḥ vidyate | ato’ham ajo’nādi ca | anāditvam ajatve hetuḥ, taṃ mām ajam anādiṃ ca yo vetti vijānāti lokamaheśvaraṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaraṃ turīyam ajñānatatkāryavarjitam asaṃmūḍhaḥ saṃmohavarjitaḥ saḥ matryeṣu manuṣyeṣu, sarvapāpaiḥ sarveḥ pāpair mati-pūrvāmatipūrva-kṛtaiḥ pramucyate pramokṣyate

 

Rāmānuja


tad etad devādyacintyasvayāthātmyaviṣayajñānaṃ bhaktyutpattivirodhipāpavimocanopāyam āha

na jāyata ity ajaḥ, anena vikāridravyād acetanāt tatsaṃsṛṣṭāt saṃsāricetanāc ca visajātīyatvam uktam / saṃsāricetanasya hi karmakṛtācitsaṃsargo janma / anādim ity anena padena ādimato ‚jān muktātmano visajātīyatvam uktam / muktātmano hy ajatvam ādimat; tasya heyasaṃbandhasya pūrvavṛttatvāt tadarhatāsti / ato ‚nādim ity anena tadanarhatayā tatpratyanīkatocyate; „niravadyam” ityādiśrutyā ca / evaṃ heyasaṃbandhapratyanīkasvarūpatayā tadanarhaṃ māṃ lokamaheśvaram lokeśvarāṇām apīśvaraṃ martyeṣv asaṃmūḍho yo vetti; itarasajātīyatayaikīkṛtya mohaḥ saṃmohaḥ, tadrahito ‚saṃmūḍhaḥ sa madbhaktyutpattivirodhibhis sarvaiḥ pāpaiḥ pramucyate / etad uktaṃ bhavati loke manuṣyāṇāṃ rājā itaramanuṣyasajātīyaḥ kenacit karmaṇā tadādhipatyaṃ prāptaḥ; tathā devānām adhipatir api; tathāṇḍādhipatir apītarasaṃsārisajātīyaḥ; tasyāpi bhāvanātrayāntargatatvāt / „yo brahmāṇaṃ vidadhāti” iti śruteś ca / tathānye ‚pi ye kecanāṇimādyaiśvaryaṃ prāptāḥ / ayaṃ tu lokamaheśvaraḥ kāryakāraṇāvasthād acetanād baddhān muktāc ca cetanād iśitavyāt sarvasmān nikhilaheyapratyanīkānavadhikātiśayāsaṃkhyeyakalyāṇaguṇaikatānatayā niyamanaikasvabhāvatayā ca visajātīya itītrasajātīyatāmoharahito yo māṃ vetti, sa sarvaiḥ pāpaiḥ pramucyate iti

 

Śrīdhara


evambhūtātma-jñāne phalam āha yo mām iti | sarva-kāraṇatvād eva na vidyata ādiḥ kāraṇaṃ yasya tam anādim | ataevājaṃ janma-śūnyaṃ lokānāṃ maheśvaraṃ ca māṃ yo vetti sa manuṣyeṣv asaṃmūḍhaḥ saṃmoha-rahitaḥ san sarva-pāpaiḥ pramucyate

 

Madhusūdana


mahāphalatvāc ca kaścid eva bhagavataḥ prabhāvaṃ vettīty āha yo mām iti | sarva-kāraṇatvān na vidyata ādiḥ kāraṇaṃ yasya tam anādim anāditvād ajaṃ janma-śūnyaṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaraṃ ca māṃ yo vetti sa martyeṣu madhye ‚saṃmūḍhaḥ saṃmoha-varjitaḥ sarvaiḥ pāpair mati-pūrva-kṛtair api pramucyate prakarṣeṇa kāraṇocchedāt tat-saṃskārābhāva-rūpeṇa mucyate mukto bhavati

 

Viśvanātha


nanu para-brahmaṇaḥ sarva-deśa-kālāparicchinnasya tavaitad dehasyaiva janma devā ṛṣayaś ca jānanty eva | tatra sva-tarjanyā sva-vakṣaḥ spṛṣṭvāha yo mām iti | yo mām ajaṃ vetti | kiṃ parameṣṭhinaṃ na anādiṃ satyaṃ tarhi anāditvād ajam ajanyaṃ parmātmānaṃ tvāṃ vetty eva tatrāha ceti | ajam ajanyaṃ vasudeva-janyaṃ ca mām anādim eva yo vetti ity arthaḥ | mām iti padena vasudeva-janyatvaṃ budhyate janma karma ca me divyam [Gītā 4.9] iti mad-ukteḥ | mama janmavattvaṃ paramātmatvāt sadaivājatvaṃ ca ity ubhayam api me paramaṃ satyaṃ acintya-śakti-siddham eva | yad uktaṃ ajo ‚pi sann avyayātmāà sambhavāmi [Gītā 4.6] iti | tathā coddhava-vākyaṃ karmāṇy anīhasya bhavo ‚bhavasya te ity ādy-anantaraṃ khidyati dhīr vidām iha [BhP 3.4.16] iti | atra śrī-bhāgavatāmṛta-kārikā ca-

tat tan na vāstavaṃ cet syād vidāṃ buddhi-bhramas tadā |
na syād evety ato ‚cintyā śaktir līlāsu kāraṇam || [LBhāg 1.5.119]
tasmād yathā mama bālye dāmodaratva-līlāyām ekadaiva kiṅkiṇyā bandhanāt paricchinnatvaṃ dāmnā svābandhād aparicchinnatvaṃ cātarkyam eva tathaiva mamājatva-janmavattve cātarkye eva | durbodham aiśvaryaṃ cāha loka-maheśvaraṃ tava sārathim api sarveṣāṃ lokānāṃ mahāntam īśvaraṃ yo veda sa eva martyeṣu madhye asaṃmūḍhaḥ | sarva-pāpair bhakti-virodhibhiḥ | yas tu ajatvānāditva-sarveśvaratvāny eva vāstavāni syur janmavattvādīni tu anukaraṇa-mātra-siddhānīti vyācaṣṭe | sa saṃmūḍha eva sarva-pāpair na pramucyata ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


idaṃ tādṛśa-mad-viṣayakaṃ jñānaṃ kasyacid eva bhavatīti bhāvenāha yo mām iti | martyeṣu yatamāneṣv api sahasreṣu madhye yo yādṛcchika-mattatvavit sat-prasaṅgī kaścij jano mām anādim ajaṃ loka-maheśvaraṃ ca vetti | so ‚saṃmūḍhaḥ sarva-pāpaiḥ pramucyata iti sambandhaḥ | atra ajam ity anena pradhānād acid-vargāt saṃsāri-vargāc ca bhedaḥ | ādyasya sva-pariṇāmenāntasya deha-janmanā ca janmitvāt | anādim ity anena viśesite tu mukta-cid-vargāc ca bhedas tasyājatvam ādima-deva-deha-sambandhena janmitvasya pūrva-vṛttitvāt loka-maheśvaram ity anena nitya-mukta-cid-vargāt prakṛti-kālābhyāṃ ca bhedas teṣām anādy-ajatve saty api loka-maheśvaratvābhāvāt | punar anādima ity anena viśeṣite vidhi-rudrādibhyāṃ ca bhedas tayor loka-maheśvaratāyāḥ sāditvāt sarvaiśvareṇaiva tayoḥ sety anyatra vistaraḥ | itthaṃ ca sarvadā heya-sambandhābhāvān nitya-siddha-sārvaiśvaryāc ca sarvetara-vilakṣaṇaṃ yo vetti, sa mad-bhakty-utpatti-pratīpair nikhilaiḥ karmabhir vimukto mad-bhaktiṃ vindati | asaṃmūḍho ‚nya-sajātīyatayā maj-jñānaṃ saamohas tena vivarjitaḥ | na ca devakyāṃ jātasya te katham ajatvaṃ tasyām ajatvam avihāyaiva jātatvāt
 
 


BhG 10.4-5

buddhir jñānam asaṃmohaḥ kṣamā satyaṃ damaḥ śamaḥ
sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ bhavo bhāvo bhayaṃ
cābhayam eva ca
ahiṃsā samatā tuṣṭis tapo dānaṃ yaśo yaśaḥ
bhavanti bhāvā bhūtānāṃ matta eva pṛthag-vidhāḥ

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syntax


buddhiḥ (intelligence) jñānam (knowledge) asammohaḥ (non-bewilderment) kṣamā (tolerance) satyam (truth) damaḥ (sense-control) śamaḥ (tranquility) sukham duḥkham (happiness and distress) bhavaḥ abhāvaḥ (existence and non-existence) bhayam abhayam ca eva (and certainly fear and fearlessness) ahiṁsā (non-violence) samatā (equanimity) tuṣṭiḥ (satisfaction) tapaḥ (austerity) dānam (charity) yaśaḥ ayaśaḥ (fame and infamy)
bhūtānām (of the creatures) [ete] pṛthag-vidhāḥ (these various kinds) bhāvāḥ (dispositions) mattaḥ eva (just from me) bhavanti (they become).

 

grammar

buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
asaṁmohaḥ a-saṁ-moha 1n.1 m.non-bewilderment (from: sam-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, saṁ-moha – bewilderment);
kṣamā kṣamā 1n.1 f.patience, tolerance, forbearance (from: kṣam – to forgive, to tolerate);
satyam satya 1n.1 n.truth, truthfulness (from: as – to be, [PP] sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
damaḥ dama 1n.1 m.taming, sense-control (from: dam – to tame, to control, to subdue);
śamaḥ śama 1n.1 m.tranquility, calmness (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
sukham sukha 1n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
duḥkham duḥkha 1n.1 n.distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness);
bhavaḥ bhava 1n.1 m. existence (from: bhū – to be);
abhāvaḥ a-bhava 1n.1 m. non-existence (from: bhū – to be);
bhayam bhaya 1n.1 n. fear (from: bhī – to scare);
ca av.and;
abhayam a-bhaya 1n.1 n. fearlessness, safety (from: bhī – to scare);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;

*****

ahiṁsā a-hiṁsā 1n.1 f.non-violence, harmlessness (from: hiṁs – to injure, to harm, to kill);
samatā samatā abst. 1n.1 f.equanimity (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent);
tuṣṭiḥ tuṣṭi 1n.1 f.satisfaction (from: tuṣ – to become calm, to be satisfied, [PP] tuṣṭa – calm, satisfied, pleased);
tapaḥ tapas 1n.1 n.heat, austerity (from: tap – to scorch);
dānam dāna 1n.1 n. gift, charity (from: – to give);
yaśaḥ yaśas 1n.1 n.fame, honour, splendour, beauty;
ayaśaḥ a-yaśas 1n.1 n.infamy, disgrace, dishonour;
bhavanti bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.3they become;
bhāvāḥ bhāva 1n.3 m.states, natures, dispositions (from: bhū – to be);
bhūtānām bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 6n.3 m. of creatures (from: bhūta – been, real, world);
mattaḥ av.from me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
pṛthag-vidhāḥ pṛthag-vidha 1n.3 m.those of various kinds (from: pṛth – to extend, av. pṛthak – separately, one by one; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);

 

textual variants


buddhir jñānambuddhi-jñānam (intelligence and knowledge);
damaḥ and śamaḥ change the position;
eva → evaṃ (thus);
 
 



Śāṃkara


itaś cāhaṃ maheśvaro lokānāṃ—

buddhir antaḥ-karaṇasya sūkṣmādy-arthāvabodhana-sāmarthyam, tadvantaṃ buddhimān iti hi vadanti | jñānam ātmādi-padārthānām avabodhaḥ | asaṃmohaḥ pratyutpanneṣu boddhavyeṣu viveka-pūrvikā pravṛttiḥ | kṣamā ākruṣṭasya tāḍitasya vāvikṛta-cittatā | satyaṃ yathā-dṛṣṭasya yathā-śrutasya cātmānubhavasya para-buddhi-saṃkrāntaye tathaivoucāryamāṇā vāk satyam ucyate | damo bāhyendriyopaśamaḥ | śamo’ntaḥ-karaṇasyopaśamaḥ | sukham āhlādaḥ | duḥkhaṃ santāpaḥ | bhava udbhavaḥ | abhāvas tad-viparyayaḥ | bhayaṃ ca trāsaḥ, abhayam eva ca tad-viparītam

ahiṃsāpīḍā prāṇinām | samatā sama-cittatā | tuṣṭiḥ saṃtoṣaḥ paryāpta-buddhir lābheṣu | tapa indriya-saṃyama-pūrvakaṃ śarīra-pīḍānam | dānaṃ yathā-śakti saṃvibhāgaḥ | yaśo dharma-nimittā kīrtiḥ | ayaśas tv adharma-nimittā kīrtiḥ | bhavanti bhāvā yathoktā buddhy-ādayo bhūtānāṃ prāṇināṃ matta eveśvarāt pṛthag-vidhāḥ nānā-vidhāḥ sva-karmānurūpeṇa

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ svasvabhāvānusandhānena bhaktyutpattivirodhipāpanirasanam, virodhinirasanā devārthato bhaktyutpattiṃ ca pratipādya svāiśvaryasvakalyāṇaguṇagaṇaprapañcānusandhānena bhaktivivṛddhiprakāram āha

buddhiḥ manaso nirūpaṇasāmarthyam, jñānam cidacidvastuviśeṣaviṣayo niścayaḥ, asaṃmohaḥ pūrvagṛhītād rajatāder visajātīye śuktikādivastuni sajātīyatābuddhinivṛttiḥ; kṣamā manovikārahetau saty apy avikṛtamanastvam; satyam yathādṛṣṭaviṣayaṃ bhūtahitarūpaṃ vacanam / tadanuguṇā manovṛttir ihābhipretā, manovṛttiprakaraṇāt / damaḥ bāhyakaraṇānām anarthaviṣayebhyo niyamanam; śamaḥ antaḥkaraṇasya tathā niyamanam; sukham ātmānukūlānubhavaḥ; duḥkham pratikūlānubhavaḥ; bhavaḥ bhavanam; anukūlānubhavahetukaṃ manaso bhavanam; abhāvaḥ pratikūlānubhavahetuko manaso ‚vasādaḥ; bhayam āgāmino duḥkhasya hetudarśanajaṃ duḥkham; tannivṛttiḥ abhayam; ahiṃsā paraduḥkhāhetutvam; samatā ātmani sukṛtsu vipakṣeṣu cārthānarthayos samamatitvam; tuṣṭiḥ sarveṣv ātmasu dṛṣṭeṣu toṣasvabhāvatvam; tapaḥ śāstrīyo bhogasaṅkocarūpaḥ kāyakleśaḥ; dānam svakīyabhogyānaṃ parasmai pratipādanam; yaśaḥ guṇavattāprathā; ayaśaḥ nairguṇyaprathā / etac cobhayaṃ tadanuguṇamanovṛttidvayaṃ mantavyam, tatprakaraṇāt / tapodāne ca tathā / evam ādyāḥ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ bhāvāḥ pravṛttinivṛttihetavo manovṛttayo matta eva matsaṅkalpāyattā bhavanti

 

Śrīdhara


loka-maheśvaratām eva sphuṭayati buddhir iti tribhiḥ | buddhiḥ sārāsāra-viveka-naipuṇyam | jñānam ātma-viṣayam | asaṃmoho vyākulatvābhāvaḥ | kṣamā sahiṣṇutvam | satyaṃ yathārtha-bhāṣaṇam | damo bāhyendriya-saṃyamaḥ | śamo ‚ntaḥkaraṇa-saṃyamaḥ | sukhaṃ mano ‚nukūla-saṃvedanīyam | duḥkhaṃ ca tad-viparītam | bhava udbhavaḥ | abhāvas tad-viparītam | bhayaṃ trāsaḥ | abhayaṃ tad-viparītam | asya ślokasya matta eva bhavatīty uttareṇānvayaḥ

kiṃ ca ahiṃseti | ahiṃsā para-pīḍāniviṛttiḥ | samatā rāga-dveṣādi-rāhityam | tuṣṭir daiva-labdhena santoṣaḥ | tapaḥ śāstrīyādi-vakṣyamāṇam | dānaṃ nyāyārjitasya dhanādeḥ pātre ‚rpaṇam | yaśaḥ sat-kīrtiḥ | ayaśo duṣkīrtiḥ | ete buddhir jñānam ity ādayas tad-viparītāś cābuddhy-ādayo nānā-vidhā bhāvāḥ prāṇināṃ matto mat-sakāśād eva bhavanti

 

Madhusūdana


ātmano loka-maheśvaratvaṃ prapañcayati buddhir iti dvābhyām | buddhir antaḥkaraṇasya sūkmārtha-viveka-sāmarthaym | jñānam ātmānātma-sarva-padārthāvabodhaḥ | asaṃmohaḥ pratyutpanneṣu bodhavyeṣu kartavyeṣu vyākulatayā vivekena pravṛttiḥ | kṣamākruṣṭasya tāḍitasya vā nirvikāra-cittatā | satyaṃ pramāṇenāvabuddhasyārthasya tathaiva bhāṣaṇam | damo bāhyendriyāṇāṃ sva-viṣayebhyo nivṛttiḥ | śamo ‚ntaḥkaraṇasya śamatā | sukhaṃ dharmāsādhāraṇa-kāraṇakam anukūla-vedanīyam | duḥkham adharmāsādhāraṇa-kāraṇakaṃ pratikūla-vedanīyam | bhava utpattiḥ | bhāvaḥ sattā | abhāvo ‚satteti vā | bhayaṃ ca trāsas tad-viparītam abhayam | eva ca ekaś ca-kāra ukta-samuccayārthaḥ | aparo ‚nuktābuddhy-ajñānādi-samuccayārthaḥ | evety ete sarva-loka-prasiddhā evety arthaḥ | matta eva bhavatīty uttareṇānvayaḥ

ahiṃsā prāṇināṃ pīḍāyā niviṛttiḥ | samatā cittasya rāga-dveṣādi-rahitāvasthā | tuṣṭir bhogyeṣv etāvatālam iti buddhiḥ | tapaḥ śāstrīya-mārgeṇa kāyendriya-śoṣaṇam | dānaṃ deśe kāle śraddhayā yathā-śakty-arthānāṃ sat-pātre samarpaṇam | yaśo dharma-nimittā loka-ślāghā-rūpā prasiddhiḥ | ayaśas tv adharma-nimittā loka-nindā-rūpā prasiddhiḥ | ete buddhy-ādayo bhāvāḥ kārya-viśeṣāḥ sa-kāraṇakāḥ pṛthag-vidhā dharmādharmādi-sādhana-vaicitryeṇa nānā-vidhā bhūtānāṃ sarveṣāṃ prāṇināṃ mattaḥ parameśvarād eva bhavanti nānyasmāt tasmāt kiṃ vācyaṃ mama loka-maheśvaratvam ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


na ca śāstra-jñāḥ sva-buddhy-ādibhir mattatvaṃ jñātuṃ śaknuvanti, yato buddhy-ādīnāṃ sattvādivan-māyā-guṇa-janyatvān matta eva jātānām api guṇātīte mayi nāsti svataḥ praveśayogyatety āha buddhiḥ sūkṣmārtha-niścaya-sāmarthyam | jñānam ātmānātma-vivekaḥ | asaṃmoho vaiyagryābhāvaḥ | ete trayo bhāvā mat-tattva-jñāna-hetutvena sambhāvyamānā iva, na tu hetavaḥ | prasaṅgād anyān api bhāvān lokeṣu dṛṣṭān na svata evodbhūtān āha kṣamā sahiṣṇutvam | satyaṃ yathārtha-bhāṣaṇam | damo bāhyendriya-nigrahaḥ | śamo ‚ntarindriya-nigrahaḥ | ete sāttvikāḥ | sukhaṃ sāttvikam | duḥkhaṃ tāmasam | bhavābhāvau janma-mṛtyu-duḥkha-viśeṣau, bhayaṃ tāmasam abhayaṃ jñānotthaṃ sāttvikam | rājasādy-utthaṃ rājasam | samatātmaupamyena sarvatra sukha-duḥkhādi-darśanam ahiṃsā samate sāttvikyau | tuṣṭiḥ santuṣṭiḥ | sā nirupādhiḥ sāttvikī | sopādhis tu rājasī | tapo-dāne ‚pi sopādhi-nirupāditvābhyāṃ sāttvika-rājase, yaśo ‚yaśasy api tathā | matta iti ete man-māyāto bhavanto ‚pi śakti-śaktimator aikyāt matta eva

 

Baladeva


athātmanaḥ sarvāditvaṃ sarveśvaratvaṃ ca prapañcayati buddhir iti dvābhyām | buddhiḥ sūkṣmārtha-vivecana-sāmarthyam | jñānam cid-acid-vastu-vivecanam | asaṃmoho vyagratvābhāvaḥ | kṣamā sahiṣṇutā | satyaṃ yathā-dṛṣṭārtha-viṣayaṃ para-hita-bhāṣaṇam | damo ‚nartha-viṣayāc chokāder niyamanam | śamas tasmān manasaḥ | sukhaṃ ānukūlyena vedyam | duḥkhaṃ tu prātikūlyena vedyam | bhavo janma | abhāvo mṛtyuḥ | bhayam āgāmi-duḥkha-kāraṇa-vīkṣaṇād vitrāsaḥ san nivṛttiḥ | abhayam ahiṃsā parapīḍanājanakatā | samatā rāga-dveṣa-śūnyatā | tuṣṭiḥ adṛṣṭa-labdhena santoṣaḥ | tapaḥ vedokta-kāya-kleśaḥ | dānaṃ svabhogyasya sat-pātre ‚rpaṇam | yaśaḥ sādguṇya-khyātiḥ | tad-viparītaṃ ayaśaḥ evam ādayo bhāvā bhūtānāṃ deva-mānavādīnāṃ matto mat-saṅkalpād eva bhavantīty aham eva teṣāṃ hetur ity arthaḥ | pṛthag-vidhā bhinna-lakṣaṇā
 
 


BhG 10.6

maha-rṣayaḥ sapta pūrve catvāro manavas tathā
mad-bhāvā mānasā jātā yeṣāṃ loka imāḥ prajāḥ

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syntax


sapta maharṣayaḥ (the seven great sages) pūrve catvāraḥ (the previous four [sages]) tathā manavaḥ (and the Manus)
[ete] mad-bhāvāḥ (these who are of my nature) mānasāḥ jātāḥ (born from the mind) [santi] (they are).
loke (in the world) yeṣām (whose) imāḥ prajāḥ (these offsprings) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

maha-rṣayaḥ maha-rṣi 1n.3 m.great sages (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ṛṣ – to flow, to move quickly, or dṛś – to see; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
sapta sapta 1n.3 m.seven (the seven sages according to BhP 8.13.5: Kaśyapa, Atri, Vasiṣṭha, Viśvāmitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvāja);
pūrve pūrva sn. 1n.3 m. the previous ones, the ancient;
catvāraḥ catur 1n.3 m. four (the four sages according to BhP 3.12.4: Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana, Sanat-kumāra);
manavaḥ manu 1n.3 m.the Manus (from: man – to think);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
mad-bhāvāḥ mad-bhāva 1n.3 m.; BV: yasmin mama bhāvaḥ santi tethose who are of my nature (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
mānasāḥ mānasa 1n.3 m. pertaining to the mind (from: man – to think, manas – the mind);
jātāḥ jāta (jan – to be born) [PP] 1n.3 m.they are born;
yeṣām yat sn. 6n.3 m.whose;
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
imāḥ idam sn. 1n.3 f.these;
prajāḥ prajā 1n.3 f.offsprings, creatures, mankind (from: pra-jan – to be born, be produced, to bring forth);

 

textual variants


mānasā → manasā / mānavā / mānuṣā (with the mind / Manu / people);
yeṣāṁ → eṣāṁ (of them);
loka → lokā (worlds);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

maharṣayaḥ sapta bhṛgv-ādayaḥ pūrve’tīta-kāla-saṃbandhinaḥ, catvāro manavas tathā sāvarṇā iti prasiddhāḥ | te ca mad-bhāvā mad-gata-bhāvanā vaiṣṇavena sāmarthyena upetāḥ | mānasā manasaivotpāditā mayā jātā utpannāḥ | yeṣāṃ manūnāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ ca sṛṣṭir loka imāḥ sthāvara-jaṅgama-lakṣaṇāḥ prajāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


sarvasya bhūtajātasya sṛṣṭisthityoḥ pravartayitāraś ca matsaṃkalpāyattapravṛttaya ity āha

pūrve sapta maharṣayaḥ atītamanvantare ye bhṛgvādayas sapta maharṣayo nityasṛṣṭipravartanāya brahmaṇo manassaṃbhavāḥ, nityasthitipravartanāya ye ca sārvaṇikā nāma catvāro manavaḥ sthitāḥ, yeṣāṃ santānamaye loke jātā imāḥ sarvāḥ prajāḥ pratikṣaṇam āpralayād apatyānām utpādakāḥ pālakāś ca bhavanti te bhṛgvādayo manavaś ca madbhāvāḥ mama yo bhāvaḥ sa eva yeṣāṃ bhāvaḥ te madbhāvāḥ, manmate sthitāḥ, matsaṅkalpā1nuvartina ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca maharṣaya iti | sapta maharṣayo bhṛgv-ādayaḥ sapta brahmāṇa ity ete purāṇe niścayaṃ gatāḥ [Mbh 12.201.5] ity ādi purāṇa-prasiddhāḥ | tebhyo ‚pi pūrve anye catvāro maharṣayaḥ sanakādayaḥ | tathā manavaḥ svāyambhuvādayaḥ | mad-bhāvā madīyo bhāvaḥ prabhāvo yeṣu te | hiraṇyagarbhātmano mamaiva manasaḥ saṅkalpa-mātrāj jātāḥ | prabhāvam evāha yeṣām iti | yeṣāṃ bhṛgv-ādīnāṃ sanakādīnāṃ manūnāṃ cemā brāhmaṇādyā loke vardhamānā yathāyathaṃ putra-pautrādi-rūpāḥ śiṣa-praśiṣyādi-rūpāś ca prajā jātāḥ pravartante

 

Madhusūdana


itaś caitad evam maharṣaya iti | maharṣayo veda-tad-artha-draṣṭāraḥ sarvajñā vidyā-sampradāya-pravartakā bhṛgv-ādyāḥ sapta pūrve sargādya-kālāvirbhūtāḥ | tathā ca purāṇe –

bhṛguṃ marīcim atriṃ ca pulastyaṃ pulahaṃ kratum |
vasiṣṭhaṃ ca mahātejāḥ so ‚sṛjan manasā sutān |
sapta brahmaṇa ity ete purāṇe niścayaṃ gatāḥ || iti |[Mbh 12.201.4-5]
{lub marīcir atry-aṅgirasau pulastyaḥ pulahaḥ kratuḥ | vasiṣṭhaś ca mahābhāgaḥ sadṛśā vai svayambhuvā || sapta brahmāṇa ity eṣa purāṇe niścayo gataḥ || [Mbh 12.201.4-5 (lub 12.335.28-29]}

tathā catvāro manavaḥ sāvarṇā iti prasiddhāḥ | athavā maharṣayaḥ sapta bhṛgv-ādyāḥ | tebhyo ‚pi pūrve prathamāś catvāraḥ sanakādyā maharṣayaḥ | manavas tathā svāyambhuvādayaś caturdaśa mayi parameśvare bhāvo bhāvanā yeṣāṃ te mad-bhāvā mac-cintana-parā mad-bhāvanāvaśād āvīribhūta-madīya-jñānaiśvarya-śaktaya ity arthaḥ | mānasā manasaḥ saṅkalpād evotpannā na tu yonijāḥ | ato viśuddha-janmatvena sarva-prāṇi-śreṣṭhā matta eva hiraṇyagarbhātmano jātāḥ sargādya-kāle prādurbhūtāḥ | yeṣāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ saptānāṃ bhṛgv-ādīnāṃ catūrṇāṃ ca sanakādīnāṃ manūnāṃ ca caturdaśānām asmin loke janmanā ca vidyayā ca santati-bhūtā imā brāhmaṇādyāḥ sarvāḥ prajāḥ

 

Viśvanātha


buddhi-jñānāsaṃmohān sva-tattva-jñāne ‚samarthānuktvā tattvato ‚pi tatrāsamarthān āha maharṣayaḥ sapta marīcy-ādayas tebhyo ‚pi pūrve ‚nye catvāraḥ sanakādayo manavaś caturdaśa svāyambhuvādayo matta eva hiraṇyagarbhātmanaḥ sakāśād bhavo janma yeṣāṃ marīcy-ādīnāṃ sanakādīnāṃ cemā brāhmaṇādyā loke vartamānāḥ prajāḥ putra-pautrādi-rūpāḥ śiṣya-praśiṣya-rūpāś ca

 

Baladeva


itaś caitad evam ity āha maharṣaya iti | sapta bhṛgv-ādayas tebhyo ‚pi pūrve prathamāś catvāraḥ sanakādaya ekādaśaite maharṣayas tathā manavaś caturdaśa svāyambhuvādaya evaṃ pañcaviṃśatir ete mānasā hiraṇyagarbhātmano mama manaḥ-prabhṛtyebhyo jātā mad-bhāvā mac-cintana-parās tat-prabhāvenopalabdha-maj-jñānaiśvarya-śaktaya ity arthaḥ | yeṣāṃ bhṛgv-ādīnāṃ pañcaviṃśater imā brāhmaṇa-kṣatriyādayaḥ prajā janmanā vidyayā ca santati-rūpā bhavanti
 
 


BhG 10.7

etāṃ vibhūtiṃ yogaṃ ca mama yo vetti tattvataḥ
so vikampena yogena yujyate nātra saṃśayaḥ

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) mama (my) etām vibhūtim (this power) yogam ca (and yoga) tattvataḥ (truly) vetti (he knows),
saḥ (he) avikampena yogena (with unshaken yoga) yujyate (is joined).
atra (here) saṁśayaḥ na [asti] (there is no doubt).

 

grammar

etām etat sn. 2n.1 f.this;
vibhūtim vibhūti 2n.1 f.power, might, opulence (from: vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
ca av.and;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
tattvataḥ av.truly (from: tat – to, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
avikampena a-vikampa3n.1 m.with unshaken, with steady (from: vi-kamp – to shake, to become changed);
yogena yoga 3n.1 m.with yoga, with yoking, with application (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
yujyate yuj (to join, to engage) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is joined, he is engaged;
na av.not;
atra av.here, regarding this;
saṁśayaḥ saṁśaya 1n.1 m.doubt, hesitation (from: sam-śī – to waver);

 

textual variants


etāṁ → eṣāṁ (this);
‘vikampena → ‘vikalpena / ‘vikaṁpyena / ‘pi kaṁpena / ‘prakaṁpena (with non-hesitant / with one not to be moved / even with shaking / unshaking);
 
 



Śāṃkara


etāṃ yathoktāṃ vibhūtiṃ vistāraṃ yogaṃ ca yuktiṃ cātmano ghaṭanam, athavā yogaiśvarya-sāmarthyaṃ sarva-jñatvaṃ yoga-jaṃ yoga ucyate, mama madīyaṃ yogaṃ yo vetti tattvatas tattvena yathāvad ity etat, so’vikampenāpracalitena yogena samyag darśana-sthairya-lakṣaṇena yujyate saṃbadhyate | nātra saṃśayo nāsminn arthe saṃśayo’sti

 

Rāmānuja


vibhūtiḥ aiśvaryam / etāṃ sarvasya madāyattotpattisthitipravṛttitārūpāṃ vibhūtim, mama heyapratyanīkakalyāṇaguṇagaṇarūpaṃ yogaṃ ca yas tattvato vetti, so ‚vikampena aprakampyena bhaktiyogena yujyate / nātra saṃśayaḥ / madvibhūtiviṣayaṃ kalyāṇaguṇaviṣayaṃ ca jñānaṃ bhaktiyogavardhanam iti svayam eva drakṣyasītyabhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


yathokta-vibhūty-ādi-tattva-jñānasya phalam āha etām iti | etāṃ bhṛgv-ādi-lakṣaṇāṃ mama vibhūtim | yogaṃ caiśvarya-lakṣaṇam | tattvato yo vetti, so ‚vikalpena niḥsaṃśayena yogena samyag-darśanena yukto bhavati nāsty atra saṃśayaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ sopādhikasya bhagavataḥ prabhāvam uktvā taj-jñāna-phalam āha etām iti | etāṃ prāg uktāṃ buddhy-ādi-maharṣy-ādi-rūpāṃ vibhūtiṃ vividha-bhāvaṃ tat-tad-rūpeṇāvasthitiṃ yogaṃ ca tat-tad-artha-nirmāṇa-sāmarthyaṃ paramaiśvaryam iti yāvat | mama yo vetti tattvato yathāvat so ‚vikampenāpracalitena yogena samyag-jñāna-sthairya-lakṣaṇena samādhinā yujyate nātra saṃśayaḥ pratibandhaḥ kaścit

 

Viśvanātha


kintu bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ [BhP 11.14.11] iti mad-ukter mad-ananya-bhakta eva mat-prasādān mad-vāci dṛḍham āstikyaṃ dadhāno mat-tattvaṃ vettīty āha etāṃ saṅkṣepeṇaiva vakṣyamāṇāṃ vibhūtiṃ yogaṃ bhakti-yogaṃ ca yas tattvato vetti | mat-prabhoḥ śrī-kṛṣṇasya vākyatvād idam eva paramaṃ tattvam iti dṛḍhatarāstikyavān eva yo vetti saḥ | avikalpena niścalena yogena mat-tattva-jñāna-lakṣaṇena yujyate yukto bhaved atra nāsti ko ‚pi sandehaḥ

 

Baladeva


uktārtha-jñāna-phalam āha etām iti | etāṃ vidhi-rudrādi-devatā-sanakādi-maharṣi-svāyambhuvādi-manu-pramukhaḥ kṛtsn-prapañco mad-adhīna-sthiti-pravṛtti-jñānaiśvarya-śaktiko bhavatīty evaṃ pāramaiśvarya-lakṣaṇāṃ vibhūtim | yogam anādy-ajatvādibhiḥ kalyāṇa-guṇa-ratnair mama sambandhaṃ ca yo vetti sarveśvareṇa sarvajñena vāsudevenopadiṣṭam idaṃ tāttvikaṃ bhavatīti dṛḍha-viśvāsena yo gṛhṇāti sa avikalpena sthireṇa yogena mad-bhakti-lakṣaṇena yujyate sampanno bhavati | etādṛśatayā maj-jñānaṃ mad-bhakter utpādakaṃ vivardhakaṃ ceti bhāvaḥ

 
 


BhG 10.8

ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṃ pravartate
iti matvā bhajante māṃ budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ

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syntax


aham (I) sarvasya (of all) prabhavaḥ (source) [asmi] (I am),
mattaḥ (from me) sarvam (all) pravartate iti (it originates)
matvā (after thinking) budhāḥ (the intelligent) bhāva-samanvitāḥ (endowed with emotions) mām (me) bhajante (they worship).

 

grammar

aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
sarvasya sarva sn. 6n.1 n.of all;
prabhavaḥ prabhava 1n.1 m.birth, source (from: pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce);
mattaḥ av.from me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
pravartate pra-vṛt (to start to act, to surpass) Praes. Ā 1v.1it moves, it originates;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
matvā man (to think) absol.after thinking;
bhajante bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
budhāḥ budha 1n.3 m.those intelligent, clever, thinkers  (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
bhāva-samanvitāḥ bhāva-samanvita 1n.3 m.; [TP]: bhāvena samanvitā iti – those endowed with emotions (from: bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions; anu-i – to go along, [PP] anv-ita – endowed: with what? – requires instrumental);

 

textual variants


ahaṁ → ayaṁ (this);
mattaḥ → itaḥ (from that);
bhāva-samanvitāḥ → bhāva-samasthitāḥ (situated in emotions);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kīdṛśenāvikampena yogena yujyate ? ity ucyate—

ahaṃ paraṃ brahma vāsudevākhyaṃ sarvasya jagataḥ prabhava utpattiḥ | matta eva sthiti-nāśa-kriyā-phalopabhoga-lakṣaṇaṃ vikriyā-rūpaṃ sarvaṃ jagat pravartate | ity evaṃ matvā bhajante sevante māṃ budhā avagata-paramārtha-tattvāḥ | bhāva-samanvitā bhāvo bhāvanā paramārtha-tattvābhiniveśas tena samanvitāḥ saṃyuktāḥ ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


ahaṃ, sarvasya vicitracidacitprapañcasya prabhavaḥ utpattikāraṇam, sarvaṃ matta eva pravartate itīdaṃ mama svābhāvikaṃ niraṃkuśāiśvaryaṃ, sauśīlyasaundaryavātsalyādikalyāṇaguṇagaṇayogaṃ ca matvā budhā jñāninaḥ bhāvasamanvitāḥ māṃ sarvakalyāṇaguṇānvitaṃ bhajante / bhāvaḥ manovṛttiviśeṣaḥ / mayi spṛhayālavo māṃ bhajanta ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


yathā ca vibhūti-yogayor jñānena samyag-jñānāvāptis tad darśayati aham ity ādi-caturbhiḥ | ahaṃ sarvasya jagataḥ prabhavo bhṛgv-ādi-manv-ādi-rūpa-vibhūti-dvāreṇotpatti-hetuḥ | matta eva ca sarvasya buddhir jñānam asaṃmoha ity ādi sarvaṃ pravartata iti | evaṃ matvāvabudhya budhā vivekino bhāva-samanvitāḥ prīti-yuktā māṃ bhajante

 

Madhusūdana


yādṛśena vibhūti-yogayor jñānenāvikampa-yoga-prāptis tad darśayati aham ity ādi-caturbhiḥ | ahaṃ paraṃ brahma vāsudevākhyaṃ sarvasya jagataḥ prabhava utpatti-kāraṇam upādānaṃ nimittaṃ ca sthiti-nāśādi ca sarvaṃ satta eva pravartate bhavati | mayaivāntaryāmiṇā sarvajñena sarva-śaktinā preryamāṇaṃ sva-sva-maryādām anatikramya sarvaṃ jagat pravartate ceṣṭata iti vā | ity evaṃ matvā budhā vivekenāvagata-tattva-bhāvena paramārtha-tattva-grahaṇaa-rūpeṇa premṇā samanvitāḥ santo māṃ bhajante

 

Viśvanātha


tatra mahaiśvarya-lakṣaṇāṃ vibhūtim āha ahaṃ sarvasya prākṛtāprākṛta-vastu-mātrasya prabhavaḥ utpatti-prādurbhāvayor hetuḥ | matta evāntaryāmi-svarūpāt sarvaṃ jagat pravartate cesṭate | tathā matta eva nāradādy-avatarātmakāt sarvaṃ bhakti-jñāna-tapaḥ-karmādikaṃ sādhanaṃ tat tat sādhyaṃ ca pravṛttaṃ bhavati | aikāntika-bhakti-lakṣaṇaṃ yogam āha iti matvā āstikyato jñānena niścitya ity arthaḥ | bhāvo dāsya-sakhyādis tad-yuktāḥ

 

Baladeva


atha catuḥślokyā paramaikāntināṃ bhaktiṃ bruvan tasyā janakaṃ poṣakaṃ cātma-yāthātmyaṃ tāvad āha aham iti | svayaṃ bhagavān kṛṣṇo ‚haṃ sarvasyāsya vidhi-rudra-pramukhasya prapañcasya prabhavo hetuḥ | evam evātharvasu paṭhyate – yo brahmāṇaṃ vidadhāti pūrvaṃ yo vai vedāṃś ca gāpayati sma kṛṣṇaḥ [GTU 1.22] iti | atha puruṣo ha vai nārāyaṇo ‚kāmayata prajāḥ sṛjaye ity upakramya nārāyaṇād brahmā jāyate nārāyaṇāt prajāpatiḥ prajāyate nārāyaṇād indro jāyate nārāyaṇād aṣṭau vasavo jāyante nārāyaṇād ekādaśa rudrā jāyante nārāyaṇād dvādaśādityāḥ ity ādi | eṣa nārāyaṇaḥ kṛṣṇo bodhyaḥ brahmaṇyo devakī-putraḥ ity ādy-uttara-pāṭhāt | tad āhuḥ – eko vai nārāyaṇa āsīn na brahmā na īśāno nāpo nāgī samau neme dyāv-āpṛthivī na nakṣatrāṇi na sūryaḥ sa ekākī na ramate tasya dhyānāntaḥsthasya yatra chāndogaiḥ kriyamāṇāṣṭakādi-saṃjñakā stuti-stomaḥ stomam ucyate ity ādy upakramya pradhānādi-sṛṣṭim abhidhāyātha punar eva nārāyaṇaḥ so ‚nyat kāmo manasā dhyāyata tasya dhyānātaḥsthasya tal-lalāṭāttrakṣyaḥ śūlapāṇiḥ puruṣo ‚jāyata bibhrac chriyaṃ satyaṃ brahmacaryaṃ tapo-vairāgyam iti | tatra catur-mukho jāyate ity ādi ca | ṛkṣu ca yaṃ kāmaye taṃ tam ugraṃ kṛṣṇomi taṃ brahmāṇaṃ tam ṛṣiṃ taṃ sumedhasam ity ādi | mokṣa-dharme ca –

prajāpatiṃ ca rudraṃ cāpy aham eva sṛjāmi vai |
tau hi māṃ vijānīto mama māyā-vimohitau || iti |

vārāhe ca –
nārāyaṇaḥ paro devas tasmāj jātaś caturmukhaḥ |
tasmād rudro ‚bhavad devaḥ sa ca sarvajñatāṃ gataḥ || iti |

mad-anya-nikhila-niyantā cāham ity uktam | iti matvā mamedṛśatvaṃ sad-guru-mukhān niścitya bhāvena premṇā samanvitāḥ santo budhā māṃ bhajante

 
 


BhG 10.9

mac-cittā mad-gata-prāṇā bodhayantaḥ paras-param
kathayantaś ca māṃ nityaṃ tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca

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syntax


[te] (they) mac-cittāḥ (whose minds are in me) mad-gata-prāṇāḥ (whose lifes have gone to me) nityam (always) parasparam (each other) mām (about me) bodhayantaḥ (who are explaining) kathayantaḥ ca (and who are telling),
tuṣyanti ca (they are satisfied) ramanti ca (and they rejoice).

 

grammar

mac-cittāḥ mac-citta 1n.3 m.; yeṣāṁ cittaṁ mayy asti tewhose minds are in me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness);
mad-gata-prāṇāḥ mad-gata-prāṇa 1n.3 m.yeṣāṁ prāṇo māṁ gato ‘sti tewhose lifes have gone to me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone; pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – air, life);
bodhayantaḥ bodhayant (budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand) caus. PPr. 1n.3who are explaining;
paras-param av.each other (from: para – another, strange, paras-para – each other, one by one);
kathayantaḥ kathayant (kath – to tell, to narrate) PPr. 1n.3who are telling;
ca av.and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
nityam av.constantly, eternally (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
tuṣyanti tuṣ (to become calm, to be pleased) Praes. P 1v.3they are satisfied;
ca av.and;
ramanti ram (to play, to rejoice) Praes. P 1v.3they rejoice;
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


nityaṁ tuṣyanti → nityas toṣyāṁti / nityaṁ puṣyaṁti (always develop);
ca ramanti → ramayaṁti (they cause [others] to enjoy);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—

mac-cittāḥ, mayi cittaṃ yeṣāṃ te mac-cittāḥ | mad-gata-prāṇāḥ māṃ gatāḥ prāptāś cakṣur-ādayaḥ prāṇā yeṣāṃ te mad-gata-prāṇāḥ | mayy upasaṃhṛta-karaṇāḥ ity arthaḥ | athavā, mad-gata-prāṇāḥ mad-gata-jīvanā ity etat | bodhayanto’vagamayantaḥ parasparam anyonyam, kathayantaś ca jñāna-bala-vīryādi-dharmair viśiṣṭaṃ mām | tuṣyanti ca paritoṣam upayānti ca ramanti ca ratiṃ ca prāpnuvanti priya-saṃgatyeva

 

Rāmānuja


katham?

maccittāḥ mayi niviṣṭamanasaḥ, madgataprāṇāḥ madgatajīvitāḥ, mayā vinātmadhāraṇam alabhamānā ityarthaḥ; svaiḥ svair anubhūtān madīyān guṇān parasparaṃ bodhayantaḥ, madīyāni divyāni ramaṇīyāni karmāṇi ca kathayantaḥ tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca vaktāras tadvacanenānanyaprayojanena tuṣyanti; śrotāraś ca tacchravaṇenānavadhikātiśayapriyeṇa ramante

 

Śrīdhara


prīti-pūrvakaṃ bhajanam āha mac-cittā iti | mayy eva cittaṃ yeṣāṃ te mac-cittāḥ | mām eva gatāḥ prāptāḥ prāṇā indriyāṇi yeṣāṃ te mad-gata-prāṇāḥ | mad-arpita-jīvanā iti vā | evaṃbhūtās te budhā anyonyaṃ māṃ nyāyopetaiḥ śruty-ādi-pramāṇair bodhayanto buddhyā ca māṃ kathayantaḥ saṅkīrtayantaḥ santas te nityaṃ tuṣyanty anumodanena tuṣṭiṃ yānti | ramanti ca nirvṛtiṃ yānti

 

Madhusūdana


prema-pūrvakaṃ bhajanam eva vivṛṇoti mac-cittā iti | mayi bhagavati cittaṃ yeṣāṃ te mac-cittāḥ | tathā mad-gatā māṃ prāptāḥ prāṇāś cakṣur-ādayo yeṣāṃ te mad-gata-prāṇāḥ mad-bhajana-nimitta-cakṣur-ādi-vyāpārā mayy upasaṃhṛta-sarva-karaṇā vā | athavā mad-gata-prāṇā mad-bhajanārtha-jīvanā mad-bhajanātirikta-prayojana-śūnya-jīvanā iti yāvat | vidvad-goṣṭhīṣu parasparam anyonyaṃ śrutibhir yuktibhiś ca mām eva bodhayantas tattva-bubhutsu-kathayā jñāpayantaḥ | tathā sva-śiṣyebhyaś ca mām eva kathayanta upadiśantaś ca | mayi cittārpaṇaṃ tathā bāhya-karaṇārpaṇaṃ tathā jīvanārpaṇam evaṃ samānām anyonyaṃ mad-bodhanaṃ sva-nyūnebhyaś ca mad-upadeśanam ity evaṃ rūpaṃ yan mad-bhajanaṃ tenaiva tuṣyanti ca | etāvataiva labdha-sarvāthā vayam alam anyena labdhavyenety evaṃ-pratyaya-rūpaṃ santoṣaṃ prāpnuvanti ca | tena santoṣeṇa ramanti ca raante ca priya-saṃgamenevottamaṃ sukham anubhavanti ca | tad uktaṃ patañjalinā santoṣād anuttamaḥ sukha-lābhaḥ [Ys 2.42] iti | uktaṃ ca purāṇe –

yac ca kāma-sukhaṃ loke yac ca divyaṃ mahat sukham |
tṛṣṇā-kṣaya-sukhāyaite nārhataḥ ṣoḍaśīṃ kalām || iti ||

tṛṣṇā-kṣayaḥ santoṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


etādṛśā ananya-bhaktā eva mat-prasādāl labdha-buddhi-yogaḥ pūrvokta-lakṣaṇaṃ durbodham api mat-tattva-jñānaṃ prāpnuvantīty āha mac-cittā mad-rūpa-nāma-guṇa-līlā-mādhuryāsvādeṣv eva lubdha-manaso, mad-gata-prāṇā māṃ vinā prāṇān dhartum asamarthā anna-gata-prāṇā narā itivat | bodhayantaḥ bhakti-svarūpa-prakārādikaṃ sauhārdena jñāpayantaḥ | māṃ mahā-madhura-rūpa-guṇa-līlā-mahodadhiṃ kathayanto mad-rūpādi-vyākhyānenot-kīrtanādikaṃ kurvanta ity evaṃ sarva-bhaktiṣv atiśraiṣṭhyāt smaraṇa-śravaṇa-kīrtanāny uktāni | tuṣyanti ca ramanti ceti bhaktyaiva santoṣaś ca ramaṇaṃ ceti rahasyam | yad vā sādhana-daśāyām api bhāgya-vaśāt bhajane nirvighne sampadyamāne sati tuṣyanti | tadaiva bhāvi-svīya-sādhya-daśām anusmṛtya ramanti ca manasā sva-prabhuṇā saha ramanti ceti rāgānugā bhaktir dyotitā

 

Baladeva


bhaktiḥ prakāram āha mac-cittā iti | mac-cittā mat-smṛti-parā mad-gata-prāṇā māṃ vinā prāṇān dhartum akṣamā mīnā vināmbhaḥ | parasparaṃ mad-rūpa-guṇa-lāvaṇyādi bodhayantas tathā māṃ sva-bhakta-vātsalya-nīradhim ativicitra-caritaṃ kathayantaś cety evaṃ smaraṇa-śravaṇa-kīrtana-lakṣaṇair bhajanaiḥ sudhāpānair iva tuṣyanti | tathaiva teṣv eva ramante ca yuvati-smita-kaṭākṣāny uktāni | tuṣyanti ca ramanti ceti bhaktyaiva santoṣaś ca ramaṇaṃ ceti rahasyam | yad vā sādhana-daśāyām api bhāgya-vaśāt bhajane nirvighne sampadyamāne sati tuṣyanti | tadaiva bhāvi-svīya-sādhya-daśām anusmṛtya ramanti ca manasā sva-prabhuṇā saha ramanti ceti rāgānugā bhaktir dyotitā
 
 


BhG 10.10

teṣāṃ satata-yuktānāṃ bhajatāṃ prīti-pūrvakam
dadāmi buddhi-yogaṃ taṃ yena mām upayānti te

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[aham] (I) teṣām satata-yuktānāṁ (to those always engaged) prīti-pūrvakam (with affection) [mām] bhajatām (worshipping me) tam buddhi-yogam (this yoga of intelligence) dadāmi (I give),
yena [buddhi-yogena] (by that yoga of intelligence) te (they) mām (to me) upayānti (they go).

 

grammar

teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m.of those;
satata-yuktānām satata-yukta 6n.3 m.of those always engaged (from: sa-tata – constant, uninterrupted, av. – constantly; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
bhajatām bhajant (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) PPr 6n.3of those worshipping;
prīti-pūrvakam av.with affection (from: prī – to please, prīti – delight, joy; pūrva – previous, ancient, pūrvakam – suffix: after, with, according to);
dadāmi (to give) Praes. P 3v.1I give;
buddhi-yogam buddhi-yoga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: buddhyā kṛtaṁ yogam iti yoga evolved from intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand; buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
yena yat sn. 3n.1 m.by which;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
upayānti upa- (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;

 
 



Śāṃkara


ye yathoktaiḥ prakārair bhajante māṃ bhaktāḥ santaḥ—

teṣāṃ satata-yuktānāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ nivṛtta-sarva-bāhyaiṣaṇānāṃ bhajatāṃ sevamānānām | kim arthitvādinā kāraṇena ? nety āha—-prīti-pūrvakaṃ prītiḥ snehas tat-pūrvakaṃ māṃ bhajatām ity arthaḥ | dadāmi prayacchāmi buddhi-yogaṃ buddhiḥ samyag darśanaṃ mat-tattva-viṣayaṃ tena yogo buddhi-yogas taṃ buddhi-yogam, yena buddhi-yogena samyag darśana-lakṣaṇena māṃ parameśvaram ātma-bhūtam ātmatvena upayānti pratipadyante | ke ? te ye mac-cittatvādi-prakārair māṃ bhajante

 

Rāmānuja


teṣāṃ satatayuktānām mayi satatayogam āśaṃsamānānāṃ māṃ bhajamānānām ahaṃ tam eva buddhiyogaṃ vipākadaśāpannaṃ prītipūrvakaṃ dadāmi; yena te mām upayānti

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃbhūtānāṃ ca samyag-jñānam ahaṃ dadāmīty āha teṣām iti | evaṃ satata-yuktānāṃ mayy āsakta-cittānāṃ prīti-pūrvakaṃ bhajatāṃ teṣāṃ taṃ buddhi-rūpaṃ yogam upāyaṃ dadāmi | tam iti kam ? yenopāyena te mad-bhaktā māṃ prāpnuvanti

 

Madhusūdana


ye yathoktena prakāreṇa bhajante māṃ teṣām iti | satataṃ sarvadā yuktānāṃ bhagavaty ekāgra-buddhīnām | ataeva lābha-pūjā-khyāty-ādy anabhisandhāya prīti-pūrvakam eva bhajatāṃ sevamānānāṃ teṣām avikampena yogeneti yaḥ prāg uktas taṃ buddhi-yogaṃ mattatva-viṣayaṃ samyag-darśanaṃ dadāmi utpādayāmi | yena buddhi-yogena mām īśvaram ātmatvenopayānti ye mac-cittatvādi-prakārair māṃ bhajante te

 

Viśvanātha


nanu tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca iti tvad-uktyā tvad-bhaktānāṃ bhaktyaiva paramānando guṇātīta ity avagataṃ, kintu teṣāṃ tvat-sākṣāt-prāptau kaḥ prakāraḥ ? sa ca kutaḥ sakāśāt tair avagantavya ity apekṣāyām āha teṣām iti | satata-yuktānāṃ nityam eva mat-saṃyogākāṅkṣaṇāṃ taṃ buddhi-yogaṃ dadāmi teṣāṃ hṛd-vṛttiṣv aham eva udbhāvayāmīti | sa buddhi-yogaḥ svato ‚nyasmāc ca kutaścid apy adhigantum aśakyaḥ kintu mad-eka-deyas tad-eka-grāhya iti bhāvaḥ | mām upayānti mām upalabhante sākṣān man-nikaṭaṃ prāpnuvanti

 

Baladeva


nanu svarūpeṇa guṇair vibhūtibhiś cānantaṃ tvāṃ kathaṃ gurūpadeśa-mātreṇa te grahītuṃ kṣamerann iti cet tatrāha teṣām iti | satata-yuktānāṃ nityaṃ mad-yogaṃ vāñchatāṃ prīti-pūrvakaṃ mama yāthātmya-jñānajena ruci-bhareṇa bhajatāṃ taṃ buddhi-yogaṃ sva-bhakti-rasiko dadāmy arpayāmi | yena te mām upayānti tad-buddhiṃ tathāham udbhāvayāmi yathānanta-guṇa-vibhūtiṃ mām gṛhītvopāsya ca prāpnuvanti
 
 


BhG 10.11

teṣām evānukampārtham aham ajñāna-jaṃ tamaḥ
nāśayāmy ātma-bhāva-stho jñāna-dīpena bhāsvatā

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teṣām eva (just for them) anukampārtham (for the sake of compassion) aham ātma-bhāva-sthaḥ (I who stay in the feelings of the self) bhāsvatā jñāna-dīpena (with a shining lamp of knowledge) ajñāna-jam tamaḥ (darkness born of ignorance) nāśayāmi (I destroy).

 

grammar

teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m.for them;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
anu-kampā-artham av.for the sake of compassion (from: anu-kamp – to feel compassion; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use, suffix: for the sake of, on account of);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
ajñāna-jam ajñāna-ja 2n.1 n.born of ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand, a-jñāna – ignorance; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
tamaḥ tamas 2n.1 n.darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
nāśayāmi naś (to disappear, to be lost, to perish) Praes. caus. P 3v.1I cause to perish, I destroy;
ātma-bhāva-sthaḥ ātma-bhāva-stha 1n.1 m.; ya ātmano bhave tiṣṭhati saḥwho stays in the feelings of the self (from: ātman – self; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
jñāna-dīpena jñāna-dīpa 3n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānasya dīpenetiwith a lamp of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; dīp – to blaze, to shine, dīpa – a lamp);
bhāsvatā bhāsvant 3n.1 m.with shining, with having light (from: bhās – to shine, to be bright; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);

 
 



Śāṃkara


kim-arthaṃ kasya vā tvat-prāpti-pratibandha-hetor nāśakaṃ buddhi-yogaṃ teṣāṃ tvad-bhaktānāṃ dadāsi ? ity apekṣāyām āha—

teṣām eva kathaṃ nu nāma śreyaḥ syāt ity anukampārthaṃ dayā-hetor aham ajñāna-jam avivekato jātaṃ mithyā-pratyaya-lakṣaṇaṃ mohāndhakāraṃ tamo nāśayāmi, ātma-bhāva-stha ātmano bhāvo’ntaḥ-karaṇāśayas tasminn eva sthitaḥ san jñāna-dīpena viveka-pratyaya-rūpeṇa bhakti-prasāda-snehābhiṣiktena mad-bhāvanābhiniveśa-vāteritena brahmacaryādi-sādhana-saṃskāra-vat-prajñāvartinā viraktāntaḥ-karaṇādhāreṇa viṣaya-vyāvṛtta-citta-rāga-dveṣākaluṣita-nivātāpavaraka-sthena nitya-pravṛttaikāgrya-dhyāna-janita-samyag-darśana-bhāsvatā jñāna-dīpenety arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


kiñ ca,

teṣām evānugrahārtham aham, ātmabhāvasthaḥ teṣāṃ manovṛttau viṣayatayāvasthitaḥ madīyān kalyāṇaguṇagaṇāṃś cāviṣkurvan madviṣayajñānākhyena bhāsvatā dīpena jñānavirodhiprācīnakarmarūpājñānajaṃ madvyatiriktapūrvābhyastaviṣayaprāvaṇyarūpaṃ tamo nāśayāmi

 

Śrīdhara


buddhi-yogaṃ dattvā ca tasyānubhava-paryantaṃ tam āviṣkṛtyāvidyā-kṛtaṃ saṃsāraṃ nāśayāmīty āha teṣām iti | teṣām anukampārtham anugrahārtham evājñānāj jātaṃ tamaḥ saṃsārākhyaṃ nāśayāmi | kutra sthitaḥ san kena vā sādhanena tamo nāśayasi ? ata āha ātma-bhāva-stho buddhi-vṛttau sthitaḥ san | bhāsvatā visphuratā jñāna-lakṣaṇena dīpena nāśayāmi

 

Madhusūdana


dīyamānasya buddhi-yogasyātma-prāptau phalaṃ madhya-vartinaṃ vyāpāram āha teṣām iti | teṣām eva kathaṃ śreyaḥ syād ity anugrahārtham ātma-bhāvasya ātmākārāntaḥ-karaṇa-vṛttau viṣayatvena sthito ‚haṃ sva-prakāśa-caitanyānandādvaya-lakṣaṇa ātmā tenaiva mad-viṣayāntaḥkaraṇa-pariṇāma-rūpeṇa jñāna-dīpena dīpa-sadṛśena jñānena bhāsvatā cid-ābhāsa-yuktenāpratibaddhena ajñāna-jam ajñānopādānakaṃ tamo mithyā-pratyaya-lakṣaṇaṃ sva-viṣayāvaraṇam andhakāraṃ tad-upādānājñāna-nāśena nāśayāmi sarva-bhramopādānasyājñānasya jñāna-nivartyatvād upādāna-nāśa-nivartyatvāc copādeyasya |

yathā dīpenāndhakāre nivartanīye dīpotpattim antareṇa na karmaṇo ‚bhyāsasya vāpekṣā vidyamānasyaivaa ca vastuno ‚bhivyaktis tato nānutpannasya kasyacid utpattis tathā jñānenājñāne nivartanīye na jñānotpattim antareṇānyasya karmaṇo ‚bhyāsasya vāpekṣā vidyamānasyaiva ca brahma-bhāvasya mokṣasyābhivyaktis tato nānutpannasyotpattir yena kṣayitvaṃ karmādi-sāpekṣatvaṃ vā bhaved iti rūpakālaṅkāreṇa sūcito ‚rthaḥ | bhāsvatety anena tīvra-pavanāder ivāsaṃbhāvanādeḥ pratibandhakasyābhāvaḥ sūcitaḥ | jñānasya ca dīpa-sādharmyaṃ sva-viṣayāvaraṇa-nivartakatvaṃ sva-vyavahāre sajātīya-parānapekṣatvaṃ svotpatty-atirikta-sahakāry-anapekṣatvam ity ādi rūpaka-bījaṃ draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


nanu ca vidyādi-vṛttiṃ vinā kathaṃ tvad-adhigamaḥ ? tasmāt tair api tad-arthaṃ yatanīyam eva ? tatra nahi nahīty āha teṣām eva na tv anyeṣāṃ yoginām anukapārthaṃ mad-anukampā yena prakāreṇa syāt tad-artham ity arthaḥ | tair mad-anukampā-prāptau kāpi cintā na kāryā yatas teṣāṃ mad-anukampā-prāpty-artham aham eva yatamāno varta eveti bhāvaḥ | ātma-bhāvasthas teṣāṃ buddhi-vṛttaau sthitaḥ | jñānaṃ mad-eka-prakāśyatvān na sāttvikaṃ nirguṇatve ‚pi bhakty-uttha-jñānato ‚pi vilakṣaṇaṃ yat tad eva dīpas tena | aham eva nāśayāmīti taiḥ kathaṃ tad-arthaṃ prayatanīyam ? teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ yoga-kṣemaṃ vahāmy ahaṃ [Gītā 9.22] iti mad-uktes teṣāṃ vyavahārikaḥ pāramārthikaś ca sarvo ‚pi bhāro mayā voḍham aṅgīkṛta eveti bhāvaḥ |

śrīmad-gītā sarva-sāra-bhūtā bhūtāpatāpa-hṛt |
catuḥ-ślokīyam ākhyātā khyātā sarva-niśarma-kṛt

 

Baladeva


nanu cirantanasyāvidyā-timirasya sattvāt teṣāṃ hṛdi kathaṃ tat-prakāśaḥ syād iti cet tatrāha teṣām eveti | teṣām eva māṃ vinā prāṇān dhartum asamarthānāṃ mad-ekāntinām eva, na tu sa-niṣṭhānām anukampārthaṃ mat-kṛpā-pātratvārtham | aham evātma-bhāvastho ‚ravinda-koṣe bhṛṅga iva tad-bhāve sthito divya-svarūpa-guṇāṃs tatra prakāśayaṃs tad-viṣayaka-jñāna-rūpeṇa bhāsvatā dīpena jñāna-virodhy-anādi-karma-rūpājñāna-jaṃ mad-anya-viṣaya-spṛhā-rūpaṃ tamo nāśayāmi | teṣām ekānta-bhāvena prasādito ‚haṃ yoga-kṣemavad buddhi-vṛtter udbhāvanaṃ tad-varti-tamo-vināśaṃ ca karomīti tat-sarva-nirvāha-bhāro mamaiveti na taiḥ kutrāpy arthe prayatitavyam ity uktam |

navamādi-dvaye gītā-garbhe ‚smin yat prakīrtitam |
tad eva gītā-śāstrārtha-sāraṃ bodhyaṃ vicakṣaṇaiḥ

 
 


BhG 10.12-13

arjuna uvāca
paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma pavitraṃ paramaṃ bhavān
puruṣaṃ śāśvataṃ divyam ādi-devam ajaṃ vibhum
āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve deva-rṣir nāradas tathā
asito devalo vyāsaḥ svayaṃ caiva bravīṣi me

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arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
bhavān (You) param brahma (the supreme Brahman) param dhāma (the supreme abode) paramam pavitram (the supreme purity) [asi] (you are).
[ataḥ] (therefore) devarṣiḥ nāradaḥ (divine sage Narada) asitaḥ (Asita) devalaḥ (Devala) vyāsaḥ (Vyāsa) tathā sarve ṛṣayaḥ (as well as other sages) tvām (you) puruṣam (the Man) śāśvatam (eternal) divyam (divine) ādi-devam (primeval among the divinities) ajam (unborn) vibhum (powerful) āhuḥ (they declare).
svayam ca (and personally) tvam [tathā] (you in that manner) me (to me) bravīṣi (you speak).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, najwyższy, the best;
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, najwyższy, the best;
dhāma dhāman 1n.1 n.abode, house, state, majesty, splendour (from: dhā – to put);
pavitram pavitra 1n.1 n. – means of purification, purity (from: – to purify);
paramam parama 1n.1 n. supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
bhavān bhavant 1n.1 m.You (from: bhū – to be, bha-vant – honorific form of address, looks like PPr of: bhū, but differs in declension in: nominative singular; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
puruṣam puruṣa 2n.1 m.person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
śāśvatam śāśvata 2n.1 m.eternal, permanent, constant;
divyam divya 2n.1 m.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
ādi-devam ādi-deva 2n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām ādim itiprimeval among divinities (from: ādi – beginning, the first; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
ajam a-ja 2n.1 m.unborn (from: jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
vibhum vi-bhu 2n.1 m.powerful, wealthy, eminent, all-pervading (from: vi- – prefix: to divide, in different directions, outside; bhū – to be);

*****

āhuḥ ah (to speak – inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū) [Perf.] P 1v.3they spoke, they declared;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
ṛṣayaḥ ṛṣi 1n.3 m.sages, seers;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
deva-rṣiḥ deva-rṣi 1n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām ṛṣir itisage among the divinities (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
nāradaḥ nāra-da 1n.1 m.Narada (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person, nāra – related to men, waters; da – suffix meaning giver);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
asitaḥ a-sita 1n.1 m.Asita, not white, of dark colour (from: sita – white, shining);
devalaḥ devala 1n.1 m.Devala, attendent of a deity;
vyāsaḥ vyāsa 1n.1 m.Vyāsa, arranging (from: vi-as – to divide, to dispose, to arrange);
svayam av.personally, on one’s own;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
bravīṣi brū (to speak) Praes. P 2v.1you speak;
me asmat sn. 6n.1to me (shortened form of: mama);

 

textual variants


brahma and dhāma interchange;
me → māṃ (me);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yathoktāṃ bhagavato vibhūtiṃ yogaṃ ca śrutvārjuna uvāca—

paraṃ brahma paramātmā paraṃ dhāma paraṃ tejaḥ pavitraṃ pāvanaṃ paramaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ bhavān | puruṣaṃ śāśvataṃ nityaṃ divyaṃ divi bhavam ādi-devaṃ sarva-devānām ādau bhavam ādi-devam ajaṃ vibhuṃ vibhavana-śīlam

īdṛśaṃ—

āhuḥ kathayanti tvām ṛṣayo vasiṣṭhādayaḥ sarve devarṣir nāradas tathā | asito devalo’pi evam evāha, vyāsaś ca, svayaṃ caiva tvaṃ ca bravīṣi me

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ sakaletaravisajātīyaṃ bhagavadasādhāraṇaṃ śṛṇvatāṃ niratiśayānandajanakaṃ kalyāṇaguṇagaṇayogaṃ tadaiśvaryavitatiṃ ca śrutvā tadvistāraṃ śrotukāmo ‚rjuna uvāca

paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma paramaṃ pavitraṃ iti yaṃ śrutayo vadanti, sa hi bhavān / „yato vā imāni bhūtāni jāyante, yena jātāni jīvanti, yat prayanty abhisaṃviśanti, tad vijijñāsasva tad brahmeti”, „brahmavid āpnoti param”, „sa yo ha vai tat paramaṃ brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati” iti / tathā paraṃ dhāma; dhāmaśabdo jyotirvacanaḥ; paraṃ jyotiḥ „atha yad ataḥ paro divo jyotir dīpyate”, „paraṃ jyotir upasaṃpadya svena rūpeṇābhiniṣpadyate”, „taṃ devā jyotiṣāṃ jyotiḥ” iti / tathā ca paramaṃ pavitram paramaṃ pāvanam; smartur aśeṣakalmaṣāśleṣakaram, vināśakaraṃ ca / „yathā puṣkarapalāśa āpo na śliṣyante evam evaṃvidi pāpaṃ karma na śliṣyate”, „tad yatheṣīkātūlam agnau protaṃ pradūyetaivaṃ hāsya sarve pāpmānaḥ pradūyante”, „nārāyaṇa paraṃ brahma tattvaṃ nagarāyaṇaḥ paraḥ / nārāyaṇa paro jyotir ātmā nārāyaṇaḥ paraḥ” iti hi śrutayo vadanti

ṛṣayaś ca sarve parāvaratattvayāthātmyavidas tvām eva śāśvataṃ divyaṃ puruṣam ādidevam ajaṃ vibhum āhuḥ; tathaiva devarṣir nāradaḥ asitaḥ devalaḥ vyāsaś ca / „ye ca devavido vipro ye cādhyātmavido janāḥ / te vadanti mahātmānaṃ kṛṣṇaṃ dharmaṃ sanātanam // pavitāṇāṃ hi govindaḥ pavitraṃ param ucyate / puṇyānām api puṇyo ‚sau maṅgalānāṃ ca maṅgalam / trailokyaṃ puṇḍarīkākṣo devadevaḥ sanātanaḥ / āste harir acintyātmā tatraiva madhusūdanaḥ // „eṣa nārāyaṇaḥ śrīmān kṣīrārṇavaniketanaḥ / nāgaparyaṅkam utsṛjya hy āgato madhurāṃ purīm // „puṇyā dvāravatī tatra yatrāste madhusūdahaḥ / sākṣād devaḥ purāṇo ‚sau sa hi dharmas sanātanaḥ” / tathā, „yatra nārāyaṇo devaḥ paramātmā sanātanaḥ / tatra kṛtsnaṃ jagat pārtha tīrthāny āyatanāni ca // tat puṇyaṃ tat paraṃ brahma tat tīrthaṃ tat tapovanam / tatra devarṣayas siddhāḥ sarve caiva tapodhanāḥ // ādidevo mahāyogī yatrāste madhusūdanaḥ / puṇyānām api tat puṇyaṃ mā bhūt te saṃśayo ‚tra vai // „kṛṣṇa eva hi lokānām utpattir api cāpyayaḥ / kṛṣṇasya hi kṛte bhūtam idaṃ viśvaṃ carācaram // iti / tathā svayam eva bravīṣi ca, „bhūmir apo ‚nalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano budhir eva ca / ahaṃkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā // ityādinā, „ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate” ityantena

 

Śrīdhara


saṃkṣepeṇoktāṃ vibhūtiṃ vistareṇa jijñāsuḥ bhagavantaṃ stuvann arjuna uvāca paraṃ brahmeti saptabhiḥ | paraṃ dhāma cāśrayaḥ | paramaṃ ca pavitraṃ ca bhavān eva | kuta iti ? ata āha yataḥ śāśvataṃ nityaṃ puruṣam | tathā divyaṃ dyotanātmakaṃ svayaṃ prakāśam | ādiś cāsau devaś ceti tam | devānām ādi-bhūtam ity arthaḥ | tathājam ajanmānam | vibhuṃ ca vyāpakam | tvām evāhuḥ | ke ta iti ? āha āhur iti | ṛṣayo bhṛgv-ādayaḥ sarve | devarṣiś ca nāradaḥ | asitaś ca devalaś ca vyāsaś ca svayaṃ tvam eva ca sākṣān me mahyaṃ bravīṣi

 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ bhagavato vibhūtiṃ yogaṃ ca śrutvā paramotkaṇṭhito ‚rjuna uvāca paraṃ brahmeti saptabhiḥ | paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma āśrayaḥ prakāśo vā | paramaṃ pavitraṃ pāvanaṃ ca bhavān eva | yataḥ puruṣam paramātmānaṃ śāśvataṃ sadaika-rūpaṃ divi parame vyomni sva-svarūpe bhavaṃ divyaṃ sva-prapañcātītam ādiṃ ca sarva-kāraṇaṃ devaṃ ca dyotanātmakaṃ sva-prakāśam ādi-devam ata evājaṃ vibhuṃ sarva-gataṃ tvām āhur iti sambandhaḥ

āhuḥ kathayanti tvām ananta-mahimānam ṛṣayas tattva-jñāna-niṣṭhāḥ sarve bhṛgu-vaśiṣṭhādayaḥ | tathā devarṣi-nārado ‚sito devalaś ca dhaumyasya jyeṣṭho bhrātā | vyāsaś ca bhagavān kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyanaḥ | ete ‚pi tvāṃ pūrvokta-viśeṣaṇaṃ me mahyam āhuḥ sākṣāt kim anyair vaktṛbhiḥ svayam eva tvaṃ ca mahyaṃ bravīṣi | atra ṛṣitve ‚pi sākṣād-vaktṝṇāṃ nāradādīnām ativiśiṣṭatvāt pṛthag-grahaṇam

 

Viśvanātha


saṅkṣepeṇoktam arthaṃ vistareṇa śrotum icchan stuti-pūrvakam āha param iti | paraṃ sarvotkṛṣṭaṃ dhāma śyāmasundaraṃ vapur eva paraṃ brahma | gṛha-dehatviṭ-prabhāvā dhāmāni ity amaraḥ | tad dhāmaiva bhavān bhavati | jīvasyeva tava deha-dehi-vibhāgo nāstīti bhāvaḥ | dhāma kīdṛśam ? paraṃ pavitraṃ draṣṭṝṇām avidyā-mālinya-haram ataeva ṛṣayo ‚pi tvāṃ śāśvataṃ puruṣam āhuḥ puruṣākārasyāsya nityatvaṃ vadanti

 

Baladeva


saṅkṣepeṇa śrutāṃ vibhūtiṃ vistareṇa śrotum icchann arjuna uvāca param iti | bhavān eva satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahma iti śrūyamāṇaṃ paraṃ brahma | bhavān eva tasminn evāśritāḥ sarve tad u nātyeti kaścana iti śrūyamāṇaṃ paraṃ dhāma nikhilāśraya-bhūtaṃ vastu | bhavān eva paramaṃ pavitraṃ jñātvā devaṃ mucyate sarva-pāpaiḥ sarvaṃ pāpmānaṃ tarati nainaṃ pāpmā tarati ity ādi śrūyamāṇaṃ smartur akhila-pāpa-haraṃ vastu ity ahaṃ vedmi | tathā sarve tad-anukampitā ṛṣayas teṣu pradhāna-bhūtā nāradādayaś ca tasmāt kṛṣṇa eva paro devas taṃ dhyāyet taṃ raset taṃ bhajet taṃ yajet [GTU 1.48] iti | oṃ tat sat iti janma-jarābhyāṃ bhinnaḥ sthāṇur ayam acchedyo ‚yaṃ [GTU 2.22] iti śruty-artha-vidas tvāṃ divyaṃ puruṣam ādidevam ajaṃ vibhum āhus [Gītā 10.12] tat-kathā-saṃvādeṣu purāṇeṣv itihāseṣu ca svayaṃ ca vravīṣīti ajo ‚pi sann avyayātmā [Gītā 4.6] iti yo mām ajam anādiṃ ca [Gītā 10.3] iti ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavaḥ [Gītā 10.8] ity ādibhiḥ
 
 


BhG 10.14

sarvam etad ṛtaṃ manye yan māṃ vadasi keśava
na hi te bhagavan vyaktiṃ vidur devā na dānavāḥ

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syntax


he keśava (O Keśava!), he bhagavan (O Lord!),
[tvam] (you) yat (that which) mām (me) vadasi (you speak),
[aham] (I) etat sarvam (this all) ṛtam (as truth) manye (I think).
devāḥ hi dānavāḥ [ca] (indeed divinities or demons) te vyaktim (your manifestation) na viduḥ (they do not know).

 

grammar

sarvam sarva sn. 1n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
ṛtam ṛta 1n.1 n.order, law, truth;
manye man (to think) Praes. Ā 3v.1I think;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
vadasi vad (to speak) Praes. P 2v.1you speak;
keśava keśa-va 8n.1 m.who has [beautiful] hair (from: keśa – hair; -va = -vant – owner);
or ka-īśa-vathe lord of Brahmā and Śiva (from: ka – Brahmā; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord, Śiva; -va = -vant – owner);
na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
bhagavan bhagavant 8n.1 m.O Lord! (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
vyaktim vyakti 2n.1 f.manifestation, appearance, distinctness (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible);
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they learned, they know;
devāḥ deva 1n.3 m.the gods, divinities (from: div – to shine, to play);
na av.not;
dānavāḥ dānava 1n.3 m.the descendants of Danu (from: danu – mother of demons, daughter of Dakṣa);

 

textual variants


yan māṁ yan mā / yan me / yaṁ māṁ / yaṁ tāṁ (that which [you speak] to me);
te → me (to me);
vyaktiṁ → bhaktiṁ / vyaktaṁ (devotion / evidently);
dānavāḥ → maharṣayaḥ (great sages);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvam etad yathoktam ṛṣibhis tvayā caitad ṛtaṃ satyam eva manye, yan māṃ prati vadasi bhāṣase he keśava | na hi te tava bhagavan vyaktiṃ prabhavaṃ vidur na devā na dānavāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


ataḥ sarvam etad yathāvasthitavastukathanaṃ manye, na praśaṃsādyabhiprāyam; yan māṃ prati ananyasādhāraṇam anavadhikātiśayaṃ svābhāvikaṃ tavāiśvaryaṃ kalyāṇaguṇānantyaṃ ca vadasi / ato bhagavan niratiśayajñānaśaktibalāiśvaryavīryatejasāṃ nidhe, te vyaktiṃ vyañjanaprakāraṃ na hi parimitajñānā devā dānavāś ca viduḥ

 

Śrīdhara


ato mamedānīṃ tvadīyaiśvaryo ‚sambhāvanā nivṛttety āha sarvam etad iti | etad-bhāvena paraṃ brahmety ādi sarvam apy ṛtaṃ satyaṃ manye | yan māṃ prati tvaṃ kathayasi na me viduḥ sura-gaṇā ity ādi | tad api satyam eva manya ity āha na hīti | he bhagavan tava vyaktiṃ devā na viduḥ | asmad-anugrahārtham iyam abhivyaktir iti na jānanti | dānavāś cāsmin nigrahārtham iti na vidur eveti

 

Madhusūdana


sarvam etad uktam ṛṣibhiś ca tvayā ca tad-ṛtaṃ satyam evāhaṃ manye yan māṃ prati vadasi keśava | nahi tvad-vacasi mama kutrāpy aprāmāṇya-śaṅkā | tac ca sarvajñatvāt tvaṃ jānāsīti keśau brahma-rudrau sarveśāv apy anukampyayā vātyavagacchatīti vyutpattim āśritya niratiśayaiśvarya-pratipādakena keśava-padena sūcitam | ato yad uktaṃ na me viduḥ sura-gaṇāḥ prabhavaṃ na maharṣayaḥ [Gītā 10.2] ity ādi tat tathaiva | hi yasmāt | he bhagavan samagraiśvaryādi-sampanna te tava vyaktiṃ prabhāvaṃ jñānātiśaya-śālino ‚pi devā na vidur nāpi dānavā na maharṣaya ity api draṣṭavyam

 

Viśvanātha


nātra mama ko ‚py aviśvāsa ity āha sarvam iti | kiṃ ca te ṛṣayaḥ paraṃ brahma-dhāmānaṃ tvām ajam āhur eva | na tu te vyaktiṃ janma viduḥ | para-brahma-svarūpasya tavājatvaṃ janmavattvaṃ ca kiṃ prakāram iti tu na vidur ity arthaḥ | ataeva na me viduḥ suragaṇāḥ prabhavaṃ na maharṣayaḥ [Gītā 10.2] iti yat tvayoktaṃ taṃ sarvam ṛtaṃ satyam eva manye | he keśava ! ko brahmā īśo rudraś ca tāv api vayase svatattvājñānena badhnāsi, kiṃ punaḥ deva-dānavādyās tvāṃ na vidantīti vācyam iti bhāvaḥ

 

Baladeva


sarvam iti | etat sarvam aham ṛtaṃ satyam eva | na tu praśaṃsā-mātraṃ manye | he keśaveti | keśau vidhi-rudrau vayase sva-tattvāparijñānena nibadhnāsi prajāpatiṃ ca rudraṃ ca ity ādi tvad-uktaḥ | he sarveśvara ! he bhagavan ! niravadhikātiśaya-ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-nidhe ! te vyaktiṃ para-brahmatvādi-guṇāṃ śrī-mūrtiṃ deva-dānavāś ca na vidur yat te ‚nya-svajātīyatva-buddhyā tvām avajānanti druhyanti ceti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 10.15

svayam evātmanātmānaṃ vettha tvaṃ puruṣottama
bhūta-bhāvana bhūteśa deva-deva jagat-pate

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syntax


he puruṣottama (O best among men!) he bhūta-bhāvana (O Creator of beings!) he bhūteśa (O Ruler of beings!) he deva-deva (O God of gods!) he jagat-pate (O Lord of the world!),
tvam svayam eva (indeed you yourself) ātmanā (by yourself) ātmānam (yourself) vettha (you know).

 

grammar

svayam av.personally, on one’s own;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ātmanā ātman 3n.1 m.by the self;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
vettha vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 2v.1 (meaning Praes.) – you know;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
puruṣottama puruṣa-uttama 8n.1 m.; [TP]: puruṣāṇām uttametiO best among men (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
bhūta-bhāvana bhūta-bhāvana 8n.1 m.; yo bhūtāni bhāvayati saḥO you who creates [all] beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; caus [PP] bhāvana – causing to be, creator, imagination);
bhūteśa bhūta-iśa 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bhūtānām īśeti – O ruler of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world, istoty, byty; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
deva-deva deva-deva 8n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām deveti – O god of gods (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
jagat-pate jagat-pati 8n.1 m.; [TP]: jagataḥ pata itiO lord of the world (from: gam – to go, jagat – world, moving, mankind; pati – husband, lord);

 

textual variants

vettha → vetsi (you know);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yatas tvaṃ devādīnām ādiḥ, ataḥ—

svayam eva ātmanātmānaṃ vettha jānāsi tvaṃ niratiśaya-jñānaiśvarya-balādi-śaktimantam īśvaram | puruṣottama ! bhūtāni bhāvayatīti bhūta-bhāvanaḥ | he bhūtabhāvana ! bhūteśa ! bhūtānām īśitaḥ ! he deva-deva ! jagat-pate !

 

Rāmānuja


he puruṣottama, ātmanā, ātmānam tvāṃ svayam eva svena jñānenaiva vettha / bhūtabhāvana; sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām utpādayitaḥ, bhūteśa sarveṣāṃ niyantaḥ, devadeva daivatānām api paramadaivata, yathā manuṣyamṛgapakṣisarīsṛpādīn saundaryasauśīlyādikalyāṇaguṇagaṇair daivatāni atītya vartante, tathā tāni sarvāṇi daivatāny api tais tair guṇais atītya vartamāna, jagatpate jagatsvāmin

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ tarhi ? svayam iti | svayam eva tvam ātmānaṃ vettha jānāsi nānyaḥ | tad apy ātmanā svenaiva vettha | na sādhanāntareṇa | atyādareṇa bahudhā sambodhayati he puruṣottama ! puruṣottamatve hetu-garbhāṇi viśeṣaṇāni sambodhanāni | he bhūta-bhāvana bhūtotpādaka | bhūtānām īśa niyantaḥ | devānām ādityādīnāṃ deva prakāśaka | jagat-pate viśva-pālaka

 

Madhusūdana


yatas tvaṃ teṣāṃ sarveṣām ādir aśakya-jñānaś cātaḥ svayam iti | svayam evānyonyapadeśādikam antareṇaiva tvam evātmānā svarūpeṇātmānaṃ nirupādhikaṃ sopādhikaṃ ca | nirupādhikaṃ pratyaktvenāviṣayatayā sopādhikaṃ ca niratiśaya-jñānaiśvaryādi-śaktimattvena vettha jānāsi nānyaḥ kaścit | anyair jñātum aśakyam ahaṃ kathaṃ jānīyām ity āśaṅkām apanudan premautkaṇṭhyena bahudhā sambodhayati he puruṣottama tvad-apekṣayā sarve ‚pi puruṣā apakṛṣṭā eva | atas teṣām aśakyaṃ sarvottamasya tava śakyam evety abhiprāyaḥ | puruṣottamatvam eva vivṛṇoti punaś caturbhiḥ sambodhanaiḥ | bhūtāni sarvāṇi bhāvayaty utpādayatīti he bhūta-bhāvana sarva-bhūta-pitaḥ | pitāpi kaścin neṣṭas tatrāha he bhūteśa sarva-bhūta-niyantaḥ | niyantāpi kaścin nārādhyas tatrāha he deva-deva devānāṃ sarvārādhyānām apy ārādhyaḥ | ārādhyo ‚pi kaścin na pālayitṛtvena patis tatrāha he jagat-pate hitāhitopadeśaka-veda-praṇatṛtvena sarvasya jagataḥ pālayitaḥ | etādṛśa-sarva-viśeṣaṇa-viśiṣṭas tvaṃ sarveṣāṃ pitā sarveṣāṃ guruḥ sarveṣāṃ rājātaḥ sarvaiḥ prakāraiḥ sarveṣām ārādhya iti kiṃ vācyaṃ puruṣottamas tvaṃ taveti bhāvaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


tasmāt tvaṃ svayam evātmānaṃ vettha iti eva-kāreṇa tavārjatva-janmavattvādīnāṃ durghaṭānām api vāstavatvam eva tvad-bhakto vetti tac ca kena prakāreṇeti tu so ‚pi na vettīty arthaḥ | tad apy ātmanā svenaiva vettha na sādhanāntareṇa | ataeva tvaṃ puruṣeṣu mahat-sraṣṭādiṣv api madhya uttamaḥ | na kevalam uttama eva, yato bhūta-bhāvanaḥ | bhūtā bhūta-bhāvana-rūpā ye tad-ādayaḥ parameṣṭhy-antās teṣām īśaḥ | na kevalam īśa eva, yato devais tair eva devaḥ krīḍā yasyeti tvat-krīḍopakāra-bhūtā eva te ity arthaḥ | tad apy apārakāruṇya-vaśād jagad-vartinā man mādṛśānām api tvam eva patir bhavasi iti catūrṇāṃ sambodhana-padānām arthaḥ | yad vā puruṣottamatvam eva vivṛṇoti he bhūta-bhāvana sarva-bhūta-pitaḥ ! pitāpi kaścin neṣṭe ? tatrāha he bhūteśa ! bhūteśo ‚pi kaścin nārādhyas tatrāha he devadeva ! devārādhyo ‚pi kaścin na pālayatīti tatrāha he jagat-pate

 

Baladeva


svayam eva tvam ātmānā svenaiva jñānenātmānaṃ saṃvettha idam ittham iti jānāsi | ye deveṣu dānaveṣu ca tvad-bhaktās te tādṛśīṃ tvan-mūrtiṃ vastu-bhūtāṃ jānanty eva tasyās tathātve kathaṃ tāṃ na jānantīty eva-kārāt | he puruṣottama sarva-puruṣeśvara ! puruṣottamas tvaṃ vivṛṇvan sambodhayati he bhūta-bhāvana ! sarva-prāṇi-janaka ! bhūta-bhāvano ‚pi kaścin neṣṭo, tatrāha he bhūteśa ! sarva-prāṇi-niyantaḥ ! bhūteśo ‚pi kaścin na pūjyas tatrāha he devadeva ! sarvārādhyānām api devānām ārādhya ! devadevo ‚pi kaścin na rakṣakas tatrāha he jagat-pate ! hitāhitopadeśena jīvikārpaṇena ca viśva-pālaka ! īdṛśasya te tattvaṃ susiddham iti
 
 


BhG 10.16

vaktum arhasy aśeṣeṇa divyā hy ātma-vibhūtayaḥ
yābhir vibhūtibhir lokān imāṃs tvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi

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syntax


divyāḥ hy (divine indeed) ātma-vibhūtayaḥ (your own powers),
aśeṣeṇa (completely) tvam (you) vaktum arhasi (you deign to speak)
yābhiḥ vibhūtibhiḥ (by which powers) imān lokān (these worlds) vyāpya (after pervading) tiṣṭhasi (you stand).

 

grammar

vaktum vac (to speak) [inf.] – to speak;
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1you deign;
aśeṣeṇa av. (3n.1) – completely, without remainder (from: śiṣ – to leave, śeṣa – remainder, leavings, end);
divyāḥ divya 1n.3 f.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
ātma-vibhūtayaḥ ātma-vibhūti 1n.3 f.; [TP]: ātmano vibhūtaya itipowers of the self (from: ātman – self; vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest, vibhūti – power, might, opulence);
yābhiḥ yat sn. 3n.3 f.those by which;
vibhūtibhiḥ vibhūti 3n.3 f.by powers, opulences (from: vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest);
lokān loka 2n.3 m.worlds;
imān idam sn. 2n.3 m.these;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
vyāpya vi-āp (to pervade) absol.after pervading;
tiṣṭhasi sthā (to stand) Praes P 2v.1you stand;

 

textual variants


divyā hy ātma-vibhūtayaḥ → divyā ātma-vibhūtayaḥ / vibhūtīr ātmanaḥ śubhāḥ (divine powers of the self / auspicious powers of the self);
imāṁs tvaṁ → imās tvaṁ / nityaṁ sa (which [powers] you / he always);
vyāpyaprāpya (after obtaining);
tiṣṭhasi → tiṣṭhati (he stands);
 
 



Śāṃkara


vaktuṃ kathayitum arhasy aśeṣeṇa | divyā hy ātma-vibhūtayaḥ | ātmano vibhūtayo yās tāḥ vaktum arhasi | yābhir vibhūtibhir ātmano māhātmya-vistarair imān lokān tvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi

 

Rāmānuja


divyāḥ tvadasādhāraṇyo vibhūtayo yāḥ, tās tvam evāśeṣeṇa vaktum arhasi / tvam eva vyañjayetyarthaḥ / yābhir anantābhir vibhūtibhiḥ yair niyamanaviśeṣair yuktaḥ imān lokān tvaṃ niyantṛtvena vyāpya tiṣṭhasi

 

Śrīdhara


yasmāt tavābhivyaktiṃ tvam eva vetsi na devādayaḥ | tasmāt vaktum iti | yā ātmanas tava divyā atyadbhutā vibhūtayas tā sarvā vaktuṃ tvam evārhasi yogyo ‚si | yābhir iti vibhūtīnāṃ viśeṣaṇaṃ spaṣṭārtham

 

Madhusūdana


yasmād anyeṣāṃ sarveṣāṃ jñātum aśakyā avaśyaṃ jñātavyāś ca tava vibhūtayas tasmāt vaktum iti | yābhir vibhūtibhir imān sarvān lokān vyāpya tvaṃ tiṣṭhasi tās tavāsādhāraṇā vibhūtayo divyā asarvajñair jñātum aśakyā hi yasmāt tasmāt sarvajñas tvam eva tā aśeṣeṇa vaktum arhasi

 

Viśvanātha


tava tattvaṃ durgamaṃ tava vibhūtiṣv eva mama jijñāsā jāyata iti dyotayann āha vaktum iti | divyā utkṛṣṭā yā ātma-vibhūtayas tāvad vaktum arhasīty anvayaḥ | nanv aśeṣeṇa mad-vibhūtayaḥ sarvā vaktum aśakyā eva tatrāha yābhir iti

 

Baladeva


tvat-svarūpa-yāthātmyaṃ khalu kathaṃ tathā durgamevātas tvad-vibhūtiṣv eva maj-jijñāsopajāyata iti sūcayann āha vaktum iti | divyā utkṛṣṭās tad-asādhāraṇīyātmano vibhūtīr aśeṣeṇa vaktum arhasi dvitīyārthe prathamā | yābhir viśiṣṭas tvam imān lokān vyāpya niyamya tiṣṭhasi
 
 


BhG 10.17

kathaṃ vidyām ahaṃ yogiṃs tvāṃ sadā paricintayan
keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintyo si bhagavan mayā

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he yogin (O yogī!) he bhagavan ( O Lord!),
katham (how?) aham (I) sadā paricintayan ( while always contemplating) tvām (you) vidyām (I may know).
keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu (and in which particular forms) mayā (by me) [tvam] (you) cintyaḥ (to be thought) asi (you are).

 

grammar

katham av.how?, in what manner?
vidyām vid (to know, to understand) Pot. P 3v.1I may know;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
yogin yogin 8n.1 m.O yogī! (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
sadā av.always;
paricintayan pari-cintayant (pari-cint – to think, to consider) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] contemplating;
keṣu keṣu kim sn. 7n.3 m.in which particular? (distribute use);
ca av.and;
bhāveṣu bhāva 7n.3 m.in beings, in natures (from: bhū – to be);
cintyaḥ cintya (cint – to think, to consider) PF 1n.1 m. to be thought, to be remembered;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
bhagavan bhagavant 8n.1 m. O Lord! (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;

 

textual variants


vidyām ahaṁ yogiṁs → vidyā mahā-yogiṁs / vidyāṁ mahā-yogiṁs / viṁdyām ahaṁ yogiṁs (knowledge, O great yogī / I may know, O great yogī / I may find, O yogī);
yogiṁs tvāṁ → yogiṁ tvāṁ / yogī tvāṁ / yogis tvāṁ (you to a yogī / a yogī, you / O yogī, you);
tvāṁ sadā → tvām ahaṁ (to you I);
keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu → teṣu lokeṣu bhāveṣu (in those worlds and in forms);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kathaṃ vidyāṃ vijānīyām ahaṃ he yogin tvāṃ sadā paricintayan | keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu vastuṣu cintyo’si dhyeyo’si bhagavan mayā

 

Rāmānuja


ahaṃ yogī bhaktiyoganiṣṭhas san bhaktyā tvāṃ sadā paricintayan cintayituṃ pravṛttaḥ cintanīyaṃ tvāṃ paripūrṇāiśvaryādikalyāṇaguṇagaṇaṃ kathaṃ vidyām? pūrvoktabuddhijñānādibhāvavyatirikteṣu keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu mayā niyantṛtvena cintyo ‚si?

 

Śrīdhara


kathana-prayojanaṃ darśayan prārthayate katham iti dvābhyām | he yogin kathaṃ kair vibhūti-bhedaiḥ sadā paricintayann ahaṃ tvāṃ vidyāṃ jānīyām ? vibhūti-bhedena cintyo ‚pi tvaṃ keṣu keṣu padārtheṣu mayā cintanīyo ‚si?

 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ prayojanaṃ tat-kathanasya tad āha katham iti dvābhyām | yogo niratiśayaiśvaryādi-śaktiḥ so ‚syāstīti he yogin niratiśaiśvaryādi-śakti-śālinn aham atisthūlamatis tvāṃ devādibhir api jñātum aśakyaṃ kathaṃ vidyāṃ jānīyāṃ sadā paricintayan sarvadā dhyāyan | nanu mad-vibhūtiṣu māṃ dhyāyan jñāsyasi tatrāha keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cetanācetanātmakeṣu vastuṣu tvad-vibhūti-bhūteṣu mayā cintyo ‚si he bhagavan

 

Viśvanātha


yogo yoga-māyā-śaktir vartate yasya he yogin vanamālītivat | tvām ahaṃ kathaṃ paricintayan san tvāṃ sadā vidyāṃ jānīyām ? bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ [BhP 11.14.11] iti tvad-ukteḥ | tathā keṣu bhāveṣu padārtheṣu tvaṃ cintyaḥ tvac-cintana-bhaktir mayā kartavyety arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu kimarthaṃ tat-kathanṃ tatrāha katham iti | yogo yoga-māyā-śaktir asty asyeti he yogin ! tvāṃ sadā paricintayan saṃsmarann ahaṃ kalyāṇānanta-guṇa-yoginaṃ kathaṃ vidyāṃ jānīyām ? keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu padārtheṣu prakāśamānas tvaṃ mayā cintyo dhyeyo ‚si ? tad etad ubhayaṃ vada | tac ca vibhūty-uddeśenaiva setsyatīti tām upadiśety arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 10.18

vistareṇātmano yogaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca janārdana
bhūyaḥ kathaya tṛptir hi śṛṇvato nāsti me mṛtam

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he janārdana (O Janārdana!),
ātmanaḥ (your own) yogam (yoga) vibhūtim ca (and power) bhūyaḥ (again) vistareṇa (extensively) kathaya (you must tell).
me hi (indeed me) amṛtam śṛṇvataḥ (hearing the nectar) tṛptiḥ (satisfaction) na asti (there is not).

 

grammar

vistareṇa av. (3n.1) – extensively, fully (from: vi-stṛ – to spread out, to expand, vistara – extensive);
ātmanaḥ ātman 6n.1 m.of the self;
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
vibhūtim vibhūti 2n.1 f.power, might, opulence (from: vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest);
ca av.and;
janārdana jana-ardana 8n.1 m.exciting / agitating people, O Janārdana (from: jan – to be born, to produce, jana – man, people, creature; ard – to torment, to hurt, ardana – tormenting, destroying);
or BV: yo janānām abhadram ardati saone who destroys inauspiciousness of people;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
kathaya kath (to tell, to narrate) Imperat. P 2v.1you must tell;
tṛptiḥ tṛpti 1n.1 f.satisfaction (from: tṛp – to be satisfied);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
śṛṇvataḥ śṛṇvant (śru – to hear) PPr 6n.1 m.of one hearing;
na av.not;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
amṛtam a-mṛta 2n.1 n.not dead, nectar, immortality (from: mṛ – to die; [PP] mṛta – dead);

 

textual variants

me ‘mṛtamme matam (my opinion);

 
 



Śāṃkara


vistareṇātmano yogaṃ yogaiśvarya-śakti-viśeṣaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca vistaraṃ dhyeya-padārthānāṃ he janārdana, ardater gati-karmaṇo rūpam, asurāṇāṃ deva-pratipakṣa-bhūtānāṃ janānāṃ narakādi-gamayitṛtvāt janārdano’bhyudaya-niḥśreyasa-puruṣārtha-prayojanaṃ sarvair janair yācyate iti vā | bhūyaḥ pūrvam uktam api kathaya | tṛptiḥ paritoṣo hi yasmān nāsti me mama śṛṇvatas tvan-mukha-niḥsṛta-vākyāmṛtam

 

Rāmānuja


„ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate” iti saṃkṣepeṇoktaṃ tava sraṣṭṛtvādiyogaṃ vibhūtiṃ niyamanaṃ ca bhūyo vistareṇa kathaya / tvayocyamānaṃ tvanmāhātmyāmṛtaṃ śṛṇvato me tṛptir nāsti; hi mamātṛptis tvayaiva viditetyabhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ bahirmukho ‚pi citte tatra tatra vibhūti-bhedena tvac-cintaiva yathā bhavet tathā vistareṇa kathayaty āha vistareṇeti | ātmanas tava yogaṃ sarvajñatva-sarva-śaktitvādi-lakṣaṇaṃ yogaiśvaryaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca vistareṇa punaḥ kathaya | hi yatas tava vākyam amṛta-rūpaṃ śṛṇvato mama tṛptir alaṃ buddhir nāsti

 

Madhusūdana


ataḥ vistareṇeti | ātmanas tava yogaṃ sarvajñatva-sarva-śaktitvādi-lakṣaṇam aiśvaryātiśayaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca dhyānālambanaṃ vistareṇa saṃkṣepeṇa saptame navame coktam api bhūyaḥ kathaya sarvair janair abhyudaya-niḥśreyasa-prayojanaṃ yācyasa iti | he janārdana ! ato mamāpi yācñā tvayy ucitaiva | uktasya punaḥ kathanaṃ kuto yācase tatrāha tṛptir alaṃ-pratyayenecchā-vicchittir nāsti hi yasmāc chṛṇvataḥ śravaṇena pibatas tvad-vākyam amṛtam amṛtavat pade pade svādu svādu | atra tvad-vākyam ity anukter apahnuty-atiśayokti-rūpaka-saṅkaro ‚yaṃ mādhuryātiśayānubhavenotkaṇṭhātiśayaṃ vyanakti

 

Viśvanātha


nana ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṃ pravartate [Gītā 10.8] ity anenaiva sarve padārthā mad-vibhūtayo mad-uktā eva vibhūtayas tathā iti matvā bhajante mām iti bhakti-yogaś cokta eva | tatrāha vistareṇeti | he janārdaneti mādṛśa-janānāṃ tvam eva hitopadeśa-mādhuryeṇa lobham utpādyārdayase yācayasīti vayaṃ kiṃ kurma iti bhāvaḥ | tvad-upadeśa-rūpam amṛtaṃ śṛṇvataḥ śruti-rasanayā svādayataḥ

 

Baladeva


nanu pūrva-pūrvatra ajo ‚pi sann [Gītā 4.6] ity ādinājatvādi-kalyāṇa-guṇa-yogo raso ‚ham [Gītā 7.8] ity ādinā vibhūtayaś cāsakṛt kathitāḥ, kiṃ punaḥ pṛcchasīti cet tatrāha vistareṇeti | sphuṭārthaṃ padyam | janārdaneti prāgvat | tvad-vākyam amṛtaṃ śṛṇvataḥ śrotra-rasanayāsvādayato mama tṛptir nāsti | atra tvad-vākyam ity anukter apahnutiḥ | prathamātiśayoktir vā tayoḥ saṅkaro vālaṅkāraḥ
 
 


BhG 10.19

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
hanta te kathayiṣyāmi divyā hy ātma-vibhūtayaḥ
prādhānyataḥ kuru-śreṣṭha nāsty anto vistarasya me

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
hanta (oh!) he kuru-śreṣṭha (O the best among the Kurus!),
[mama yāḥ] (those my which) divyāḥ (divine) ātma-vibhūtayaḥ (my own powers),
[aham] (I) [tāḥ] te (these to you) prādhānyataḥ (the most porminent) kathayiṣyāmi (I will tell),
me hi vistarasya (indeed of my extensiveness) antaḥ (the end) na asti (there is not).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
hanta av. alas!, ah! look! (exclamation particle asking attention or expressing emotions – grief, joy, pity);
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
kathayiṣyāmi kath (to tell, to narrate) Fut. P 3v.1I will tell;
divyāḥ divya 1n.3 f.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
ātma-vibhūtayaḥ ātma-vibhūti 1n.3 f.; [TP]: ātmano vibhūtaya itipowers of the self (from: ātman – self; vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest, vibhūti – power, might, opulence);
prādhānyataḥ av.in essence, most prominent (indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas from: pra-dhā – to put, to deliver, pradhāna – principal, chief, primary, prādhānya – predominance, supremacy);
kuru-śreṣṭha kuru-śreṣṭha 8n.1 n.; kurūṇām śreṣtheti O the best among the Kurus (kuru – Kuru, the Kurus – descendants of Kuru; superlative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
na av.not;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
antaḥ anta 1n.1 m.end, limit, settlement, inside, nature;
vistarasya vistara 6n.1 m.of the extensive, of the full (from: vi-stṛ – to spread out, to expand);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);

 

textual variants

divyā hy ātma-vibhūtayaḥ → vibhūtīr ātmanaḥ śubhāḥ  (your own auspicious power);
 
 



Śāṃkara


hanta idānīṃ te tava divyā divi bhavā ātma-vibhūtayo’tmano mama vibhūtayo yās tāḥ kathayiṣyāmīty etat | prādhānyato yatra yatra pradhānā yā yā vibhūtis tāṃ tāṃ pradhānāṃ prādhānyataḥ kathayiṣyāmy ahaṃ kuru-śreṣṭha ! aśeṣatas tu varṣa-śatenāpi na śakyā vaktum, yato nāsty anto vistarasya me mama vibhūtīnām ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


he kuruśreṣṭha! madīyāḥ kalyāṇīr vibhūtīḥ prādhānyatas te kathayiṣyāmi / prādhanyaśabdena utkarṣo vivakṣitaḥ; „purodhasāṃ ca mukhyaṃ mām” iti hi vakṣyate / jagaty utkṛṣṭāḥ kāścana vibhūtīr vakṣyāmi, vistareṇa vaktuṃ śrotuṃ ca na śakyate, tāsām ānantyāt / vibhūtitvaṃ nāma niyāmyatvam; sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ buddhyādayaḥ pṛthagvidhā bhāvā matta eva bhavantīty uktvā, „etāṃ vibhūtiṃ yogaṃ ca mama yo vetti tattvataḥ” iti pratipādanāt / tathā tatra yogaśabdanirdiṣṭaṃ sraṣṭṛtvādikaṃ vibhutiśabdanirdiṣṭaṃ tatpravartyatvam iti hy uktaṃ punaś ca, „ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate / iti matvā bhajante māṃ budhā bhāvasamanvitāḥ” iti

 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ prārthitaḥ san bhagavān uvāca hanteti | hantety anukampya sambodhanam | divyā yā mad-vibhūtayas tāḥ prādhānyena te tubhyaṃ kathayiṣyāmi yato ‚vāntarasya vibhūti-vistarasya madīyasyānto nāsti | ataḥ pradhāna-bhūtāḥ katicid varṇayiṣyāmi

 

Madhusūdana


atrottaram | hantety anumatau | yat tvayā prārthitaṃ tat kariṣyāmi mā vyākulo bhūr ity arjunaṃ samāśvāsya tad eva kartum ārabhate | kathayiṣyāmi prādhānyatas tā vibhūtīr yā divyā hi prasiddhā ātmano mamāsādhāraṇā vibhūtayo he kuru-śreṣṭha ! vistareṇa tu kathanam aśakyaṃ, yato nāsty antyo vistarasya me vibhūtīnām | ataḥ pradhāna-bhūtāḥ kāścid eva vibhūtīr vakṣyāmīty arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


hantety anukampāyāṃ prādhānyataḥ prādhānyena yatas tāsāṃ vistarasyānto nāsti | vibhūtayo vibhūtīr divyā uttamā eva na tu tṛṇeṣṭakādyāḥ | atra vibhūti-śabdena prākṛtāprākṛta-vastūny evocyate tāni sarvāṇy eva bhagavac-chakti-samudbhūtatvād bhagavad-rūpeṇaiva tāratamyena dhyeyatvenābhimatāni jñeyāni

 

Baladeva


evaṃ pṛṣṭaḥ śrī-bhagavān uvāca hanteti | hantety anukampārthakam | divyā utkṛṣṭāḥ, na tu tṛṇeṣṭakādyāḥ | vibhūtaya iti prāgvat | prādhānyataḥ prādhānyena yatas tāsāṃ vistarasyānto nāsti | iha vibhūti-śabdena niyāmakatva-rūpāṇy aiśvaryāṇi bodhyāni vibhūtir bhūtir aiśvaryam ity amara-koṣāt | prākṛtāprākṛtāni ca vastūni bhūtitvena varṇyāni | tāni sarvāṇi sarveśa-śakti-vyaṅgatvāt sarveśātmnaā tāratamyena bhāvyāni | matāni yāni sākṣād īśvara-rūpāṇi tattvenoktāni | tāni tu tena rūpeṇa bhāvanārthāny eva, na tv anyavat tac-chakty-ekadeśa-rūpāṇīti bodhyaṃ saṅgater iti
 
 


BhG 10.20

aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarva-bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥ
aham ādiś ca madhyaṃ ca bhūtānām anta eva ca

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syntax


he guḍākeśa (O Guḍākeśa!),
aham (I) sarva-bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥ (situated in the hearts of all beings) ātmā (self) [asmi] (I am),
aham eva (certainly I) bhūtānām (of beings) ādiḥ ca madhyam ca antaḥ ca (and the beginning, and the middle, and the end) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
guḍākeśa guḍākeśa 8n.1 m.O one with thick hair (from: guḍa – ball, molasses; keśa – włosy);
or [TP]: guḍākāyā īśeti O lord of laziness (from: guḍākā – laziness, idleness, sleep; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
sarva-bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥ sarva-bhūta-āśaya-sthitaḥ 1n.1 m.; [TP]: sarvāṇāṁ bhūtānām āśaye sthita iti situated in the hearts of all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; ā-śī – to lie, to rest, āśaya – resting place, abode, seat, heart, mind; sthā – to stand, [PP] sthita – standing, situated);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
ādiḥ ādi 1n.1 m.beginning, origin;
ca av.and;
madhyam madhya 1n.1 n. middle;
ca av.and;
bhūtānām bhūta 6n.3 m. of creatures, of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
antaḥ anta 1n.1 m.end, limit, settlement, inside, nature;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


sarva-bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥsarva-bhūtāśaye sthitaḥ / sarva-bhūtāśayaḥ sthitaḥ (situated in the hearts of all beings / having resting place in all beings, standing);
ādiś ca ādyaś ca (and the first);
madhyaṁ ca → madhyaś ca (and the middle);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tatra prathamam eva tāvat sṛṇu—

aham ātmā pratyag-ātmā guḍākeśa, guḍākā nidrā tasyāḥ īśo guḍākeśaḥ, jita-nidra ity arthaḥ | ghana-keśeti vā | sarva-bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām āśaye’ntar-hṛdi sthito’ham ātmā pratyag-ātmā nityaṃ dhyeyaḥ | tad-aśaktena cottareṣu bhāveṣu cintyo’ham | yasmād aham eva ādir bhūtānāṃ kāraṇaṃ tathā madhyaṃ ca sthitir antaḥ pralayaś ca

 

Rāmānuja


tatra sarvabhūtānāṃ pravartanarūpaṃ niyamanam ātmatayāvasthāyetīmam artham, yogaśabdanirdiṣṭaṃ sarvasya sraṣṭṛtvaṃ pālayitṛtvaṃ saṃhartṛtvaṃ ceti suspaṣṭam āha

sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ mama śarīrabhūtānām āśaye hṛdaye aham ātmatayāvasthitaḥ / ātmā hi nāma śarīrasya sarvātmanā ādhāraḥ, niyantā, śeṣī ca / tathā vakṣyate, „sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo mattas smṛtir jñānam apohanaṃ ca”, „īśvaras sarvabhūtānāṃ hṛddeśe ‚rjuna tiṣṭhati / bhrāmayan sarvabhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā // BhGR_1.” iti / śrūyate ca, „yaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhan sarvebhyo bhūtebhyo ‚ntaro yaṃ sarvāṇi bhūtāni na viduḥ, yasya sarvāṇi bhūtāni śarīraṃ yas sarvāṇi bhūtāny antaro yamayati, eṣa ta ātmāntaryāmy amṛtaḥ” iti, „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan ātmano ‚ntaro yam ātmā na veda yasyātmā śarīraṃ ya ātmānam antaro yamayati, sa ta ātmāntaryāmy amṛtaḥ” iti ca / evaṃ sarvabhūtānām ātmatayāvasthito ‚haṃ teṣām ādir madhyaṃ cāntaś ca teṣām utpattisthitipralayahetur ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


tatra prathamam aiśvaraṃ rūpaṃ kathayati he guḍākeśa ! sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām āśayeṣv antaḥkaraṇeṣu sarvajñatvādi-guṇair niyantṛtvenāvasthitaḥ paramātmāham | ādir janma | madhyaṃ sthitiḥ | antaḥ saṃhāraḥ | sarva-bhūtānāṃ janmādi-hetuś ca aham evety arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


tatra prathamaṃ tāvan mukhyaṃ cintanīyaṃ śṛṇu aham iti | sarva-bhūtānām āśaye hṛd-deśe ‚ntaryāmi-rūpeṇa pratyag-ātma-rūpeṇa ca sthita ātmā caitanyānanda-ghanas tvayāhaṃ vāsudeva eveti dhyeyaḥ | he guḍākeśa ! jitanidreti dhyāma-sāmarthyaṃ sūcayati | evaṃ dhyānāsāmarthye tu vakṣyamāṇāni dhyānāni kāryāṇi | tatrāpy ādau dhyeyam āha – aham evādiś cotpattir bhūtānāṃ prāṇināṃ cetanatvena loke vyavahriyamāṇānāṃ madhyaṃ ca sthitir antaś ca nāśaḥ sarva-cetana-vargāṇām utpatti-sthita-nāśa-rūpeṇa tat-kāraṇa-rūpeṇa cāham eva dhyeya ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


atra prathamaṃ mām evaikāṃśena sarva-vibhūti-kāraṇaṃ tvaṃ bhāvayety āha aham iti | ātmā prakṛty-antaryāmī mahat-sraṣṭā puruṣaḥ paramātmā | he guḍākeśa jita-nidra iti dhyāna-sāmarthyaṃ sūcayati ! sarva-bhūto yo vairājas tasyāśaye sthita iti samaṣṭi-virāḍ antaryāmī | tathā sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām āśaye sthita iti vyaṣṭi-virāḍ antaryāmī ca | bhūtānāṃ ādir janma madhyaṃ sthitir antaḥ saṃhāraḥ | tat-tad-dhetur aham ity arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


tatra tāvan mām eva tvaṃ mahat-sraṣṭādi-tri-rūpeṇa svāṃśena nikhila-vibhūti-hetuṃ vicintayety āśayenāha aham ātmeti | he guḍākeśeti vijita-nidrasya tad-vicintana-kṣamatvaṃ vyajyate | ātmā vibhūti-vijñānānando mahat-sraṣṭādi-tri-rūpaḥ paramātmāham asmac-chabdārthaḥ sarva-bhūtāśaya-sthitas tvayā vicintyaḥ | sarva-bhūtā pradhānādi-pṛthivy-anta-tattva-rūpā yā mūla-prakṛtis tasyā āśaye ‚ntaḥ-karaṇodaśaya-rūpeṇāham eva prakṛty-antaryāmī sthitaḥ | tathā sarva-bhūtaḥ sarva-jīvābhimānī yo vairājas tasyāśaye garbhodaśaya-rūpeṇāham eva samaṣṭi-virāḍ-antaryāmī sthitaḥ | sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām jīvānām āśaye kṣīroda-śaya-rūpeṇāham eva vyaṣṭi-virāḍ antaryāmī sthita iti tāni trīṇi rūpāṇi mad-vibhūtitvena tvayā vincintyānīty arthaḥ | subālopaniṣadi prakṛty-ādi-sarva-bhūtāntaryāmī sarva-śeṣī ca nārāyaṇaḥ paṭhyate | sātvata-tantre trayaḥ puruṣāvatārāḥ smṛtāḥ –

viṣṇos tu trīṇi rūpāṇi puruṣākhyāny atho viduḥ |
ekaṃ tu mahataḥ sraṣṭṛ dvitīyaṃ tantu-saṃsthitam |
tṛtīyaṃ sarva-bhūtasthaṃ tāni jñātvā vimucyate || iti |

te ca vāsudevasya kṛṣṇasyāvatārāḥ –

yaḥ kāraṇārṇava-jale bhajati sma yoga-
nidrām ity ādikā brahma-saṃhitā-padya-trayāt | (5.47)

bhūtānām ādir utpattir madhyaṃ pālanam antaś ca saṃhāras tat-tad-dhetur aham evokta-puruṣa-lakṣyas tvayā bhāvyaḥ

 
 


BhG 10.21

ādityānām ahaṃ viṣṇur jyotiṣāṃ ravir aṃśumān
marīcir marutām asmi nakṣatrāṇām ahaṃ śaśī

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syntax


ādityānām (among the descendants Aditi) aham (I) viṣṇuḥ (Viṣṇu) [asmi] (I am),
jyotiṣāṁ (among the lights) [aham] (I) aṁśumān raviḥ (the radiant Sun) [asmi] (I am),
marutām (among the winds) [aham] (I) marīciḥ (Marīci) asmi (I am),
nakṣatrāṇām (among stars) ahaṁ (I) śaśī [asmi] (I am the Moon).

 

grammar

ādityānām āditya 6n.3 m.among the descendants of Aditi (from: a-diti – boundless, free, abundance, perfection; daughter of Dakṣa, wife of Kaśyapa; twelve sons of Aditi: Dhātṛ, Mitra, Aryaman, Rudra, Varuṇa, Sūrya, Bhaga, Vivasvant, Pūṣan, Savitṛ, Tvaṣṭṛ, Viṣṇu);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
viṣṇuḥ viṣṇu 1n.1 m.pervading, Viṣṇu (from: vi-snu – to drip, to emit or vi-sru – to flow, to emit;
or may be from: viś – to enter or vi- – to reach, to fill, to penetrate or viṣ to perform;
the word does not contain suffix -snu – as it is eg in jiṣṇu – because vi unlike ji is not a verbal root;
here are some traditional definitions:
vyāptaṁ tvayaiva viśatā trailokyam sa-carācaram – the three worlds with moving and non-moving [creatures] are pervaded just by you Matsya-purāṇa 248.41;
viśeṣeṇa snauti prasravate gacchatīti viṣṇuḥ – Viṣṇu: particularly emits, flows forth, goes Mbh.5.70.13;
viṣṇur viśater vā vyaśnoter vā – Viṣṇu [comes from] viśati or vyaśnoti [enters, reaches] Nirukti 12.18;
atha yad viśito bhavati tad viṣnur – thus what is let loose is Viṣṇu .
viṣṇāter viśater vā syād veveṣṭer vyāpti karmaṇaḥ
viṣṇur nirucyate sūryaḥ sarvaṁ sarvāntaraś ca yaḥ
The word Viṣṇu may come from these activities: viṣṇāti, viśati, veveṣṭi or vyāpti [acts, enters, is active, pervades]. Therefore the one who is all and is in all is called the Sun Bṛhad-devatā 2.69;
jyotiṣām jyotiḥ 6n.3 n.among the lights;
raviḥ ravi 1n.1 m.the Sun (from: ru – to break or ru – to roar);
aṁśumān aṁśu-mant 1n.1 m.having rays, radiant (from: aṁś – to distribute, aṁśu – filament, sunbeam, minute particle; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
marīciḥ marīci 1n.1 m.sunbeam, Marīci – one of the seven sages (from: marut – god of the wind);
marutām mārut 6n.3 m.among the winds, among the Maruts (marut – god of the wind; seven winds: āvaha, pravaha, vivaha, parāvaha, udvaha, saṁvaha, parivaha);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
nakṣatrāṇām nakṣatra 6n.3 n.among stars (from: nakṣ – to come near, to arrive; nakṣatra – star, constellation, lunar mansion);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
śaśī śaśin 1n.1 m.with a [sign of a] rabbit, the Moon (from: śaśa – rabbit, hare);

 

textual variants

ravir → aham (I);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ ca dhyeyo’haṃ—

ādityānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ viṣṇur nāma ādityo’ham | jyotiṣāṃ raviḥ prakāśayitṝṇām aṃśumān raśmimān | marīcir nāma marutāṃ marud-devatā-bhedānām asmi | nakṣatrāṇām ahaṃ śaśī candramāḥ

 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ bhagavataḥ svavibhūtibhūteṣu sarveṣv ātmatayāvasthānaṃ tattacchabdasāmānādhikaraṇyanirdeśahetuṃ pratipādya vibhūtiviśeṣān sāmānādhikaraṇyena vyapadiśati / bhagavaty ātmatayāvasthite hi sarve śabdās tasminn eva paryavasyanti; yathā devo manuṣyaḥ pakṣī vṛkṣaḥ ityādayaḥ śabdāḥ śarīrāṇi pratipādayantas tattadātmani paryavasyanti / bhagavatas tattadātmatayāvasthānam eva tattacchabdasāmānādhikaraṇyanibandhanam iti vibhūtyupasaṃhāre vakṣyati; „na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtaṃ carācaram” iti sarveṣāṃ svenāvinābhāvavacanāt / avinābhāvaś ca niyāmyatayeti; „mattas sarvaṃ pravartate” ity upakramoditam /

dvādaśasaṃkhyāsaṃkhyātānām ādityānāṃ dvādaśo ya utkṛṣṭo viṣṇur nāmādityaḥ, so ‚ham / jyotiṣāṃ jagati prakāśakānāṃ yaḥ aṃśumān raviḥ ādityagaṇaḥ, so ‚ham / marutām utkṛṣṭo marīcir yaḥ, so ‚ham asmi / nakṣatrāṇām ahaṃ śaśī / neyaṃ nirdhāraṇe ṣaṣṭhī, „bhūtānām asmi cetanā” itivat / nakṣatrāṇāṃ patir yaś candraḥ, so ‚ham asmi

 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ vibhūtīḥ kathayati ādityānām ity ādinā yāvad-adhyāya-samāptiḥ | ādityānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ madhye viṣṇur nāmādityo ‚ham | jyotiṣāṃ prakāśakānāṃ madhye ‚ṃśumān viśva-vyāpi-raśmi-yukto raviḥ sūryo ‚ham | marutāṃ deva-viśeṣāṇāṃ madhye marīci-nāmāham asmi | yad vā sapta marud-gaṇā vāyavaḥ | teṣāṃ madhya iti | te ca avahaḥ pravaho vivahaḥ parāvaha udvahaḥ saṃvaha parivaha iti spata marud-gaṇāḥ | nakṣatrāṇāṃ madhye candro ‚ham

 

Madhusūdana


etad-aśaktena bāhyāni dhyānāni kāryāṇīty āha yāvad-adhyāya-samāptiḥ | ādityānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ madhye viṣṇur visṇu-nāmādityo ‚ham vāmanāvatāro vā | jyotiṣāṃ prakāśakānāṃ madhye ‚haṃ ravir ṃśumān viśva-vyāpī prakāśakaḥ | marutāṃ sapta-saptakānāṃ madhye marīci-nāmāham nakṣatrāṇām adhipatir ahaṃ śaśī candramāḥ | nirdhāraṇe ṣaṣṭhī | atra prāyeṇa nirdhāraṇe ṣaṣṭhī | kvacit sambandhe ‚pi yathā bhūtānām asmi cetanety ādau | vāmana-rāmādayaś cāvatārāḥ sarvaiśvarya-śālino ‚py anena rūpeṇa dhyāna-vivakṣayā vibhūtiṣu paṭhyante | vṛṣṇīnāṃ vāsudevo ‚smīti tena rūpeṇa dhyāna-vivakṣayā savasyāpi sva-vibhūti-madhye pāṭhavat | ataḥ paraṃ ca prāyeṇāyam adhyāyaḥ spaṣṭārtha iti kvacit kvacid vyākhyāsyāmaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


atha nirdhāraṇa-ṣaṣṭhyā kvacit sambandha-ṣaṣṭhyā ca vibhutīr āha yāvad-adhyāya-samāptiḥ | ādityānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ madhye viṣṇur aham iti tan-nāmā sūryo mad-vibhūtir ity arthaḥ | evaṃ sarvatra prakāśakānāṃ jyotiṣāṃ madhye aṃśumān mahā-kiraṇa-mālī ravir aham | marīciḥ pavana-viśeṣaḥ

 

Baladeva


ādityānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ madhye viṣṇur vāmano ‚ham | jyotiṣāṃ prakāśānāṃ madhye ‚ṃśumān viśva-vyāpi-raśmī ravir aham | marutām ūna-pañcāśat-saṅkhyakānāṃ madhye marīcir aham | nakṣatrāṇām adhipatiḥ śaśī sudhā-varṣī candro ‚ham | atra nirdhāraṇe ṣaṣṭhī prāyeṇa kvacit sambandhe ‚pīti bodhyam
 
 


BhG 10.22

vedānāṃ sāma-vedo smi devānām asmi vāsavaḥ
indriyāṇāṃ manaś cāsmi bhūtānām asmi cetanā

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syntax


vedānāṁ (among the Vedas) [aham] (I) sāma-vedaḥ asmi (I am Samaveda),
devānāṁ (among the gods) [aham] (I) vāsavaḥ asmi (I am Vāsava, Indra),
indriyāṇāṁ (among the senses) [aham] (I) manaḥ asmi (I am the mind),
bhūtānāṁ ca (and among the beings) [aham] (I) cetanā asmi (I am consciousness).

 

grammar

vedānām veda 6n.3 m.among the Vedas (from: vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas; four Vedas: ṛc, yajus, sāman, atharvan);
sāma-vedaḥ sāma-veda 1n.1 m.Samaveda (from: so – to destroy [sin] or – to give [a blessing], sāman – one of the four Vedas or its hymn; vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
devānām deva 6n.3 m.among the gods (from: div – to shine, to play);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
vāsavaḥ vāsava 1n.1 m.related to Vasu, the best among the Vasus, Indra (vas – to dwell, vasun. wealth, m. Vasu (one of eight), Kuvera, Śiva, Sun, fire; one of the lists of eight Vasus: bhava, dhruva, soma, viṣṇu, anila, anala, pratyuṣa, vibhava);
indriyāṇām indriya 6n.3 n.among the senses (from: ind – to be powerful);
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
bhūtānām bhūta 6n.3 m. among beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
cetanā cetanā 1n.1 f.consciousness, understanding, intellect (from: cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);

 

textual variants


sāma-vedo smi sāma-vedo haṃ  (I [am] Samaveda);
cetanā → cetanām;
 
 



Śāṃkara


vedānāṃ madhye sāma-vedo’smi | devānāṃ rūdrādityādīnāṃ vāsava indro’smi | indriyāṇām ekādaśānāṃ cakṣur-ādīnāṃ manaś cāsmi saṃkalpa-vikalpātmakaṃ manaś cāsmi | bhūtānām asmi cetanā kārya-karaṇa-saṃghāte nityābhivyaktā buddhi-vṛttiś cetanā

 

Rāmānuja


vedānām ṛgyajussāmātharvaṇāṃ ya utkṛṣṭaḥ sāmavedaḥ, so ‚ham / devānām indro ‚ham asmi / ekādaśānām indriyāṇāṃ yad utkṛṣṭaṃ mana indriyam, tad aham asmi / iyam api na nirdhāraṇe / bhūtānāṃ cetanāvatāṃ yā cetanā, so ‚ham asmi

 

Śrīdhara


vedānām iti | vāsava indraḥ | bhūtānāṃ cetanā jñāna-śaktir aham asmi

 

Madhusūdana


catūrṇāṃ vedānāṃ madhye gāna-mādhuryeṇātiramaṇīyaḥ sāmavedo ‚ham asmi | vāsava indraḥ sarva-devādhipatiḥ | indriyāṇām ekādaśānāṃ pravartakaṃ manaḥ | bhūtānāṃ sarva-prāṇi-sambandhināṃ pariṇāmānāṃ madhye cid-abhivyañjikā buddher vṛttiś cetanāham asmi

 

Viśvanātha


vāsava indraḥ | bhūtānāṃ sambandhinī cetanā jñāna-śaktiḥ

 

Baladeva


vedānāṃ madhye gīta-mādhuryeṇotkarṣāt sāmavedo ‚ham | devānāṃ madhye vāsavas teṣāṃ rājā indro ‚ham | indriyāṇāṃ madhye durjayaṃ teṣāṃ pravartakaṃ ca mano ‚ham | bhūtānāṃ sambandhinī cetanā jñāna-śaktir aham
 
 


BhG 10.23

rudrāṇāṃ śaṃkaraś cāsmi vitteśo yakṣa-rakṣasām
vasūnāṃ pāvakaś cāsmi meruḥ śikhariṇām aham

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syntax


rudrāṇām ca (and among the Rudras) [aham] (I) śaṁkaraḥ asmi (I am Śaṁkara),
yakṣa-rakṣasāṁ (among the yakṣas and rakṣasas) [aham] (I) vitteśaḥ [asmi] (I am the Ruler of Wealth),
vasūnāṁ ca (and among the Vasus) [aham] (I) pāvakaḥ asmi (I am fire),
śikhariṇām (amog the peaks) aham (I) meruḥ [asmi] (I am Meru).

 

grammar

rudrāṇām rudra 6n.3 m.among the Rudras (from: ru – to roar, rudra – roaring, terrible; one of the lists of eleven Rudras: aja, ekapāda, ahirbradhna, pinākin, aparājita, tryambaka, maheśvara, vṛṣākapi, śambhu, hara, īśvara);
śaṁkaraḥ śaṁ-kara 1n.1 m.causing prosperity, Śiva (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy; kṛ – to do, kara – a a doer, cause);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
vitteśaḥ vitta-īśa 1n.1 m.; [TP]: vittānām īśa itiruler of wealth, Kuvera (from: vid – to find, to get, [PP] vitta – aquired, gained, wealth; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
yakṣa-rakṣasām yakṣa-rakṣas 6n.3 m.; DV: yakṣāṇāṁ ca rākṣasāṁ ceti among the yakṣas and rakṣasas (from: yakṣ – to speed on, yakṣa – heavenly being, a servant of Kuvera; rakṣ – to protect, rakṣas – protector, evil being, forest demon eating humans);
vasūnām vasu 6n.3 m.among the Vasus (vas – to dwell, vasun. wealth, m. Vasu (one of eight), Kuvera, Śiva, Sun, fire; one of the lists of eight Vasus: bhava, dhruva, soma, viṣṇu, anila, anala, pratyuṣa, vibhava);
pāvakaḥ pāvaka 1n.1 m.pure, fire (from: – to purify);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
meruḥ meru 1n.1 m.Meru (a mountain in the shape of a lotus pistil in the centre of the universe, the abode of divinities);
śikhariṇām śikharin 6n.3 m.among those with peaks, among mountains (śi – to sharpen, śikhara – point, peak, end; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


yakṣa-rakṣasām → yakṣa-rākṣasām (among the yakṣas and rākṣasas);
 
 



Śāṃkara


rudrāṇām ekādaśānāṃ śaṃkaraś cāsmi | vitteśaḥ kuvero yakṣa-rakṣasāṃ yakṣāṇāṃ rakṣasāṃ ca | vasūnām aṣṭanāṃ pāvakaś cāsmy agniḥ | meruḥ śikhariṇāṃ śikharavatām aham

 

Rāmānuja


rudrāṇām ekādaśānāṃ śaṅkaro ‚ham asmi / yakṣarakṣasāṃ vaiśravaṇo ‚ham / vasūnām aṣṭānāṃ pāvako ‚ham / śikhariṇāṃ śikharaśobhināṃ parvatānāṃ madhye merur aham

 

Śrīdhara


rudrāṇām iti | rakṣasām api krūratvādi-sāmyād yakṣaiḥ sahaikīkṛtya nirdeśaḥ | teṣāṃ madhye vitteśaḥ kuvero ‚smi | pāvako ‚gniḥ | śikhariṇāṃ śikharatām ucchritānāṃ madhye meruḥ

 

Madhusūdana


rudrāṇām ekādaśānāṃ madhye śaṅkaraḥ | vitteśo dhanādhyakṣaḥ kubero yakṣa-rakṣasāṃ yakṣānāṃ rākṣasānāṃ ca | vasūnām aṣṭānāṃ pāvako ‚smi | meruḥ sumeruḥ śikhariṇām śikharavatām atyucchritānāṃ parvatānām

 

Viśvanātha


vitteśaḥ kuveraḥ

 

Baladeva


rudrāṇām ekādaśānāṃ madhye śaṅkarākhyo rudro ‚ham | yakṣa-rakṣasām ādhipo vitteśaḥ kuvero ‚ham | vasūnām aṣṭānāṃ madhye pāvako ‚gnir aham | śikhariṇām atyucchritānāṃ madhye meruḥ svarṇācalo ‚ham
 
 


BhG 10.24

purodhasāṃ ca mukhyaṃ māṃ viddhi pārtha bṛhaspatim
senānīnām ahaṃ skandaḥ sarasām asmi sāgaraḥ

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
purodhasāṁ ca (and among priests) mukhyam bṛhaspatim (the chief Bṛhaspati) mām (me) viddhi (you must know),
senānīnām (among generals) aham (I) skandaḥ [asmi] (I am Skanda),
sarasām (among reservoirs of water) [aham] (I) sāgaraḥ asmi (I am an ocean).

 

grammar

purodhasām purodhas 6n.3 m.among priests (from: av. puras – in front; dhā – to put; purodhas – placed at the head, chief priest of a king);
ca av.and;
mukhyam mukhya 2n.1 m.being at the head, principal, chief (from: mukha – face, mouth, front, surface);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
bṛhaspatim bṛhas-pati 2n.1 m.lord of prayer, Bṛhaspati – the priest of gods (from: bṛh – to increase; pati – husband, lord);
senānīnām senānin 6n.3 m.among those who have an army, among the generals (from: senā – the army; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
skandaḥ skanda 1n.1 m.leaping, sprining, attacking; Kartikeya – the son of Śiva or Agni (from: skand – to leap, to spring);
sarasām saras 6n.3 n.among reservoirs of water (from: sṛ – to run, to flow, to move);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
sāgaraḥ sāgara 1n.1 m.related to Sagara, an ocean (from: gṝ – to invoke, to devour, sa-gara – with praise,devouring, Sagara – the king who started to bring Ganga to the earth);

 

textual variants


purodhasāṁpurodhānāṁ (among priests);
mukhyaṁ māṁ → mukhyānāṁ / māṁ mukhyaṁ (among the chief / me the chief);
senānīnām ahaṁsenānyām apy ahaṁ (even among generals I);
sāgaraḥ → sāgaram (an ocean);
 
 



Śāṃkara


purodhasāṃ ca rāja-purohitānāṃ ca mukhyaṃ pradhānaṃ māṃ viddhi he pārtha bṛhaspatim | sa hīndrasyeti mukhyaḥ syāt purodhāḥ | senānīnāṃ senāpatīnām ahaṃ skando deva-senāpatiḥ | sarasāṃ yāni deva-khātāni sarāṃsi teṣāṃ sarasāṃ sāgaro’smi bhavāmi

 

Rāmānuja


purodhasām utkṛṣṭo bṛhaspatir yaḥ, so ‚ham asmi, senānīnāṃ senāpatīnāṃ skando ‚ham asmi / sarasāṃ sāgaro ‚ham asmi

 

Śrīdhara


purodhasām iti | purodhasāṃ madhye deva-purohitatvān mukhyaṃ bṛhaspatim māṃ viddhi | senānīnāṃ madhye deva-senāpatiḥ skando ‚ham asmi | sarasām sthira-jalāśayānāṃ madhye samudro ‚smi

 

Madhusūdana


indrasya sarva-rāja-śreṣṭhatvāt tat-purodhasaṃ bṛhaspatiṃ sarveṣāṃ purodhasāṃ rāja-purohitānāṃ madhye mukhyaṃ śreṣṭhaṃ mām eva he pārtha viddhi jānīhi | senānīnām senāpatīnāṃ madhye deva-senāpatiḥ skando guho ‚ham asmi | sarasām deva-khāta-jalāśayānāṃ madhye sāgaraḥ sagara-putraiḥ khāto jalāśayo ‚ham asmi

 

Viśvanātha


senānīnām ity ārṣam | skandhaḥ kārtikeyaḥ

 

Baladeva


indrasya sarva-rāja-mukhyatvāt tat-purohitaṃ bṛhaspatiṃ sarva-patiṃ rāja-purohitānāṃ mukhyaṃ māṃ viddhīti so ‚ham ity arthaḥ | senānīnām iti nuḍāgamanas tv ārṣaḥ | sarva-rāja-senānāṃ madhye skandaḥ kārttikeyo ‚ham | sarasām sthira-jalānāṃ madhye sāgaro ‚ham
 
 


BhG 10.25

maha-rṣīṇāṃ bhṛgur ahaṃ girām asmy ekam akṣaram
yajñānāṃ japa-yajño smi sthāvarāṇāṃ himālayaḥ

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syntax


maharṣīṇām (among great sages) aham (I) bhṛguḥ [asmi] (I am Bhṛgu),
girām (among words) [aham] (I) ekam akṣaram asmi (I am one syllable),
yajñānām (among sacrifices) [aham] (I) japa-yajñaḥ [asmi] (I am the sacrifice of muttering prayers),
sthāvarāṇāṁ (among the mountain ranges) [aham] (I) himālayaḥ asmi (I am the Himalayas).

 

grammar

maha-rṣīṇām maha-rṣi 6n.3 m.among great sages (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ṛṣ – to flow, to move quickly, or dṛś – to see; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
bhṛguḥ bhṛgu 1n.1 m.Bhṛgu (from: bhrāj – to shine);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
girām gir 6n.3 f.among words (from: gṝ – to invoke, to devour, gir – word, praise, hymn, speech);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
ekam eka sn. 1n.1 n.one;
akṣaram a-kṣara 1n.1 n. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
yajñānām yajña 6n.3 m.among sacrifices (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu);
japa-yajñaḥ japa-yajña 1n.1 m.; [TP]: japasya yajña itisacrifice of muttering prayers (from: jap – to whisper, japa – silent recitation, muttering prayers; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship, name of Viṣṇu);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
sthāvarāṇām sthāvara 6n.3 m.among the non-moviing, among mountains (from: sthā – to stay, to exist);
himālayaḥ hima-ālaya 1n.1 m.; himasyālaya itiabode of snow, the Himalayas (from: hima – cold, frost, snow; ā- – to come close, to settle, ālaya – dwelling, house);

 

textual variants


asmi → api (also);
japa-yajño smi japa-yajño haṁ (I [am] the sacrifice of muttering prayers);
himālayaḥ → himācalaḥ / himālayam (non-moving cold / the Himalayas);
 
 



Śāṃkara


maharṣīṇāṃ bhṛgur aham | girāṃ vācāṃ pada-lakṣaṇānām ekam akṣaram oṃkāro’smi | yajñānāṃ japa-yajño’smi, sthāvarāṇāṃ sthiti-matāṃ himālayaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


maharṣīṇāṃ marīcyādīnāṃ bhṛgur aham / arthābhidhāyinaḥ śabdā giraḥ, tāsām ekam akṣaraṃ praṇavo ‚ham asmi / yajñānām utkṛṣṭo japayajño ‚smi / pūrvamātrāṇāṃ himavān aham

 

Śrīdhara


maharṣīṇām iti | girāṃ vācāṃ padātmikānāṃ madhye ekam akṣaram oṅkārākhyaṃ padam asmi | yajñānāṃ śrauta-smārtānāṃ madhye japa-rūpa-yajño ‚ham

 

Madhusūdana


maharṣīṇāṃ sapta-brahmaṇāṃ madhye bhṛgur atitejasvitvād aham | girāṃ vācāṃ pada-lakṣaṇānāṃ madhya ekam akṣaram padam oṃkāro ‚ham asmi | yajñānāṃ madhye japa-yajño hiṃsādi-doṣa-śūnyatvenātyanta-śodhako ‚ham asmi | sthāvarāṇāṃ sthitimatāṃ madhye himālayo ‚haṃ | śikharavatāṃ madhye hi merur aham ity uktam ataḥ sthāvaratvena śikharatvena cārtha-bhedāv adoṣaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


ekam akṣaraṃ praṇavaḥ

 

Baladeva


maharṣīṇāṃ brahma-putrāṇāṃ madhye ‚titejasvī bhṛgur aham | girāṃ pada-lakṣaṇānāṃ vācāṃ madhye ekam akṣaram praṇavo ‚ham asmi | yajñānāṃ madhye japa- yajño ‚smi | tasyāhiṃsātmakatvenotkṛṣṭatvāt sthāvarāṇāṃ sthitimatāṃ madhye himācalo ‚haṃ | atyuccatvenātisthairyeṇa cārtha-bhedān meru-himālayayor vibhūtyor bhedaḥ
 
 


BhG 10.26

aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāṃ deva-rṣīṇāṃ ca nāradaḥ
gandharvāṇāṃ citrarathaḥ siddhānāṃ kapilo muniḥ

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syntax


sarva-vṛkṣāṇām (among all trees) [aham] (I) aśvatthaḥ [asmi] (I am the holy fig tree),
deva-rṣīṇām ca (among the divine sages) [aham] (I) nāradaḥ [asmi] (I am Nārada),
gandharvāṇām (among the gandharvas) [aham] (I) citrarathaḥ [asmi] (I am Citraratha),
siddhānām (among the perfected beings) [aham] (I) kapilaḥ muniḥ [asmi] (I am the sage Kapila).

 

grammar

aśvatthaḥ aśvattha 1n.1 m.under which a horse stands; holy fig tree / Ficus Religiosa (from: aśva – horse; sthā – to stand; other names of this tree: pippala, bodhi-druma);
sarva-vṛkṣāṇām sarva-vṛkṣa 6n.3 n.; sarvāṇāṁ vṛkṣāṇām itiamong all trees (from: sarva – all, whole; bṛh – to increase, vṛkṣa – growing, a tree);
deva-rṣīṇām deva-rṣi 6n.3 m.; [TP]: devānām ṛṣīṇām itiamong the divine sages  (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; ṛṣi – sage, seer);
ca av.and;
nāradaḥ nāra-da 1n.1 m.giving humanity, Nārada (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person, nāra – related to men, waters; da – suffix meaning giver);
gandharvāṇām gandharva 6n.3 m.among divine musicians;
citrarathaḥ citra-ratha 1n.1 m.colourful chariot, Citraratha (from: citra – bright-coloured, spotted; ratha – chariot);
siddhānām siddha (sidh – to succeed, to become perfect) [PP] 6n.3 m.among those who attained perfection;
kapilaḥ kapila 1n.1 m.monkey-coloured, brown, reddish, Kapila (from: kapi – małpa);
muniḥ muni 1n.1 m.sage, saint, seer (from: man – to think, to imagine);

 
 



Śāṃkara


aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇām, devarṣīṇāṃ ca nārado devāḥ eva santaḥ ṛṣitvaṃ prāptāḥ mantra-darśitvāt te devarṣayaḥ | teṣāṃ nārado’smi | gandharvāṇāṃ citraratho nāma gandharvo’smi | siddhānāṃ janmanaiva dharma-jñāna-vairāgyaiśvaryātiśayaṃ prāptānāṃ kapilo muniḥ

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 10.29

 

Śrīdhara


aśvattha iti | devā eva santo ye mantra-darśanena ṛṣitvaṃ prāptās teṣāṃ madhye nārado ‚smi | siddhānām utpattitaḥ eva adhigata-paramārtha-tattvānāṃ madhye kapilākhyo munir asmi

 

Madhusūdana


sarvaeṣāṃ vṛkṣāṇāṃ vanaspatīnām anyeṣāṃ ca | devā eva santo ye mantra-darśitvena ṛṣitvaṃ prāptās te devarṣayas teṣāṃ madhye nārado ‚ham asmi | gandharvāṇāṃ gāna-dharmaṇāṃ deva-gāyakānāṃ madhye citraratho ‚ham asmi | siddhānāṃ janmanaiva vinā prayatnaṃ dharma-jñāna-vairāgyaiśvaryātiśayaṃ prāptānām adhigata-paramārthānāṃ madhye kapilo munir aham

 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 10.27

 

Baladeva


pūjyatvena sarva-vṛkṣāṇāṃ madhye śreṣṭho ‚śvattho ‚haṃ devarṣīṇāṃ madhye parama-bhaktatvenotkṛṣṭo nārado ‚ham | gandharvāṇāṃ madhye ‚tigāyakatvenotkṛṣṭatvāc citraratho ‚ham | siddhānāṃ svābhāvikāṇimādimatāṃ kapilaḥ kārdamir munir aham
 
 


BhG 10.27

uccaiḥśravasam aśvānāṃ viddhi mām amṛtodbhavam
airāvataṃ gajendrāṇāṃ narāṇāṃ ca narādhipam

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[tvam] (you) aśvānām (among horses) mām (me) amṛtodbhavam uccaiḥśravasam (born from nectar Uccaiḥśravas) viddhi (you must know),
gajendrāṇām (among elephants) [mām] (me) airāvatam (Airāvata) [viddhi] (you must know),
narāṇām ca (among men) [mām] (me) narādhipam (ruler of men) [viddhi] (you must know).

 

grammar

uccaiḥśravasam uccaiḥ-śravas 2n.1 m.neighing aloud, long-eared, Uccaiḥśravas (from: ucca – high, loud, av. uccais – highly, loudly; śru – to hear, śravas – noise, ear);
aśvānām aśva 6n.3 m.among horses;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
amṛtodbhavam amṛta-udbhava 2n.1 m.; [TP]: yasyodbhavo ‘mṛtād asti tamwho is born from nectar (from: mṛ – to die; [PP] mṛta – dead, a-mṛta – not dead, nectar, immortality; ud-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, udbhava – springing from, production);
airāvatam airāvat 2n.1 m.son of the ocean, Airāvata (from: irā – drink, enjoyment; irā-vant – granting drink / refreshment; ocean, cloud);
gajendrāṇām gaja-indra 6n.3 m.; [TP]: gajānām indrāṇām itiamong the kings of elephants (from: gaj – to sound, to roar, gaja – elephant; ind – to be powerful, indra – king, the best, lord of heaven);
narāṇām nara 6n.3 m.among men (from: nṛ man, mankind);
ca av.and;
narādhipam nara-adhi-pa 2n.1 n.; [TP]: narāṇām adhipam itiruler of men (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person; adhi – over, above, pa – ruler, in compounds shortened form of: pati, adhi-pa – ruler, king);

 

textual variants


uccaiḥśravasam → uccaiśravasam (Uccaiśravas);
airāvatamairāvaṇam (Airāvana);
narādhipam → narādhipaḥ / narottamaḥ (ruler of men / the best of men);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ucaiḥśravasam a vānām ucaiḥśravāḥ nāmā varājas taṃ māṃ viddhi vijānīhy amṛtodbhavam amṛta-nimitta-mathanodbhavam | airāvatam irāvatyāḥ apatyaṃ gajendrāṇāṃ hastīśvarāṇām, taṃ māṃ viddhīty anuvartate | narāṇāṃ ca manuṣyāṇāṃ narādhipaṃ rājānaṃ māṃ viddhi jānīhi

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 10.29

 

Śrīdhara


uccaiḥśravasam iti | amṛtārthaṃ kṣīrodadhi-manthanād udbhūtam uccaiḥśravasam nāmāśvaṃ mad-vibhūtiṃ viddhi | amṛtodbhavam ity etad airāvate ‚pi sambadhyate | narādhipaṃ rājānaṃ māṃ mad-vibhūtiṃ viddhi

 

Madhusūdana


aśvānāṃ madhya uccaiḥśravasam amṛta-mathanodbhavam aśvaṃ māṃ viddhi | airāvataṃ gajam amṛta-mathanodbhavam gajendrāṇāṃ madhye māṃ viddhi | narāṇāṃ ca madhye narādhipaṃ rājānaṃ māṃ viddhīty anuṣajyate

 

Viśvanātha


amṛtodbhavam amṛta-mathanodbhūtam

 

Baladeva


aśvānāṃ madhye uccaiḥśravasam | gajendrāṇāṃ madhye airāvataṃ ca māṃ viddhi | amṛtodbhavam amṛtārthakāt kṣīrābdhi-mathanāj jātam iti dvayor viśeṣaṇam | narādhipaṃ rājānaṃ asahya-tejasaṃ dharmiṣṭham
 
 


BhG 10.28

āyudhānām ahaṃ vajraṃ dhenūnām asmi kāma-dhuk
prajanaś cāsmi kandarpaḥ sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ

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syntax


āyudhānām (among weapons) aham (I) vajram [asmi] (I am the thunderbolt),
dhenūnām (among cows) [aham] (I) kāmadhuk asmi (I am the wish-fulfilling cow),
prajanaḥ (procreating) [aham] (I) kandarpaḥ asmi (I am Kandarpa),
sarpāṇām (among the crawling) [aham] (I) vāsukiḥ asmi (I am Vāsuki).

 

grammar

āyudhānām ā-yudha 6n.3 n.among weapons (from: yudh – to fight);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
vajram vajra 1n.1 n.the hard one, thunderbolt, diamond (from: vaj or uj – to be hard or strong);
dhenūnām dhenu 6n.3 f.among cows (from: duḥ – to milk, duḥ – milking, granting);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
kāma-dhuk kāma-duḥ 1n.1 m.; ya kāmān dogdhi saḥ which yields desires / wish-fulfilling cow (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire, pleasure; duḥ – to milk, duḥ – milking, granting; kāma-duḥ – wish-fulfilling cow);
prajanaḥ prajana 1n.1 m.procreating (from: pra-jan – to be born, to beget [progeny]);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
kandarpaḥ kandarpa 1n.1 m.passion, love, lust, god of love (from: kam – to wish, to love, to long for; dṛp – to be extravagant, to be proud, darpa – pride, arrogance);
sarpāṇām sarpa 6n.3 m.among snakes (from: sṛp – to creep, to crawl);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
vāsukiḥ vāsuki 1n.1 m.Vāsuki, the king of snakes (from: vasu – perfect, good);

 

textual variants


vajro → vajraṁ (thunderbolt);
prajanaś cāsmi → prajansyāsmi / prajaneṣv api (among procreations I am / just among procreation);
 
 



Śāṃkara


āyudhānām ahaṃ vajraṃ dadhīcy-asthi-saṃbhavam | dhenūnāṃ dogdhrīṇām asmi kāma-dhuk vasiṣṭhasya sarva-kāmānāṃ dogdhrī, sāmānyā vā kāma-dhuk | prajanaḥ prajanayitāsmi kandarpaḥ kāmaḥ | sarpāṇāṃ sarpa-bhedānām asmi vāsukiḥ sarpa-rājaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 10.29

 

Śrīdhara


āyudhānām iti | āyudhānāṃ madhye vajram asmi | kāmān dogdhīti kāma-dhuk | prajanaḥ prajotpatti-hetuḥ kandarpaḥ kāmo ‚smi | na kevalaṃ sambhoga-mātra-pradhānaḥ kāmo mad-vibhūtir aśāstrīyatvāt | sarpāṇām savidhānāṃ rājā vāsukir asmi

 

Madhusūdana


āyudhānāṃ astrāṇāṃ madhye vajraṃ dadhīcer asth-sambhavam astram aham asmi | dhenūnāṃ dogdhrīṇāṃ madhye kāmaṃ dogdhīti kāma-dhuk | samudra-mathanodbhavā vasiṣṭhasya kāma-dhenur aham asmi | kāmānāṃ madhye prajanaḥ prajanayitā putrotpatty-artho yaḥ kandarpaḥ kāmaḥ so ‚ham asmi | ca-kāras tv artho rati-mātra-hetu-kāma-vyāvṛtty-arthaḥ | sarpāś ca nāgāś ca jāti-bhedād bhidyante | tatra sarpāṇām madhye teṣāṃ rājā vāsukir aham asmi

 

Viśvanātha


kāma-dhuk kāma-dhenuḥ | kandarpānāṃ madhye prajanaḥ prajotpatti-hetuḥ kandarpo ‚ham

 

Baladeva


āyudhānāṃ madhye vajraṃ pavir aham | kāma-dhuk vāñchita-pūrayitrī kāma-dhenur aham | prajanaḥ santānotpādakaḥ kandarpaḥ kāmo ‚ham | rati-sukha-mātra-hetuḥ sa nāham iti ca-śabdāt | sarpāṇām eka-śirasāṃ madhye vāsukir aham
 
 


BhG 10.29

anantaś cāsmi nāgānāṃ varuṇo yādasām aham
pitṝṇām aryamā cāsmi yamaḥ saṃyamatām aham

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nāgānām ca (among snakes) [aham] (I) anantaḥ asmi (I am Ananta),
yādasām (among aquatics) aham (I) varuṇaḥ [asmi] (I am the lord of waters),
pitṝṇām (among ancestors) [aham] (I) aryamā asmi (I am Aryaman),
saṁyamatām ca (and among those controlling) aham (I) yamaḥ [asmi] (I am death).

 

grammar

anantaḥ an-anta 1n.1 m.without end, endless, Ananta (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
nāgānām nāga 6n.3 m.among many-hooded snakes (from: na-ga – not going or nagna – naked);
varuṇaḥ varuṇa 1n.1 m.enveloping sky, Varuṇa, god of waters;
yādasām yādas 6n.3 m.among aquatics (from: yādas – large aquatic animal, sea monster);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
pitṝṇām pitṛ 6n.3 m.among fathers, among ancestors (seven groups of saintly ancestors: agniṣvātta, saumya, haviṣmant, uṣmapa, sukālin, barhiṣad, ājyapa);
aryamā arya-man 1n.1 m.friendly, companion, divinity of Milky Way, son of Aditi, the Sun;
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
yamaḥ yama 1n.1 m.restrain, control, rule; Yama – god of death (from: yam – to restrain, to control);
saṁyamatām saṁyamant (sam-yam – to restrain) PPr 6n.3 m.among those restraining;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


anantaś cāsmi anantaś cāpi (and even Ananta);
saṁyamatām → saṁyaminām / saṁycchatām (among those restraining);
 
 



Śāṃkara


anantaś cāsmi nāgānāṃ nāga-viśeṣāṇāṃ nāgarājaś cāsmi | varuṇo yādasām aham ab-devatānāṃ rājāham | pitṝṇām aryamā nāma pitṛ-rājaś cāsmi | yamaḥ saṃyamatāṃ saṃyamanaṃ kurvatām aham

 

Rāmānuja


vṛkṣāṇāṃ pūjyo ‚śvattho ‚ham / devarṣīṇaṃ nārado ‚ham / kāmadhuk divyā surabhiḥ / jananahetuḥ kandarpaś cāham asmi / sarpāḥ ekāśirasaḥ; nāgāḥ bahuśirasaḥ / yādāṃsi jalavāsinaḥ, teṣāṃ varuṇo ‚ham / daṇḍayatāṃ vaivasvato ‚ham

 

Śrīdhara


ananta iti | nāgānāṃ nirviṣāṇāṃ rājānantaḥ śeṣo ‚ham | yādasām jala-carāṇāṃ rājā varuṇo ‚ham | pitṝṇām rājāryamāsmi | saṃyamatām niyamanaṃ kurvatāṃ madhye yamo ‚smi

 

Madhusūdana


nāgānāṃ jāti-bhedānāṃ madhye teṣāṃ rājānantaś ca śeṣākhyo ‚ham asmi | yādasām jala-carāṇāṃ madhye teṣāṃ rājā varuṇo ‚ham asmi | pitṝṇām madhye ‚ryamā nāma pitṛ-rājaś cāham asmi | saṃyamatām saṃyamaṃ dharmādharma-phala-dānenānugrahaṃ nigrahaṃ ca kurvatāṃ madhye yamo ‚ham smi

 

Viśvanātha


yādasām jala-carāṇāṃ | saṃyamatām daṇḍayatām

 

Baladeva


nāgānām aneka-śirasāṃ madhye ‚nantaḥ śeṣo ‚ham | yādasām jala-jantūnām adhipo varuṇo ‚ham | pitṝṇām rājāryamākhyaḥ pitṛ-devo ‚ham | saṃyamatām daṇḍayatāṃ madhye nyāya-daṇḍa-kṛt yamo ‚haṃ chādeśābhāva ārṣaḥ
 
 


BhG 10.30

prahlādaś cāsmi daityānāṃ kālaḥ kalayatām aham
mṛgāṇāṃ ca mṛgendro haṃ vainateyaś ca pakṣiṇām

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daityānām ca (and among descendants of Diti) [aham] (I) prahlādaḥ asmi (I am Prahlāda),
kalayatām (among those impelling) aham (I) kālaḥ ca [asmi] (I am time),
mṛgāṇām ca (and among animals) aham (I) mṛgendraḥ [asmi] (I am the king of animals),
pakṣiṇāṁ ca (and among the winged ones) [aham] (I) vainateyaḥ [asmi] (I am the son of Vinata).

 

grammar

prahlādaḥ prahlāda 1n.1 m.joyful excitement; Prahlāda (from: pra-hlād – to rejoice, to feel comfortably);
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
daityānām daitya 6n.3 m.among descendants of Diti (from: diti – mother of demons, wife of Kaśyapa);
kālaḥ kāla 1n.1 m.time;
kalayatām kalayant (kal – to impel, to incite, to do) PPr 6n.3 m.among those impelling;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
mṛgāṇām mṛga 6n.3 m.among forest animals (from: mṛg – to chase, to hunt);
ca av.and;
mṛgendraḥ mṛga-indra 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mṛgāṇām indra itiking of animals, lion (from: mṛg – to chase, to hunt, mṛga – forest animal; ind – to be powerful, indra – king, the best, lord of heaven);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
vainateyaḥ vainateya 1n.1 m.son of Vinata, Garuḍa (from: vi-nam – to bend, to bow, [PP] vi-nata – bent, curved, humble);
ca av.and;
pakṣiṇām pakṣin 6n.3 m.among the winged ones, among birds (from: pakṣ – to take, to take side, pakṣa – wing);

 

textual variants


prahlāda prahrāda (Prahrāda);
kalayatām → kāla-yatām (among controllers of time);
 
 



Śāṃkara


prahlādo nāmaś cāsmi daityānāṃ diti-vaṃśyānām | kālaḥ kalayatāṃ kalanaṃ gaṇanaṃ kurvatām aham | mṛgāṇāṃ ca mṛgendraḥ siṃho vyāghro vāham | vainateyaś ca garutmān vinatā-sutaḥ pakṣiṇāṃ patatriṇām

 

Rāmānuja


anarthaprepsutayā gaṇayatāṃ madhye kālaḥ mṛtyur aham

 

Śrīdhara


prahlāda iti | kalayatāṃ vaśīkurvatāṃ gaṇayatāṃ vā madhye kālo ‚ham asmi | mṛgendraḥ siṃhaḥ | pakṣiṇāṃ madhye vainateyo garuḍo ‚smi

 

Madhusūdana


daityānāṃ diti-vaṃśyānāṃ madhye prakarṣeṇa hlādayaty ānandayati parama-sāttvikatvena sarvān iti prahlādaś cāsmi | kalayatāṃ saṅkhyānaṃ gaṇanaṃ kurvatāṃ madhye kālo ‚ham | mṛgendraḥ siṃho mṛgāṇāṃ paśūnāṃ madhye ‚ham | vainateyaś ca pakṣiṇāṃ vinatā-putro garuḍaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


kalayatāṃ vaśīkurvatām | mṛgendraḥ siṃhaḥ | vainateyo garuḍaḥ

 

Baladeva


daityānāṃ diti-vaṃśyānāṃ madhye teṣām adhipatir bhagavan-niṣṭhātiśayād varīyān prahlādo ‚ham | kalayatāṃ vaśīkurvatāṃ madhye kālo ‚ham | mṛgāṇāṃ paśūnāṃ madhye ‚tivikrameṇotkṛṣṭo mṛgendraḥ siṃho ‚ham | pakṣiṇāṃ madhye viṣṇu-rathatvenātiśreṣṭho vainateyo garuḍo ‚ham
 
 


BhG 10.31

pavanaḥ pavatām asmi rāmaḥ śastra-bhṛtām aham
jhaṣāṇāṃ makaraś cāsmi srotasām asmi jāhnavī

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syntax


pavatām (among those purifying) [aham] (I) pavanaḥ asmi (I am the wind),
śastra-bhṛtām (among wielders of weapons) aham (I) rāmaḥ [asmi] (I am Rāma),
jhaṣāṇām (among fish) [aham] (I) makaraḥ asmi (I am Makara),
srotasām ca (and among those flowing) [aham] (I) jāhnavī asmi (I am the Ganges).

 

grammar

pavanaḥ pavan 1n.1 m. – purifying, the wind (from: – to purify);
pavatām pavant ( – to purify) PPr 6n.3 m. – among those purifying;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
rāmaḥ rāma 1n.1 m.pleasure, delight; Rāma (from: ram – to desist, to play, to rejoice);
śastra-bhṛtām śastra-bhṛt 6n.3 m.; [TP]: ye śastrāṇi bharanti teṣām among wielders of weapons (from: śas – to cut; śastra – a weapon which is handled as opposed to weapon which is thrown – astra; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, bhṛt – suffix: bearer, holder);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
jhaṣāṇām jhaṣa 6n.3 m.among big fish (from: jhaṣ – to hurt, to cover);
makaraḥ makara 1n.1 m.dolphin, shark, crocodile, sea-monster;
ca av.and;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
srotasām srotas 6n.3 m.among those flowing, among rivers (from: sru – to flow, to go );
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
jāhnavī jāhnavī 1n.1 f.daughter of Jahnu, the Ganges (from: jahnu – name of a sage);

 

textual variants


pavanaḥ pavatām pavanāḥ plavatām / pavanaḥ patatām (among those floating I am the wind / among those falling I am the wind);
srotasām → śrotasām (among rivers);
 
 



Śāṃkara


pavano vāyuḥ pavatāṃ pāvayitaṝṇām asmi | rāmaḥ śastra-bhṛtām ahaṃ śastrāṇāṃ dhārayitṝṇāṃ dāśarathiḥ rāmo’ham | jhaṣāṇāṃ matsyādīnāṃ makaro nāma jāti-viśeṣo’ham | srotasāṃ sravantīnām asmi jāhnavī gaṅgā

 

Rāmānuja


pavatām gamanasvabhāvānāṃ pavano ‚ham / śastrabhṛtāṃ rāmo ‚ham / śastrabhṛttvam atra vibhūtiḥ, arthāntarābhāvāt / ādityādayaś ca kṣetrajñā ātmatvenāvasthitasya bhagavataḥ śarīratayā dharmabhūtā iti śastrabhṛttvasthānīyāḥ

 

Śrīdhara


pavana iti | pavatāṃ pāvayitṝṇāṃ vegavatāṃ vā madhye vāyur aham asmi | śastra-bhṛtām vīrāṇāṃ rāmo dāśarathiḥ | yad vā rāmaḥ paraśurāmaḥ | jhaṣāṇāṃ matsyānāṃ madhye makaro nāma matsya-jāti-viśeṣo ‚ham | srotasāṃ pravāhodakānāṃ madhye bhāgīrathī

 

Madhusūdana


pavatāṃ pāvayitṝṇāṃ vegavatāṃ vā madhye pavano vāyur aham asmi | śastrabhṛtām śastra-dhāriṇāṃ yuddha-kuśalānāṃ madhye rāmo dāśarathir akhila-rākṣasa-kula-kṣaya-karaḥ parama-vīro ‚ham asmi | sākṣāt-svarūpasyāpy anena rūpeṇa cintanārthaṃ vṛṣṇīnāṃ vāsudevo ‚smītivad atra pāṭha iti prāg uktam | jhaṣāṇāṃ matsyānāṃ madhye makaro nāma taj-jāti-viśeṣaḥ | srotasām vegena calaj-jalānāṃ nadīnāṃ madhye sarva-nadī-śreṣṭhā jāhnavī gaṅgāham asmi

 

Viśvanātha


pavatāṃ vegavatāṃ pavitrīkurvatāṃ vā madhye rāmaḥ paraśurāmas tasyāveśāvatāratvād āveśānāṃ ca jīva-viśeṣatvād yuktam eva vibhūtitvam | tathā ca bhāgavatāmṛta-dhṛta-pādma-vākyaṃ-

etat te kathitaṃ devi jāmadagner mahātmanaḥ |
śaktyāveśāvatārasya caritaṃ śārṅgiṇaḥ prabhoḥ || [LBhāg 1.4.39]

āviṣṭo bhārgave cābhūt iti ca |

āveśāvatāra-lakṣaṇaṃ ca tatraiva bhāgavatāmṛte yathā-

jñāna-śakty-ādi-kalayā yatrāviṣṭo janārdanaḥ |
ta āveśā nigadyante jīvā eva mahattamāḥ || [LBhāg 1.1.18] iti |

jhaṣāṇāṃ matsyānāṃ makaro matsya-jāti-viśeṣaḥ | srotasām srotasvatīnām

 

Baladeva


pavatāṃ pāvanānāṃ vegavatāṃ ca madhye pavano vāyur aham | rāmaḥ paraśurāmaḥ | jhaṣāṇāṃ matsyānāṃ madhye makaras taj-jāti-viśeṣo ‚ham | srotasām pravahaj-jalānāṃ madhye jāhnavī gaṅgāham
 
 


BhG 10.32

sargāṇām ādir antaś ca madhyaṃ caivāham arjuna
adhy-ātma-vidyā vidyānāṃ vādaḥ pravadatām aham

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
sargāṇām (among emanations) aham eva (I indeed) ādiḥ antaḥ madhyam ca [asmi] (I am beginning, end and middle),
vidyānām (among sciences) [aham] (I) adhyātma-vidyā [asmi] (I am the knowledge of the Supreme Self),
pravadatām (among disputes) aham (I) vādaḥ [asmi] (I am the concluding speech).

 

grammar

sargāṇām sarga 6n.3 m.among emanations, among creations (from: sṛj – to let go, to emit);
ādiḥ ādi 1n.1 m.beginning, origin;
antaḥ anta 1n.1 m.end, limit, settlement, inside, nature;
ca av.and;
madhyam madhya 1n.1 n. middle;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
adhy-ātma-vidyā adhi-ātma-vidyā 1n.1 f.; [TP]: adhy-ātmano vidyetiknowledge of the Supreme Self (from: adhi – over, above; ātman – self; adhy-ātma – governing the self, the Supreme Spirit; vid – to know, to understand, vidyā – knowledge, learning);
vidyānām vidya 6n.3 m. among sciences (from: vid – to know, to understand, vidyā – knowledge, wisdom);
vādaḥ vāda 1n.1 m.speech, discussion, doctrine (vad – to speak; one of three types of dispute: vāda, jalpa, vitaṇḍa);
pravadatām pravadant (pra-vad – to speak, to declare) PPr 6n.3 m.among those declaring, among disputes;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


sargāṇāmsvargāṇām (among heavens);
madhyaṁ → madhyaś (middle);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sargāṇāṃ sṛṣṭīnām ādir antaś ca madhyaṃ caivāham utpatti-sthiti-layā aham arjuna | bhūtānāṃ jīvādhiṣṭhitānām eva ādir antaś cety ādy uktam upakrame, iha tu sarvasyaiva sarga-mātrasyeti viśeṣaḥ | adhyātma-vidyā vidyānāṃ mokṣārthatvāt pradhānam asmi | vādo’rtha-nirṇaya-hetutvāt pravadatāṃ pradhānam, ataḥ so’ham asmi | pravaktṛ-dvāreṇa vadana-bhedānām eva vāda-jalpa-vitaṇḍānām iha grahaṇaṃ pravadatām iti

 

Rāmānuja


sṛjyanta iti sargāḥ, teṣām ādiḥ kāraṇam; sarvadā sṛjyamānānāṃ sarveṣāṃ prāṇināṃ tatra tatra sraṣṭāro ‚ham evetyarthaḥ / tathā antaḥ sarvadā saṃhriyamāṇānāṃ tatra tatra saṃhartāro ‚py aham eva / tathā ca madhyaṃ pālanam; sarvadā pālyamānānāṃ pālayitāraś cāham evetyarthaḥ / jalpavitaṇḍādi kurvatāṃ tattvanirṇayāya pravṛtto vādo yaḥ, so ‚ham

 

Śrīdhara


sargāṇām iti | sṛjyanta iti sargā ākāśādayaḥ | teṣām ādivantaś ca madhyaṃ caivāham | aham ādiś ca madhyaṃ cety atra sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartṛtvaṃ pāramaiśvaryam uktam | atra tūtpatti-sthiti-pralayā mad-vibhūtitvena dhyeyā ity ucyate iti viśeṣaḥ | adhyātma-vidyātma-vidyā | pravadatāṃ vādināṃ sambandhinyo vāda-jalpa-vitaṇḍākhyās tisraḥ kathāḥ prasiddhāḥ | tāsāṃ madhye vādo ‚ham | yatra dvābhyām api pramāṇatas tarkataś ca svapakṣaḥ sthāpyate para-pakṣaś ca cchala-jāti-nigraha-sthānais tat-pakṣaṃ dūṣayati na tu sva-pakṣaṃ sthāpayati, sā vitaṇḍā nāma kathā | tatra jalpa-vitaṇḍe vijigīṣamāṇayor vādinoḥ śakti-parīkṣā-mātra-phale | vādas tu vīta-rāgayoḥ śiṣyācāryayor anyayor vā tattva-nirūpaṇa-phalaḥ | ato ‚sau śreṣṭhatvān mad-vibhūtir ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


sargāṇām acetana-sṛṣṭīnām ādir antaś ca madhyaṃ cotpatti-sthiti-layā aham eva | he arjuna | bhūtānāṃ jīvāviṣṭānāṃ cetanatvena prasiddhānām evādir antaś ca madhyaṃ cety uktam upakrame, iha tv acetana-sargāṇām iti na paunaruktyam | vidyānāṃ madhye ‚dhyātma-vidyā mokṣa-hetur ātma-tattva-vidyāham | pravadatāṃ pravadat-sambandhināṃ kathā-bhedānāṃ vāda-jalpa-vitaṇḍātmakānāṃ madhye vādo ‚ham | bhūtānām asmi cetanety atra yathā bhūta-śabdena tat-sambandhinaḥ pariṇāmā lakṣitās tatheha pravadac-chabdena tat-sambandhinaḥ kathā-bhedā lakṣyante | ato nirdhāraṇopapattiḥ | yathā śrute tūbhayatrāpi sambandhe ṣaṣṭhī | tatra tattva-bubhutsvor vītarāgayoḥ sa-brahmacāriṇor guru-śiṣyayor vā pramāṇena tarkeṇa ca sādhana-dūṣaṇātmā sa-pakṣa-pratipakṣa-parigrahas tattva-nirṇaya-paryanto vādaḥ | tad uktaṃ pramāṇa-tarka-sādhanopālambhaḥ siddhāntāviruddhaḥ pañcāvayavopapannaḥ pakṣa-pratipakṣa-parigraho vādaḥ iti | vāda-phalasaya tattva-nirṇayasya durdurūḍha-vādi-nirākaraṇena saṃrakṣaṇārthaṃ vijigīṣu-kathe jalpa-vitaṇḍe jaya-parāyaja-mātra-paryante | tad uktam tattvādhyavasāya-saṃrakṣaṇārthaṃ jalpa-vitaṇḍe bīja-praroha-saṃrakṣaṇārthaṃ kaṇṭaka-śākhā-prāvaraṇavat [NyāyaD 4.2.47] iti | chala-jāti-nigraha-sthānaiḥ para-pakṣo dūṣyata iti jalpe vitaṇḍāyāṃ ca samānam | tatra vitaṇḍāyām ekena sva-pakṣaḥ sthāpyata eva, anyena ca sa dūṣyata eva | jalpe tūbhābhyām api sva-pakṣaḥ sthāpyata ubhābhyām api para-pakṣo dūṣyata iti viśeṣaḥ | tad uktaṃ yathoktopapanna-cchala-jāti-nigraha-sthāna-sādhanopalambho jalpaḥ sa pratipakṣa-sthāpanā-hīno vitaṇḍā iti | ato vitaṇḍā-dvaya-śarīratvāj jalpo nāma naikā kathā, kintu śakty-atiśaya-jñānārthaṃ samaya-bandha-mātreṇa pravartata iti khaṇḍana-kārāḥ | tattvādhyvasāya-paryavasāyitvena tu vādasya śreṣṭhatvam uktam eva

 

Viśvanātha


sṛjyanta iti sargā ākāśādayas teṣām ādiḥ sṛṣṭir antaḥ saṃhāraḥ | madhyaṃ pālanaṃ ceti sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralayā mad-vibhūtitvena dhyeyā ity arthaḥ | aham ādiś ca madhyaṃ cety atra sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartā parameśvara evoktaḥ | vidyānāṃ jñānānāṃ madhye aham ātma-vidyā ātma-jñānam | pravadatāṃ sva-pakṣaṃ sthāpana-para-pakṣa-dūṣaṇādi-rūpa-jalpa-vitaṇḍādi-kurvatāṃ vādas tattva-nirṇayaḥ pravṛtti-siddhānte yaḥ so ‚ham

 

Baladeva


sargāṇāṃ mahad-ādīnāṃ jaḍa-sṛṣṭīnām ādir anto madhyaṃ cāham iti teṣāṃ sarga-saṃhāra-pālanāni mad-vibhūtitayā bhāvyānīty arthaḥ | aham ādiś ca ity ādau mat-svāṃśa-cetanānāṃ bhūtānāṃ sargādi-hetur mad-vibhūtir ity uktamato na punaḥ punar-uktiḥ |

aṅgāni vedāś catvāro mīmāṃsā nyāya-vistaraḥ |
dharma-śāstraṃ purāṇaṃ ca vidyā hy etāś caturdaśa ||

ity uktānāṃ vidyānāṃ madhye ‚dhyātma-vidyā saparikara-paramātma-nirṇetrī caturlakṣaṇī vedānta-vidyāham evety arthaḥ | pravadatāṃ sambandhī yo vādaḥ so ‚ham | teṣāṃ khalu vāda-jalpa-vitaṇḍās tisraḥ kathāḥ prasiddhāḥ | tatrobhaya-sādhanavatī vijigīṣu-kathā jalpaḥ | yatrobhābhyāṃ pramāṇena tarkenṇa sva-pakṣaḥ sthāpyate chala-jāti-nigraha-sthānaiḥ para-pakṣo dūṣyate sva-pakṣa-sthāpana-hanā para-pakṣa-dūṣaṇāvasānā kathā vitaṇḍā | ete pravadator vijigīṣvoḥ śakti-mātra-parīkṣake niṣphale tattva-bubhutsu-kathā vādaḥ | sa ca tattva-nirṇaya-phalakatvenotkṛṣṭatvān mad-vibhūtir iti

 
 


BhG 10.33

akṣarāṇām akāro smi dvaṃdvaḥ sāmāsikasya ca
aham evākṣayaḥ kālo dhātāhaṃ viśvato-mukhaḥ

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syntax


akṣarāṇām (among syllables) [aham] (I) a-kāraḥ asmi (I am letter ‘a’),
sāmāsikasya ca (and among compounds) [aham] (I) dvandvaḥ [asmi] (I am the copulative compound),
aham eva (I indeed) akṣayaḥ kālaḥ [asmi] (I am the indestructible time),
aham (I) viśvato-mukhaḥ dhātā [asmi] (I am the constructor whose faces are everywhere).

 

grammar

akṣarāṇām a-kṣara 6n.3 n. of the syllables (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
akāraḥ a-kāra 1n.1 m.letter ‘a’ (from: kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer; a word suffixed to a letter);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
dvaṁdvaḥ dvaṁdva 1n.1 m.pair, copulative compound (from: dva – two, dvaṁdva – two-two, pair of opposites; compound in which all the elements are equally dominant, joined by conjunction ‘and’);
sāmāsikasya sāmāsika 6n.1 m.of that which is related to compounds (from: sam-ās – to sit together, to join, samāsa – compound, compisition of words, sāmāsika – related to compounds, there are six main types: tat-puruṣa, karma-dhāra, bahu-vrīhi, dvigu, dvandva, avyayībhāva);
ca av.and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
akṣayaḥ a-kṣaya 1n.1 m.indestructible (from: kṣi – to decrease, PF kṣaya – diminution, destruction);
kālaḥ kāla 1n.1 m.time;
dhātā dhātṛ 1n.1 m.maintainer, creator, constructor (from: dhā – to put);
ahaṁ asmat sn. 1n.1I;
viśvato-mukhaḥ viśvato-mukha 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya mukhā viśvataḥ santi taḥwhose faces are everywhere (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world, av. viśvatas – from all sides, everywhere; mukha – face);

 

textual variants

viśvato-mukhaḥ → viśvato-mukham (whose faces are everywhere);
 
 



Śāṃkara


akṣarāṇāṃ varṇānām akāro varṇo’smi | dvandvaḥ samāso’smi sāmāsikasya ca samāsa-samūhasya | kiṃ cāham evākṣayaḥ kālaḥ prasiddhaḥ kṣaṇādy-ākhyaḥ, athavā parameśvaraḥ kālasyāpi kālo’smi | dhātāhaṃ karma-phalasya vidhātā sarva-jagato viśvato-mukhaḥ sarvato-mukhaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


akṣarāṇāṃ madhye „akāro vai sarvā vāk” iti śrutisiddhiḥ sarvavarṇānāṃ prakṛtir akāro ‚ham sāmāsikaḥ samāsasamūhaḥ; tasya madhye dvandvasamāso ‚ham / sa hy ubhayapadārthapradhānatvenotkṛṣṭaḥ / kalāmuhūrtādimayo ‚kṣayaḥ kālo ‚ham eva / sarvasya sraṣṭā hiraṇyagarbhaś caturmukho ‚ham

 

Śrīdhara


akṣarāṇām iti | akṣarāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ madhye akāro ‚smi | tasya sarva-vāṅmayatvena śreṣṭhatvāt | tathā ca śrutiḥ akāro vai sarvā vāk saiṣā sparśoṣambhir vyajyamānā bahvī nānā-rūpā bhavati [Ai.Ā. 1.3.6] iti | sāmāsikasya samāsa-samūhasya madhye dvandvaḥ rāma-kṛṣṇāv ity-ādi-sāmāso ‚smi | ubhaya-pada-pradhānatvena śreṣṭhatvāt | akṣayaḥ pravāha-rūpaḥ kālo ‚ham eva | kālaḥ kalayatām aham ity atrāyur gaṇanātmakaḥ saṃvatsara-śatādy-āyuḥ svarūpaḥ kāla uktaḥ | sa ca tasminn āyuṣi kṣīṇe sati kṣīyate | atra tu pravāhātmako ‚kṣayaḥ kāla ucyate iti viśeṣaḥ | karma-phala-vidhātṝṇāṃ madhye viśvatomukho dhātā | sarva-karma-phala-vidhātāhaṃ ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


akṣarāṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ varṇānāṃ madhye ‚kāro ‚ham asmi | a-kāro vai sarvā vāk [Ai.Ā. 1.3.6] iti śrutes tasya śreṣṭhatvaṃ prasiddham | dvandvaḥ samāsa ubhaya-padārtha-pradhānaḥ sāmāsikasya samāsa-samūhasya madhye ‚ham asmi | pūrva-padārtha-pradhāno ‚vyayībhāva uttara-padārtha-pradhānas tatpuruṣo ‚nyapadārtha-pradhāno bahuvrīhir iti teṣām ubhaya-padārtha-sāmyābhāvenāpakṛṣṭatvāt | kṣayi-kālābhimāny akṣayaḥ kālaḥ jñaḥ kāla-kālo guṇī sarva-vidyaḥ ity ādi-śruti-prasiddho ‚ham eva | kālaḥ kalayatām aham ity atra tu kṣayī kāla ukta iti bhedaḥ | karma-phala-vidhātṝṇāṃ madhye viśvatomukhaḥ sarvato mukho dhātā sarva-karma-phala-dāteśvaro ‚ham ity arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


sāmāsikasya samāsa-samūhasya madhye dvandvaḥ ubhaya-padārtha-pradhānatvena tasya samāseṣu śraiṣṭhyāt | akṣayaḥ kālaḥ saṃhartṝṇāṃ madhye mahākālo rudro viśvatomukhaś caturbhyo ‚haṃ dhātā sraṣṭṝṇāṃ madhye brahmā

 

Baladeva


akṣarāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ madhye ‚ham a-kāro ‚smi | a-kāro vai sarvā vāk [Ai.Ā. 1.3.6] iti śrutiś ca | sāmāsikasya samāsa-samūhasya madhye dvandvo ‚ham | avyayībhāva-tatpuruṣa-bahuvrīhiṣūbhaya-padārtha-pradhānatā-virahiṣu madhye tasyobhaya-padārtha-pradhānatayotkṛṣṭtatvāt | saṃhartṝṇāṃ madhye ‚kṣayaḥ | kālaḥ saṅkarṣaṇa-mukhotthaḥ kālāgnir aham | sraṣṭṝṇāṃ madhye viśvatomukhaś catur-vaktro dhātā vidhir aham
 
 


BhG 10.34

mṛtyuḥ sarva-haraś cāham udbhavaś ca bhaviṣyatām
kīrtiḥ śrīr vāk ca nārīṇāṃ smṛtir medhā dhṛtiḥ kṣamā

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syntax


aham ca (and I) sarva-haraḥ mṛtyuḥ [asmi] (I am the death taking all away),
bhaviṣyatām (of future being) [aham] (I) udbhavaḥ [asmi] (I am the origin),
nārīṇām (among women) [aham] (I) kīrtiḥ (fame) śrīḥ (majesty) vāk (speech) smṛtiḥ (memory) medhā (intellect) dhṛtiḥ (firmness) kṣamā ca (and forbearance) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

mṛtyuḥ mṛtyu 1n.1 m.death (from: mṛ – to die);
sarva-haraḥ sarva-hara 1n.1 m.; yaḥ sarvaṁ harti saḥwho takes away everything (from: sarva – all, whole; hṛ to carry away, hara – taking away, removing);
ca av.and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
udbhavaḥ ud-bhava 1n.1 m.springing from, production (from: ud-bhū – to spring up from, to produce);
ca av.and;
bhaviṣyatām bhaviṣyant (bhū – to be) PPr (of: Fut.) 6n.3 n.among those coming;
kīrtiḥ kīrti 1n.1 f.fame, glory (from: kīrt – to praise, to glorify);
śrīḥ śrī 1n.1 f. lustre, majesty, fortune;
vāk vāk 1n.1 f.speech (from: vac – to speak);
ca av.and;
nārīṇām nārī 6n.3 f.among women, among feminine things (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person, nāra – related to men);
smṛtiḥ smṛti 1n.1 f.remembrance, tradition, sacred texts of tradition (from: smṛ – to think, to remember);
medhā medhā 1n.1 f.intelligence, understanding, sacrifice;
dhṛtiḥ dhṛti 1n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
kṣamā kṣamā 1n.1 f.patience, tolerance, forbearance (from: kṣam – to forgive, to tolerate);

 

textual variants


cāham → cāsmi (and I am);
kīrtiḥ śrīr vāk kīrtiḥ śrī-vāk / kīrti-śrīr-vāk (fame, wealth, speech);
smṛtiḥ and dhṛtiḥ interchange;
dhṛtiḥ kṣamā → dhṛti-kṣamā / dhṛtiḥ kṣamāḥ (firmness and forbearance);
 
 



Śāṃkara


mṛtyur dvividho dhanādi-haraḥ prāṇa-haraś ca | tatra yaḥ prāṇa-haraḥ, sa sarva-hara ucyate | so’ham ity arthaḥ | athavā, para īśvaraḥ pralaye sarva-haraṇāt sarva-haraḥ, so’ham | udbhava utkarṣaḥ abhyudayas tat-prāpti-hetuś cāham | keṣāṃ ? bhaviṣyatāṃ bhāvi-kalyāṇānām, utkarṣa-prāpti-yogyānām ity arthaḥ | kīrtiḥ śrīḥ vāk ca nārīṇāṃ smṛtir medhā dhṛtiḥ kṣamā ity etā uttamāḥ strīṇām aham asmi, yāsām ābhāsa-mātra-saṃbandhenāpi lokaḥ kṛtārtham ātmānaṃ manyate

 

Rāmānuja


sarvaprāṇaharo mṛtyuś cāham / utpatsyamānānām udbhavākhyaṃ karma cāham / śrīr aham; kīrtiś cāham; vāk cāham; smṛtiś cāham; medhā cāham; dhṛtiś cāham; kṣamā cāham

 

Śrīdhara


mṛtyur iti | saṃhārakānāṃ madhye sarvaharo mṛtyur aham | bhaviṣyatāṃ bhāvi-kalyāṇānāṃ prāṇinām udbhavo ‚bhudayo ‚ham | nārīṇāṃ madhye kīrty-ādyāḥ spata-devatā-rūpāḥ striyo ‚ham | yāsām ābhāsa-mātra-yogena prāṇinaḥ ślāghyā bhavanti tāḥ kīrty-ādyāḥ striyo mad-vibhūtayaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


saṃhāra-kāriṇāṃ madhye sarva-haraḥ sarva-saṃhāra-kārī mṛtyur aham | bhaviṣyatāṃ bhāvi-kalyāṇānāṃ ya udbhava utkarṣaḥ sa cāham eva | nārīṇāṃ madhye kīrtiḥ śrīr vāk smṛtir medhā dhṛtiḥ kṣameti ca sapta dharma-patnyo ‚ham eva | tatra kīrtir dhārmikatva-nimittā praśastatvena nānā-dig-deśīya-loka-jñāna-viṣayatā-rūpā khyātiḥ | śrīr dharmārtha-kāma-sampat śarīra-śobhā vā kāntir vā | vāk sarasvatī sarvasyārthasya prakāśikā saṃskṛtā vāṇī | ca-kārān mūrtyādayo ‚pi dharma-patnyo gṛhyante | smṛtiś cirānubhūtārtha-smaraṇa-śaktiḥ | aneika-granthārtha-dhāraṇā-śaktir medhā | dhṛtir avasāde ‚pi śarīrendriya-saṃghātottambhana-śaktiḥ | ucchṛṅkhala-pravṛtti-kāraṇena cāpala-prāptau tan-nivartana-śaktir vā | kṣamā harṣa-viṣādayor avikṛta-cittatā | yāsām ābhāsa-mātra-sambandhenāpi janaḥ sarva-lokādaraṇīyo bhavati tāsāṃ sarva-strīṣūttamatvam atiprasiddham eva

 

Viśvanātha


prātikṣaṇikānāṃ mṛtyūnāṃ madhye sarvaharaḥ sarva-smṛti-haro mṛtyur ahaṃ yad uktaṃ mṛtyur atyanta-vismṛtiḥ iti | bhaviṣyatāṃ bhāvināṃ prāṇi-vikārāṇāṃ madhye udbhavaḥ prathama-vikāro jagmāham | nārīṇāṃ madhye kīrtiḥ khyātiḥ | śrīḥ kāntiḥ vāk saṃsmṛtā vāṇīti tisras tathā smṛty-ādayaś catasraḥ ca-kārāt mūrtyādayaś cānyā dharma-patnyaś cāham

 

Baladeva


prātikṣaṇikānāṃ mṛtyūnāṃ madhye sarva-smṛti-haro mṛtyur aham | bhaviṣyatāṃ bhāvināṃ prāṇi-vikārāṇām udbhavo janmākhyaḥ prathama-vikāro ‚ham | nārīṇāṃ madhye kīrty-ādayaḥ sapta mad-vibhūtayaḥ | daivatā hy etāḥ | yāsām ābhāsenāpi narāḥ ślāghyā bhavanti | tatra kīrtir dhārmikatvādi-sādguṇya-khyātiḥ | śrīs tri-varga-sampat kāya-dyutir vā | vāk sarvārtha-vyañjakā saṃskṛta-bhāṣā | smṛtir anubhūtārtha-smaraṇa-śaktiḥ | medhā bahu-śāstrārthāvadhāraṇa-śaktiḥ | dhṛtiś cāpalya-prāptau tan-nivartana-śaktiḥ | kṣamā harṣe viṣāde ca prāpte nirvikāra-cittatā
 
 


BhG 10.35

bṛhat-sāma tathā sāmnāṃ gāyatrī chandasām aham
māsānāṃ mārgaśīrṣo ham ṛtūnāṃ kusumākaraḥ

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syntax


sāmnām (among sāmans) [aham] (I) bṛhat-sāma [asmi] (I am the great sāman),
tathā chandasām (and among hymns) aham (I) gāyatrī [asmi] (I am the gāyatrī),
māsānām (among months) aham (I) mārgaśīrṣaḥ [asmi] (I am Mārgaśīrṣa),
ṛtūnām (among seasons) [aham] (I) kusumākaraḥ [asmi] (I am the abounding in flowers spring).

 

grammar

bṛhat-sāma bṛhat-sāman 1n.1 n.the great sāman (from: bṛh – to increase, bṛhat – great; so – to destroy [sin] or – to give [a blessing], sāman – one of the four Vedas or its hymn; Bṛhad-sāma according to Śridhara: Sāmaveda 1.235 identical with: RV 6.46.1);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
sāmnām sāman 6n.3 n.among sāmans (from: so – to destroy [sin] or – to give [a blessing], sāman – one of the four Vedas or its hymn);
gāyatrī gāyatrī 1n.1 f.gāyatrī (from: gai – to sing, to praise, gāyatrī – the hymn RV 3.62.10 or 24-syllable metre [3×8]);
chandasām chandas 6n.3 n.among Vedic hymns (from: chandas – desire, will);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
māsānām māsa 6n.3 m.among months (from: – to measure, mās – Moon, month);
mārgaśīrṣaḥ mārga-śīrṣa 1n.1 m.Mārgaśīrṣa (from: mṛg – to chase, mṛga – animal; śiras – head; mṛga-śiras – three stars in Orion constellation, resembling the head of an antelope, mārgaśīrṣa – relaated to Mṛgaśiras constellation, one of the months in winter season, in which the full moon falls in Mṛgaśiras constellation);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
ṛtūnām ṛtu 6n.3 m.among seasons (from: ṛtu – fixed time, right time; six seasons of the year: vasanta, grīṣma, varṣa, śarat, hemanta, śiśira);
kusumā-karaḥ kusuma-ākara 1n.1 m.; [TP]: kusumāni ākara itiabounding with flowers, spring (from: kuś – to embrace, kusuma – flower; ā-kṛ – to drive near, ā-kara – one who distributes, multitude);

 

textual variants


bṛhat-sāma → bṛhat-sāmas (great sāman);
tathākathā (in what manner?);
mārgaśīrṣo ham mārgaśīrṣo smi (I am Mārgaśīrṣa);

… → one and a half of verse, not found in critical edition, after verse 10.35:
oṣadhīnāṁ yavaś cāsmi dhātūnām asmi kāñcanam
saurabheyo gavām asmi snehānāṁ sarpir apy aham
sarvāsāṁ tṛṇajātīnāṁ darbho ‚haṁ pāṇḍunandana

Among mdicinal plants I am barley, ana among minerals – gold,
among cows I am the offspring of Surabhi, among fats the clarified butter.
O son of Pāṇḍu, among all types of grass I am darbha grass.

 
 



Śāṃkara


bṛhat-sāma tathā sāmnāṃ pradhānam asmi | gāyatrī cchandasām ahaṃ gāyatry-ādi-cchando-viśiṣṭānām ṛcāṃ gāyatrī ṛg aham asmīty arthaḥ | māsānāṃ mārgaśīrṣo’ham, ṛtūnāṃ kusumākaro vasantaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


sāmnāṃ bṛhatsāma aham / chandasāṃ gāyatry aham / kusumākaraḥ vasantaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


bṛhat-sāmeti | tvām iddhi havāmahe [Rv 6.46.1] ity asyām ṛci gīyamānaṃ bṛhat-sāma | tena cendraṃ sarveśvaratvena sthūyata iti śraiṣṭhyam | chanda-viśiṣṭānāṃ mantrāṇāṃ madhye gāyatrī mantro ‚ham | dvijatvāpādakatvena somāharaṇe ca śreṣṭhatvāt | kusumākaro vasantaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


vedānāṃ sāmavedo ‚smīty uktaṃ tatrāyam anyo viśeṣaḥ sāmnām ṛg-akṣarārūḍhānāṃ gīti-viśeṣāṇāṃ madhye tvām iddhi havāmaha [Rv 6.46.1] ity asyām ṛci gīti-viśeṣo bṛhat-sāma | tac cātirātre pṛṣṭha-stotraṃ sarveśvaratvenendra-stuti-rūpam anyataḥ śreṣṭhatvād aham | chandasāṃ niyatākṣara-pādatva-rūpa-cchando-viśiṣṭānām ṛcāṃ madhye dvijāter dvitīya-janma-hetutvena prātaḥ-savanādi-savana-traya-vyāpitvena tirṣṭubh-jagatībhyāṃ somāharaṇārthaṃ gatābhyāṃ somo na labdho ‚kṣarāṇi ca hāritāni jagatyā trīṇi triṣṭubhaikam iti catvāri tair akṣaraiḥ saha somasyāharaṇena ca sarva-śreṣṭhā gāyatry-ṛg aham | catur-akṣarāṇi ha vā agre chandāṃsy āsutato jagatī somam acchātpat sā trīṇy akṣarāṇi hitvā jagām tatas triṣṭup somam acchāpatat saikam akṣaraṃ hitvāpatat tato gāyatrī somam acchāpatat sā tāni cākṣarāṇi haranty āgacchat somaṃ ca tasmād aṣṭākṣarā gāyatrī ity upakramya tadāhur gāyatrāṇi vai sarvāṇi savanāni gāyatrī hy evaitad upasṛjamānaiḥ iti śatapatha-śruteḥ | gāyatrī vā idaṃ sarvaṃ bhūtam ity-ādi-chāndogya-śruteś ca |

māsānāṃ dvādaśānāṃ madhye ‚bhinivaśāli-vāstūka-śākādi-śālī śīrtātapa-śūnyatvena ca sukha-hetur mārgaśīrṣo ‚ham | ṛtūnāṃ ṣaṇṇāṃ madhye kusumākaraḥ sarva-sugandhi-kusumānām ākaro ‚tiramaṇīyo vasantaḥ | vasante brāhmaṇam upanayīta | vasante brāhmaṇo ‚gnīnād adhīta | vasante vasante jyotiṣā yajeta | tad vai vasanta evābhyārabheta | vasanto vai brāhamasya rtuḥ | ity ādi-śāstra-prasiddho ‚ham asmi

 

Viśvanātha


vedānāṃ sāmavedo ‚smīty uktam | tatra sāmnām api madhye bṛhat-sāma tvām iddhi havāmahe [Rv 6.46.1] ity asyām ṛci vigīyamānaṃ bṛhat-sāma | chandasāṃ madhye gāyatrī nāma chandaḥ | kusumākaro vasantaḥ

 

Baladeva


vedānāṃ sāmavedo ‚smīty uktaṃ prāk | tatrānyaṃ viśeṣam āha bṛhad iti | sāmnām ṛg-akṣara-rūḍhānāṃ gīti-viśeṣāṇāṃ madhye tvām iddhi havāmahe [Rv 6.46.1] ity asyām ṛci gītiṃ viśeṣo bṛhat-sāma tac cātirātre pṛṣṭha-stotraṃ sarveśvaratvendra-stuti-rūpam anya-sāmotkṛṣṭatvād aham | chandasāṃ niyatākṣara-pādatva-rūpa-cchando-viśiṣṭānām ṛcāṃ madhye gāyatrī ṛg ahaṃ dvijāter dvitīya-janma-hetutvena tasyāḥ śraiṣṭhyāt | gāyatrī vā idaṃ sarvaṃ bhūtaṃ yad idaṃ kiṃ ca iti brahmāvatāratva-śravaṇāc ca | mārgaśīrṣo ‚ham ity abhinava-dhānāydi-sampattyā tasyānyebhyaḥ śraiṣṭhyāt | kusumākaro vasanto ‚ham iti śītātapābhāvena vividha-sugandhi-puṣpamayatvena mad-utsava-hetutvena ca tasyānyebhyaḥ śraiṣṭhyāt
 
 


BhG 10.36

dyūtaṃ chalayatām asmi tejas tejasvinām aham
jayo smi vyavasāyo smi sattvaṃ sattvavatām aham

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syntax


chalayatām (among cheaters) aham (I) dyūtam asmi (I am gambling),
tejasvīnām (among the strong) [aham] (I) tejaḥ [asmi] (I am the strength),
[aham] (I) jayaḥ asmi (I am victory),
[aham] (I) vyavasāyaḥ asmi (I am the certainty),
sattvavatāṁ (among those who have the essence) aham (I) sattvam [asmi] (I am the essence).

 

grammar

dyūtam dyūta (div – to play, to shine) [PP] 1n.1 n.game, gambling;
chalayatām chalayant (chal – to cheat) PPr 6n.3 m.among cheaters;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
tejaḥ tejas 1n.1 n.sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
tejasvinām tejasvin 6n.3 m.of those undergoing austerity, of ascetics (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate, tejas – sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
jayaḥ jaya 1n.1 m.victory (from: ji – to conquer);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
vyavasāyaḥ vyavasāya 1n.1 m.strenuous effort, determination, resolve (from: vi-ava-so – to settle down, to determine);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
sattvavatām sattva-vant 6n.3 m.among those who have the essence (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants

chalayatāmcalayatām (among those causing shaking);

The second pada of verse 10.36 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 7.10;

 
 



Śāṃkara


dyūtam akṣa-devanādi-lakṣaṇaṃ chalayatāṃ chalasya kartṝṇām asmi | tejasvināṃ tejo’ham | jayo’smi jetṝṇām | vyavasāyo’smi vyavasāyinām | sattvaṃ sattvavatāṃ sāttvikānām aham

 

Rāmānuja


chalaṃ kurvatāṃ chalāspadeṣv akṣādilakṣaṇaṃ dyutam aham / jetṝṇāṃ jayo ‚smi / vyavasāyināṃ vyavasāyo ‚smi / sattvavatāṃ sattvam aham / sattvam mahāmanastvam

 

Śrīdhara


dyūtam iti | chalayatāṃ anyonya-vañcana-parāṇāṃ sambandhi dyūtam asmi | tejasvinām prabhāvavatāṃ tejaḥ prabhāvo ‚smi | jetṝṇāṃ jayo ‚smi | vyavasāyinām udyamavatāṃ vyavasāya udyamo ‚smi | sattvavatāṃ sāttvikānāṃ sattvam aham

 

Madhusūdana


chalayatāṃ chalasya para-vañcanasya kartṝṇāṃ sambandhi dyūtam akṣa-devanādi-lakṣaṇaṃ sarvasvāpahārakāraṇam aham asmi | tejasvinām atyugra-prabhāvavatāṃ sambandhi tejo ‚pratihatājñatvam aham asmi | jetṝṇāṃ parājitāpekṣayotkarṣa-lakṣaṇo jayo ‚smi | vyavasāyināṃ vyavasāyaḥ phalāvyabhicāry-udyamo ‚ham asmi | sattvavatāṃ sāttvikānāṃ dharma-jñāna-vairāgyaiśvarya-lakṣaṇaṃ sattva-kāryam evātra sattvam aham

 

Viśvanātha


chalayatām anyo ‚nya-vañcana-parāṇāṃ sambandhi dyūtam asmi | jetṝṇāṃ jayo ‚smi | vyavasāyinām udyamavatāṃ vyavasāyo ‚smi | sattvavatām balavatāṃ sattvaṃ balam asmi

 

Baladeva


chalatāṃ mitho vañcanāṃ kurvatāṃ sambandhi dyūtaṃ sarvasva-haram akṣadevanādy aham | tejasvinām prabhāvatāṃ sambandhi tejaḥ prabhāvo ‚ham | asmi | jetṝṇāṃ parājitāpekṣayotkarṣa-lakṣaṇo jayo ‚smi | jetṝṇāṃ sambandhi jayo ‚ham | vyavasāyinām udyamināṃ sambandhī vyavasāyaḥ | phalavān udyamo ‚ham | sattvavatām balināṃ sambandhī sattvaṃ balam aham
 
 


BhG 10.37

vṛṣṇīnāṃ vāsudevo smi pāṇḍavānāṃ dhanaṃjayaḥ
munīnām apy ahaṃ vyāsaḥ kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ

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syntax


vṛṣṇīnām (among the Vṛṣṇis) [aham] (I) vāsudevaḥ asmi (I am Vāsudeva),
pāṇḍavānām (among the sons of Pāṇḍu) [aham] (I) dhanaṁjayaḥ [asmi] (I am Dhanaṁjaya),
munīnām api (and among sages) aham (I) vyāsaḥ [asmi] (I am Vyāsa),
kavīnām (among poets) [aham] (I) uśanāḥ kaviḥ [asmi] (I am the poet Uśanas).

 

grammar

vṛṣṇīnām vṛṣṇi 6n.3 m.among the Vṛṣṇis (from: vṛṣ – to be powerful, vṛṣṇi – powerful);
vāsudevaḥ vāsudeva 1n.1 m.son of Vasudeva (from: vasu – wealth, one of eight Vasus; vāsu – soul, soul of the world; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
pāṇḍavānām pāṇḍava 6n.3 m.among the sons of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);
dhanaṁjayaḥ dhanaṁ-jaya 1n.1 m.; yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥwinner of wealth, Dhanaṁjaya (from: dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
munīnām muni 6n.3 m.of the sages, of the saints, of the seers (from: man – to think, to imagine);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
vyāsaḥ vyāsa 1n.1 m.Vyāsa, arranging (from: vi-as – to divide, to dispose, to arrange);
kavīnām kavi 6n.3 m.among the poets, bards, seers (from: kav – to describe, to paint);
uśanā uśanas 1n.1 m.Uśanas, teacher of demons, planet Venus (from: vaś – to desire, to subjugate, to command);
kaviḥ kavi 1n.1 m.poet, bard, seer (from: kav – to describe, to paint);

 

textual variants


apy ahaṁ asmy ahaṁ (I am);
uśanā → uśanāḥ (Uśanā);
 
 



Śāṃkara


vṛṣṇīnāṃ yādavānāṃ vāsudevo’smy ayam evāhaṃ tvatsakhaḥ | pāṇḍāvānāṃ dhanaṃjayas tvam eva | munīnīṃ mananaśīlānāṃ sarvapadārthajñāninām apy ahaṃ vyāsaḥ, kavīnāṃ ktrāntadarśinām uśanā kavir asmi

 

Rāmānuja


vasudevasūnutvam atra vibhūtiḥ, arthāntarābhāvād eva / pāṇḍavānāṃ dhanañjayo ‚rjuno ‚ham / munayaḥ mananenātmayāthātmyadarśinaḥ; teṣāṃ vyāso ‚ham / kavayaḥ vipaścitaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


vṛṣṇīnām iti | vāsudevo yo ‚haṃ tvām upadiśāmi | dhanañjayas tvam eva yad vibhūtiḥ | munīnāṃ vedārtha-manana-śīlānāṃ veda-vyāso ‚ham | kavīnāṃ krānta-darśinām uśanā nāma kaviḥ śukraḥ

 

Madhusūdana


sākṣād īśvarasyāpi vibhūti-madhye pāṭhas tena rūpeṇa cintanārtha iti prāg evoktam | vṛṣṇīnāṃ madhye vāsudevo vasudeva-putratvena prasiddhas tvad-upadeṣṭāyam aham | tathā pāṇḍavānāṃ madhye dhanañjayas tvam evāham | munīnāṃ manana-śīlānām api madhye veda-vyāso ‚ham | kavīnāṃ krānta-darśināṃ sūkṣmārtha-vivekināṃ madhye uśanā kavir iti khyātaḥ śukro ‚ham

 

Viśvanātha


vṛṣṇīnāṃ madhye vāsudevo vasudevo mat-pitā mad-vibhūtiḥ | prajñāditvāt svārthiko ‚ṇ [Pāṇ 5.4.38] vṛṣṇīnām aham evāsmi ity anukter asyānyārthatā neṣṭā

 

Baladeva


vṛṣṇīnāṃ madhye vāsudevo vasudeva-putraḥ saṅkarṣaṇo ‚ham | na ca vāsudevaḥ kṛṣṇo ‚ham iti vyākhyeyaṃ tasya svayaṃrūpasya vibhūtitvāyogāt | mahat-sraṣṭādīnāṃ vāmana-kapilādīnāṃ ca sākṣād īśvaratve ‚pi vibhūtitvenoktiḥ svāṃśāvatāratvāt tena rūpeṇa cintyatva-vivakṣayā vā yujyate | svāṃśatvaṃ cānabhivyañjita-sarva-śaktitvaṃ bodhyam | pāṇḍavānāṃ madhye dhanañjayas tvam aham asmi | nāvatāratvenānyebhyaḥ śraiṣṭhyāt | munīnāṃ devārtha-manana-parāṇāṃ madhye vyāso bādarāyaṇo ‚ham | mad-avatāratvena tasyānyebhyaḥ śraiṣṭhyāt | kavīnāṃ sūkṣmārtha-vivecakānāṃ madhye uśanāḥ śukro ‚ham | yaḥ kavir iti khyātaḥ
 
 


BhG 10.38

daṇḍo damayatām asmi nītir asmi jigīṣatām
maunaṃ caivāsmi guhyānāṃ jñānaṃ jñānavatām aham

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damayatām (among those punishing) [aham] (I) daṇḍaḥ asmi (I am the stick),
jigīṣatām (among those desiring victory) [aham] (I) nītiḥ asmi (I am the policy),
guhyānām (among secrets) [aham] (I) maunaṁ asmi (I am silence),
jñānavatām ca (among those who have knowledge) aham (I) jñānaṁ [asmi] (I am the knowledge).

 

grammar

daṇḍaḥ daṇḍa 1n.1 m.stick, staff, punisment (from: dṝ – to split, dāru – tree);
damayatām damayant (dam – to tame, to control, to subdue) caus. PPr 6n.3 m.among those punishing;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
nītiḥ nīti 1n.1 f.leading, guidance, conduct, policy (from: – to lead);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
jigīṣatām jigīṣant (ji – to conquer) des. PPr 6n.3 m.; jetum icchatām itiamong those desiring victory, desiring domination;
maunam mauna 1n.1 n.related to sages, silence, restrain of tongue (from: man – to think, to imagine, muni – sage, saint, seer);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
guhyānām guhya (xguh – to cover, to hide) PF 6n.3 n.among secrets (from: guhya – to be hidden, secret, mystery);
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
jñānavatām jñāna-vant 6n.3 m.among those who have knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


jigīṣatāmnitiraśmi / jigīrṣatām / jihīrṣatām (a ray of policy / among those desiring victory / among those desiring to remove);
jñānavatām → jñānamatām (among those who have knowledge);
 
 



Śāṃkara


daṇḍo damayatāṃ damayitṝṇām asmy adāntānāṃ damana-kāraḥ | nītir asmi jigīṣatāṃ jetum icchatām | maunaṃ caivāsmi guhyānāṃ gopyānām | jñānaṃ jñānavatām aham

 

Rāmānuja


niyamātikramaṇe daṇḍaṃ kurvatāṃ daṇḍo ‚ham / vijigīṣūṇāṃ jayopāyabhūtā nītir asmi / guhyānāṃ saṃbandhiṣu gopāneṣu maunam asmi / jñānavatāṃ jñānaṃ cāham

 

Śrīdhara


daṇḍa iti | damayatāṃ damana-kartṝṇāṃ sambandhī daṇḍo ‚smi | yenāsaṃyatā api saṃyatā bhavanti sa daṇḍo mad-vibhūtiḥ | jetum icchatāṃ sambandhinī sāmād apy upāya-rūpā nītir asmi | guhyānāṃ gopyānāṃ gopana-hetu-maunam avacanam aham asmi | na hi tūṣṇīṃ sthitasyābhiprāyo jñāyate | jñānavatāṃ tattva-jñānināṃ yaj jñānam tad aham asmi

 

Madhusūdana


damayatām adāntān utpathān pathi pravartayatām utpatha-pravṛttau nigraha-hetur daṇḍo ‚ham asmi | jigīṣatāṃ jetum icchatāṃ nītir nyāyo jayopāyasya prakāśako ‚ham asmi | guhyānāṃ gopyānāṃ gopana-hetur maunaṃ vācaṃ-yamatvam aham asmi | nahi tūṣṇīṃ sthitasyābhiprāyo jñāyate | guhyānāṃ gopyānāṃ madhye sa-saṃnyāsa-śravaṇa-manana-pūrvakam ātmano nididhyāsana-lakṣaṇaṃ maunaṃ vāham asmi | jñānavatāṃ jñānināṃ yac-chravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsana-paripāka-prabhavam advitīyātma-sākṣātkāra-rūpaṃ sarvājñāna-virodhi jñānaṃ tad aham asmi

 

Viśvanātha


damana-kartṝṇāṃ sambandhī daṇḍo ‚ham

 

Baladeva


damayatāṃ daṇḍa-kartṝṇāṃ sambandhī daṇḍo ‚ham | yenotpathagāḥ sat-pathe caranti sa daṇḍo mad-vibhūtir ity arthaḥ | jigīṣatāṃ jetum icchatāṃ sambandhinī nītir nyāyo ‚ham | guhyānāṃ śravaṇādibhyāṃ tasya śraiṣṭhyāt | jñānavatāṃ parāvarat-tattva-vidāṃ sambandhī tat-tad-viṣayaka-jñānam aham
 
 


BhG 10.39

yac cāpi sarva-bhūtānāṃ bījaṃ tad aham arjuna
na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtaṃ carācaram

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
yat ca (and that which) sarva-bhūtānām (of all beings) bījam [asti] (it is a seed),
tat api (just that) aham (I) [asmi] (I am).
mayā vinā (without me) yat (that which) syāt (it would be),
tat carācaram bhūtam (that moving and non-moving being) na asti (it does not exist).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
sarva-bhūtānām sarva-bhūta 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ bhūtānām itiamong all creatures (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
bījam bīja 1n.1 n.seed, semen, source;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
na av.not;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it is, it exists;
vinā av.without (from: prefix vi- – apart);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
syāt as (to be) Pot. P 1v.1it would be;
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
bhūtam bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 1n.1 n.been, real, world;
carācaram cara-acara 1n.1 n.; DV / BV: yat caraiś cācaraiś ca sahāsti tatbeing with the moving and non-moving [creatures] (from: car –to move, to go, cara – moving, living; a-cara – non-moving, not living);

 

warianty tekstu


bījaṁ tad aham → mac cāpi / tad bījam aham (and just from me / I am that seed);
tad asti → tad asmi (that I);
yat syān → yaḥ syād / yasmān (that which would be / from which);
mayā bhūtaṁ → mama bhūtaṁ / bhāva-bhūtaṁ (my existence / existence being);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yac cāpi sarva-bhūtānāṃ bījaṃ praroha-kāraṇam, tad aham arjuna | prakaraṇopa-saṃhārārthaṃ vibhūti-saṃkṣepam āha—na tad asti bhūtaṃ carācaraṃ caram acaraṃ vā, mayā vinā yat syāt bhavet | mayāpakṛṣṭaṃ parityaktaṃ nirātmakaṃ śūnyaṃ hi tat syāt | ato mad-ātmakaṃ sarvam ity arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


sarvabhūtānāṃ sarvāvasthāvasthitānām tattadavasthābījabhūtaṃ pratīyamānam apratīyamānaṃ ca yat, tad aham eva / bhūtajātaṃ mayā ātmatayāvasthitena vinā yat syāt, na tad asti / „aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ” iti prakramāt, „na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtaṃ carācaram” ity atrāpy ātmatayāvasthānam eva vivakṣitam / sarvaṃ vastujātaṃ sarvāvasthaṃ mayā ātmabhūtena yuktaṃ syād ityarthaḥ / anena sarvasyāsya sāmānādhikaraṇyanirdeśasyātmatayāvasthitir eva hetur iti prakaṭitam

 

Śrīdhara


yac cāpīti | yad api ca sarva-bhūtānāṃ bījaṃ praroha-kāraṇaṃ tad aham | tatra hetuḥ -mayā vinā yat syād bhavet tac caram acaraṃ vā bhūtaṃ nāsty eveti

 

Madhusūdana


yad api ca sarva-bhūtānāṃ praroha-kāraṇaṃ bījaṃ tan-māyopādhikaṃ caitanyam aham eva | he arjuna ! mayā vinā yat syād bhave caram acaraṃ vā bhūtaṃ vastu tan nāsty eva yataḥ sarvaṃ mat-kāryam evety arthaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


bījaṃ prarohakāraṇaṃ yat tad aham asmi | tatra hetuḥ — mayā vinā yat syāt caram acaraṃ vā tan naivāsti mithyaivety arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


yac ca sarva-bhūtānāṃ bījaṃ praroha-kāraṇaṃ tad apy aham | tatra hetuḥ – na tad iti | mayā sarva-śaktimatāṃ pareśena vinā yac caram acaraṃ ca bhūtaṃ tattvaṃ syāt tan nāsti mṛṣaivety arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 10.40

nānto sti mama divyānāṃ vibhūtīnāṃ paraṃtapa
eṣa tūddeśataḥ prokto vibhūter vistaro mayā

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syntax


he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!),
mama (of my) divyānām vibhūtīnām (of divine powers) antaḥ (end) na asti (there is not),
vibhūteḥ tu (but of the power) eṣaḥ vistaraḥ (this extensiveness) mayā (by me) uddeśataḥ (in short) proktaḥ (spoken).

 

grammar

na av.not;
antaḥ anta 1n.1 m.end, limit, settlement, inside, nature;
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
divyānām divya 6n.3 f.of the divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
vibhūtīnām vibhūti 6n.3 f.of powers, might, opulences (from: vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest);
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati saḥone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);
eṣaḥ etad sn. 1n.1 m.this;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
uddeśataḥ av.as indication, in short (from: ud-diś – to show, to indiate, uddeśa – indication, exemplification; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);
proktaḥ prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 m.spoken;
vibhūteḥ vibhūti 6n.1 f.of power, might, opulence (from: vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest);
vistaraḥ vistara 1n.1 m.long, extensive, detailed description (from: vi-stṛ – to spread out, to expand);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;

 

textual variants


mama divyānāṁśubha-divyānāṁ (of the auspicious and divine);
vibhūter → vibhūtir / vibhūti- (power);
 
 



Śāṃkara


nānto’sti mama divyānāṃ vibhūtīnāṃ vistarāṇāṃ parantapa | na hīśvarasya sarvātmano divyānāṃ vibhūtīnām iyattā śakyā vaktuṃ jñātuṃ vā kenacit | eṣa tūddeśata eka-deśena prokto vibhūter vistaraḥ mayā

 

Rāmānuja


mama divyānāṃ kalyāṇīnāṃ vibhūtīnām anto nāsti; eṣa tu vibhūter vistaro mayā kaiścid upādhibhiḥ saṃkṣepataḥ proktaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


prakaraṇārtham upasaṃharati nānto ‚stīti | anantatvād vibhūtīnāṃ tāḥ sākalyena vaktuṃ na śakyate | eṣa tu vibhūti-vistara uddeśata saṅkṣepataḥ proktaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


prakaraṇārtham upasaṃharan vibhūtiṃ saṃkṣipati nānto ‚stīti | he parantapa pareṣāṃ śatrūṇāṃ kāma-krodhya-lobhādīnāṃ tāpa-janaka ! mama divyānāṃ vibhūtīnām anta iyattā nāsti | ataḥ sarvajñenāpi sā na śakyate jñātuṃ vaktuṃ vā san-mātra-viṣayatvāt sarvajñatāyāḥ | eṣa tu tvāṃ pratyuddeśata eka-deśena prokto vibhūter vistaro vistāro mayā

 

Viśvanātha


prakaraṇam upasaṃharati nānto ‚stīti eṣa tu vistaro bāhulyam uddeśato nāma-mātrata eva kṛtaḥ

 

Baladeva


prakaraṇam upasaṃharati nānto ‚stīti | vistaro vistāra uddeśata eka-deśata eka-deśena proktaḥ
 
 


BhG 10.41

yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṃ śrīmad ūrjitam eva vā
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṃ mama tejo-‘ṃśa-saṃbhavam

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syntax


yat yat vibhūtimat (whatever having power) śrīmat (having majesty) ūrjitam eva vā (or indeed strong) sattvam (the essence) [asti] (it is),
tvam (you) tat tat eva (just each of them) mama (my) tejo-’ṁśa-sambhavam (whose origin is by a portion of splendour) avagaccha (you must understand).

 

grammar

yad yad yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which, whatever (distributive use);
vibhūtimat vibhūti-mant 1n.1 n.having power (from: vi-bhū – to arise, to expand, to manifest, vibhūti – power, might, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
sattvam sattva abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
śrīmat śrī-mant 1n.1 n.having majesty, beauty, wealth (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
ūrjitam ūrjita (ūrj – to strengthen, to refresh) [PP] 1n.1 n.having strength, glory;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
tat tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.this and that, every (distributive use);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
avagaccha ava-gam (to obtain, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must understand;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
tejo-‘ṁśa-saṁbhavam tejaḥ-aṁśa-saṁbhava 2n.1 n.; BV: yasya sambhavas tejaso ṁśenāstīti whose origin is by a portion of splendour (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate, tejas – sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen; aṁś – to distribute, aṁśa – share, portion, part; sam-bhū – to come into being, saṁbhava – production);

 

textual variants

evāvagaccha tvaṃ → evāvagacches tvaṃ (indeed you would understand);

 
 



Śāṃkara


yad yal loke vibhūtimad vibhūti-yuktaṃ sattvaṃ vastu śrīmad ūrjitam eva vā śrīr lakṣmīs tayā sahitam utsāhopetaṃ vā | tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṃ jānīhi mameśvarasya tejo’ṃśa-saṃbhavaṃ tejaso’ṃśa eka-deśaḥ saṃbhavo yasya tat tejo’ṃśa-saṃbhavam ity avagaccha tvam

 

Rāmānuja


yad yad vibhūtimad iśitavyasaṃpannaṃ bhūtajātaṃ śrīmat kāntimat, dhanadhānyasamṛddhaṃ vā, ūrjitaṃ kalyāṇārambheṣu udyuktam; tat tan mama tejo’ṃśasaṃbhavam ity avagaccha / tejaḥ parābhibhavanasāmarthyam, mamācintyaśakter niyamanaśaktyekadeśasaṃbhavatītyarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


punaś ca sākaṅkṣaṃ prati kathañcit sākalyena kathayati yad yad iti | vibhūtimad aiśvarya-yuktam | śrīmat sampatti-yuktam | ūrjitaṃ kenāpi prabhāva-balādinā guṇenātiśayitam | yad yat sattvaṃ vastu-mātraṃ bhavet, tat tad eva mama tejasaḥ prabhāvasyāṃśena sambhūtaṃ jānīhi

 

Madhusūdana


anuktā api bhagavato vibhūtīḥ saṅgrahītum upalakṣaṇam idam ucyate yad yad iti | yad yat sattvaṃ prāṇi-vibhūtimad aiśvarya-yuktam, tathā śrīmat śrīr lakṣmīḥ sampat, śobhā, kāntir vā tayā yuktam | tayorjitaṃ balādy-atiśayena yuktaṃ tat tad eva mama tejasaḥ śakter aṃśena sambhūtaṃ tvam avagaccha jānīhi

 

Viśvanātha


anuktā api traikālikīr vibhūtīḥ saṅgrahītum āha yad yad iti | vibhūtimad aiśvarya-yuktam | śrīmat sampatti-yuktam ūrjitaṃ bala-prabhāvādy-adhikaṃ sattvaṃ vastu-mātram

 

Baladeva


anuktā vibhūtīḥ saṅgrahītum āha yad yad iti | vibhūtimad aiśvarya-yuktam | śrīmat saundaryeṇa sampattyā vā yuktam ūrjitaṃ balena yuktaṃ vā yad yat sattvaṃ vastu bhavati, tat tad eva mama tejo ‚ṃśena śakti-leśena sambhavaṃ siddham avagaccha pratīhīti svāyattatva-svavyāpyatvābhyāṃ sarve ‚bheda-nirdeśā nītā vāmanādīnāṃ tan-nirdeśās tu saṅgamitāḥ santi
 
 


BhG 10.42

atha vā bahunaitena kiṃ jñātena tavārjuna
viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat

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syntax


he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
atha (moreover) tava (to you) etena bahunā jñātena (this many-fold knowledge) kim vā (what for?).
aham (I) idam kṛtsnam jagat (this whole world) ekāṁśena (with one portion) viṣṭabhya (after supporting) sthitaḥ [asmi] (situated I am).

 

grammar

atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
bahunā bahu 3n.1 m.with many;
etena etat sn. 3n.1 m.with that;
kim av. what for – requires instrumental (from: kim – what?; often with );
jñātena jñāta (jñā – to know, to understand) [PP] 3n.1 m.with that learned;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
viṣṭabhya vi-stambh (to support, to ascertain) absol.after ascertaining, after supporting;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
kṛtsnam kṛtsna 2n.1 n.whole;
ekāṁśena eka-aṁśa 3n.1 m.; [TP]: ekenāṁśenetiwith one portion (from: eka – one; aṁś – to distribute, aṁśa – share, portion, part);
sthitaḥ sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 m.situated;
jagat jagat 2n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


bahunaitenabahunoktena / bahunaikena ( [what for] that much said / [what for] many [and] one);
jñātenajñānena ([what for] knowledge);
sthito jagat → jagat sthitaḥ / sthitaṁ jagat (world, situated / situated world);
 
 



Śāṃkara


athavā bahunaitena evam ādinā kiṃ jñātena tavārjuna syāt sāvaśeṣeṇa | aśeṣatas tvam ucyamānam arthaṃ sṛṇu—viṣṭabhya viśeṣataḥ stambhanaṃ dṛḍhaṃ kṛtvedaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagad ekāṃśenaikāvayavenaika-pādena, sarva-bhūta-svarūpeṇety etat | tathā ca mantra-varṇaḥ—pādo’sya viśvā bhūtāni [rādhāk 8.4.17.3] iti | sthito’ham iti

 

Rāmānuja


bahunā etena ucyamānena jñānena kiṃ prayojanam /idaṃ cidacidātmakaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagat kāryāvasthaṃ kāraṇāvasthaṃ sthūlaṃ sūkṣmaṃ ca svarūpasadbhāve, sthitau, pravṛttibhede ca yathā matsaṅkalpaṃ nātivarteta, tathā mama mahimno ‚yutāyutāṃśena viṣṭabhyāham avasthitaḥ / yathoktaṃ bhagavatā parāśareṇa, „yasyāyutāyutāṃśāṃśe viśvaśaktir iyaṃ sthitā” iti

 

Śrīdhara


athavā kim etena paricchinna-vibhūti-darśanena ? sarvatra mad-dṛṣṭim eva kurv ity āha athaveti | bahunā pṛthak-jñātena kiṃ tava kāryam ? yasmād idaṃ sarvaṃ jagad ekāṃśenaika-deśa-mātreṇa viṣṭabhya dhṛtvā vyāpyeti vā aham eva sthitaḥ | mad-vyatiriktaṃ kiṃcid asti pādo ‚sya viśvā bhūtāni tripādayāmṛtaṃ divi [Rv 8.4.17.3] iti śruteḥ | tasmāt kim anena paricchinna-darśanena sarvatra mad-dṛṣṭim eva kurv ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


evam avayavaśo vibhūtim uktvā sākalyena tām āha athaveti | athaveti pakṣāntare | bahunaitena sāvaśeṣeṇa jñātena kiṃ tava syāt | he arjuna ! idaṃ kṛtsnaṃ sarvaṃ jagad ekāṃśenaikadeśa-mātreṇa viṣṭabhya vidhṛtya vyāpya vāham eva sthito na mad-vyatiriktaṃ kiṃcid asti pādo ‚sya viśvā bhūtāni tripādayāmṛtaṃ divi iti śruteḥ | tasmāt kim anena paricchinna-darśanena sarvatra mad-dṛṣṭim eva kurv ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


bahunā pṛthak-pṛthag-jñātena kiṃ phalaṃ samuditam eva jānīhīty āha viṣṭabhyeti | ekāṃśenaikenaivāṃśena prakṛty-antaryāminā puruṣa-rūpeṇaivedaṃ sṛṣṭaṃ jagad viṣṭabhyādhiṣṭhānatvād vidhṛtyādhiṣṭhātṛtvād adhiṣṭhāya | niyantṛtvān niyamya vyāpakatvād vyāpya kāraṇatvāt sṛṣṭvā sthito ‚smi

 

Baladeva


evam avayavaśo vibhūtīr apavarṇya sāmsatyena tāḥ prāha athaveti | bahunā pṛthak-pṛthag-upadiśyamānena vibhūti-viṣayakeṇa jñānena tava kiṃ prayojanam | he arjuna ! cid-acid-ātmakaṃ hara-viriñci-pramukhaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagad aham ekenaiva prakṛtyādy-antaryāmiṇā puruṣākhyenāṃśena viṣṭabhya sraṣṭṛtvāt sraṣṭā dhārakatvād dhṛtvā vyāpakatvād vyāpya pālakatvāt pālayitvā ca sthito ‚smīti sarjanādīni mad-vibhūtayo mad-vyāpteṣu sarveṣv aiśvaryādi-sarvāṇi vastūni mad-vibhūtitayā bodhyānīti
 
 


BhG 10.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi dvātriṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation

Thus [ends] the thirty-second chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde mahā-puruṣa-vibhūti-yogo / vibhūti-yogo / śubha-divya-vibhūti-yogo / yogo / vibhūti-puruṣa-yogo / vibhūti-vistara-yogo / bhavad-vibhūti-yogo / vibhūti-vistaro nāma daśamo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the tenth chapter entitled: The Yoga of Power of the Great Man / The Yoga of Power / The Yoga of Auspicious and Divine Power / The Yoga / The Yoga of Man and Power / The Yoga of Extensive Power / The Yoga  of the Lord’s Power / The Extensiveness of Power.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


indriya-dvārataś citte bahir dhāvati saty api |
īśa-dṛṣṭi-vidhānāya vibhūtir daśame ‚bravīt ||

iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
vibhūti-yogo nāma daśamo ‚dhyāyaḥ ||

 

Madhusūdana


kurvanti ke ‚pi kṛtinaḥ kvacid apy anante
svāntaṃ vidhāya viṣyāntara-śāntim eva |
tvat-pāda-padma-vigalan-makaranda-bindum
āsvādya mādyati muhur madhubhin mano me ||

iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām adhikāri-bhedena vibhūti-yogo nāma daśamo ‚dhyāyaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


viśvaṃ śrī-kṛṣṇa evātaḥ sevas tad-dattayā dhiyā |
sa evāsvādya-mādhurya ity adhyāyārtha īritaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu daśamo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||

 

Baladeva


yac chakti-leśāt sūryādyā bhavanty atyugra-tejasaḥ |
yad-aṃśena dhṛtaṃ viśvaṃ sa kṛṣṇo daśame ‚rcayet ||