atha ekādaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ – viśva-rūpa-darśana-yogaḥ

Now the eleventh chapter: “The Yoga  of Beholding the Form of All”


Śāṃkara


bhagavato vibhūtaya uktāḥ | tatra ca viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat [gītā 10.42] iti bhagavatābhihitaṃ śrutvā yat jagad-ātma-rūpam, ādyam aiśvaraṃ tat sākṣāt-kartum icchann arjuna uvāca
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ bhaktiyoganiṣpattaye tadvivṛddhaye ca sakaletaravilakṣaṇena svābhāvikena bhagavadasādhāraṇena kalyāṇaguṇagaṇena saha bhagavataḥ sarvātmatvaṃ tata eva tadvyatiriktasya kṛtsnasya cidacidātmakasya vastujātasya taccharīratayā tadāyattasvarūpasthitipravṛttitvaṃ coktam / tam etaṃ bhagavadasādhāraṇaṃ svabhāvaṃ kṛtsnasya tadāyattasvarūpasthitipravṛttitāṃ ca bhagavatsakāśād upaśrutya evam eveti nityaś ca tathābhūtaṃ bhagavantaṃ sākṣātkartukāmo ‚rjuna uvāca / tathaiva bhagavatprasādād anantaraṃ drakṣyati / „sarvāścaryamayaṃ devam anantaṃ viśvatomukham … tatraikasthaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ pratibhaktam anekadhāḥ” iti hi vakṣyate /
 

Śrīdhara


vibhūti-vaibhavaṃ procya kṛpayā parayā hariḥ |
didṛkṣor arjunasyātha viśva-rūpam adarśayat ||
 

Viśvanātha


ekādaśe viśvarūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā sambhrānta-dhīḥ stuvan |
pārtha ānandito darśayitvā svaṃ hariṇā punaḥ ||
 

Baladeva


ekādaśe viśva-rūpaṃ vilokya trasta-dhīḥ stuvan |
darśayitvā svakaṃ rūpaṃ hariṇā harṣito ‚rjunaḥ ||
 
 

BhG 11.1

arjuna uvāca
mad-anugrahāya paramaṃ guhyam adhyātma-saṃjñitam
yat tvayoktaṃ vacas tena moho yaṃ vigato mama

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syntax


arjuna uvāca (Arjuna spoke):
mad-anugrahāya (for favouring me) tvayā (by you) yat paramam guhyam (which the most secret) adhyātma-saṁjñitam vacaḥ (word called the Supreme Spirit) uktam [asti] (is spoken),
tena (by that) mama (my) ayam mohaḥ (that bewilderment) vigataḥ [asti] (is gone away).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
mad-anugrahāya mad-anugraha 4n.1 m.for favouring me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; anu-grah – to receive, to treat with kindness, anugraha – favour, kindness);
paramam parama 1n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
guhyam guhya (xguh – to cover, to hide) PF 1n.1 n. to be hidden, secret ;
adhyātma-saṁjñitam adhy-ātma-saṁjñita 1n.1 n.called the Supreme Spirit (from: adhi – over, above; ātman – self; adhy-ātma – governing the self, the Supreme Spirit; : sam-jñā – to be of one opinion, to understand, caus. [PP] saṁjñita – made known, called);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
tvayā yuṣmat sn. 3n.1by you;
uktam ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.spoken, called;
vacaḥ vacas 1n.1 n.word, the speech (from: vac – to speak);
tena tat sn. 3n.1 m.by that;
mohaḥ moha 1n.1 m.perplexity, confusion, bewilderment, error (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.that;
vigataḥ vigata (vi-gam – to go away) [PP] 1n.1 m.gone away;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;

 

textual variants


adhyātma-saṁjñitamadhyātma-saṁjñikam (called the Supreme Spirit);
yat tvayoktaṁ → yas tvayoktaṁ (which by you spoken);
 
 



Śāṃkara


mad-anugrahāya mamānugrahārthaṃ paramaṃ niratiśayaṃ guhyaṃ gopyam adhyātma-saṃjñitam ātmānātma-viveka-viṣayaṃ yat tvayoktaṃ vaco vākyaṃ tena te vacasā moho’yaṃ vigato mama | aviveka-buddhir apagatety arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


dehātmābhimānarūpamohena mohitasya mamānugrahaikaprayojanāya paramaṃ guhyam paramaṃ rahasyam adhyātmasaṃjñitam ātmani vaktavyaṃ vacaḥ, „na tv evāhaṃ jātu nāsam” ityādi, „tasmād yogī bhavārjuna” ity etadantaṃ yat tvayoktam, tenāyam mamātmaviṣayo mohaḥ sarvo vigataḥ dūrato nirastaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


pūrvādhyāyānte viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat iti viśvātmakaṃ pārameśvaraṃ rūpam utkṣiptam | tad-didṛkṣuḥ pūrvoktam abhinandann arjuna uvāca mad-anugrahāyeti caturbhiḥ | mad-anugrahāya śoka-nivṛttaye | paramaṃ paramātma-niṣṭhaṃ guhyaṃ gopyam api adhyātma-saṃjñitam ātmānātma-viveka-viṣayam | yat tvayoktaṃ vacaḥ aśocyān anvaśocas tvam ity ādi ṣaṣṭhādhyāya-paryantaṃ yad vākyam | tena mamāyaṃ mohaḥ – ahaṃ hantā ete hanyante ity ādi lakṣaṇo bhramaḥ | vigato vinaṣṭaḥ | ātmanaḥ kartṛtvādy-abhāvokteḥ
 

Madhusūdana


pūrvādhyāye nānā-vibhūtīr uktvā viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat iti viśvātmakaṃ pārameśvaraṃ rūpaṃ bhagavatābhihitaṃ śrutvā paramotkaṇṭhitas tat-sākṣātkartum icchan pūrvoktam abhinandan mad iti | mad-anugrahāya śoka-nivṛtty-upakārāya paramaṃ niratiśaya-puruṣārtha-paryavasāyi guhyaṃ gopyaṃ yasmai kasmaicid vaktum anarham api | adhyātma-saṃjñitam adhyātmam iti śabditam ātmānātma-viveka-viṣayam aśocyān anvaśocas tvam ity ādi-ṣaṣṭhādhyāya-paryantaṃ tv apadārtha-pradhānaṃ yat tvayā parama-kāruṇikena sarvajñenoktaṃ vaco vākyaṃ tena vākyenāham eṣāṃ hantā mayaite hanyanta ity ādivividha-viparyāsa-lakṣaṇo moho ‚yam anubhava-sākṣiko vigato vinaṣṭo mama | tatrāsakṛd ātmanaḥ sarva-vikriyā-śūnyatvokteḥ
 

Viśvanātha


pūrvādhyāyānte viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat iti sarva-vibhūty-āśrayam ādi-puruṣaṃ sva-priya-sakhasyāṃśaṃ śrutvā paramānanda-nimagnas tad-rūpaṃ didṛkṣamāṇo bhagavad-uktam abhinandati mad-anugrahāyeti tribhiḥ | adhyātmaṃ iti saptamy-arthe avyayībhāvād ātmanīty arthaḥ | ātmani yā yā saṃjñā vibhūti-lakṣaṇā sā saṃjātā yasya tad-vacaḥ | mohas tad-aiśvaryājñānam
 

Baladeva


pūrvatra aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarva-bhūtāśaya-sthitaḥ iti vibhūti-kathanopakrame viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam iti tad-upasaṃhāre ca nikhila-vibhūty-āśrayo mahat-sraṣṭā puruṣaḥ svasya kṛṣṇasyāvatāraḥ, sa tu mahat-sraṣṭādi-sarvāvatārīti tan-mukhāt pratītya sakhyānanda-sindhu-nimagno ‚rjunas tat-puruṣa-rūpaṃ didṛkṣuḥ kṛṣṇoktam anuvadati mad iti | mad-anugrahāyādhyātma-saṃjñitam vibhūti-viṣayakaṃ yad vacas tvayoktaṃ tena mama mohaḥ kathaṃ vidyām ity-ādy-ukto vigato naṣṭaḥ | adhyātmam ātmani paramātmani tvayi yā vibhūti-lakṣaṇā saṃjñā sā jātā | yasya tad-vacaḥ vibhakty-arthe ‚vyayībhāvaḥ | paramaṃ guhyam atirahasyaṃ tvad-anyāgamyam ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.2

bhavāpyayau hi bhūtānāṃ śrutau vistaraśo mayā
tvattaḥ kamala-patrākṣa māhātmyam api cāvyayam

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syntax


he kamala-patrākṣa (O you with eyes [like] lotus petals!),
tvattaḥ hi (indeed fromyou) mayā (by me) bhūtānām (of beings) bhavāpyayau (existence and destruction) vistaraśaḥ (extensively) śrutau (heard),
api ca (and also) avyayam māhātmyam (imperishable glory) [śrutam] (heard).

 

grammar

bhavāpyayau bhava-apyaya 1n.2 m.; DV: bhavaś cāpyayaś ca itiexistence and destruction (from: bhū – to be, bhava existence; apa-xi – to go away, to disappear, apy-aya – vanishing);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
bhūtānām bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 6n.3 m. of beings, of creatures (from: bhūta – been, real, world);
śrutau śruta (śru – to hear, to listen) [PP]. 1n.2 m.which [two] are heard;
vistaraśaḥ av.extensively, fully (from: vi-stṛ – to spread out, to expand, vistara – extensive);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
tvattaḥ av.from you (from: tvā / tvat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „you” singular used in compounds; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);
kamala-patrākṣa kamala-patra-akṣa 8n.1 m.; BV: yasyākṣiṇī kamalasya patrāv iva staḥ saḥ whose eyes are like lotus petals (from: kamala – pink, lotus; patra / pattra – wing, leaf, petal, paper; xīkṣ – to see or xaś – to reach, to eat, to enjoy, akṣa = akṣi – oko);
māhātmyam māhā-ātmya 1n.1 n.greatness, magnanimity, majesty (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
avyayam a-vyaya 1n.1 n.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


bhavāpyayau bhavātyayau / bhavāvyayau / prabhavāpyayau (existence and departure / existence and indestructibility / creation and destruction);
vistaraśo → visarato (extensively);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
bhava utpattir apyayaḥ pralayas tau bhavāpyayau hi bhūtānāṃ śrutau vistaraśaḥ mayā, na saṃkṣepataḥ | tvattas tvat-sakāśāt | kamala-patrākṣa kamalasya patraṃ kamala-patraṃ tadvad akṣiṇī yasya tava sa tvaṃ kamala-patrākṣo, he kamalapatrākṣa ! mahātmano bhāvo māhātmyam api cāvyayam akṣayam | śrutam ity anuvartate
 

Rāmānuja


tathā ca
saptamaprabhṛti daśamaparyante tvadvyatiriktānāṃ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ tvattaḥ paramātmano bhavāpyayau utpattipralayau vistaraśo mayā śrutau hi / kamalapatrākṣa, tava avyayaṃ nityaṃ sarvacetanācetanavastuśeṣitvaṃ jñānabalādikalyāṇaguṇagaṇais tavaiva parataratvaṃ sarvādhāratvaṃ cintitanimiṣitādisarvapravṛttiṣu tavaiva pravartayitṛtvam ityādi aparimitaṃ māhātmyaṃ ca śrutam / hiśabdo vakṣyamāṇadidṛkṣādyotanārthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca bhavāpyayāv iti | bhūtānāṃ bhavāpyayau sṛṣṭi-pralayau tvattaḥ sakāśād eva bhavataḥ | iti śrutaṃ mayā | ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā ity ādau | vistaraśaḥ punaḥ punaḥ | kamalasya patre iva suprasanne viśāle akṣiṇī yasya tava he kamala-patrākṣa ! māhātmyam api cāvyayam akṣayaṃ śrutam | viśva-sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartṛtve ‚pi sarva-niyantṛtve ‚pi śubhāśubha-karma-kārayitṛtve ‚pi bandha-mokṣādi-vicitra-phala-dātṛtve ‚pi avikārāvaidharmyāsaṅgaudāsīnyādi-lakṣaṇam aparimitaṃ mahattvaṃ ca śrutam – avyaktaṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ manyante mām abuddhayaḥ iti | mayā tatam idaṃ sarvam iti | na ca māṃ tāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti iti | samo ‚haṃ sarva-bhūteṣu ity ādinā | atas tvat-paratantratvād api jīvānām ahaṃ kartety ādir madīyo moho vigata iti bhāvaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tathā saptamād ārabhya daśama-paryantaṃ tat-padārtha-nirṇaya-pradhānam api bhagavato vacanaṃ mayā śrutam ity āha bhavāpyayāv iti | bhūtānāṃ bhavāpyayāv utpatti-pralayau tvatta eva bhavantau tvatta eva vistaraśo mayā śrutau na tu saṃkṣepeṇāsakṛd ity arthaḥ | kamalasya patre iva dīrghe raktānte parama-manorame akṣiṇī yasya tava sa tvaṃ he kamala-patrākṣa ! atisaundaryātiśayollekho ‚yaṃ premātiśayāt | na kevalaṃ bhavāpyayau tvattaḥ śrutau mahātmanas tava bhāvo māhātmyam atiśayaiśvaryaṃ viśva-sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartṛtve ‚py avikāre tvaṃ śubhāśubha-karma-kārayitṛtve ‚py avaiṣamyaṃ bandha-mokṣādi-vicitra-phala-dātṛtve ‚py asaṅgaudāsīnyam anyad api sarvātmatvādi sopādhikaṃ nirupādhikam api cāvyayam akṣayaṃ mayā śrutam iti pariṇatam anuvartate ca-kārāt
 

Viśvanātha


asmin ṣaṭke tu bhavāpyayau sṛṣṭi-saṃhārau tvatta iti ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā ity ādināvyayaṃ māhātmyaṃ sṛṣṭy-ādi-kartṛtve ‚py adhikārāsaṅgādi-lakṣaṇaṃ mayā tatam idaṃ sarvam iti na ca māṃ tāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti ity ādinā
 

Baladeva


kiṃ ca bhaveti | he kamala-patrākṣa ! kamala-patre ivātiramye dīrgha-raktānte cākṣiṇī yasyeti premātiśayāt saundaryātiśayollekhaḥ | tvattas tvad-dhetukau bhūtānāṃ bhavāpyayau sarga-pralayau mayā tvattaḥ sakāśād vistaraśo ‚sakṛt śrutau ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā ity ādināvyayaṃ nityaṃ māhātmyam aiśvaryaṃ ca tava sarva-kartṛtve ‚pi nirvikāratvaṃ sarva-niyantṛte ‚py asaṅgatvam ity evam ādi tvatta eva mayā vistaraśaḥ śrutam mayā tatam idaṃ sarvam ity ādibhiḥ
 
 


BhG 11.3

evam etad yathāttha tvam ātmānaṃ parameśvara
draṣṭum icchāmi te rūpam aiśvaraṃ puruṣottama

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syntax


he parameśvara (O Supreme Lord!), he puruṣottama (O best among men!),
yathā (as) tvam (you) ātmānam (yourself) āttha (you described),
etat evam [asti] (thus indeed it is).
te (your) aiśvaram rūpam (majestic form) draṣṭum (to see) icchami (I desire).

 

grammar

evam av.thus;
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
āttha ah (to speak – inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū) [Perf.] P 2v.1you spoke;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
parameśvara parama-īśvara 8n.1 m.O Supreme Lord (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
icchāmi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 3v.1I desire;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
aiśvaram aiśvara 2n.1 n.majesty, supremacy, might (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
puruṣottama puruṣa-uttama 8n.1 m.; [TP]: puruṣāṇām uttametiO best among men (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);

 

textual variants


yathāttha tvam → yathā tattvam (as in truth);
parameśvaraparameśvaram / puruṣottama (the Supreme Lord / O best among men);
aiśvaramaiśvaryam (majesty);
puruṣottama → parameśvara / puruṣottamam (O Supreme Lord / the best among men);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evam etan nānyathā yathā yena prakāreṇa āttha kathayasi tvam ātmānaṃ parameśvara | tathāpi draṣṭum icchāmi te tava jñānaiśvarya-śakti-bala-vīrya-tejobhiḥ saṃpannam aiśvaraṃ vaiṣṇavaṃ rūpaṃ puruṣottama
 

Rāmānuja


he parameśvara, evam etad ity avadhṛtam, yathātha tvam ātmānaṃ bravīṣi / puruṣottama āśritavātsalyajaladhe tavāiśvaraṃ tvadasādhāraṇaṃ sarvasya praśāsitṛtve, pālayitṛtve, sraṣṭṛtve, saṃhartṛtve bhartṛtve, kalyāṇaguṇākaratve, parataratve, sakaletaravisajātīyatve ‚vasthitaṃ rūpaṃ draṣṭuṃ sākṣātkartum icchāmi
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca evam etad iti | bhavāpyayau hi bhūtānām ity ādi mayā śrutam | yathā cedānīm ātmānaṃ tvam āttha viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat ity evaṃ kathayasi he parameśvara | evam eva tat | atrāpy aviśvāso mama nāsti | tathāpi he puruṣottama tavaiśvarya-śakti-vīrya-tejobhiḥ sampannaṃ tad-rūpaṃ kautūhalād ahaṃ draṣṭum icchāmi
 

Madhusūdana


he parameśvara yathā yena prakāreṇa sopādhikena nirupādhikena ca niratiśaiśvaryeṇātmānaṃ tvam āttha kathayasi tvam evam etan nānyathā | tvad-vacasi kutrāpi mamāviśvāsa-śaṅkā nāsty evety arthaḥ | yadyapy evaṃ tathāpi kṛtārthī-bubhūṣayā draṣṭum icchāmi te tava rūpam aiśvaraṃ jñānaiśvarya-śakti-bala-vīrya-tejobhiḥ sampannam adbhutaṃ he puruṣottama | sambodhanena tvad-vacasy aviśvāso mama nāsti didṛkṣā ca mahatī vartata iti sarvajñatvāt tvaṃ jānāsi sarvāntaryāmitvāc ceti sūcayati
 

Viśvanātha


idānīm ātmānaṃ tvam yathāttha viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat iti, tac caivam eva mama nātra ko ‚py aviśvāso ‚stīti bhāvaḥ | kintu tad api saṃhṛtārtho bubhūṣayā tavaiśvaraṃ tad-rūpaṃ draṣṭum icchāmi yenaikāṃśeneśvara-rūpeṇa tvaṃ jagat viṣṭabhya vartase | tasyaiva te rūpam aham idānīṃ cakṣurbhyāṃ draṣṭum icchāmīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


evam iti viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ ity ādinā yathā tam ātmānaṃ svam āttha bravīṣi, tad etad evam eva na tava me saṃśaya-leśo ‚pi tathāpi tavaiśvaraṃ sarva-praśāstṛ tad-rūpam ahaṃ kautukād draṣṭum icchāmi | he parameśvara he puruṣottameti sambodhayan mama tad-didṛkṣāṃ jānāsy eva | tāṃ pūrayeti vyañjayati | madhura-rasāsvādinaḥ kaṭu-rasa-jighṛkṣāvat-tvan-mādhuryānubhavino me tvad-aiśvaryānu-bubhī̀uṣābhyudetīti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.4

manyase yadi tac chakyaṃ mayā draṣṭum iti prabho
yogeśvara tato me tvaṃ darśayātmānam avyayam

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syntax


he prabho (O powerful!), he yogeśvara (O lord of yoga!),
mayā (by me) tat [rūpam] (that form) śakyam (possible) draṣṭum iti (to see)
yadi (if) manyase (you think),
tataḥ (then) tvam (you) me (to me) avyayam ātmānam (unchangeable self) darśaya (you must show).
 

grammar

manyase man (to think) Praes. Ā 2v.1you think;
yadi av. if (correlative of: tarhi);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
śakyam śakya (śak – to be able to) PF 1n.1 n. it is possible;
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
prabho pra-bhu 8n.1 m.O perfect, O powerful, O master (from: pra- – prefix: in front, much; bhū – to be);
yogeśvara yoga-īśvara 8n.1 m.; [TP]: yogasyeśvaretiO lord of yoga! (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
darśaya dṛś (to see) caus. Imperat. P 2v.1you must show;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 

textual variants


iti → iha (here);
yogeśvara → yogīśvara (O lord of yogīs);
 
 



Śāṃkara


manyase cintayasi yadi mayārjunena tac chakyaṃ draṣṭum iti prabho ! svāmin ! yogeśvara yogino yogās teṣām īśvaro yogeśvaraḥ, he yogeśvara ! yasmād aham atīvārthī draṣṭum, tatas tasmān me mad-arthaṃ tvam ātmānam avyayam
 

Rāmānuja


tat sarvasya sraṣṭṛ, sarvasya praśāsitṛ, sarvasyādhārabhūtaṃ tvadrūpaṃ mayā draṣṭuṃ śakyam iti yadi manyase, tato yogeśvara yogo jñānādikalyāṇaguṇayogaḥ, „paśya me yogam aiśvaram” iti hi vakṣyate tvadvyatiriktasya kasyāpy asaṃbhāvitānāṃ jñānabalāiśvaryavīryaśaktitejasāṃ nidhe! ātmānaṃ tvām avyayaṃ me darśaya / avyayam iti kriyāviśeṣaṇam / tvāṃ sakalaṃ me darśayetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


na cāhaṃ draṣṭum icchāmīty etāvataiva tvayā tad-rūpaṃ darśayitavyam | kiṃ tarhi ? manyasa iti | yogina eva yogāḥ | teṣām īśvaraḥ | mayārjunena tad-rūpaṃ draṣṭuṃ śaktyam iti yadi manyase | tatas tarhi tad-rūpavantam ātmānam avyayaṃ nityaṃ mama darśaya
 

Madhusūdana


draṣṭum ayogye kutas te didṛkṣety āsaṅkayāha manyasa iti | prabhavati sṛṣṭi-sthiti-saṃhāra-praveśa-praśāsaneṣv iti prabhuḥ | he prabho sarva-svāmin ! tat tavaiśvaraṃ rūpaṃ mayārjunena draṣṭum śakyam iti yadi manyase jānāsīcchasi vā | he yogeśvara sarveṣām aṇimādi-siddhi-śālināṃ yogānāṃ yoginām īśvara tatas tvad-icchā-vaśād eva me mahyam atyartham arthite tvaṃ parama-kāruṇiko darśaya cākṣuṣa-jñāna-viṣayī-kāraya ātmānam aiśvara-rūpa-viśiṣṭam avyayam akṣayam
 

Viśvanātha


yogeśvareti ayogyasyāpi mama tad-darśana-yogyatāyāṃ tava yogaiśvaryam eva kāraṇam iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


aiśvarya-darśane bhagavan-saṃmatiṃ gṛhṇāti manyase yadīti | jānāsīcchasi vety arthaḥ | he prabho sarva-svāmin ! yogeśvareti sambodhayann ayogyasya me tvad-darśane tvac-chaktir eva hetur iti vyañjayati
 
 


BhG 11.5

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
paśya me pārtha rūpāṇi śataśo tha sahasraśaḥ
nānā-vidhāni divyāni nānā-varṇākṛtīni ca

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā!),
[tvam] (you) me (my) nānā-vidhāni (of various kinds) nānā-varṇākṛtīni ca (and of various colours and shapes) śataśaḥ (hundreds) atha sahasraśaḥ (and thousands) divyāni rūpāṇi (divine forms) paśya (you must see).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
rūpāṇi rūpa 2n.3 n. shapes, figures (from: rūp – to form);
śataśaḥ av.hundreds (from: śata – sto);
atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
sahasraśaḥ av.thousands (from: sahasra – a thousand);
nānā-vidhāni nānā-vidha 1n.3 n.which are of various kinds (from: nānā – differently, variously / different; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part);
divyāni divya 2n.3 n.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
nānā-varṇākṛtīni nānā-varṇa-ākṛti 1n.3 n.; BV: yeṣāṁ nānā-varṇāḥ nānākṛtayaḥ santi tāniwhich are of various colours and shapes (from: nānā – differently, variously / different; varṇ – to paint, to delineate, to tell, varṇa – colour, social class; ā-kṛ – to drive near, [PP] ā-kṛta – arranged, built, ā-kṛti – shape, appearance);
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


nānā-varṇākṛtīni → nānā-varṇa-kṛtīni / nānā-varṇākṛtāni (creating various colours / formed of various colours);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ codito’rjunena bhagavān uvāca—
paśya me pārtha ! rūpāṇi śataśo’tha sahasraśaḥ | anekaśa ity arthaḥ | tāni ca nānā-vidhāny aneka-prakārāṇi divi bhavāni divyāny aprākṛtāni nānā-varṇākṛtīni ca nānā vilakṣaṇā nīla-pītādi-prakārā varṇās tathākṛtayaś cāvayava-saṃsthāna-viśeṣo yeṣāṃ rūpāṇāṃ tāni nānā-varṇākṛtīnī ca
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ kautūhalānvitena harṣagadgadakaṇṭhena pārthena prārthito bhagavān uvāca
paśya me sarvāśrayāṇi rūpāṇi; atha śataśaḥ sahasraśaś ca nānāvidhāni nānāprakārāṇi, divyāni aprākṛtāni, nānāvarṇākṛtīni śuklakṛṣṇādinānāvarṇāni, nānākārāṇi ca paśya
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ prārthitaḥ sann atyadbhutaṃ rūpaṃ darśayiyan sāvadhāno bhavety evam arjunam abhimukhīkaroti śrī-bhagavān uvāca paśyeti caturbhiḥ | rūpasyaikatve ‚pi nānā-vidhatvāt rūpāṇīti bahu-vacanam | aparimitāny aneka-prakārāṇi | divyāny alaukikāni mama rūpāṇi paśya | varṇāḥ śukla-kṛṣṇādayaḥ | ākṛtayo ‚vayava-viśeṣāḥ | nānā aneke varṇā ākṛtayaś ca yeṣāṃ tāni nānā-varṇākṛtīni
 

Madhusūdana


evam atyanta-bhaktenārjunena prārthitaḥ san śrī-bhagavān uvāca paśyeti | atra krameṇa śloka-catuṣṭaye ‚pi paśyety āvṛttyātyadbhuta-rūpāṇi darśayiṣyāmi tvaṃ sāvadhāno bhavety arjunam abhimukhīkaroti bhagavān | śataśo ‚tha sahasraśa ity aparimitāni tāni ca nānā-vidhāny aneka-prakārāṇi divyāny atyadbhutāni nānā vilakṣaṇā varṇā nīla-pīta-divya-prakārās tathākṛtayaś cāvayava-saṃsthāna-viśeṣā yeṣāṃ tāni nānā-varṇākṛtīni ca me mama rūpāṇi paśya | arhe loṭ | draṣṭum arho bhava he pārtha
 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca svāṃśasya prakṛty-antaryāmiṇaḥ prathama-puruṣasya sahasra-śīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt iti puruṣa-sūkta-proktaṃ rūpaṃ prathamam idaṃ darśayāmi | paścāt prastutopayogitvena tasyaiva kāla-rūpatvam api jñāpayiṣyāmīti manasi vimṛṣyārjunaṃ prati sāvadhāno bhava ity abhimukhīkaroti | paśya iti rūpāṇīti | ekasminn api mat-svarūpe śataśo mat-svarūpāṇi mad-vibhūtīḥ
 

Baladeva


evam abhyarthito bhagavān prakṛty-antaryāmiṇaṃ sahasra-śirasaṃ praśāstṛtva-pradhānaṃ devākāraṃ svāṃśaṃ pradarśayituṃ prakṛtopayogitvāt tatraiva kālātmakatāṃ ca bodhayitum arjunam avadhāpayatīty āha paśyeti caturṣu | paśyeti padāvṛttir darśanīyānāṃ rūpāṇām atyadbhutatva-dyotanārthā ca bodhyā | me mama sahasra-śīrṣākāreṇa bhāsamānasyaikasyaiva śatāni sahasrāṇi ca vibhūti-bhūtāni rūpāṇi paśya arhe loṭ tāni praṣṭum arho bhavety arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.6

paśyādityān vasūn rudrān aśvinau marutas tathā
bahūny adṛṣṭa-pūrvāṇi paśyāścaryāṇi bhārata

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he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
[mama dehe] (in my body) [tvam] (you) ādityān (the descendants of Aditi) vasūn (the Vasus) rudrān (the Rudras) aśvinau (the two Aśvinīs) marutaḥ (the Maruts) paśya (you must see),
tathā (as well) adṛṣṭa-pūrvāṇi (not seen before) bahūni āścaryāṇi (many wonders) paśya (you must see).

 

grammar

paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
ādityān āditya 2n.3 m.the descendants of Aditi (from: a-diti – boundless, free, abundance, perfection; daughter of Dakṣa, wife of Kaśyapa; twelve sons of Aditi: Dhātṛ, Mitra, Aryaman, Rudra, Varuṇa, Sūrya, Bhaga, Vivasvant, Pūṣan, Savitṛ, Tvaṣṭṛ, Viṣṇu);
vasūn vasu 2n.3 m.the Vasus (vas – to dwell, vasun. wealth, m. Vasu (one of eight), Kuvera, Śiva, Sun, fire; one of the lists of eight Vasus: bhava, dhruva, soma, viṣṇu, anila, anala, pratyuṣa, vibhava);
rudrān rudra 2n.3 m.the Rudras (from: ru – to roar, rudra – roaring, terrible; one of the lists of eleven Rudras: aja, ekapāda, ahirbradhna, pinākin, aparājita, tryambaka, maheśvara, vṛṣākapi, śambhu, hara, īśvara);
aśvinau aśvin 2n.2 m.the two Aśvinīs (from: aśva – horse; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses; aśvin – who has horses; phisicians of the divinities);
marutaḥ mārut 2n.3 m.the winds, the Maruts (marut – god of the wind; seven winds: āvaha, pravaha, vivaha, parāvaha, udvaha, saṁvaha, parivaha);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
bahūni bahu 2n.3 m.many, great;
adṛṣṭa-pūrvāṇi adṛṣṭa-pūrva 2n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ pūrvaṁ dṛṣṭaṁ nāstīti tāninot seen before (from: dṛś – to see, [PP] dṛṣṭa – seen, a-dṛṣṭa – not seen; pūrva – previous, ancient);
paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
āścaryāṇi āścarya (ā-car – to approach) PF 2n.3 m.hard to find, curious, marvellous, amazing, wonders;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


āścaryāṇi → puṇyāṇi / rūpāṇi / pūrvāṇi (pious / forms / earlier);
bhārata → pāṁḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


paśyādityān dvādaśa | vasūn aṣṭau | rudrān ekādaśa | aśvinau dvau | marutaḥ sapta-sapta-gaṇā ye tān | tathā ca bahūny anyāny apy adṛṣṭa-pūrvāṇi manuṣya-loke tvayā tvatto’nyena vā kenacit | paśyāścaryāṇy adbhutāni bhārata
 

Rāmānuja


mamaikasmin rūpe paśya ādityān dvādaśa, vasūn aṣṭau, rudrān ekādaśa, aśvinau dvau, marutaś caikonapañcāśatam / pradarśanārtham idam, iha jagati pratyakṣadṛṣṭāni śāstradṛṣṭāni ca yāni vastūni, tāni sarvāṇi, anyāny api sarveṣu lokeṣu sarveṣu ca śāstreṣv adṛṣṭapūrvāṇi bahūny āścaryāṇi paśya
 

Śrīdhara


tāny eva paśyeti | ādityādīn mama dehe paśya | maruta ekonapañcāśad-devatā-viśeṣān | adṛṣṭa-pūrvāṇi tvayā vānyena vā pūrvam adṛṣṭāni rūpāṇi | āścaryāṇy adbhutāni
 

Madhusūdana


divyāni rūpāṇi paśyety uktvā tāny eva leśato ‚nukrāmati dvābhyām paśyeti | paśyādityān dvādaśa vasūn aṣṭau rudrān ekādaśa aśvinau dvau marutaḥ sapta-saptakān ekonapañcāśat | tathānyān api devān ity arthaḥ | bahūny anyāny adṛṣṭa-pūrvāṇi pūrvam adṛṣṭāni manuṣya-loke tvayā tvatto ‚nyena vā kenacit | paśyāścaryāṇy adbhutāni he bhārata ! atra śataśo ‚tha sahasraśaḥ nānā-vidhānīty asya vivaraṇaṃ bahūnīti ādityany ity ādi ca | adṛṣṭa-pūrvāṇīti divyānīty asya āścaryāṇīti nānā-varṇākṛtīnīty asyeti draṣṭavyam
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.7
 

Baladeva


kiṃ cedha mama dehe ekastham eka-deśa-sthitaṃ sa-carācaraṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagattvam adyādhunaiva paśya | yat tatra tatra paribhramatā tvayā varṣāyutair api draṣṭum aśakyam | tadaikadaivaikatraiva mad-anugrahād avalokasvety arthaḥ | yac ca jagad-āśraya-bhūtaṃ pradhāna-mahad-ādi-kāraṇa-svarūpaṃ sva-jaya-parājayādikaṃ cānyad draṣṭum icchāmi tad api paśya
 
 


BhG 11.7

ihaika-sthaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ paśyādya sa-carācaram
mama dehe guḍākeśa yac cānyad draṣṭum icchasi

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he guḍākeśa (O Guḍākeśa!),
iha (here) mama dehe (in my body) adya (now) [tvam] (you) eka-stham (situated in one place) sa-carācaram (with the moving and non-moving [creatures]) kṛtsnam jagat (the whole world) paśya (you must see),
yat ca anyat (and that other which) draṣṭum (to see) icchasi (you desire).

 

grammar

iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
eka-stham eka-stha 2n.1 n.; yad ekasmin sthāne tiṣthati tatwhich is situated in one place (from: eka – one; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
jagat jagat 2n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
kṛtsnam kṛtsna 2n.1 n.whole;
paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
a-dya av.today, now (from: div – to shine, dyu – day, heaven);
sa-carācaram sa-cara-acara 2n.1 n.; DV / BV: yat caraiś cācaraiś ca sahāsti tatwith the moving and non-moving [creatures]  (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; car –to move, to go, cara – moving, living; a-cara – non-moving, not living);
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
guḍākeśa guḍākeśa 8n.1 m.O one with thick hair (from: guḍa – ball, molasses; keśa – hair);
or [TP]: guḍākāyā īśeti  O lord of laziness (from: guḍākā – laziness, idleness, sleep; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
ca av.and;
anyat anya sn. 2n.1 n.other;
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
icchasi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 2v.1you desire;

 

textual variants


kṛtsnaṁ → sarvaṁ (all);
cānyad → cānyaṁ (and the other);
 
 



Śāṃkara


na kevalam etāvad eva—
ihaika-stham ekasminn eva sthitaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ samastaṃ paśyādya idānīṃ sa-carācaraṃ saha careṇācareṇa ca vartate mama dehe guḍākeśa | yac cānyat jaya-parājayādi | yat śaṅkase, yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyur [gītā 2.6] iti yat avocaḥ, tad api draṣṭuṃ yadīcchasi
 

Rāmānuja


iha mamaikasmin dehe, tatrāpi ekastham ekadeśasthaṃ sacarācaraṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagat paśya; yac cānyad draṣṭum icchasi, tad apy ekadehaikadeśa eva paśya
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca ihaikastham iti | tatra tatra paribhramatā varṣa-koṭibhir api draṣṭum aśakyaṃ kṛtsnam api carācara-sahitaṃ jagad ihāsmin mama dehe ‚vayava-rūpeṇaikatraiva svitamadyādhunaiva paśya | yac cānyaj jagad-āśraya-bhūtaṃ kāraṇa-svarūpaṃ jagataś cāvasthā-viśeṣādikaṃ jaya-parājayādikaṃ ca yad apy anyad draṣṭum icchasi tat sarvaṃ paśya
 

Madhusūdana


na kevalam etāvad eva | samastaṃ jagad api mad-deha-sthaṃ draṣṭum arhasīty āha ihaikastham iti | ihāsmin mama dehe eka-stham ekasminn evāvayava-rūpeṇa sthitaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ samastaṃ sa-carācaram jaṅgama-sthāvara-sahitaṃ tatra tatra pariśramatā varṣa-koṭi-sahasreṇāpi draṣṭum aśakyam adyādhunaiva paśya he guḍākeśa! yac cānyaj jaya-parājayādikaṃ draṣṭum icchasi tad api sandehocchedāya paśya
 

Viśvanātha


paribhramatā tvayā varṣa-koṭibhir api draṣṭum aśakyaṃ kṛtsnam api jagat | iha prastāva ekasminn api mad-dehāvayave tiṣṭhaty ekastham | yac cānyat sva-jaya-parājayādikaṃ ca mamāsmin dehe jagad-āśraya-bhūta-kāraṇa-rūpe
 

Baladeva


kiṃ ceha mama dehe eka-stham eka-deśa-sthitaṃ sa-carācaraṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagat tvam adyādhunaiva paśya | yat tatra tatra paribhramatā tvayā varṣāyutair api draṣṭum aśakyaṃ tadaikadaivaikatraiva mad-anugrahād avalokas tvety arthaḥ | yac ca jagad-āśraya-bhūtaṃ pradhāna-mahad-ādi-kāraṇa-svarūpaṃ sva-jaya-parājayādikaṃ cānyad draṣṭum icchasi tad api paśya
 
 


BhG 11.8

na tu māṃ śakyase draṣṭum anenaiva sva-cakṣuṣā
divyaṃ dadāmi te cakṣuḥ paśya me yogam aiśvaram

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anena tu (but by this) sva-cakṣuṣā eva (with just your own eyes) draṣṭum (to see) na śakyase (you are not able),
[aham] (I) te (to you) divyam cakṣuḥ (divine sight) dadāmi (I give),
[tvam] (you) me (my) aiśvaram yogam (yogic power) paśya (you must see).

 

grammar

na av.not;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
śakyase śak (to be able to) Praes. Ā 2v.1 you are able to;
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
anena idam sn. 3n.1 n.by this;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
sva-cakṣuṣā sva-cakṣuḥ 3n.1 n.with the own eyes (from: sva – own; cakṣ – to see, to look at, cakṣuḥ – sight, look, eye);
divyam divya 2n.1 n.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);
dadāmi (to give) Praes. P 3v.1I give;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
cakṣuḥ cakṣuḥ 2n.1 n.sight, look, eye (from: cakṣ – to see, to look at);
paśya dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
yogam yoga 2n.1 m.yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
aiśvaram aiśvara 2n.1 m.majesty, supremacy, might (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);

 

textual variants


na tu → na ca / na nu / na tvaṁ (and not / indeed not / not you);
śakyase → śakyasi / śakṣyasi / śakyate / śakṣyase / drakṣyase (you can / you will be able to / it is possible / it will be possible / you will see);
anenaiva → etenaiva / manonaiva (ineed by this /);
sva-cakṣuṣāsu-cakṣuṣā (with a perfect sight);
dadāmidadāni;
cakṣuḥ → rūpaṁ (form);
yogam → rūpam (form);

The fourth pada of verse 11.8 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 9.5;

 
 



Śāṃkara


na tu māṃ viśva-rūpa-dharaṃ śakyase draṣṭum anenaiva prākṛtena sva-cakṣuṣā svakīyena cakṣuṣā | yena tu śakyase draṣṭuṃ divyena, tad divyaṃ dadāmi te tubhyaṃ cakṣuḥ | tena paśya me yogam aiśvaram īśvarasya mama aiśvaraṃ yogaṃ yoga-śakty-atiśayam ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


ahaṃ mama dehaikadeśe sarvaṃ jagad darśayiṣyāmi; tvaṃ tv anena niyataparimitavastugrāhiṇā prākṛtena svacakṣuṣā, māṃ tathābhūtaṃ sakaletaravisajātīyam aparimeyaṃ draṣṭuṃ na śakṣyase / tava divyam aprākṛtaṃ maddarśanasādhanaṃ cakṣur dadāmi / paśya me yogam aiśvaram madasādhāraṇaṃ yogaṃ paśya; mamānantajñānādiyogam anantavibhūtiyogaṃ ca paśyetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


yad uktam arjunena manyase yadi tac chakyam iti tatrāha na tu mām iti | anenaiva tu svīyena carma-cakṣuṣā māṃ draṣṭum na śakyase śakto na bhaviṣyasi | ato ‚haṃ divyam alaukikaṃ jñānātmakaṃ cakṣus tubhyaṃ dadāmi | mama aiśvaram asādhāraṇaṃ yogam yuktim aghaṭana-ghaṭanā-sāmarthyaṃ paśya
 

Madhusūdana


yat tūktaṃ manyase yadi tac chakyaṃ mayā draṣṭum iti viśeṣaṇam āha na tu mām iti | anenaiva prākṛtena sva-cakṣuṣā svabhāva-siddhena cakṣuṣā māṃ divya-rūpaṃ draṣṭum na tu śakyase na śaknoṣi tu eva | śakyasa iti pāṭhe śakto na bhaviṣyasīty arthaḥ | sauvādikasyāpi śaknoter daivādikaḥ śyaṃś chāndas iti vā | divādau pāṭho vety eva sāpradāyikam |
tarhi tvāṃ draṣṭuṃ kathaṃ śaknuyām ata āha divyam aprākṛtaṃ mama divya-rūpa-darśana-kṣamaṃ dadāmi te tubhyaṃ cakṣus tena divyena cakṣuṣā paśya me yogam aghaṭana-ghaṭanā-sāmarthyātiśayam aiśvaram īśvarasya mamāsādharaṇam
 

Viśvanātha


indram indrajālaṃ māyā-mayaṃ vā rūpam ity arjuna mā manyatāṃ, kintu sac-cid-ānanda-mayam eva svarūpam antarbhūta-sarva-jagatkam atīndriyatvenaiva viśvasitum ity etad artham āha na tv iti | anenaiva prākṛtena sva-cakṣuṣā māṃ cid-ghanākāraṃ draṣṭuṃ na śakyase na śaknoṣīty atas tubhyaṃ divyam aprākṛtaṃ cakṣur dadāmi | tenaiva paśyete prākṛta-nara-māninam arjunaṃ kam api camatkāraṃ prāpayitum eva | yato hy arjuno bhagavat-pārṣada-mukhyatvān narāvatāratvāc ca prākṛta-nara iva na carma-cakṣukaḥ | kiṃ ca sākṣād-bhagavan-mādhuryam eva sa sva-cakṣuṣā sākṣād anubhavati so ‚rjuno bhagavad-aṃśaṃ draṣṭuṃ tena aśaknuvan divyaṃ cakṣur gṛhṇīyād iti kaḥ khalu nyāyaḥ ? eke tv evam ācakṣate bhagavato nara-līlātva-mahāmādhuryaika-grāhi sarvotkṛṣṭaṃ yad bhavati | tac cakṣur ananya-bhakta iva bhagavato deva-līlātva-sampadaṃ naiva gṛhṇāti na hi sitopala-rasāsvādinī rasanā khaṇḍaṃ guḍaṃ vā svādayituṃ śaknoti | tasmād arjunāya tat prārthita-camatkāra-viśeṣaṃ dātuṃ deva-līlatvam aiśvaryaṃ jigrāhayiṣur bhagavān prema-rasān anukūlaṃ divyam amānuṣam eva cakṣur dadāv iti | tathā divya-cakṣur dānābhiprāyo ‚dhyāyānte vyaktībhaviṣyatīti
 

Baladeva


manyase yadi tac chakyam ity arjuna-prārthitaṃ sampādayan nirataṃ, vismitaṃ kartuṃ tasmai sva-devākāra-grāhi divyaṃ cakṣur bhagavān dadāv ity āha na tu mām iti | anenaiva man-mādhuryaikāntena sva-cakṣuṣā yugapad-vibhāta-sahasra-sūrya-prakhyaṃ sahasra-śiraskaṃ māṃ draṣṭuṃ na śakyase na śaknoṣi | atas te divyaṃ cakṣur dadāmi | yathāham ātmānam atipravāhākrāntaṃ vyanadmi tathā tvac-cakṣuś ceti bhāvaḥ | tena mamaiśvaraṃ yogaṃ rūpaṃ paśya yujyate ‚nena iti vyutpatter yogo rūpaṃ paramaṃ rūpam aiśvaram ity agrimāc ca | atra divyaṃ cakṣur eva dattaṃ na tu divyaṃ mano ‚pīti bodhyam | tādṛśe manasi datte, tasya tad-rūpe ruci-prasaṅgād iha divya-dṛṣṭi-dānena liṅgena pārtha-sārathi-rūpāt sahasra-śiraso viśva-rūpasyādhikyam iti yad vadanti tat tv agre nirasyam
 
 


BhG 11.9-11

saṃjaya uvāca
evam uktvā tato rājan mahā-yogeśvaro hariḥ
darśayāmāsa pārthāya paramaṃ rūpam aiśvaram
aneka-vaktra-nayanam anekādbhuta-darśanam
aneka-divyābharaṇaṃ divyānekodyatāyudham
divya-mālyāmbara-dharaṃ divya-gandhānulepanam
sarvāścarya-mayaṃ devam anantaṃ viśvato-mukham

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syntax


saṁjayaḥ (Saṁjaya) uvāca (he spoke):
he rājan (O king!),
tataḥ (then) mahā-yogeśvaraḥ (the master of great yoga) hariḥ (Hari) evam (thus) uktvā (after speaking)
pārthāya (to the son of Pṛthā) paramam aiśvaram rūpam (the supreme majestic form)
aneka-vaktra-nayanam (in which are many mouths and eyes) anekādbhuta-darśanam (in which are many wonderful visions) aneka-divyābharaṇam (in which are  many divine ornaments) divyānekodyatāyudham (in which are many divine upraised weapons) divya-mālyāmbara-dharam (which wears divine garlands and garments) divya-gandhānulepanam (whose ointment is of divine fragrance) sarvāścarya-mayam (which is made of all wonders) viśvato-mukham (which is made of all wonders) devam (divine) anantam (endless) darśayāmāsa (he showed).

 

grammar

saṁjayaḥ sam-jaya 1n.1 m.conquest, complete victory, Saṁjaya  (from: sam-ji – to conquer completely, jaya – victory);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
evam av.thus;
uktvā vac (to speak) absol.after speaking;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
rājan rājan 8n.1 m.O king! (from: raj – to reign);
mahā-yogeśvaraḥ mahā-yoga-īśvara 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mahānto yogasyeśvara iti the master of great yoga (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
hariḥ hari 1n.1 m.bearing; yellow, reddish brown, fire, the Sun, lion, monkey; Hari (from: hṛ to carry away; Raghu-vaṁśa 3.49: harir yathaikaḥ puruṣottamaḥ smṛtaḥ – as Hari is known the best of men);
darśayāmāsa dṛś (to see) caus. [Perf.] (periphrastic) P 1v.1he showed;
pārthāya pārtha 4n.1 m.to the son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
paramam parama 2n.1 n. supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
aiśvaram aiśvara 2n.1 n.majesty, supremacy, might (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);

*****

aneka-vaktra-nayanam aneka-vaktra-nayana 2n.1 n.; DV / BV: yasmin anekāni vaktrāṇi ca nayanāni ca santi tat in which are many mouths and eyes (from: an-eka – not one, many; vac – to speak, vaktra – mouth, face; – to lead, nayana – leading, eye);
anekādbhuta-darśanam aneka-adbhuta-darśana 2n.1 n.; BV: yasmin anekāni adbhutāni darśanāni santi tat in which are many wonderful visions (from: an-eka – not one, many; ad-bhuta – supernatural, marvellous, wonderful; dṛś – to see, darśa – view, appearance, darśana – seeing, observing, vision);
aneka-divyābharaṇam aneka-divya-ābharaṇa 2n.1 n.; BV: yasmin anekāni divyāny ābharaṇāni santi tat in which are  many divine ornaments (from: an-eka – not one, many; div – to shine, diva – heaven, divya – divine; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, bhara – bearing, carrying, ā-bharaṇa – ornaments);
divyānekodyatāyudham divya-aneka-udyata-āyudha 2n.1 n.; BV: yasmin anekāni divyāny udyatāny āyudhāni santi tat in which are many divine upraised weapons (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven, divya – divine; an-eka – not one, many; ud-yam – to raise, to undertake, [PP] udyata – upraised, undertaken; yudh – to fight, ā-yuddha – weapons);

*****

divya-mālyāmbara-dharam divya-mālya-ambara-dhara 2n.1 n.; yat divyāni mālyāni ca ambarāṇi ca dhārayatīti tat which wears divine garlands and garments (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven, divya – divine; mālā – line, beads, rosary, garland, mālya – wreath, garland; ambara – clothes, garment; dhṛ – to hold, dhara – holding);
divya-gandhānulepanam divya-gandha-anulepana 2n.1 n.; BV: yasya divyena gandhenānulepanam asti tat whose ointment is of divine fragrance (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven, divya – divine; gandha – fragrance; anu-lip – to annoint, anulepana – annointing [the body], ointment);
sarvāścarya-mayam sarva-āścarya-maya 2n.1 n. which is made of all wonders (from: sarva – all, whole; ā-car – to approach, āścarya – curious, marvellous, amazing, astonishing; –maya – in compounds: made of, of the nature of);
devam deva 2n.1 m.god, divinity (from: div – to shine, to play);
anantam an-anta 2n.1 n.without end, endless (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
viśvato-mukham viśvato-mukha 2n.1 n.; BV: yasya mukhāni viśvataḥ santi tatwhich is made of all wonders (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world, av. viśvatas – from all sides, everywhere; mukha – face);

 

textual variants


tato rājan agrato rājan / mahā-rājan (in front, O king / O great king);
mahā-yogeśvaro → mahā-yogīśvaro (the master of great yogīs);
divya-mālyāmbara-dharaṁdivya-mālāṁbara-dharaṁ (whcih wears divine garlands and garments);
devam → viṣṇum (Viṣṇu);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ yathokta-prakāreṇoktvā tato’nantaraṃ rājan dhṛtarāṣṭra ! mahā-yogeśvaro mahāṃś cāsau yogeśvaraś mahā-yogeśvaro harir nārāyaṇo darśayāmāsa darśitavān pārthāya pṛthā-sutāya paramaṃ rūpaṃ viśva-rūpam aiśvaram
aneka-vaktra-nayanam anekāni vaktrāṇi nayanāni ca yasmin rūpe tad aneka-vaktra-nayanam, anekādbhuta-darśanam anekāny adbhutāni vismāpakāni darśanāni yasmin rūpe tad anekādbhuta-darśanaṃ rūpam | tathāneka-divyābharaṇam anekāni divyāny ābharaṇāni yasmin tad aneka-divyābharaṇam | tathā divyānekodyatāyudhaṃ divyāny anekāny asyādīni udyatāny āyudhāni yasmin tad divyānekodyatāyudham | darśayāmāseti pūrveṇa saṃbandhaḥ
kiṃ ca—
divya-mālyāmbara-dharaṃ divyāni mālyāni puṣpāṇy ambarāṇi vasrāṇi ca dhriyante yeneśvareṇa taṃ divya-mālyāmbara-dharam, divya-gandhānulepanaṃ divyaṃ gandhānulepanaṃ yasya taṃ divya-gandhānulepanam, sarvāścarya-mayaṃ sarvāścarya-prāyaṃ devam anantaṃ nāsyānto’stīty anantas tam, viśvato-mukhaṃ sarvato-mukhaṃ sarva-bhūtātma-bhūtatvāt, taṃ darśayāmāsa | arjuno dadarśeti vādhyāhriyate
 

Rāmānuja


evam uktvā sārathye ‚vasthitaḥ pārthamātulajo mahāyogeśvaro hariḥ mahāścaryayogānām īśvaraḥ parabrahmabhūto nārāyaṇaḥ paramam aiśvaraṃ svāsādhāraṇaṃ rūpaṃ pārthāya pitṛṣvasuḥ pṛthāyāḥ putrāya darśayām āsa / tad vividhavicitranikhilajagadāśrayaṃ viśvasya praśāsitṛ ca rūpam; tac cedṛśam
devaṃ dyotamānam, anantam kālatrayavarti; nikhilajagadāśrayatayā deśakālaparicchedānarham, viśvatomukham viśvadigvartimukham, svocitadivyāmbaragandhamālyābharaṇāyudhānvitam
 

Śrīdhara


evam uktvā bhagavān arjunāya svarūpaṃ darśitavān | tac ca rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvārjunaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇaṃ vijñāpitavān itīmam arthaṃ ṣaḍbhiḥ ślokair dhṛtarāṣṭraṃ prati sañjaya uvāca evam uktveti | he rājan dhṛtarāṣṭra ! mahān cāsau yogeśvaraś ca hariḥ paramam aiśvaraṃ rūpam darśitavān
kathambhūtaṃ tad iti ? ata āha aneka-vaktra-nayanam iti | anekāni vaktrāṇi nayanāni ca yasmiṃs tat | anekānām adbhutānāṃ darśanam yasmiṃs tat | anekāni divyābharaṇāni yasmiṃs tat | divyāny anekāny udyatāny āyudhāni yasmiṃs tat
kiṃ ca divyeti | divyāni mālyāni ambarāṇi ca dhārayatīti tat | tathā divyo gandho yasya tādṛśaṃ anulepanaṃ yasya tat | sarvāścarya-mayam anekāścarya-prāyam | devam dyotanātmakam | anantam aparicchinnam | viśvataḥ sarvato mukhāni yasmiṃs tat
 

Madhusūdana


bhagavān arjunāya divyaṃ rūpaṃ darśitavān | sa ca tad dṛṣṭvā vismayāviṣṭo bhagavantaṃ vijñāpitavān itīmaṃ vṛttāntam evam uktvety ādibhiḥ ṣaḍbhiḥ ślokair dhṛtarāṣṭraṃ prati saṃjaya uvāceti | evam na tu māṃ śakyase draṣṭum anena cakṣuṣā divyaṃ dadāmi te cakṣur ity uktvā tato divya-cakṣuḥ-pradānād anantaraṃ he rājan dhṛtarāṣṭra sthiro bhava śravaṇāya | mahān sarvotkṛṣṭaś cāsau yogeśvaraś ceti mahā-yogeśvaro harir bhaktānāṃ sarva-kleśāpahārī bhagavān darśanāyogyaṃ api darśayāmāsa pārthāyaikānta-bhaktāya paramaṃ divyaṃ rūpam aiśvaram
tad eva rūpaṃ viśinaṣṭi aneketi | anekāni vaktrāṇi nayanāni ca yasmin rūpe | anekānām adbhutānāṃ vismaya-hetūnāṃ darśanam yasmin | anekāni divyāny ābharaṇāni bhūṣaṇāni yasmin | divyāny anekāny udyatāny āyudhāni astrāṇi yasmiṃs tat tathārūpam | divyāni mālyāni puṣpa-mayāni ratnamayāni ca tathā divyāmbarāṇi vastrāṇi ca dhriyante yena tad-divya-mālyāmbara-dharaṃ | divyo gandho ‚syeti divya-gandhas tad-anulepanam yasya tat | sarvāścarya-mayam anekādbhuta-pracuraṃ | devam dyotanātmakam | anantam aparicchinnaṃ viśvataḥ sarvato mukhāni yasmiṃs tad-rūpaṃ darśayāmāseti pūrveṇa sambandhaḥ | arjuno dadarśety adhyāhāro vā
 

Viśvanātha


viśvataḥ sarvato mukhāni yasya tat
 

Baladeva


evam uktvā hariḥ pārthāya viśva-rūpaṃ darśitavān | tac ca rūpaṃ vīkṣya pārtho harim evaṃ vijñāpitavān itīmam arthaṃ sañjayaḥ prāha evam ṣaḍbhiḥ | tato divya-cakṣur dānānantaraṃ he rājan dhṛtarāṣṭra ! mahāṃś cāsau yogeśvaraś ca hariḥ
aneketi anekāni sahasrāṇi vaktrāṇi nayanāni ca yasya tad-rūpaṃ sahasra-bāho bhava viśva-mūrte ity agrima-vākyāt | ihāneka-bahu-sahasra-śabdā asaṅkhyeyārtha-vācinaḥ | viśvataś cakṣur uta viśvatomukhaḥ ity ādi-jñāpakāt | anekānām adbhutānāṃ darśanam yatra tat divyo gandho yatra tādṛg anulepanaṃ yasya tat | devaṃ dyotamānam anantam apāraṃ viśvataḥ sarvato mukhāni yasya tat
 
 


BhG 11.12

divi sūrya-sahasrasya bhaved yuga-pad utthitā
yadi bhāḥ sadṛśī syād bhāsas tasya mahātmanaḥ

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syntax


yadi (if) divi (in heaven) sūrya-sahasrasya (of a thousand of suns) bhāḥ (effulgence) yugapat (together) utthitā (risen) bhavet (it would be),
[tarhi] (then) [prabhā] (this effulgence) tasya mahātmanaḥ (of that one whose self is great) bhāsaḥ (of effulgence) sadṛśī (similar) syāt (it would be).

 

grammar

divi div 7n.1 f.in heaven (from: div – to shine);
sūrya-sahasrasya sūrya-sahasra 6i.x1 n.; [TP]: sūryāṇāṁ sahasram itiof a thousand of suns (from: sūrya – Sun; sahasra – a thousand);
bhavet bhū (to be) Pot. Ā 1v.1it would be;
yuga-pat av. – being in the same yoke; together, simultaneously (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yuga – aeon, an age of the world; pad – to fall, to go, to apply to);
utthitā utthitā (ut-sthā – to rise) [PP] 1n.1 f.risen;
yadi av. if (correlative of: tarhi);
bhāḥ bhās 1n.1 f.effulgence, light, majesty (from: bhās – to shine, to be bright);
sadṛśī sa-dṛśī 1n.1 f.similar, resembling (from: sa = sama – as prefix: the same; dṛś – to see; requires instrumental, genitive or locative);
tat sn. 1n.1 f.this;
syāt as (to be) Pot. P 1v.1it would be;
bhāsaḥ bhās 6n.1 f. of effulgence, light, majesty (from: bhās – to shine, to be bright);
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.of that;
mahātmanaḥ mahā-ātman 6n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā mahān asti tasyaof one whose self is great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);

 

textual variants


divi sūrya-sahasrasyadivya-sūrya-sahasrasya (a thousands of divine suns);
sā syād → sūrād (than the sun);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yā punar bhagavato viśva-rūpasya bhāḥ, tasyā upamocyate—
antarikṣe vā divi sūryāṇāṃ sahasraṃ sūrya-sahasraṃ tasya yugapad utthitasya sūrya-sahasrasya yā yugapad utthitā bhāḥ, sā yadi, sadṛśī syāt tasya mahātmano viśva-rūpasyaiva bhāsaḥ | yadi vā na syāt, tato viśva-rūpasyaiva bhā atiricyate ity abhiprāyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


tām eva devaśabdanirdiṣṭāṃ dyotamānatāṃ viśinaṣṭi
tejaso ‚parimitatvadarśanārtham idam; akṣayatejassvarūpam ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


viśva-rūpa-dīpter nirupamatvam āha divīti | divyākāśe | sūrya-sahasrasya yugapad utthitasya yadi yugapad utthitā bhāḥ prabhā bhavet tarhi sā tadā mahātmano viśvarūpasya bhāsaḥ prabhāyā kathañcit sadṛśī syāt | anyopamā nāsty evety arthaḥ | tathādbhutaṃ rūpaṃ darśayāmāseti pūrveṇaivānvayaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


devam ity uktaṃ vivṛṇoti divīti | divi antarikṣe sūryāṇāṃ sahasrasyāparimita-sūrya-samūhasya yugapad uditasya yugapad utthitā bhāḥ prabhā yadi bhavet tadā sā tasya mahātmano viśvarūpasya bhāso dīpteḥ sadṛśī tulyā yadi syād yadi vā na syāt tato ‚pi nūnaṃ viśvarūpasyaiva bhā atiricyetety ahaṃ manye | anyā tūpamā nāsty evety arthaḥ | atrāvidyamānādhyavasāyāt tad-abhāvenopamābhāva-parādbhūtopamā-rūpam ārūpeyam atiśayoktir utprekṣā vyañjayantī sarvathā nirupamatvam eva vyanakti ubhau yadi vyomni pṛthak-pravāhāv ity ādivat
 

Viśvanātha


ekadaiva yadi bhāḥ kāntir utthitā bhavet tadā tasya mahātmano viśvarūpa-puruṣasya bhāsaḥ prabhāyāḥ kānteḥ kathañcit sadṛśī bhavet
 

Baladeva


tad-dīpter nairupamyam āha divīti | divi ākāśe yugapad utthitasya sūrya-sahasrasya bhāḥ kāntiś ced yugapad utthitā bhavet tarhi sā tasya mahātmano viśva-rūpasya harer bhāsa ekasyāḥ kānteḥ sadṛśī syāt tadeti | sambhāvanāyāṃ laṭ | adbhūtopameyam ucyate tayotprekṣā | vyaṅgā satī sarvathā tat-kānter nairupamyaṃ vyañjayati | tādṛg-rūpaṃ darśayāmāseti pūrveṇānvayaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.13

tatraika-sthaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ pravibhaktam aneka-dhā
apaśyad deva-devasya śarīre pāṇḍavas tadā

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syntax


tadā (then) pāṇḍavaḥ (son of Pāṇḍu) deva-devasya (of the gods of gods) tatra śarīre (there in the body) anekadhā (in many ways) pravibhaktam (divided) eka-stham (which is situated in one place) kṛtsnam jagat (whole world) apaśyat (he saw).

 

grammar

tatra av. there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
eka-stham eka-stha 2n.1 n.; yad ekasmin sthāne tiṣthati tatwhich is situated in one place (from: eka – one; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
jagat jagat 2n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
kṛtsnam kṛtsna 2n.1 n.whole;
pravibhaktam pra-vi-bhakta (pra-vi-bhāj – to divide, to separate) [PP] 2n.1 n.divided, separated;
aneka-dhā av.in many ways, in various ways (from: eka – one; -dhā – suffix to form manifold numerals);
apaśyat dṛś (to see) [Imperf.] P 1v.1he saw;
deva-devasya deva-deva 6n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām devasyeti – of the god of gods (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
śarīre śarīra 7n.1 n.in the body (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);
pāṇḍavaḥ pāṇḍava 1n.1 m.son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);
tadā av.at that time, then;

 

textual variants


tadā → tathā (in that manner);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
tatra tasmin viśva-rūpa ekasmin sthitam eka-sthaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ pravibhaktam anekadhā deva-pitṛ-manuṣyādi-bhedair apaśyad dṛṣṭavān deva-devasya hareḥ śarīre pāṇḍāvo’rjunas tadā
 

Rāmānuja


tatra anantāyām avistāre, anantabāhūdaravaktranetre, aparimitatejaske, aparimitadivyāyudhopete, svocitāparimitadivyabhūṣaṇe, divyamālyāmbaradhare, divyagandhānulepane, anantāścaryamaye, devadevasya divye śarīre anekadhā pravibhaktaṃ brahmādivividhavicitradevatiryaṅmanuṣyasthāvarādibhoktṛvargapṛthivyantarikṣasvargapātālātalavitalasutalādibhogasthānabhogyabhogopakaraṇabhedabhinnaṃ prakṛtipuruṣātmakaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagat, „ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate”, „hanta te kathayiṣyāmi vibhūtīr ātmanaś śubhāḥ”, „aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ”, ādityānām ahaṃ viṣṇuḥ” ityādinā, „na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtaṃ carācaram”, „viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat” ityantenoditam, ekastham ekadeśastham; pāṇḍavo bhagavatprasādalabdhataddarśanānuguṇadivyacakṣur apaśyat
 

Śrīdhara


tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyām āha saṃjayaḥ tatreti | anekadhā pravibhaktaṃ nānā-vibhāgenāvasthitaṃ kṛtsnaṃ jagad devadevasya śarīre tad-avayavatvenaikatraivaa pṛthag-avasthitaṃ tadā pāṇḍavo ‚rjuno ‚paśyat
 

Madhusūdana


ihaikasthaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ paśyādya sa-carācaram iti bhagavad-ājñaptam apy anubhūtavān arjuna ity āha tatraikastham iti | ekastham ekatra sthitaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ pravibhaktam anekadhā | deva-pitṛ-manuṣyādi-nānā-prakārair apaśyad devadevasya bhagavataḥ tatra viśvarūpe śarīre pāṇḍavo ‚rjunas tadā viśvarūpāścarya-darśana-daśāyām
 

Viśvanātha


tatra tasmin yuddha-bhumāv eva devadevasya śarīre jagat brahmāṇḍaṃ kṛtsnaṃ sarvam eva gaṇayitum aśakyam ity arthaḥ | pravibhaktaṃ pṛthak pṛthaktayā sthitam ekastham ekadeśasthaṃ pratiromakūpasthaṃ pratikukṣisthaṃ vety arthaḥ | anekadhā mṛnmayaṃ hiraṇmayaṃ maṇimayaṃ vā pañcāśat-koṭi-yojana-pramāṇaṃ śata-koṭi-yojana-pramāṇaṃ lakṣa-koṭy-ādi-yojana-pramāṇaṃ vety arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


tataḥ kim abhūd ity apekṣāyām āha tatreti | tatra yuddha-bhūmau devadevasya kṛṣṇasya vyañjita-sahasra-śiraske śarīre śrī-vigrahe kṛtsnaṃ nikhilaṃ jagad brahmāṇḍaṃ tadā pāṇḍavo ‚paśyat | pravibhaktaṃ pṛthak-pṛthag-bhūtam ekastham iti prāgvat | anekadheti mṛṇmayaṃ svarṇa-mayaṃ ratna-mayaṃ vā laghu-madhye bṛhad-bhūtaṃ vety arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.14

tataḥ sa vismayāviṣṭo hṛṣṭa-romā dhanaṃjayaḥ
praṇamya śirasā devaṃ kṛtāñjalir abhāṣata

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tataḥ (then) saḥ vismayāviṣṭaḥ (he filled with wonder) hṛṣṭa-romā (with hairs standing on end) kṛtāñjaliḥ (with folded hands) dhanañjayaḥ (the winner of wealth) śirasā (with the head) devam (to the divinity) praṇamya (after bowing) abhāṣata (he spoke).

 

grammar

tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
vismayāviṣṭaḥ vismaya-āviṣṭa 1n.1 m.; [TP]: vismayenāviṣṭa iti filled with wonder (from: vi-√smi – to wonder, to be proud, vismaya – wonder, surprise, perplexity; ā-viś – to approach, to enter, [PP] āviṣṭa – entered, filled);
hṛṣṭa-romā hṛṣṭa-roman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya romāṇi hṛṣṭāni santi saḥ whose hairs stand on end (from: hṛṣ – to be excited, to become erect, [PP] hṛṣṭa – bristling, rejoiced; ruh – to ascend, to rise, roma / roman – the hair on the body);
dhanaṁjayaḥ dhanaṁ-jaya 1n.1 m.; yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥwinner of wealth, Dhanaṁjaya (from: dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);
praṇamya pra-nam (to bend, to bow) absol.after bowing;
śirasā śiras 3n.1 n.with the head;
devam deva 2n.1 n.god, divinity (from: div – to shine, to play);
kṛtāñjaliḥ kṛta-añjali 1n.1 m.; BV: yenāñjaliḥ kṛto ‘sti saḥ who did folded hands (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; añj – to decorate, to annoint, to honour, añjali – respect, salutation, joined palms slighty hollowed);
abhāṣata bhāṣ (to speak) [Imperf.] Ā 1v.1he spoke;

 

textual variants


devam → viṣṇum (Viṣṇu);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tatas taṃ dṛṣṭvā sa vismayenāviṣṭo vismayāviṣṭo hṛṣṭāni romāṇi yasya so’yaṃ hṛṣṭa-romā cābhavad dhanañjayaḥ | praṇamya prakarṣeṇa namanaṃ kṛtvā prahvī-bhūtaḥ san śirasā devaṃ viśva-rūpa-dharaṃ kṛtāñjaliḥ namaskārārthaṃ saṃpuṭīkṛta-hastaḥ sann abhāṣata uktavān
 

Rāmānuja


tato dhanañjayo mahāścaryasya kṛtsnasya jagataḥ svadehaikadeśenāśrayabhūtaṃ kṛtsnasya pravartayitāraṃ ca āścaryatamānantajñānādikalyāṇaguṇagaṇaṃ devaṃ dṛṣṭvā vismayāviṣṭo hṛṣṭaromā śirasā daṇḍavat praṇamya kṛtāñjalir abhāṣata
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ dṛṣṭvā kiṃ kṛtavān iti ? tatrāha tata iti | tato darśanāntaram | visamyenāviṣṭo vyāptaḥ san hṛṣṭāny utpulakitāni romāṇi yasya sa dhanañjayaḥ | tam eva devaṃ śirasā praṇamya kṛtāñjaliḥ sampuṭākṛta-hasto bhūtvā | abhāṣatoktavān
 

Madhusūdana


evam adbhuta-darśane ‚py arjuno na vibhayāṃcakāra nāpi netre saṃcacāra, nāpi saṃbhramāt kartavyaṃ visasmāra, nāpi tasmād deśād apasasāra, kintv atidhīratvāt tat-kālocitam eva vyavajahāra, mahati citta-kṣobhe ‚pīty āha tata iti | tatas tad-darśanād anantaraṃ vismayenādbhuta-darśana-prabhāvenālaukika-citta-camatkāra-viśeṣeṇāviṣṭo vyāptaḥ | ataeva hṛṣṭa-romā pulakitaḥ san sa prakhyāta-mahādeva-saṅgrāmādi-prabhāvo dhanaṃjayo yudhiṣṭhira-rājasūya uttara-go-grahe ca sarvātrājño jitvā dhanam āhṛtavān iti prathita-mahā-parākramo ‚tidhīraḥ sākṣād agnir iti vā mahā-tejasvitvāt | devaṃ tam eva viśvarūpa-dharaṃ nārāyaṇaṃ śirasā bhūmi-lagnena praṇamya prakarṣeṇa bhakti-śraddhātiśayena natvā namaskṛtya kṛtāñjaliḥ sampuṭīkṛta-hasta-yugaḥ sann abhāṣatoktavān |
atra vismayākhya-sthāyi-bhāvasyārjuna-gatasyālambana-vibhāvena bhagavatā viśvarūpeṇoddīpana-vibhāvenāsakṛt-tad-darśanenānubhāvena sāttvika-romaharṣeṇa namaskāreṇāñjali-kareṇa ca vyabhicāriṇā cānubhāvākṣiptena vā dhṛti-mati-harṣa-vitarkādinā paripoṣāt sa-vāsanānāṃ śrotṝṇāṃ tādṛśaś citta-camatkāro ‚pi tad-bhedānadhyavasāyāt paripoṣaṃ gataḥ paramānandāsvāda-rūpeṇādbhuta-raso bhavatīti sūcitam
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.15
 

Baladeva


evaṃ kṛṣṇa-tattvavid arjunas tasmin sattvena jñātaṃ sahasra-śīrṣatvam adhunā vīkṣyādbhutaṃ rasam anvabhūd ity āha tata iti | taṃ vyañjalita-tad-rūpaṃ kṛṣṇaṃ vilokyety arthaḥ | dhanaṃjayeti dhīro ‚pi vismayenāviṣṭo hṛṣṭa-romā pulakito devaṃ śirasā bhū-lagnena praṇamya kṛtāñjaliḥ sann abhāṣata | atra bhaya-netra-saṃvaraṇādikaṃ tasya nābhūt kintv adbhuto raso ‚bhyudaid iti vyañjate | iha tādṛśo harir ālambano muhur muhus tad-vīkṣaṇam uddīpanaṃ praṇati-pāṇi-yogāv anubhāvau, romāñcaḥ sāttvikas tair ākṣiptā matir dhṛti-harṣādayaḥ sañcāriṇaḥ | etair ālambanādyaiḥ puṣṭo vismaya-sthāyi-bhāvo ‚dbhuta-rasaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.15

arjuna uvāca
paśyāmi devāṃs tava deva dehe sarvāṃs tathā bhūta-viśeṣa-saṃghān
brahmāṇam īśaṃ kamalāsana-stham ṛṣīṃś ca sarvān uragāṃś ca divyān

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he deva (O God!),
tava dehe (in your body) [aham] (I) sarvān devān (all divinities) tathā (as well) bhūta-viśeṣa-saṅghān (hosts of various beings) kamalāsana-stham brahmāṇam (Brahmā situated on a lotus seat) īśam (ruler) sarvān ca ṛṣīn (and all the sages) divyān ca uragān (and divine serpents) paśyāmi (I see).
 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
paśyāmi dṛś (to see) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
devān deva 2n.3 m.the gods, divinities (from: div – to shine, to play);
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
deva deva 8n.1 n.O God! O Divinity! (from: div – to shine, to play);
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear);
sarvān sarva sn. 2n.3 n.all;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
bhūta-viśeṣa-saṁghān bhūta-viśeṣa-saṁgha 2n.3 n.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ viśeṣāṇāṁ saṅghān iti hosts of various beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; śiṣ – to leave, vi-śeṣa – distinction, peculiarity; sam-xhan – to strike together, to join, saṁ-gha – collection, assemblage, crowd);
brahmāṇam brahman 2n.1 m.Brahmā (from: bṛh – to increase);
īśam īśa 2n.1 m.ruler, lord; Śiva (from: xīś – to own, to reign);
kamalāsana-stham kamala-āsana-stha 2n.1 m.; yaḥ kamalasyāsane tiṣthati saḥwho is situated on a lotus seat (from: kamala – pink, lotus; ās – to sit, to exist, āsana a seat; sthā – to stand, -stha – suffix: being in);
ṛṣīn ṛṣi 2n.3 m.sages, seers;
ca av.and;
sarvān sarva sn. 2n.3 m.all;
uragān uraga 2n.3 m.moving on chest, serpents (from: ura = uras – chest; gam – to go, -ga – suffix: moving, going);
ca av.and;
divyān divya 2n.3 m.divine (from: div – to shine, diva – heaven);

 

textual variants


bhūta-viśeṣa-saṅghān → bhūta-viśeṣa-saṁgān / bhūtam aśeṣa-saṅghān (various beings come together / existence, complete hosts);
divyān → dīptān / saṁghān (shining / hosts);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kathaṃ ? yat tvayā darśitaṃ viśva-rūpam, tad ahaṃ paśyāmīti svānubhavam āviṣkurvann arjuna uvāca—
paśyāmy upalabhe he deva, tava dehe devān sarvān, tathā bhūta-viśeṣa-saṃghān bhūta-viśeṣāṇāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānāṃ nānā-saṃsthāna-viśeṣāṇāṃ saṃghā bhūta-viśeṣa-saṃghās tān, kiṃ ca—brahmāṇaṃ catur-mukham īśam īśitāraṃ prajānāṃ kamalāsana-sthaṃ pṛthivī-padma-madhye meru-karṇikāsana-stham ity arthaḥ | ṛṣīṃś ca vasiṣṭhādīn sarvān, uragāṃś ca vāsuki-prabhṛtīn divyān divi bhavān
 

Rāmānuja


deva; tava dehe sarvān devān paśyāmi; tathā sarvān prāṇiviśeṣāṇāṃ saṃghān, tathā brahmāṇaṃ caturmukham aṇḍādhipatim, tatheśaṃ kamalāsanasthaṃ kamalāsane brahmaṇi sthitam īśaṃ tanmate ‚vasthitaṃ tathā devarṣipramukhān sarvān ṛṣīn, uragāṃś ca vāsukitakṣakādīn dīptān
 

Śrīdhara


bhāṣaṇam evāha paśyāmīti saptadaśabhiḥ | he deva ! tava dehe devānām ādityādīn paśyāmi | tathā sarvān bhūta-viśeṣāṇāṃ sthāvarāṇāṃ jaṅgamānāṃ ca nānā-saṃsthānānāṃ saṃghān samūhān | tathā brahmāṇam caturmukham īśam īśitāraṃ sarveṣāṃ kamalāsana-stham pṛthvī-padma-madhye meru-karṇikāsana-sthaṃ bhagavan-nābhi-kamalāsanastham iti vā | tathā ṛṣīṃś ca sarvān vaśiṣṭādīn brahma-putrān | uragāṃś ca divyān prākṛtān vāsuki-prabhṛtīn paśyāmīti sarvatrānvayaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


yad bhagavatā darśitaṃ viśvarūpaṃ tad bhagavad-dattena divyena cakṣuṣā sarva-lokādṛśyam api paśyāmy aho mama bhāgya-prakarṣa iti svānubhavam āviṣkurvan arjuna uvāca paśyāmīti | paśyāmi cākṣuṣa-jñāna-viṣayīkaromi he deva tava dehe viśvarūpe devān vasv-ādīn sarvān | tathā bhūta-viśeṣāṇāṃ sthāvarāṇāṃ jaṅgamānāṃ ca nānā-saṃsthānānāṃ saṃghān samūhān | tathā brahmāṇam caturmukham īśam īśitāraṃ sarveṣāṃ kamalāsana-stham pṛthvī-padma-madhye meru-karṇikāsana-sthaṃ bhagavan-nābhi-kamalāsanastham iti vā | tathā ṛṣīṃś ca sarvān vaśiṣṭādīn brahma-putrān | uragāṃś ca divyān prākṛtān vāsuki-prabhṛtīn paśyāmīti sarvatrānvayaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


bhūta-viśeṣāṇāṃ jarāyujādīnāṃ saṅghān | kamalāsana-sthaṃ pṛthvī-padma-karṇikāyāṃ sumerau sthitaṃ brahmāṇam
 

Baladeva


kim abhāṣata tad āha paśyāmīti saptadaśabhiḥ | tathā bhūta-viśeṣāṇāṃ jarāyujādīnāṃ saṃghān paśyāmi | brahmāṇam caturmukham kamalāsane caturmukhe sthitam tad-antaryāmiṇam īśam garbhodaka-śayam urugān vāsuky-ādīn sarpān
 
 


BhG 11.16

aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netraṃ paśyāmi tvā sarvato nanta-rūpam
nāntaṃ na madhyaṃ na punas tavādiṃ paśyāmi viśveśvara viśva-rūpa

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syntax


he viśveśvara (O ruler of all!) he viśva-rūpa (O postaci wszystkiego!),
[aham] (I) aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netram (who has many arms, bellies, mouths and eyes) ananta-rūpam (whose forms are unlimited) tvā (you) sarvataḥ (from all sides) paśyāmi (I see),
punaḥ (again) [aham] (I) tava (your) ādim (beginning) madhyam (middle) antam (end) na paśyāmi (I do not see).

 

grammar

aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netram an-eka-bāhu-udara-vaktra-netra 2n.1 m.; BV: yasyānekāni bāhavaś codarāṇi ca vaktrāṇi ca netrāṇi ca santi tamwho has many arms, bellies, mouths and eyes (from: an-eka – not one, many; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm; udara – belly; vac – to speak, vaktra – mouth, face; – to lead, netra – leading, an eye);
paśyāmi dṛś (to see) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
tvā yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you (shortened form of: tvām);
sarvataḥ av.from all sides, everywhere, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
ananta-rūpam ananta-rūpa 2n.1 m.; BV: yasyānantāni rūpāṇi santi tamwhose forms are unlimited (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death, an-anta – without end, endless; rūp – to form, rūpa – shape, figure, beauty);
na av.not;
antam anta 2n.1 m.end, limit, settlement, inside, nature;
na av.not;
madhyam madhya 2n.1 n. middle;
na av.not;
punaḥ av.back, again;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
ādim ādi 2n.1 m.beginning, origin;
paśyāmi dṛś (to see) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
viśveśvara viśva-īśvara 8n.1 n.; KD: viśvasyeśvareti O ruler of all! (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
viśva-rūpa viśva-rūpa 8n.1 n.; BV: yasya viśvaṁ rūpam asti saḥO you whose form is of everything! (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world; rūp – to form, rūpa – shape, figure, beauty);

 

textual variants


tvā → tvām (you);
tavādiṁ → tvādyaṁ (you primeval);
viśveśvarasarveśvara (O ruler of all);
viśva-rūpa → viśva-rūpaṁ ([I see you] whose form is of everything);
 
 



Śāṃkara


aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netram aneke bāhavar udarāṇi vaktrāṇi netrāṇi ca yasya tava sa tvam aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netras tam aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netram | paśyāmi tvā tvāṃ sarvataḥ sarvatrānanta-rūpam anantāni rūpāṇy asya ity ananta-rūpas tam ananta-rūpam | nāntam, anto’vasānam, na madhyam, madhyaṃ nāma dvayoḥ koṭyor antaram | na punas tavādiṃ—na devasyāntaṃ paśyāmi, na madhyaṃ paśyāmi, na punar ādiṃ paśyāmi | he viśveśvara viśva-rūpa
 

Rāmānuja


anekabāhūdaravaktranetram anantarūpaṃ tvāṃ sarvataḥ paśyāmi; viśveśvara viśvasya niyantaḥ, viśvarūpa viśvaśarīra! yatas tvam anantaḥ, atas tava nāntaṃ na madhyaṃ na punas tavādiṃ ca paśyāmi
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca aneketi | anekāni bāhv-ādīni yasya tādṛśaṃ tvāṃ paśyāmi | anantāni rūpāṇi yasya taṃ tvāṃ sarvataḥ paśyāmi | tava tvaṃ taṃ madhyamādiṃ ca na paśyāmi
 

Madhusūdana


yatra bhagavad-dehe sarvam idaṃ dṛṣṭavān, tam eva viśinaṣṭi aneketi | bāhava udarāṇi vaktrāṇi netrāṇi cānekāni yasya tam aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netraṃ paśyāmi | tvā tvāṃ sarvataḥ sarvatrānantāni rūpāṇi yasyeti taṃ | tava tu punar nāntam avasānaṃ na madhyaṃ nāpy ādiṃ paśyāmi sarva-gatatvāt | he viśveśvara ! he viśva-rūpa ! sambodhana-dvayam atisambhramāt
 

Viśvanātha


he viśveśvara ādi-puruṣa
 

Baladeva


yatra dehe devādīn dṛṣṭavāṃs taṃ viśinaṣṭi aneketi | he viśvarūpa prathama-puruṣa!
 
 


BhG 11.17

kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca tejo-rāśiṃ sarvato dīptimantam
paśyāmi tvāṃ durnirīkṣyaṃ samantād dīptānalārka-dyutim aprameyam

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syntax


[aham] (I) kirīṭinam (who has a diadem) gadinam (who has a club) cakriṇam ca (and who has a disc) sarvataḥ (from all sides) dīpti-mantam (who has brightness) tejo-rāśim (with a mass of light) dīptānalārka-dyutim (whose lustre is like blazing fire and the sun) aprameyam (immeasurable) durnirīkṣyam (difficult to behold) tvām (you) samantāt (on all sides) paśyāmi (I see).

 

grammar

kirīṭinam kirīṭin 2n.1 m.who has a diadem (from: kirīṭa – diadem, crown; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
gadinam gadin 2n.1 m.who has a club (from: gadā – mace, club; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
cakriṇam cakrin 2n.1 m.who has a disc (from: car – to move or from: kṛ – to do, cakra – wheel, cycle, discus; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
ca av.and;
tejo-rāśim tejo-rāśi 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya tejaso rāśir asti tamwho has a mass of light (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate, tejas – sharpness, heat, splendour, light; rāśi – heap, mass, multitude);
sarvataḥ av.from all sides, everywhere, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
dīptimantam dīptimant 2n.1 m.who has brightness (from: xdīp – to blaze, to shine, dīpti – brightness, light; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
paśyāmi dṛś (to see) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
durnirīkṣyam durnirīkṣya (duḥ-niḥ-xīkṣ – to see with difficulty) PF 2n.1 m.difficult to behold;
samantāt av. (5n.1) – from all sides, completely (from: sam-anta – being on every side, entire, having the ends together);
dīptānalārka-dyutim dīpta-anala-arka-dyuti 2n.1 m.; DV / BV: yasya dīptasyānalasyārkasya ca dyutir asti tamwhose lustre is like blazing fire and the sun (from: xdīp – to blaze, to shine, [PP] dīpta – blazing, flaming; an – to breath, to live, anala – fire; xarc – to shine, to praise, arka – Sun; div – to shine, dyu – day, heaven, brightness, dyuti – majesty, brightness, splendour);
aprameyam a-pra-meya (pra- – to measure) PF 2n.1 m.not to be measured, immeasurable;

 

textual variants


tvāṃ → tvā (you);
durnirīkṣyaṃ → durnirīkṣaṃ (seen with difficulty);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
kirīṭiānaṃ kirīṭāṃ nāma śirobhūṣaṇaviśeṣas tat yasyāsti saḥ kirīṭī taṃ kirīṭiānam, tathā gadinaṃ gadāsya vidyate iti gadī taṃ gadinam, tathā cakriṇaṃ caktram asyāstīti cakrī taṃ cakriṇaṃ ca, tejo-rāśiṃ tejaḥpujaṃ sarvatodīptimantaṃ sarvatodīptir asyāstīti sarvatodīptimān, taṃ sarvatodīptimantaṃ paśyāmi tvāṃ durnirīkṣyaṃ samantāt samantataḥ sarvatra dīptānalārkadyutim analaś cārkaś cānalārkau dīptau analārkau dīptānalārkau tayoḥ dīptānalārkayoḥ dyutiriva dyutis tejo yasya tava sa tvaṃ dīptānalārkadyutis taṃ tvāṃ dīptānalārkadyatim aprameyaṃ na prameyam aśakyaparicchedam ity etat
 

Rāmānuja


tejorāśiṃ sarvato dīptimantaṃ samantād durnirīkṣaṃ dīptānalārkadyutim aprameyaṃ tvāṃ kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca paśyāmi
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca kirīṭinam iti | kirīṭinaṃ mukuṭavantam | gadinaṃ gadāvantaṃ | cakriṇaṃ cakravantaṃ ca | sarvato dīptimantam tejaḥ-puñja-rūpaṃ tathā durnirīkṣyaṃ draṣṭum aśakyam | tatra hetuḥ – dīptayor analārkayor dyutir iva dyutis tejo yasya tam | ataevāprameyam evaṃbhūta iti niścetum aśakyaṃ tvāṃ samantataḥ paśyāmi
 

Madhusūdana


tam eva viśvarūpaṃ bhagavantaṃ prakārānantaraṃ viśinaṣṭi kirīṭinam iti | kirīṭa-gadā-cakra-dhāriṇaṃ ca sarvato dīptimantam tejo-rāśiṃ ca | ataeva durnirīkṣyaṃ divyena cakṣuṣā vinā nirīkṣitum aśakyam | sayakāra-pāṭhe duḥśabdo ‚pahnava-vacanaḥ | anirīkṣyam iti yāvat | dīptayor analārkayor dyutir iva dyutir yasya tam aprameyam iti paricchettum aśakyaṃ samantāt sarvataḥ paśyāmi divyena cakṣuṣā | ato ‚dhikāri-bhedād durnirīkṣaṃ paśyāmīti na virodhaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.18
 

Baladeva


vidhāntareṇa tam eva viśinaṣṭi kirīṭinam iti | durnirīkṣyam api tvām ahaṃ paśyāmi tat-prasādād divya-cakṣur-lābhāt | durnirīkṣyāyāṃ hetuḥ – samantād dīptānaleti | aprameyam idam ittham iti pramātum aśakyam
 
 


BhG 11.18

tvam akṣaraṃ paramaṃ veditavyaṃ tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam
tvam avyayaḥ śāśvata-dharma-goptā sanātanas tvaṃ puruṣo mato me

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syntax


tvam (you) veditavyam (to be known) paramam akṣaram (the supreme imperishable) [asi] (you are),
tvam (you) asya viśvasya (of this all) param nidhānam (supreme resting place) [asi] (you are),
tvam (you) avyayaḥ (unchangeable) śāśvata-dharma-goptā (the protector of the eternal law) [asi] (you are),
tvam (you) sanātanaḥ puruṣaḥ (eternal person) [asi] (you are),
[iti] me mataḥ (my opinion) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
akṣaram a-kṣara 1n.1 n. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
paramam parama 1n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
veditavyam veditavya (vid – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 m.to be known;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
asya idam sn. 6n.1 m.of this;
viśvasya viśva 6n.1 m.of all, whole, world (from: viś – to enter);
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
nidhānam nidhāna 1n.1 n.storage place, receptacle, treasure (from: ni-dhā – to put, to deposit);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
avyayaḥ a-vyaya 1n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
śāśvata-dharma-goptā śāśvata-dharma-goptṛ 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śaśvatasya dharmasya gopteti protector of the eternal law (from: śaśvat – eternal, perpetual, numerous, śāśvata – eternal, permanent; dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law; xgup – to guard, to protect; goptṛ – protector);
sanātanaḥ sanātana 1n.1 m.eternal, primeval;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
mataḥ mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 m. regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);

 

textual variants


śāśvata-dharma-goptā → sātvata-dharma-goptā / śaśvata-dharma-goptā (the protector of the law of the Sātvatas);
puruṣo → puruṣa (O Man!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ita eva te yoga-śakti-darśanāt anuminomi—
tvam akṣaraṃ na kṣaratīti, paramaṃ brahma veditavyaṃ jñātavyaṃ mumukṣubhiḥ | tvam asya viśvasya samastasya jagataḥ paraṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ nidhānaṃ nidhīyate’sminn iti nidhānaṃ para āśraya ity arthaḥ | kiṃ ca, tvam avyayo na tava vyayo vidyata ity avyayaḥ | śāśvata-dharma-goptā śaśvad-bhavaḥ śāśvato nityo dharmas tasya goptā śāśvata-dharma-goptā | sanātanaś cirantanas tvaṃ puruṣaḥ paramaḥ mato’bhipretaḥ me mama
 

Rāmānuja


upaniṣatsu, „dve vidye veditavye” ityādiṣu veditavyatayā nirdiṣṭaṃ paramam akṣaraṃ tvam eva; asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam viśvasyāsya paramādhārabhūtas tvam eva; tvam avyayaḥ vyayarahitaḥ; yat svarūpo yadguṇo yadvibhavaś ca tvam, tenaiva rūpeṇa sarvadāvatiṣṭhase / śāśvatadharmagoptā śāśvatasya nityasya vaidikasya dharmasya evam ādibhir avatārais tvam eva goptā / sanātanas tvaṃ puruṣo mato me „vedāham etaṃ puruṣaṃ mahāntaṃ”, „parāt paraṃ puruṣam” ityādiṣūditaḥ sanātanapuruṣas tvam eveti me mataḥ jñātaḥ / yad ukulatilakas tvam evaṃbhūta idānīṃ sākṣātkṛto mayetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara

yasmād evaṃ tavātakaiśvaryaṃ tasmāt tvam iti | tvam evākṣaraṃ paramaṃ brahma | kathambhūtam ? veditavyaṃ mumukṣubhir jñātavyam | tvam evāsya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam | nidhīyate ‚sminn iti nidhānaṃ prakṛṣṭāśrayaḥ | ataeva tvam avyayo nityaḥ | śāśvatasya nityasya dharmasya goptā pālakaḥ | sanātanaś cirantanaḥ puruṣaḥ | mato me saṃmato ‚si mama
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ tavātarkya-niratiśayiśvarya-darśanād anuminomi tvam iti | tvam evākṣaraṃ paramaṃ brahma veditavyaṃ mumukṣubhir vedānta-śravaṇādinā | tvam evāsya viśvasya paraṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ nidhīyate ‚sminn iti nidhānam āśrayaḥ | ataeva tvam avyayo nityaḥ | śāśvatasya nitya-veda-pratipādyatayāsya dharmasya goptā pālayitā | śāśvateti sambodhanaṃ vā | tasmin pakṣe ‚vyayo vināśa-rahitaḥ | ataeva sanātanaś cirantanaḥ puruṣo yaḥ paramātmā sa eva tvaṃ me mato vidito ‚si
 

Viśvanātha


veditavyaṃ muktair jñeyam yad akṣaraṃ brahma-tattvam | nidhānaṃ laya-sthānam
 

Baladeva


acintya-mahaiśvarya-vīkṣaṇāt tvam aham evaṃ niścinomīty āha tvam iti | atha parā yayā tad akṣaram adhigamyate, yat tad adṛśyam [MuṇḍU 1.5-6] ity ādi-vedānta-vākyair veditavyaṃ yat paramaṃ sa-śrīkam akṣaraṃ tattvam eva nidhānam āśrayo ‚vyayas tvam avināśī śāśvata-dharma-goptā vedokta-dharma-pālakas tvam | sa kāraṇaṃ kāraṇādhipādhipo na cāsya kaścij janitā na cādhipaḥ [ŚvetU 6.9] iti mantra-varṇoktaḥ sanātanaḥ purāṇaḥ puruṣas tvam eva
 
 


BhG 11.19

anādi-madhyāntam ananta-vīryam ananta-bāhuṃ śaśi-sūrya-netram
paśyāmi tvāṃ dīpta-hutāśa-vaktraṃ sva-tejasā viśvam idaṃ tapantam

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syntax


[aham] (I) anādi-madhyāntam (who has no beginning, middle or end) ananta-vīryam (whose valour is unlimited) ananta-bāhum (whose arms are innumerable) śaśi-sūrya-netram (whose eyes are the Moon and the Sun) dīpta-hutāśa-vaktram (in whose mouth there is a blazing oblation-eater) sva-tejasā (with own radiance) idam viśvam (this world) tapantam (who is scorching) tvām (you) paśyāmi (I see).

 

grammar

anādi-madhyāntam an-ādi-madhya-anta 2n.1 m.; DV / BV: yasyādiś ca madhyaṁ cāntaś ca na vidyate tam who has no beginning, middle or end (from: ādi – beginning; madhya – middle; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
ananta-vīryam ananta-vīrya 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya vīryasyāntaḥ nāsti tam / yasya vīryam ananam asti tam whose valour is unlimited (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death, an-anta – without end, endless; vīrya – manliness, valour, strenght, semen);
ananta-bāhum ananta-bāhu 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhavo ‘nanāḥ santi tam whose arms are innumerable (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death, an-anta – without end, endless; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
śaśi-sūrya-netram śaśi-sūrya-netra 2n.1 m.; DV / BV: yasya śaśī ca sūryaś ca netre staḥ tam whose eyes are the Moon and the Sun (from: śaśa – rabbit, hare, śaśin – with a [sign of a] rabbit, Moon; sūrya – Sun; – to lead, netra – leading, an eye);
paśyāmi dṛś (to see) Praes. P 3v.1I see;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
dīpta-hutāśa-vaktram dīpta-hutāśa-vaktra 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya vaktreṣu dīpto hutāśa ‘sti tam in whose mouth there is a blazing oblation-eater (from: xdīp – to blaze, to shine, [PP] dīpta – blazing, flaming; hu – to offer into fire, [PP] huta offered in sacrifice; – to reach, to eat, to enjoy, āśa – suffix: one who eats; vac – to speak, vaktra – mouth, face);
sva-tejasā sva-tejas 3n.1 n.; [TP]: svasya tejasetiwith own radiance (from: sva – own; tij – to sharpen, to tolerate, tejas – sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, light);
viśvam viśva 2n.1 m.all, whole, world (from: viś – to enter);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
tapantam tapant (tap – to scorch) PPr 2n.1 m.who is scorching;

 

textual variants


tvāṃ → tvā (you);
viśvam idaṃ tapantam → viśvam anaṃta-rūpaṃ (world, unlimited form);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
anādi-madhyāntam ādi ca madhyaṃ cāntaś ca na vidyate yasya so’yam anādi-madhyāntas, taṃ tvām anādi-madhyāntam | ananta-vīryaṃ na tava vīryasyānto’stīty ananta-vīryas, taṃ tvām ananta-vīryam | tathānanta-bāhum anantā bāhavo yasya tava sa tvam, ananta-bāhus taṃ tvām ananta-bāhum | śaśi-sūrya-netraṃ śaśi-sūryau netre yasya tava sa tvaṃ śaśi-sūrya-netras, taṃ tvāṃ śaśi-sūrya-netraṃ candrāditya-nayanam | paśyāmi tvāṃ dīpta-hutāśa-vaktraṃ dīptaś cāsau hutāśaś ca vaktraṃ yasya tava sa tvaṃ dīpta-hutāśa-vaktras, taṃ tvāṃ dīpta-hutāśa-vaktram | sva-tejasā viśvam idaṃ samastaṃ tapantam
 

Rāmānuja


anādimadhyāntam ādimadhyāntarahitam / anantavīryam anavadhikātiśayavīryam; vīryaśabdaḥ pradarśanārthaḥ; anavadhikātiśayajñānabalāiśvaryavīryaśaktitejasāṃ nidhim ityarthaḥ / anantabāhum asaṃkhyeyabāhum / so ‚pi pradarśanārthaḥ; anantabāhūdarapādavaktrādikam / śaśisūryanetram śaśivat sūryavac ca prasādapratāpayuktasarvanetram / devādīn anukūlān namaskārādi kurvāṇān prati prasādaḥ, tadviparītān asurarākṣasādīn prati pratāpaḥ; „rakṣāṃsi bhītāni diśo dravanti sarve namasyanti ca siddhasaṃghāḥ” iti hi vakṣyate / dīptahutāśavaktram pradīptakālānalavat saṃhārānuguṇavaktram / svatejasā viśvam idaṃ tapantam / tejaḥ parābhibhavanasāmarthyam; svakīyena tejasā viśvam idaṃ tapantaṃ tvāṃ paśyāmi evambhūtaṃ sarvasya sraṣṭāraṃ sarvasyādhārabhūtaṃ sarvasya praśāsitāraṃ sarvasya saṃhartāraṃ jñānādyaparimitaguṇasāgaram ādimadhyāntarahitam evaṃbhūtadivyadehaṃ tvāṃ yathopadeśaṃ sākṣātkaromītyarthaḥ / ekasmin divyadehe anekodarādikaṃ katham? / ittham upapadyate / ekasmāt kaṭipradeśād anantaparimāṇād ūrdhvam udgatā yathoditodarādayaḥ, adhaś ca yathoditadivyapādāḥ; tatraikasmin mukhe netradvayam iti ca na virodhaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca anādīti | anādi-madhyāntam utpatti-sthiti-laya-rahitam | ananta-vīryam anantaṃ vīryaṃ prabhāvo yasya tam | anantā vīryavanto bāhavo yasya tam | śaśi-sūryau netre yasya tādṛśaṃ tvāṃ paśyāmi | tathā dīpto hutāśo ‚gnir vaktreṣu yasya tam | svatejasedaṃ viśvaṃ viśvam santapantam paśyāmi
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca anādīti | ādir utpattir madhyaṃ sthitir anto vināśas tad-rahitam anādi-madhyāntam | anantaṃ vīryaṃ prabhāvo yasya tam | anantā bāhavo yasya tam | upalakṣaṇam etan mukhādīnām api | śaśi-sūryau netre yasya tam | dīpto hutāśo vaktraṃ yasya vaktreṣu yasyeti vā tam | svatejasā viśvaṃ idaṃ tapantam santāpayantaṃ tvā tvāṃ paśyāmi
 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca anādīty atra mahā-vismaya-rasa-sindhu-nimagnasyārjunasya vacasi paunaruktyaṃ na doṣāya | yad uktaṃ prasāde vismaye harṣe dvi-trir-uktaṃ na duṣyati
 

Baladeva


anādīti | ādi-madhyāvasāna-śūnyam anantāni vīryāṇi tad-upalakṣaṇāni samagrāṇy aiśvaryāṇi ṣaṭ yasya tam ananta-bāhuṃ sahasra-bhujaṃ śaśi-sūryopamāni netrāṇi yasya taṃ | devādiṣu praṇateṣu prasanna-netraṃ tad-viparīteṣu asurādiṣu krūra-netram ity arthaḥ | dīpta-hutāśopamāni saṃhārānuguṇāni vaktrāṇi yasya tam | arjunasya vākye kvacit punar-uktis tasya vismayāviṣṭatvān na doṣāya | yad uktaṃ prasāde vismaye harṣe dvi-trir-uktaṃ na duṣyati iti
 
 


BhG 11.20

dyāvā-pṛthivyor idam antaraṃ hi vyāptaṃ tvayaikena diśaś ca sarvāḥ
dṛṣṭvādbhutaṃ rūpam idaṃ tavograṃ loka-trayaṃ pravyathitaṃ mahātman

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syntax


he mahātman (O you whose self is great!),
ekena tvayā hi (indeed by you alone) dyāvā-pṛthivyoḥ (of heaven and earth) idam antaram (this interior) vyāptam (pervaded),
sarvāḥ ca diśaḥ (and all directions) [vyāptāḥ] (pervaded),
tava (your) idam ugram (this terrible) adbhutam (wonderful) rūpam (form) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing)
loka-trayam (the three worlds) pravyathitam (perturbed) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

dyāvā-pṛthivyoḥ dyāvā-pṛthivī 6n.2 f.of heaven and earth (from: div – to shine, dyu – day, heaven, dualis dyāvā – heaven; pṛth – to extend, pṛthu – broad, extensive, great, pṛthivī – earth);
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
antaram antara 1n.1 n.inside;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
vyāptam vyāpta (vi-āp – to pervade) 1n.1 n.pervaded, covered;
tvayā yuṣmat sn. 3n.1by you;
ekena eka sn. 3n.1 n.by one;
diśaḥ dik 1n.3 f.directions (from: diś – to show);
ca av.and;
sarvāḥ sarva sn. 1n.3 f.all;
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
adbhutam ad-bhuta 2n.1 n.supernatural, marvellous, wonderful;
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
idam idam sn. 2n.1 n.this;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
ugram ugra 2n.1 n. powerful, terrible, cruel;
loka-trayam loka-traya 1n.1 n.; lokānāṁ trayam itithe three worlds (from: loka – world; tri – three; traya – triple);
pravyathitam pravyathita (pra-vyath – to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid) [PP] 1n.1 n.perturbed;
mahātman mahā-ātman 8n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā mahān asti saḥO you whose self is great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);

 

textual variants


vyāptaṁvyāptāḥ (pervaded);
rūpam idaṁ tavograṁ → rūpam idaṁ tavedṛg / rūpam ugraṁ tavedaṁ / rūpam udagra-rūpaṁ tavedaṁ (this form of yours of this kind / your terrible form / this for of yours, elevated form);
 
 



Śāṃkara


dyāv-āpṛthivyor idam antaraṃ hy antarikṣaṃ vyāptaṃ tvayaikena viśva-rūpa-dhareṇa diśaś ca sarvā vyāptāḥ | dṛṣṭvā upalabhyādbhutaṃ vismāpakaṃ rūpam idaṃ tavograṃ krūraṃ lokānāṃ trayaṃ loka-trayaṃ pravyathitaṃ bhītaṃ pracalitaṃ vā | he mahātman ! akṣudra-svabhāva
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃbhūtaṃ tvāṃ dṛṣṭvā devādayo ‚haṃ ca pravyathitā bhavāma ity āha
dyuśabdaḥ pṛthivīśabdaś cobhau uparitanānām adhastanānāṃ ca lokānāṃ pradarśanārthau / dyāvāpṛthivyoḥ antaram avakāśaḥ / yasminn avakāse sarve lokās tiṣṭhanti, sarvo ‚yam avakāśo diśaś ca sarvās tvayaikena vyāptāḥ / dṛṣṭvādbhutaṃ rūpam ugraṃ tavedam anantāyām avistāram atyadbhutam atyugraṃ ca rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā lokatrayaṃ pravyathitam yuddhadidṛkṣayā āgateṣu brahmādidevāsurapitṛgaṇasiddhagandharvayakṣarākṣaseṣu pratikūlānukūlamadhyastharūpaṃ lokatrayaṃ sarvaṃ pravyathitam atyantabhītam / mahātman aparicchedyamanovṛtte / eteṣām apy arjunasyaiva viśvāśrayarūpasākṣātkārasādhanaṃ divyaṃ cakṣur bhagavatā dattam / kim artham iti cet, arjunāya svāiśvaryaṃ sarvaṃ pradarśayitum / ata idam ucyate, „dṛṣṭvādbhutaṃ rūpam ugraṃ tavedaṃ lokatrayaṃ pravyarthitaṃ mahātman” iti
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca dyāv-āpṛthivyor iti | dyāv-āpṛthivyor idam antaram antarīkṣaṃ tvayaivaikena vyāptam | diśaś ca sarvā vyāptāḥ | adbhutaṃ adṛṣṭa-pūrvam | tvadīyam idam ugraṃ ghoraṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā loka-trayaṃ pravyathitam atibhītam | paśyāmīti pūrvasyaivānuṣaṅgaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


prakṛtasya bhagavad-rūpasya vyāptim āha dyāv-āpṛthivyor iti | dyāv-āpṛthivyor idam antaram antarīkṣaṃ hi tvayaivaikena vyāptam | diśaś ca sarvā vyāptāḥ | dṛṣṭvādbhutam atyanta-vismaya-karam idam ugraṃ duradhigamaṃ mahātejasvitvāt tava rūpam upalabhya loka-trayaṃ pravyathitam atyanta-bhītaṃ jātaṃ he mahātman sādhūnām abhaya-dāyaka | itaḥ param idam upasaṃharety abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


atha prastopayogitvāt tasyaiva rūpasya kāla-rūpatvaṃ darśayāmāsa dyāvety ādi daśabhiḥ
 

Baladeva


atha tasyaiva rūpasya prakṛtyopayogitvena kāla-rūpatāṃ darśitavān ity āha dyāveti daśabhiḥ | dyāv-āpṛthivyor antaram antarīkṣaṃ tathā sarvā diśaś caikena tvayā vyāptam | tavedam aparimitam adbhutam ugraṃ ca rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā loka-trayaṃ pravyathitam bhītaṃ saṃcalanaṃ ca bhavati | he mahātman sarvāśraya ! atredam avagamyate tadā yuddha-darśanāya ye trailokyasthā mitrodāsīnā devāsurā gandharva-kinnarādayḥ samāgatās tair api bhaktimadbhir bhagavad-datta-divya-netrais tad-rūpaṃ dṛṣṭaṃ na tv ekenaivārjunena svapateva svāpnika-rathādīni nijaiśvaryasya bahu-sākṣikatārtham etat
 
 


BhG 11.21

amī hi tvā sura-saṃghā viśanti ke-cid bhītāḥ prāñjalayo gṛṇanti
svastīty uktvā maha-rṣi-siddha-saṃghāḥ stuvanti tvāṃ stutibhiḥ puṣkalābhiḥ

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syntax


amī sura-saṅghāḥ (those hosts of gods) tvā (in you) viśanti hi (indeed they enter),
[teṣu] (among them) kecit devāḥ (some gods) bhītāḥ (who are afraid) prāñjalayaḥ (with folded hands) [tvām] (you) gṛṇanti (they call).
maharṣi-siddha-saṁghāḥ (hosts of great sages and perfected beings) svasti iti („auspicious!”) uktvā (after speaking)
puṣkalābhiḥ stutibhiḥ (with many hymns) tvām (you) stuvanti (they praise).

 

grammar

amī adas sn. 1n.3 m.those (pronoun indicating sth far, not seen with the eyes);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
tvā yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you (shortened form of: tvām);
sura-saṁghāḥ sura-saṁgha 2n.3 m.; [TP]: surāṇāṁ saṁghā iti hosts of gods (from: sur – to reign or svar – heaven, sura – god; sam-xhan – to strike together, to join, saṁ-gha – collection, assemblage, crowd);
viśanti viś (to enter) Praes. P 1v.3they enter;
ke-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.3 m.some persons (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
bhītāḥ bhīta (bhī – to scare) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are afraid;
prāñjalayaḥ pra-añjali 1n.3 m.those with folded hands (from: añj – to decorate, to annoint, to honour, pra-añjali – respect, salutation, joined palms slighty hollowed);
gṛṇanti xgṝ (to invoke, to praise) Praes. P 1v.3they invoke, they praise;
svasti av.may it be well!, auspicious! (from: su-asti – goodness, well-being);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
uktvā vac (to speak) absol.after speaking;
maha-rṣi-siddha-saṁghāḥ maha-rṣi-siddha-saṁgha 2n.3 m.; DV / [TP]: maharṣīṇāṁ ca siddhānāṁ ca saṁghā iti hosts of great sages and perfected beings (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ṛṣ – to flow, to move quickly, or dṛś – to see; ṛṣi – sage, seer; sidh – to succeed, to become perfect [PP] siddha – accomplished, perfected; sam-xhan – to strike together, to join, saṁ-gha – collection, assemblage, crowd);
stuvanti xstu (to praise, to sing) Praes. P 1v.3they praise;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
stutibhiḥ stuti 3n.3 f.with praises, prayers, hymns (from: xstu – to praise, to sing);
puṣkalābhiḥ puṣkalā 3n.3 f.with many, magnificent, loud;

 

textual variants


tvāṁ → tvā (you);
gṛṇanti → ghṛṇanti;
svastīty uktvā maha-rṣi-siddha- svastīty coktvaiva maha-rṣi-saṁghāḥ (and hosts of great sages indeed after speaking: „auspicious!”);
tvā → tvāṁ (you);
 
 



Śāṃkara


athādhunā purā yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ [gītā 2.6] ity arjunasya yaḥ saṃśaya āsīt, tan-nirṇayāya pāṇḍava-jayam aikāntikaṃ darśayāmīti pravṛtto bhagavān | taṃ paśyann āha | kiṃ ca—
amī hi yudhyamānā yoddhāras tvā tvāṃ sura-saṃghāḥ ye’tra bhū-bhārāvatārāyāvatīrṇā vasv-ādi-deva-saṃghā manuṣya-saṃsthānās tvāṃ viśanti praviśanto dṛśyante | tatra kecit bhītāḥ prāñjalayaḥ santo gṛṇanti stuvanti tvām anye palāyane’py aśaktāḥ santaḥ | yuddhe pratyupasthita utpātādi-nimittāni upalakṣya svasty astu jagata iti uktvā maharṣi-siddha-saṃghāḥ maharṣīṇāṃ siddhānāṃ ca saṃghāḥ stuvanti tvāṃ stutibhiḥ puṣkalābhiḥ saṃpūrṇābhiḥ
 

Rāmānuja


amī surasaṃghāḥ utkṛṣṭās tvāṃ viśvāśrayam avalokya hṛṣṭamanasaḥ tvan samīpaṃ viśanti / teṣv eva kecid atyugram atyadbhutaṃ ca tavākāram ālokya bhītāḥ prāñjalayaḥ svajñānānuguṇaṃ stutirūpāṇi vākyāni gṛṇanti uccārayanti / apare maharṣisaṃghāḥ siddhasaṃghāś ca parāvaratattvayāthātmyavidaḥ svastīty uktvā puṣkalābhir bhavadanurūpābhiḥ stutibhiḥ stuvanti
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca amī hīti | amī sura-saṃghā bhītāḥ santas tvāṃ viśanti śaraṇaṃ praviśanti | teṣām madhye kecid atibhītā dūrata eva sthitvā kṛta-sampuṭa-kara-yugalāḥ santo gṛṇanti jaya jaya rakṣa rakṣeti prārthayante | spaṣṭam anyat
 

Madhusūdana


adhunā bhū-bhāra-saṃhara-kāritvam ātmanaḥ prakaṭayantaṃ bhagavantaṃ paśyann āha amīti | amī hi sura-saṃghā vasv-ādi-deva-gaṇā bhū-bhārāvatārārthaṃ manuṣya-rūpeṇāvatīrṇā yudhyamānāḥ santas tvā tvāṃ viśanti praviśanto dṛśyante | evam asura-saṅghā iti pada-cchedena bhū-bhāra-bhūtā duryodhanādayas tvāṃ viśantīty api vaktavyam | evam ubhayor api senayoḥ kecid bhītāḥ palāyane ‚py aśaktāḥ santaḥ prāñjalayo gṛṇanti stuvanti tvām | evaṃ pratyupasthite yuddha utpātādi-nimittāny upalakṣya svasty astu sarvasya jagata ity uktvā maharṣi-siddha-saṅghā nārada-prabhṛtayo yuddha-darśanārtham āgatā viśva-vināśa-parihārāya stuvanti tvāṃ stutibhir guṇotkarṣa-pratipādikābhir vāgbhiḥ puṣkalābhiḥ paripūrṇārthābhiḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tvā tvām
 

Baladeva


amī sura-saṅghās tvāṃ śaraṇaṃ viśanti | teṣu kecid bhītā dūrataḥ sthitvā prāñjalayaḥ santo gṛṇanti pāhi pāhi prabho asmān iti prārthayante | mahatīṃ bhītim ālakṣya maharṣi-saṅghāḥ siddha-saṅghāś ca viśvasya svasty astu ity uktvā stuvanti
 
 


BhG 11.22

rudrādityā vasavo ye ca sādhyā viśve śvinau marutaś coṣma-pāś ca
gandharva-yakṣāsura-siddha-saṃghā vīkṣante tvā vismitāś caiva sarve

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ye ca rudrādityāḥ (and those Rudras and the sons of Aditi) vasavaḥ (the Vasus) sādhyāḥ (the Sādhyas) viśve (all [gods]) aśvinau (the two Aśvinīs) marutaḥ (the winds) uṣma-pāḥ ca (and those drinking heat) gandharva-yakṣāsura-siddha-saṅghāḥ (hosts of gandharvas, yakṣas, demons and siddhas) sarve eva ca vismitāḥ (indeed all they surprised) tvā (you) vīkṣante (they look at).

 

grammar

rudrādityāḥ rudra-āditya 1n.3 m.; DV: rudrāś ca ādityāś ceti the Rudras and the descendants of Aditi (from: ru – to roar, rudra – roaring, terrible; one of the lists of eleven Rudras: aja, ekapāda, ahirbradhna, pinākin, aparājita, tryambaka, maheśvara, vṛṣākapi, śambhu, hara, īśvara; a-diti – boundless, free, abundance, perfection; daughter of Dakṣa, wife of Kaśyapa; āditya – descendant of Aditi, twelve sons of Aditi: dhātṛ, mitra, aryaman, rudra, varuṇa, sūrya, bhaga, vivasvant, pūṣan, savitṛ, tvaṣṭṛ, viṣṇu);
vasavaḥ vasu 1n.3 m.the Vasus (from: vas – to dwell, vasun. wealth, m. Vasu (one of eight), Kuvera, Śiva, Sun, fire; one of the lists of eight Vasus: bhava, dhruva, soma, viṣṇu, anila, anala, pratyuṣa, vibhava);
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
ca av.and;
sādhyāḥ sādhya (sādh – to succeed) PF 1n.3 m.to be mastered; the Sādhyas;
viśve viśva 1n.3 m.all [gods] (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world; pluralis: viśve = viśve-deva – a group of thirteen gods, sons of Dakṣa’s daughter namedViśvā: vasu, satya, kratu, dakṣa, kāla, kāma, dhṛti, kuru, purūravas, mādravas, rocaka, locana, dhvani, dhūri);
aśvinau aśvin 1n.2 m.the two Aśvinīs (from: aśva – horse; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses; aśvin – who has horses; phisicians of the divinities);
marutaḥ mārut 1n.3 m.the winds, the Maruts (marut – the god of wind; seven winds: āvaha, pravaha, vivaha, parāvaha, udvaha, saṁvaha, parivaha);
ca av.and;
uṣma-pāḥ uṣma-pa 1n.3 m.drinking heat; one of the group of ancestors (from: uṣma – heat; -pa – suffix: drinking);
ca av.and;
gandharva-yakṣāsura-siddha-saṁghāḥ gandharva-yakṣa-asura-siddha-saṁgha 1n.3 m.; DV: gandharvāś ca yakṣāś ca asurāś ca siddhāś ca teṣāṁ saṅghā iti hosts of gandharvas, yakṣas, demons and siddhas (from: gandharva – divine musician; yakṣ – to speed on, yakṣa – heavenly being, a servant of Kuvera; asura – opponent of the heavenly, demon; sidh – to succeed, to become perfect [PP] siddha – who are perfected; sam-xhan – to strike together, to join, saṁ-gha – collection, assemblage, crowd);
vīkṣante vi-īkṣ (to look at) Praes. P 1v.3they look at;
tvā yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you (shortened form of: tvām);
vismitāḥ vismita (vi-smi – to wonder) [PP] 1n.3 m. surprised;
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;

 

textual variants


viśve śvinau → viśve-devā (all gods);
gandharva-yakṣāsura-siddha-saṁghā gandharva-yakṣāḥ sura-siddha-saṁghā (gandharvas and yakṣas and hosts of gods and siddhas);
tvā → tvāṁ (you);
vismitāś caiva → vismitā eva (just surprised);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ cānyat—
rudrādityāḥ vasavo ye ca sādhyāḥ rudrādayo gaṇāḥ viśve-devā aśvinau ca devau marutaś ca ūṣmapā ca pitaraḥ, gandharvayakṣāsurasiddhasaṃghāḥ gandharṣaḥ hāhāhūhūprabhṛtayo yakṣāḥ kuberaprabhṛtayo’surāḥ virocanaprabhṛtayaḥ siddhāḥ kapilādayas teṣāṃ saṃghāḥ gandharvayakṣāsurasiddhasaṃghāḥ, te vīkṣante paśyanti tvāṃ vismitāḥ vismayamāpannāḥ santas te eva sarve
 

Rāmānuja


ūṣmapāḥ pitaraḥ, „ūṣmabhāgā hi pitaraḥ” iti śruteḥ / ete sarve vismayam āpannās tvāṃ vīkṣante
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ cānyat rudreti | rudrādityā vasavo ye ca sādhyāḥ | rudrādayao gaṇāḥ | viśve ‚śvinau | viśve devāḥ | aśvinau ca devau | marutaś ca vāyavaḥ | ūṣmapāś ca pitaraḥ | uṣmabhāgā hi pitaraḥ iti śruteḥ | smṛteś ca yāvad uṣṇaṃ bhaved annaṃ tāvad aśnanti vāgvatāḥ | tāvad aśnanti pitaro yāvan noktā havir guṇāḥ || iti | gandharvāś ca yakṣāś ca asurāś ca virocanādayaḥ | siddha-saṅghāḥ siddhānāṃ saṅghāś ca | sarva eva vismitāḥ santa tvāṃ vīkṣanta ity anvayaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ cānyat rudreti | rudrāś cādityāś ca vasavo ye ca sādhyā nāma deva-gaṇā viśve tulya-vibhaktika-viśvadeva-śabdābhyām ucyamānā deva-gaṇā aśvinau nāsatya-damrau maruta ekonapañcāśad-deva-gaṇā ūṣmapāś ca pitaro gandharvāṇāṃ yakṣāṇāṃ asurāṇāṃ siddhānāṃ ca saṃghāḥ samūhā vīkṣante paśyanti tvā tvāṃ tādṛśādbhuta-darśanāt te sarva eva vismitāś ca vismayam alaukika-camatkāra-viśeṣam āpadyante ca
 

Viśvanātha


uṣmāṇaṃ pibantīti uṣmapāḥ pitaraḥ | uṣmabhāgā hi pitaraḥ iti śruteḥ
 

Baladeva


rudreti sphuṭam | uṣmapāḥ pitaraḥ uṣmāṇaṃ pibanti iti nirukteḥ | uṣmabhāgā hi pitaraḥ iti śruteś ca
 
 


BhG 11.23

rūpaṃ mahat te bahu-vaktra-netraṃ mahābāho bahu-bāhūru-pādam
bahūdaraṃ bahu-daṃṣṭrā-karālaṃ dṛṣṭvā lokāḥ pravyathitās tathāham

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he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
te (your) bahu-vaktra-netram (in which are many mouths and eyes) bahu-bāhūru-pādam (in which are many arms, thighs and feet) bahūdaram (in which are many bellies) bahu-daṁṣṭrā-karālam (which is dreadful with many tusks) mahat rūpam (great form) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing)
lokāḥ (worlds) pravyathitāḥ (are perturbed)
tathā aham (as well as me) [pravyathitaḥ] (I am perturbed).

 

grammar

rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
mahat mahant 2n.1 n.great (mah – to magnify);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
bahu-vaktra-netram bahu-vaktra-netra 2n.1 n.; BV: yasmin bahūni vaktrāṇi ca netrāṇi ca santi tat in which are many mouths and eyes (from: bahu – many, great; vac – to speak, vaktra – mouth, face; – to lead, netra – leading, an eye);
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
bahu-bāhūru-pādam bahu-bāhu-ūru-pāda 2n.1 n.; DV / BV: yasmin bahavo bāhavaś ca ūravaś ca pādāś ca santi tat in which are many arms, thighs and feet  (from: bahu – many, great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm; ūru – thigh, shank; pad – to fall, to go, to apply to, pāda – foot, part);
bahūdaram bahu-udara 2n.1 n.; BV: yasmin bahūni udarāṇi santi tat in which are many bellies (from: bahu – many, great; udara – belly);
bahu-daṁṣṭrā-karālam bahu-daṁṣṭrā-karāla 2n.1 n.; [TP]: bahubhir daṁṣṭrābhiḥ karālam iti which is dreadful with many tusks (from: bahu – many, great; daṁś – to bite, daṁṣṭrā – tooth, tusk; karāla – opening wide, terrible);
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
lokāḥ loka 1n.3 m. worlds;
pravyathitāḥ pravyathita (pra-vyath – to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid) [PP] 1n.3 m.which are perturbed;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 
 



Śāṃkara


yasmāt—
rūpaṃ mahad atipramāṇaṃ te tava bahu-vaktra-netraṃ bahūni vaktrāṇi mukhāni cakṣūṃṣi ca yasmin tad rūpaṃ bahu-vaktra-netram | he mahā-bāho ! bahu-bāhūru-pādaṃ bahavo bāhava ūravaḥ pādāś ca yasmin rūpe tad bahu-bāhūru-pādam | kiṃ ca, bahūdaraṃ bahūni udarāṇi yasminn iti bahūdaram | bahu-daṃṣṭrā-karālaṃ bahvībhir daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālaṃ vikṛtaṃ tad bahu-daṃṣṭrā-karālam | dṛṣṭvā rūpam īdṛśaṃ lokā laukikāḥ prāṇinaḥ pravyathitāḥ pracalitā bhayena | tathāham api
 

Rāmānuja


bahvībhir daṃṣṭrābhir atibhīṣaṇākāraṃ lokāḥ pūrvoktāḥ pratikūlānukūlamadhyasthās trividhāḥ sarva eva ahaṃ ca tad evam īdṛśaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā atīva vyathitā bhavāmaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca rūpam iti | he mahā-bāho mahad atyūrjitaṃ tava rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā lokāḥ sarve pravyathitā atibhītāḥ | tathāhaṃ ca pravyathito ‚smi | kīdṛśaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā | bahūni vaktrāṇi netrāṇi ca yasmiṃs tat | bahavo bāhava ūravaḥ pādāś ca yasmiṃs tat | bahūny udarāṇi yasmiṃs tat | bahvībhir daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālaṃ vikṛtam | raudram ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


loka-trayaṃ pravyathitam ity uktam upasaṃharati rūpam iti | he mahā-bāho te tava rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā lokāḥ sarve ‚pi prāṇinaḥ pravyathitās tathāhaṃ pravyathito bhayena | kīdṛśaṃ te rūpaṃ ? mahad atipramāṇam | bahūni vaktrāṇi netrāṇi ca yasmiṃs tat | bahavo bāhava ūravaḥ pādāś ca yasmiṃs tat | bahūny udarāṇi yasmiṃs tat | bahubhir daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālam atibhayānakaṃ dṛṣṭvaiva mat-sahitāḥ sarve lokā bhayena pīḍitā ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.24
 

Baladeva


loka-trayaṃ pravyathitam ity uktam upasaṃharati rūpaṃ mahad iti | bahubhir daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālam raudram | sphuṭam anyat | tathāham ity asyottareṇa sambandhaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.24

nabhaḥ-spṛśaṃ dīptam aneka-varṇaṃ vyāttānanaṃ dīpta-viśāla-netram
dṛṣṭvā hi tvāṃ pravyathitāntarātmā dhṛtiṃ na vindāmi śamaṃ ca viṣṇo

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syntax


he viṣṇo (O Viṣṇu!),
tvām (your) nabhaḥ-spṛśam (which touches the sky) dīptam (blazing) aneka-varṇam (many-coloured) vyāttānanam (with gaping mouths) dīpta-viśāla-netram (with large blazing eyes) [mahat rūpam] (great form) dṛṣṭvā hi (indeed after seeing)
[aham] (I) pravyathitāntar-ātmā (whose inner self is perturbed) dhṛtim (firmness) śamam ca (and tranquility) na vindāmi (I do not find).

 

grammar

nabhaḥ-spṛśam nabhaḥ-spṛśa 2n.1 n.; yan nabhaḥ spṛśati tat which touches the sky (from: nabhas – the sky; spṛś – to touch, spṛśa – dotyk;);
dīptam dīpta (xdīp – to blaze, to shine) [PP] 2n.1 n.blazing, flaming;
aneka-varṇam aneka-varṇa 2n.1 n.; BV: yasya varṇā aneke santi tat which has many colours (from: an-eka – not one, many; varṇa – colour, social class);
vyāttānanam vyātta-ānana 2n.1 n.; BV: yasyānanāni vyāttāni santi tat whose mouths are gaping (from: vi-ā- – to open wide, [PP] vyātta – opened wide; an – to breath, to live, āna / ānana – mouth);
dīpta-viśāla-netram dīpta-viśāla-netra 2n.1 n.; BV: yasya netrāṇi dīptāni viśālāni ca santi tat whose eyes are blazing and large (from: xdīp – to blaze, to shine, [PP] dīpta – blazing, flaming; viś – to enter, or vi-śṛ???, viśāla – wide, extensive, great, mighty; – to lead, netra – leading, an eye);
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
pravyathitāntarātmā pravyathita-antar-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya antar-ātmā pravyathitaḥ asti saḥ whose inner self is peturbed (from: pra-vyath – to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid, PP.x pravyathita – perturbed; anta – end, limit, settlement, inside, nature, av. antaḥ – inside, within, in compounds: internal; ātman – self);
dhṛtim dhṛti 2n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
na av.not;
vindāmi vid (to find) Praes. P 3v.1 I find, I obtain;
śamam śama 2n.1 m.tranquility, calmness (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
ca av.and;
viṣṇo viṣṇu 8n.1 m.O pervader, O Viṣṇu! (from: vi-snu – to drip, to emit or vi-sru – to flow, to emit;
or may be from: viś – to enter or vi- – to reach, to fill, to penetrate or viṣ to perform;
the word does not contain suffix -snu – as it is eg in jiṣṇu – because vi unlike ji is not a verbal root;
here are some traditional definitions:
vyāptaṁ tvayaiva viśatā trailokyam sa-carācaram – the three worlds with moving and non-moving [creatures] are pervaded just by you Matsya-purāṇa 248.41;
viśeṣeṇa snauti prasravate gacchatīti viṣṇuḥ – Viṣṇu: particularly emits, flows forth, goesMbh.5.70.13;
viṣṇur viśater vā vyaśnoter vā – Viṣṇu [comes from] viśati or vyaśnoti [enters, reaches] Nirukti 12.18;
atha yad viśito bhavati tad viṣnur – thus what is let loose is Viṣṇu .
viṣṇāter viśater vā syād veveṣṭer vyāpti karmaṇaḥ
viṣṇur nirucyate sūryaḥ sarvaṁ sarvāntaraś ca yaḥ
The word Viṣṇu may come from these activities: viṣṇāti, viśati, veveṣṭi or vyāpti [acts, enters, is active, pervades]. Therefore the one who is all and is in all is called the Sun Bṛhad-devatā 2.69;

 

textual variants


aneka-varṇaṃ → aneka-vaktraṃ (which has many mouths);
tvāṃ → tvā (you);
 
 



Śāṃkara


nabhaḥ-spṛśaṃ dyu-sparśam ity arthaḥ | dīptaṃ prajvalitam | aneka-varṇam aneke varṇā bhayaṅkarāḥ nānā-saṃsthānā yasmin tvayi taṃ tvām aneka-varṇam | vyāttānanaṃ vyāttāni vivṛtāni ānanāni mukhāni yasmin tvayi taṃ tvāṃ vyāttānanam | dīpta-viśāla-netraṃ dīptāni prajvalitāni viśālāni vistīrṇāni netrāṇi yasmin tvayi taṃ tvāṃ dīpta-viśāla-netraṃ dṛṣṭvā hi tvāṃ pravyathitāntarātmā pravyathitaḥ prabhīto’ntarātmā mano yasya mama so’haṃ pravyathitāntarātmā san dhṛtiṃ dhairyaṃ na vindāmi na labhe śamaṃ copaśamanaṃ manas-tuṣṭim | he viṣṇo
 

Rāmānuja


namaśśabdaḥ „tad akṣare parame vyoman”, „ādityavarṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt”, „kṣayantam asya rajasaḥ parāke”, „yo asyādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman” ityādiśrutisiddhitriguṇaprakṛtyatītaparamavyomavācī; savikārasya prakṛtitattvasya, puruṣasya ca sarvāvasthasya, kṛtsnasyāśrayatayā nabhas spṛśam iti vacanāt; „dyāvāpṛthivyor idam antaraṃ hi vyāptam” iti pūrvoktatvāc ca / dīptam anekavarṇaṃ vyāttānanaṃ dīptaviśālanetraṃ tvāṃ dṛṣṭvā pravyathitāntarātmā atyantabhītamanāḥ dhṛtiṃ na vindāmi dehasya dhāraṇaṃ na labhe, manasaś cendriyāṇāṃ ca śamaṃ na labhe / viṣṇo vyāpin! / sarvavyāpinam atimātram atyadbhutam atighoraṃ ca tvāṃ dṛṣṭvā praśithikasarvāvayavo vyākulendriyaś ca bhavāmītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


na kevalaṃ bhīto ‚ham ity etāvad eva | api tu nabhaḥ-spṛśam iti | nabhaḥ spṛśatīti nabhaḥ-spṛk tam antarīkṣa-vyāpinam ity arthaḥ | dīptaṃ tejo-yuktam | aneke varṇā yasya tam | vyaktāni vivṛtāni ānanāni yasya tam | dīptāni viśālāni netrāṇi yasya tam | evambhūtaṃ hi tvāṃ dṛṣṭvā pravyathitāntarātmā mano yasya so ‚haṃ dhṛtiṃ dhairyam upaśamaṃ na labhe
 

Madhusūdana


bhayānakatvam eva prapañcayati nabha iti | na kevalaṃ pravyathita evāhaṃ tvāṃ dṛṣṭvā kintu pravyathito ‚ntarātmā mano yasya so ‚haṃ dhṛtiṃ dhairyaṃ dehendriyādi-dhāraṇa-sāmarthyaṃ śamaṃ ca manaḥ-prasādaṃ na vindāmi na labhe | he viṣṇo ! tvāṃ kīdṛśaṃ ? nabhaḥ-spṛśam antarīkṣa-vyāpinam | dīptaṃ prajvalitam aneka-varṇaṃ bhayaṅkara-nānā-saṃsthāna-yuktaṃ vyāttānanaṃ vivṛtta-mukhaṃ dīpta-viśāla-netraṃ prajvalita-vistīrṇa-cakṣuṣaṃ tvāṃ dṛṣṭvā pravyathitāntarātmāhaṃ dhṛtiṃ śamaṃ ca na vvindāmīty anvayaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


śamam upaśamam
 

Baladeva


tathaitad-rūpopasaṃhāra-phalakaṃ dainyaṃ prakāśayann āha nabhaḥ-spṛśam iti dvābhyām | ahaṃ ca tvāṃ dṛṣṭvā pravyathitāntarātmā bhītodvigna-manāḥ san dhṛtim upaśamaṃ ca na vindāmi na labhe | he viṣṇo ! kīdṛśaṃ ? nabhaḥ-spṛśam antarīkṣa-vyāpinam vyāttānanaṃ visṛtāsyam | vyaktārtham anyat | atra kāla-rūpatva-darśana-hetuko bhayānaka-rasaḥ svasyoktaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.25

daṃṣṭrā-karālāni ca te mukhāni dṛṣṭvaiva kālānala-saṃnibhāni
diśo na jāne na labhe ca śarma prasīda deveśa jagan-nivāsa

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syntax


te (your) daṁṣṭrā-karālāni (dreadful tusks) kālānala-sannibhāni ca (and similar to the fire of dissolution) mukhāni (faces) dṛṣṭvā eva (just after seeing)
[ahaṁ] (I) diśaḥ (directions) na jāne (I do not know),
[ahaṁ] ca (and I) śarma (shelter) na labhe (I do not obtain).
he deveśa (O lord of gods!), he jagan-nivāsa (O abode of the world!) prasīda (be satisfied).

 

grammar

daṁṣṭrā-karālāni daṁṣṭrā-karāla 2n.3 n.; [TP]: daṁṣṭrābhiḥ karālānītidreadful because of the tusks (from: daṁś – to bite, daṁṣṭrā – tooth, tusk; karāla – opening wide, terrible);
ca av.and;
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
mukhāni mukha 2n.3 n.faces, mouths;
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
kālānala-saṁnibhāni kāla-anala-saṁnibha 2n.3 n.; [TP]: kālānalasya saṁnibhānītisimilar to the fire of dissolution (from: kal – to count, kāla – time; an – to breath, to live, anala fire; kālānala – fire which destroys the world at the end of manifestation; bhā – to shine, to be bright, saṁnibha – similar, like);
diśaḥ dik 2n.3 f.directions (from: diś – to show);
na av.not;
jāne jñā (to know, to understand) Praes. Ā 3v.1I know;
na av.not;
labhe labh (to obtain) Praes. Ā 3v.1I obtain;
ca av.and;
śarma śarman 2n.1 n.shelters, comforts, joy (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on);
prasīda pra-sad (to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful) Imperat. P 2v.1be satisfied;
deveśa deva-īśa 8n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām īśetiO lord of gods! (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
jagan-nivāsa jagan-nivāsa 8n.1 m.; jagato nivāsetiO abode of the world! (from: gam – to go, jagat – world, moving, mankind; ni-vas – to dwell, to spend time, nivāsa – house, abode);

 

textual variants


deveśa → devīśa (O lord of the goddess!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kasmāt ?
daṃṣṭrā-karālāni daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālāni vikṛtāni te tava mukhāni dṛṣṭvaivopalabhya kālānala-saṃnibhāni pralaya-kāle lokānāṃ dāhako’gniḥ kālānalas tat-sadṛśāni kālānala-saṃnibhāni mukhāni dṛṣṭvety etat | diśaḥ pūrvāpara-vivekena na jāne diṅ-mūḍho jāto’smi | ato na labhe ca nopalabhe ca śarma sukham | ataḥ prasīda prasanno bhava he deveśa, jagan-nivāsa
 

Rāmānuja


yugāntakālānalavat sarvasaṃhāre pravṛttāni atighorāṇi tava mukhāni dṛṣṭvā diśo na jāne; sukhaṃ ca na labhe / jagatāṃ nivāsa deveśa brahmādīnām īśvarāṇām api paramamaheśvara! māṃ prati prasanno bhava / yathāhaṃ prakṛtiṃ gato bhavāmi, tathā kurv ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


daṃṣṭreti | he deveśa tava mukhāni dṛṣṭvā bhayāveśena diśo na jānāmi | śarma sukhaṃ ca na labhe | bho jagan-nivāsa prasanno bhava | kīdṛśāni mukhāni dṛṣṭvā ? daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālāni kālānalaḥ vikṛtatvena pralayāgniḥ | tat-sadṛśāni
 

Madhusūdana


daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālāni vikṛtatvena bhayaṅkarāṇi pralaya-kālānala-sadṛśāni ca te mukhāni dṛṣṭvaiva na tu tāni prāpya bhaya-vaśena diśaḥ pūrvāparādi-vivekena na jāne | ato na labhe ca śarma sukhaṃ tvad-rūpa-darśane ‚pi | ato he deveśa he jagannivāsa prasīda prasanno bhava māṃ prati | yathā bhavābhāvena tvad-darśanajaṃ sukhaṃ prāpnuyām iti śeṣaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


daṃṣṭreti | kālānalaḥ pralayāgnis tat-sannibhāni tat-tulyāni | śarma sukham
 
 


BhG 11.26-27

amī ca tvāṃ dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrāḥ sarve sahaivāvani-pāla-saṃghaiḥ
bhīṣmo droṇaḥ sūta-putras tathāsau sahāsmadīyair api yodha-mukhyaiḥ
vaktrāṇi te tvaramāṇā viśanti daṃṣṭrā-karālāni bhayānakāni
ke-cid vilagnā daśanāntareṣu saṃdṛśyante cūrṇitair uttamāṅgaiḥ

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syntax


amī ca sarve (and they all) dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrāḥ (sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) tathā (and) bhīṣmaḥ (Bhīṣma) droṇaḥ (Droṇa) asau sūta-putraḥ (that son of a charioteer) avani-pāla-saṅghaiḥ eva saha (just wtih the hosts of earth-protectors) asmatīyaiḥ yodha-mukhyaiḥ saha api (and even with our chief warriors) tvām tvaramāṇāḥ (to you hurrying) daṁṣṭrā-karālāni (dreadful teeth) bhayānakāni vaktrāṇi (fearful mouths) viśanti (they enter).
[teṣu] (among them) kecit (some persons) cūrṇitaiḥ (with crushed) uttamāṅgaiḥ [saha] (with heads) daśanāntareṣu (between the teeth) vilagnāḥ (stuck) saṁdṛśyante (they are seen).

 

grammar

amī adas sn. 1n.3 m.those (pronoun indicating sth far, not seen with the eyes);
ca av.and;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
dhṛtarāṣṭrasya dhṛta-rāṣṭra 6n.1 m.of one by whom the kingdom is held, of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (from: dhṛ – to hold [PP] dhṛta – held; rāṣṭra – kingdom);
putrāḥ putra 1n.3 m.sons (from: puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell);
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
saha av. along with (postposition, requires instrumental);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
avani-pāla-saṁghaiḥ avani-pāla-saṁgha 3n.3 m.; [TP]: avanyāḥ pālaiḥ saṁghair iti with hosts of earth-protectors (from: avani – river, earth, soil; pāl – to guard, to govern, pāla – protector, king; sam-xhan – to strike together, to join, saṁ-gha – collection, assemblage, crowd);
bhīṣmaḥ bhīṣma 1n.1 m.frightful; Bhīṣma (from: bhī – to scare);
droṇaḥ droṇa 1n.1 m.cloud full of rain, tree, Droṇa;
sūta-putraḥ sūta-putra 1n.3 m.; [TP]: sūtasya putra itison of a charioteer; Karṇa (from: – to set in motion, to urge, to beget, [PP] sūta – urged, begotten; charioteer; puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally: pu-tra – one who saves from hell);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
asau adas sn. 1n.1 m.that (pronoun indicating sth far, not seen with the eyes);
saha av. along with (postposition, requires instrumental);
asmatīyaiḥ asmatīya 3n.3 m.with our;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
yodha-mukhyaiḥ yodha-mukhya 3n.3 m.; [TP]: yodhānāṁ mukhyair iti with the chiefs among warriors (from: yudh – to fight, caus. yodha – warrior, battle; mukha – face, mouth, front, surface, mukhya – being at the head, principal, chief);

*****

vaktrāṇi vaktra 2n.3 n. mouth, face (from: vac – to speak);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
tvaramāṇāḥ tvaramāna (tvar – to hurry) PPr 1n.3 m.[while] hurrying;
viśanti viś (to enter) Praes. P 1v.3they enter;
daṁṣṭrā-karālāni daṁṣṭrā-karāla 2n.3 n.; [TP]: daṁṣṭrābhiḥ karālānītidreadful because of the tusks (from: daṁś – to bite, daṁṣṭrā – tooth, tusk; karāla – opening wide, terrible);
bhayānakāni bhayānaka 2n.3 n.fearful, terrible (from: bhī – to scare, bhaya – fear);
ke-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.3 m.some persons (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
vilagnāḥ vilagna (vi-lag – to contact, to stick) [PP] 1n.3 m.connected, stuck, clung, departed;
daśanāntareṣu daśana-antara 7n.3 n.; [TP]: daśanānām antareṣv itibetween the teeth (from: daṁś – to bite, daśana – tooth, tusk; antara – inside, different, other);
saṁdṛśyante sam-dṛś (to see) Praes. pass. 1v.3they are seen;
cūrṇitaiḥ cūrṇita (cūrṇ – to grind, to crush) [PP] 3n.3 n.with crushed;
uttamāṅgaiḥ uttamāṅga 3n.3 n.; KD: uttamair aṅgair itiwith the highest parts of the body, with heads (from: ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above; aṅga – limb of the body, part, member);

 

textual variants


ca tvāṁ → sarve / ca tvā / hi tvā (all / and your / indeed your);
sarve → sarvaiḥ (with all);
vilagnā → vilagno / vimagnā (stuck / sunk);
daśanāntareṣu daśanāntarāle (between the teeth);

… → after the second pada of verse BhG 11.27 there are two padas not found in critical edition:
sahasra-sūryāta saṁnibhāni tathā jagad-grāsa-kṛta-kṣaṇāni
[enter in your mouth] … resembling thousands of suns
and waiting for the world to be swallowed…

… → after verse BhG 11.27 there are padas not found in critical edition:
nānārūpaiḥ puruṣair vadhyamānā viśanti te vaktram acintyarūpam
yaudhiṣṭhirā dhārtarāṣṭrāś ca yodhāḥ śastraiḥ kṛttā vividhaiḥ sarva eva
tvattejasā nihatā nūnam ete tathā hīme tvaccharīraṁ praviṣṭāḥ
Praised by people of various forms
warriors of Yudhiṣṭhira and Dhṛtarāṣṭra
enter your mouths of unthinkable shape,
and all are cut with various weapons, burned with your lustre,
into your body they enter.

 
 



Śāṃkara


yebhyo mama parājayāśaṅkā yāsīt sā cāpagatā | yataḥ—
amī ca tvāṃ dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrāḥ duryodhana-prabhṛtayaḥ—tvaramāṇāḥ viśantīti vyavahitena saṃbandhaḥ—sarve sahaiva sahitāḥ avani-pāla-saṃghair avaniṃ pṛthvīṃ pālayantīty avani-pālās teṣāṃ saṃghaiḥ, kiṃ ca bhīṣmo droṇaḥ sūta-putraḥ karṇas tathāsau sahāsmadīyair api dhṛṣṭadyumna-prabhṛtibhir yodha-mukhyair yodhānāṃ mukhyaiḥ pradhānaiḥ saha
kiṃ ca—
vaktrāṇi mukhāni te tava tvaramāṇās tvarā-yuktāḥ santo viśanti | kiṃ-viśiṣṭani mukhāni ? daṃṣṭrā-karālāni bhayānakāni bhayaṅkarāṇi | kiṃ ca, kecit mukhāni praviṣṭānāṃ madhye vilagnā daśanāntareṣu māṃsam iva bhakṣitaṃ saṃdṛśyanta upalabhyante cūrṇitaiś cūrṇīkṛtair uttamāṅgaiḥ śirobhiḥ
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ sarvasya jagataḥ svāyattasthitipravṛttitvaṃ darśayan pārthasārathī rājaveṣacchadmanāvasthitānāṃ dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ yaudhiṣṭhireṣv anupraviṣṭānāṃ ca asurāṃśānāṃ saṃhāreṇa bhūbhārāvataraṇaṃ svamanīṣitaṃ svenaiva kariṣyamāṇaṃ pārthāya darśayām āsa / sa ca pārtho bhagavataḥ sraṣṭrtvādikaṃ sarvāiśvaryaṃ sākṣātkṛtya tasminn eva bhagavati sarvātmani dhārtarāṣṭrādīnām upasaṃhāram anāgatam api tatprasādalabdhena divyena cakṣuṣā paśyann idaṃ covāca
amī dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrāḥ duryodhanādayas sarve bhīṣmo droṇaḥ sūtaputraḥ karṇaś ca tatpakṣīyair avanipālasamūhaiḥ sarvaiḥ, asmadīyair api kaiścid yodhamukhyais saha tvaramāṇā daṃṣṭrākarālāni bhayānakāni tava vaktrāṇi vināśāya viśanti; tatra kecic cūrṇitair uttamāṅgair daśānāntareṣu vilagnās saṃdṛśyante
 

Śrīdhara


yac cānyad draṣṭum icchasīty anenāsmin saṅgrāme bhāvi-jaya-parājayādikaṃ ca mama dehe paśyeti yad bhagavatoktaṃ tad idānīṃ paśyann āha amī ceti pañcabhiḥ | amī dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrā duryodhanādayaḥ sarve | avani-pālānāṃ jayadrathādīnāṃ rājñāṃ saṅghaiḥ samūhaiḥ sahaiva | tava vaktrāṇi viśantīty uttareṇānvayaḥ | tathā bhīṣmaś ca droṇaś cāsau sūta-putraḥ karṇaś ca | na kevalaṃ ta eva viśanti | api tu pratiyoddhāro ‚smadīyā ye yodha-mukhyāḥ śikhaṇḍi-dhṛṣṭadyumnādayas taiḥ saha
vakrāṇīti ye ete sarve tvaramāṇā dhāvantas tava daṃṣṭrābhiḥ karālāni vikṛtāni bhayṅkarāṇi vaktrāṇi viśanti teṣāṃ madhye kecic cūrṇīkṛtair uttamāṅgaiḥ śirobhir upalakṣitā danta-sandhiṣu saṃśliṣṭāḥ saṃdṛśyante
 

Madhusūdana


asmākaṃ jayaṃ pareṣāṃ parājayaṃ ca sarvadā draṣṭum iṣṭaṃ paśya mama dehe guḍākeśa yac cānyad draṣṭum icchasīti bhagavad-ādiṣṭam adhunā paśyāmīty āha amīti pañcabhiḥ | amī ca dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrā duryodhana-prabhṛtayaḥ śataṃ sodarā yuyutsuṃ vinā sarve tvāṃ tvaramāṇā viśantīty agretanenānvayaḥ | atibhaya-sūcakatvena kriyā-pada-nyūnatvam atra guṇa eva | sahaivāvanipālānāṃ khalv ādīnāṃ rājñāṃ saṃghais tvāṃ viśanti | na kevalaṃ duryodhanādaya eva viśanti kintu ajayatvena sarvaiḥ sambhāvito ‚pi bhīṣmo droṇaḥ sūta-putraḥ karṇas tathāsau sarvadā mama vidveṣṭā sahāsmadīyair api parakīyair iva dhṛṣṭadyumna-prabhṛtibhir yodha-mukhyais tvāṃ viśantīti sambandhaḥ
amī dhṛtarāṣṭra-putra-prabhṛtayaḥ sarve ‚pi te tava daṃṣṭrā-karālāni bhayānakāni vaktrāṇi te tvaramāṇā viśanti | tatra ca kecic cūrṇitair uttamāṅgaiḥ śirobhir viśiṣṭā daśanāntareṣu vilagnā viśeṣeṇa saṃlagnā dṛśyante mayā samyag asandehena
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


yac cānyad draṣṭum icchasi ity anenāsmin yuddhe bhaviṣyaj-jaya-parājayādikaṃ ca mad-dehe paśyeti yad bhagavatoktaṃ tad adhunā paśyann āha amī ceti pañcabhiḥ | amī dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrā duryodhanādayaḥ sarve ‚vanipāla-saṃghaiḥ śalya-jayadrathādi-bhūpa-vṛndaiḥ saha tvaramāṇāḥ santas te vaktrāṇi viśantīty uttareṇānvayaḥ | ajeyatvena khyātā ye bhīṣmādayas te ‚pi | asāv iti sarvadaiva mad-vidveṣīty arthaḥ | sūta-putraḥ karṇaḥ | na kevalaṃ ta eva kintv asmadīyā ye yodha-mukhyā dhṛṣṭadyumnādayaḥ taiḥ saheti te ‚pi praviśantīti sahoktir alaṅkāraḥ | kecid iti teṣāṃ madhye kecic cūrṇitair uttamāṅgair mastakaiḥ sahitā daśanāntareṣu danta-sandhiṣu vilagnāḥ saṃdṛśyante mayā
 
 


BhG 11.28

yathā nadīnāṃ bahavo mbu-vegāḥ samudram evābhimukhā dravanti
tathā tavāmī nara-loka-vīrā viśanti vaktrāṇy abhivijvalanti

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syntax


yathā (as) nadīnām (of rivers) bahavaḥ ambu-vegāḥ (many water currents) samudram eva (just to the ocean) abhimukhāḥ (faced) dravanti (they flow),
tathā (so) amī nara-loka-vīrāḥ (those heroes in the world of men) abhivijvalanti (blazing) tava vaktrāṇi (your mouths) viśanti (they enter).

 

grammar

yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
nadīnām nadī 6n.3 f.of rivers (from: nad – to roar, nada – roaring, river);
bahavaḥ bahu 1n.3 m.many;
ambu-vegāḥ ambu-vega 1n.3 m.; [TP]: ambūnāṁ vegā iti currents of water (from: ambu – water; vij – to speed, vega – force, impulse, urge);
samudram sam-udra 2n.1 m.gathering of waters, the ocean (from: udra – water);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
abhimukhāḥ abhi-mukha 1n.3 m.turned towards, faced, friendly disposed (from: mukha – face);
dravanti dru (to run, to hasten) Praes. P 1v.3they hasten, they flow;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
amī adas sn. 1n.3 m.those (pronoun indicating sth far, not seen with the eyes);
nara-loka-vīrāḥ nara-loka-vīra 1n.3 m.; [TP]: narāṇāṁ loke vīrā itiheroes in the world of men (from: nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person; loka – world; vīr – to be valiant, to display heroism, vīra – brave, a hero);
viśanti viś (to enter) Praes. P 1v.3they enter;
vaktrāṇi vaktra 2n.3 n. mouth, face (from: vac – to speak);
abhivijvalanti abhi-vi-jval (to burn, to glow) Praes. P 1v.3they burn;
or abhi-vi-jvalant (abhi-vi-jval – to burn, to glow) PPr 1n.3 n.blazing [mouths];

 

textual variants


dravanti → viśaṁti / vrajaṁti (they enter / they go);
nara-loka-vīrā → nara-deva-lokā (worlds of gods and people);
abhivijvalanti → abhito jvalaṁti / abhito vrajaṁti / samṛddha-vegāḥ (they burn nearby / nearby they go / increasing in speed);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kathaṃ praviśanti mukhāni ? ity āha—
yathā nadīnāṃ sravantīnāṃ bahavo’neke’mbūnāṃ vegā ambu-vegās tvarā-viśeṣāḥ samudram evābhimukhāḥ pratimukhā dravanti praviśanti | tathā tadvat tavāmī bhīṣmādayo nara-loka-vīrā manuṣya-loke śūrāḥ viśanti vaktrāṇy abhivijvalanti prakāśamānāni
 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 11.29
 

Śrīdhara


praveśam eva dṛṣṭāntenāha yatheti | nadīnām aneka-mārga-pravṛttānāṃ bahavo ‚mbūnāṃ vārīṇāṃ vegāḥ pravāhāḥ samudrābhimukhāḥ santo yathā samudram eva dravanti viśanti | tathāmī ye nara-loka-vīrās te viśanti tathaiva lokā ete janā api tava mukhāni praviśanti
 

Madhusūdana


rājñāṃ bhagavan-mukha-praveśane nidarśanam āha yatheti | yathā nadīnām aneka-mārga-pravṛttānāṃ bahavo ‚mbūnāṃ jalānāṃ vegāḥ vegavantaḥ pravāhāḥ samudrābhimukhāḥ santaḥ samudram eva dravanti viśanti tathā tavāmī nara-loka-vīrā viśanti vaktrāṇy abhitaḥ sarvato jvalanti abhivijvalantīti vā pāṭhaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


praveśe dṛṣṭāntāv āha yatheti dvyābhyām | tatra prathamo ‚dhī-pūrvake praveśe | dvitīyas tu dhī-pūrvake bodhyaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.29

yathā pradīptaṃ jvalanaṃ pataṃgā viśanti nāśāya samṛddha-vegāḥ
tathaiva nāśāya viśanti lokās tavāpi vaktrāṇi samṛddha-vegāḥ

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syntax


yathā (as) samṛddha-vegāḥ pataṅgāḥ (moths with great speed) nāśāya eva (just for destruction) pradīptam jvalanam (flaming fire) viśanti (they enter),
tathā (so) samṛddha-vegāḥ lokāḥ (worlds with great speed) nāśāya (just for destruction) tava vaktrāṇi api (just into your mouths) viśanti (they enter).

 

grammar

yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
pradīptam pra-dīpta (pra-xdīp – to blaze, to shine) [PP] 2n.1 n.blazing;
jvalanam jvalana 2n.1 n.flaming, fire (from: jval – to burn, to glow);
pataṁgāḥ pataṁ-ga 1n.3 m.flying insects, moths (from: pat – to fly, to fall, pata – flying; gam – to go, –ga – suffix: moving going);
viśanti viś (to enter) Praes. P 1v.3they enter;
nāśāya nāśa 4n.1 m.for destruction, loss (from: naś – to destroy, to vanish);
samṛddha-vegāḥ samṛddha-vega 1n.3 m.; KD: yeṣāṁ vegaḥ samṛddho ‘sti te which have increased speed (from: sam-ṛdh – to grow, [PP] samṛddha – grown; vij – to speed, vega – force, impulse, urge);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
nāśāya nāśa 4n.1 m.for destruction, loss (from: naś – to destroy, to vanish);
viśanti viś (to enter) Praes. P 1v.3they enter;
lokāḥ loka 1n.3 m. worlds;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
vaktrāṇi vaktra 2n.3 n. mouth, face (from: vac – to speak);
samṛddha-vegāḥ samṛddha-vega 1n.3 m.; KD: yeṣāṁ vegaḥ samṛddho ‘sti te which have increased speed (from: sam-ṛdh – to grow, [PP] samṛddha – grown; vij – to speed, vega – force, impulse, urge);

 

textual variants


pradīptaṁ jvalanaṁ pradīpta-jvalanaṁ (in blazing fire);
samṛddha-vegāḥ → samiddha-vegāḥ / samṛddhi-vegāḥ (wich have full speed / which have great speed);
 
 



Śāṃkara


te kim-arthaṃ praviśanti kathaṃ ca ? ity āha—
yathā pradīptaṃ jvalanam agniṃ pataṅgāḥ pakṣiṇo viśanti nāśāya vināśāya samṛddha-vegāḥ samṛddha udbhūto vego gatir yeṣāṃ te samṛddha-vegāḥ | tathaiva nāśāya viśanti lokāḥ prāṇinas tavāpi vaktrāṇi samṛddha-vegāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


ete rājalokāḥ, bahavo nadīnām ambupravāhāḥ samudram iva, pradīptajvalanam iva ca śalabhāḥ, tava vaktrāṇy abhivijvalanti svayam eva tvaramāṇā ātmanāśāya viśanti
 

Śrīdhara


avaśatvena praveśe nadī-vego dṛṣṭānta uktaḥ | buddhi-pūrvaka-praveśe dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | pradīptaṃ jvalanam agniṃ pataṅgāḥ śalabhā buddhi-pūrvakaṃ samṛddho vego yeṣāṃ te yathā nāśāya maraṇāyaiva viśanti tathaiva lokā ete janā api tava mukhāni praviśanti
 

Madhusūdana


abuddhi-pūrvaka-praveśe nadī-vegaṃ dṛṣṭāntam uktvā buddhi-pūrvaka-praveśe dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | yathā pataṅgāḥ śalabhāḥ samṛddha-vegāḥ santo buddhi-pūrvaṃ pradīptaṃ jvalanaṃ viśanti nāśāya maraṇāyaiva tathaiva nāśāya viśanti lokā ete duryodhana-prabhṛtayaḥ sarve ‚pi tava vaktrāṇi samṛddha-vegāḥ buddhi-pūrvam anāyatyā
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


jvalanaṃ vahnim
 
 


BhG 11.30

lelihyase grasamānaḥ samantāl lokān samagrān vadanair jvaladbhiḥ
tejobhir āpūrya jagat samagraṃ bhāsas tavogrāḥ pratapanti viṣṇo

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syntax


he viṣṇo (O Viṣṇu!),
[tvam] grasamānaḥ (you eating) jvaladbhiḥ vadanaiḥ (with flaming mouths) samagrān lokān (whole worlds) samantāt (from all sides) lelihyase (you are licking).
tava (your) ugrāḥ bhāsaḥ (terrible effulgences) samagram jagat (whole world) tejobhiḥ (with radiance) āpūrya (after filling) pratapanti (they scorch).

 

grammar

lelihyase lih (to lick, to taste) Praes. Ā 2v.1you are licking;
grasamānaḥ grasamāna (gras – to eat) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] eating;
samantāt av. (5n.1) – from all sides, completely (from: saṁ-anta – being on every side, entire, having the ends together);
lokān loka 2n.3 m.worlds;
samagrān samagra 2n.3 m.whole, complete;
vadanaiḥ vadana 3n.3 n.with mouths, with faces (from: vad – to speak);
jvaladbhiḥ jvalant (jval – to burn, to glow) PPr 3n.3 n.with flaming;
tejobhiḥ tejas 3n.3 n.with sharpness, heat, radiance, prowess (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
āpūrya ā-pṝ (to fill up) absol.after filling;
jagat jagat 2n.1 n.world, moving, people (from: gam – to go);
samagram samagra 2n.1 n.whole, complete;
bhāsaḥ bhās 1n.3 f.effulgences, lights, majesties (from: bhās – to shine, to be bright);
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
ugrāḥ ugra 1n.3 f. powerful, terrible, cruel
pratapanti pra-tap (to scorch) Praes. P 1v.3they scorch;
viṣṇo viṣṇu 8n.1 m.O pervader, O Viṣṇu! (from: vi-snu – to drip, to emit or vi-sru – to flow, to emit;
or may be from: viś – to enter or vi- – to reach, to fill, to penetrate or viṣ to perform;
the word does not contain suffix -snu – as it is eg in jiṣṇu – because vi unlike ji is not a verbal root;
here are some traditional definitions:
vyāptaṁ tvayaiva viśatā trailokyam sa-carācaram – the three worlds with moving and non-moving [creatures] are pervaded just by you Matsya-purāṇa 248.41;
viśeṣeṇa snauti prasravate gacchatīti viṣṇuḥ – Viṣṇu: particularly emits, flows forth, goes Mbh.5.70.13;
viṣṇur viśater vā vyaśnoter vā – Viṣṇu [comes from] viśati or vyaśnoti [enters, reaches] Nirukti 12.18;
atha yad viśito bhavati tad viṣnur – thus what is let loose is Viṣṇu.
viṣṇāter viśater vā syād veveṣṭer vyāpti karmaṇaḥ
viṣṇur nirucyate sūryaḥ sarvaṁ sarvāntaraś ca yaḥ
The word Viṣṇu may come from these activities: viṣṇāti, viśati, veveṣṭi or vyāpti [acts, enters, is active, pervades]. Therefore the one who is all and is in all is called the Sun Bṛhad-devatā 2.69;

 

textual variants


samagrān → samastān (all);
pratapanti → prapataṁti (they fall, they perish);
viṣṇo → viṣṇoḥ (relating to Viṣṇu);
 
 



Śāṃkara

tvaṃ punaḥ—
lelihyase āsvādayasi grasamāno’ntaḥ praveśayan samantāt samantataḥ lokān samagrān samastān vadanair vaktrair jvaladbhir dīpyamānais tejobhir āpūrya saṃvyāpya jagat samagraṃ sahāgreṇa samastam ity etat | kiṃ ca, bhāso dīptayas tavogrāḥ krūrāḥ pratapanti pratāpaṃ kurvanti he viṣṇo vyāpana-śīla
 

Rāmānuja


rājalokān samagrān jvaladbhir vadanair grasamānaḥ kopavegena tadrudhirāvasiktamoṣṭhapuṭādikaṃ lelihyase punaḥ punar lehanaṃ karoṣi / tavātighorā bhāsaḥ raśmayaḥ tejobhiḥ svakīyaiḥ prakāśaiḥ jagat samagram āpūrya pratapanti
 

Śrīdhara


tataḥ samantāt kim ? ata āha lelihyasa iti | grasamāno gilam | samagrān lokān sarvān etān vīrān | samantāt sarvataḥ | lelihyase ‚tiśayena bhakṣayasi | kaiḥ ? jvaladbhir vadanaiḥ | kiṃ ca he viṣṇo tava bhāso dīptayas tejobhir visphūraṇaiḥ samagraṃ jagad vyāpya tīvrāḥ satyaḥ pratapanti santāpayanti
 

Madhusūdana


yoddhu-kāmānāṃ rājñāṃ bhagavan-mukha-praveśa-prakāram uktvā tadā bhagavatas tad-bhāsāṃ ca pravṛtti-prakāram āha lelihyasa iti | evaṃ vegena praviśato lokān duryodhanādīn samagrān sarvān grasamāno ‚ntaḥ praveśayaj jvaladbhir vadanaiḥ samantāt sarvatas tvaṃ lelihyasa āsvādayasi tejobhir bhābhir āpūrya jagat samagraṃ yasmāt tvaṃ bhābhir jagad āpūrayasi tasmāt tavogrās tīvrā bhāso dīptayaḥ prajvalato jvalanasyeva pratapanti santāpaṃ janayanti | viṣṇo vyāpana-śīla
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


yoddhṝṇāṃ tan-mukha-praveśe prakāram uktvā tasya tad-bhāsāṃ ca tatra pravṛtti-prakāram āha lelihyasa iti | vegena praviśataḥ samagrān lokān duryodhanādīn jvaladbhir vadanair grasamāno gilan samantād roṣāveśena lelihasye tad-rudhirokṣitam oṣṭhādikaṃ muhur muhur lekṣi | tavogrā bhāso dīptayo ‚sahyais tejobhiḥ samagraṃ jagad āpūrya pratapanti | he viṣṇo ! viśva-vyāpin ! tvattaḥ palāyanaṃ durghaṭam ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.31

ākhyāhi me ko bhavān ugra-rūpo namo stu te deva-vara prasīda
vijñātum icchāmi bhavantam ādyaṃ na hi prajānāmi tava pravṛttim

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syntax


ugra-rūpaḥ (terrible form) bhavān (You) kaḥ [iti] (who?)
[tvam tat] (you that) me (to me) ākhyāhi (you must speak).
te (to you) namaḥ (obeisance) astu (it must be).
he deva-vara (O best of gods!) [tvam] (you) prasīda (be satisfied).
[aham] (I) ādyam bhavantam (You, the original) vijñātum (to know) icchāmi (I desire),
hi (indeed) tava (your) pravṛttim (activity) na prajānāmi (I do not understand).

 

grammar

ākhyāhi ā-khyā (to speak) Imperat. P 2v.1you must speak;
me asmat sn. 4n.1to me (shortened form of: mahyam);
kaḥ kim sn. 1n.1 m.who?;
bhavān bhavant 1n.1 m.You (from: bhū – to be, bha-vant – honorific form of address, looks like PPr of: bhū, but differs in declension in: nominative singular; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
ugra-rūpaḥ ugra-rūpa 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya rūpam ugram asti saḥwhose form is terrible (from: ugra powerful, terrible, cruel; rūp – to form, rūpa – shape, figure, beauty);
namaḥ namaḥ 1n.1 n.obeisance, salutation (from: nam – to bend, to bow);
astu as (to be) Imperat. P 1v.1it must be;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
deva-vara deva-vara 8n.1 m.; [TP]: devānāṁ varetiO best among gods (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; vṛ – to choose, to like, vara – chosen, the best, most excellent);
prasīda pra-sad (to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful) Imperat. P 2v.1be satisfied;
vijñātum vi-jñā (to distinguish, to know, to understand) [inf.] – to understand;
icchāmi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 3v.1I desire;
bhavantam bhavant 2n.1 m.You (from: bhū – to be, bha-vant – honorific form of address, looks like PPr of: bhū, but differs in declension in: nominative singular; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
ādyam ādya 2n.1 m.first, main, excellent;
na av.not;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
prajānāmi pra-jñā (to understand) Praes. P 3v.1I understand;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
pravṛttim pravṛtti 2n.1 f.activity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);

 

textual variants


bhavān → bhagavān (the Lord);
te deva-vara → deveśa-vara (the best among lords of gods);
vijñātumvijñātam (understood);
hi → ca (and);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yataḥ evam ugra-svabhāvaḥ, ataḥ—
ākhyāhi kathaya me mahyaṃ ko bhavān ugra-rūpaḥ krūrākāraḥ | namo’stu te tubhyaṃ he deva-vara devānāṃ pradhāna, prasīda prasādaṃ kuru | vijñātuṃ viśeṣeṇa jñātum icchāmi bhavantam ādyam ādau bhavam ādyam, na hi yasmāt prajānāmi tava tvadīyāṃ pravṛttiṃ ceṣṭam
 

Rāmānuja


„darśayātmānam avyayam” iti tavāiśvaryaṃ niraṅkuśaṃ sākṣātkartuṃ prārthitena bhavatā niraṅkuśam aiśvaryaṃ darśayatā atighorarūpam idam āviṣkṛtam / atighorarūpaḥ ko bhavān, kiṃ kartuṃ pravṛtta iti bhavantaṃ jñātum icchāmi / tavābhipretāṃ pravṛttiṃ na jānāmi / etad ākhyāhi me / namo ‚stu te devavara! prasīda namas te ‚stu sarveśvara; evaṃ kartum, anenābhiprāyeṇedaṃ saṃhartṛrūpam āviṣkṛtam ity uktvā prasannarūpaś ca bhava
 

Śrīdhara


yata evaṃ tasmād ākhyāhīti | bhavān ugra-rūpaḥ kaḥ ? ity ākhyāhi ākhyāhi kathaya | te tubhyaṃ namo ‚stu | he deva-vara prasīda prasanno bhava | bhavantam ādyaṃ puruṣaṃ viśeṣeṇa jñātum icchāmi | yatas tava pravṛttim ceṣṭāṃ kim artham evaṃ pravṛtto ‚sīti na jānāmi | evaṃ bhūtasya tava pravṛttiṃ vārtām api na jānāmīti
 

Madhusūdana


yasmād evaṃ tasmād ākhyāhīti | evam ugra-rūpaḥ krūrākāraḥ ko bhavān ity ākhyāhi kathaya me mahyam atyantānugrāhyāya | ataeva namo ‚stu te tubhyaṃ sarva-gurave he deva-vara prasīda prasādaṃ kraurya-tyāgaṃ kuru | vijñātum viśeṣeṇa jñātum icchāmi bhavantam ādyaṃ sarva-kāraṇaṃ, na hi yasmāt tava sakhāpi san prajānāmi tava pravṛttim ceṣṭām
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


evaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ vyañjita-kāla-śaktiṃ bhagavantam upavarṇya tat-tattva-vid apy arjunaḥ sva-jñāna-dārḍhyāya pṛcchati ākhyāhīti | darśayātmānam avyayam iti sahasra-śīrṣādi-lakṣaṇam aiśvaraṃ rūpaṃ darśayitum arthitena bhagavatā tad-rūpaṃ pradarśya tasya punar atighorā saṃhartṛtā pradarśyate | tatrogra-rūpo bhavān ka ity ākhyāhi kathaya | he deva-vara ! te namo ‚stu | prasīda tyajogra-rūpatām | ādyaṃ bhavantam ahaṃ viśeṣeṇa jñātum icchāmi | tava pravṛttiṃ ceṣṭāṃ ca na hi prajānāmi | kim artham evaṃ pravṛtto ‚sīti tat-prayojanaṃ cākhyāhīti
 
 


BhG 11.32

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
kālo smi loka-kṣaya-kṛt pravṛddho lokān samāhartum iha pravṛttaḥ
ṛte pi tvā na bhaviṣyanti sarve ye vasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu yodhāḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
[aham] (I) loka-kṣaya-kṛt (who does the destruction of the world) pravṛddhaḥ (mighty) kālaḥ (time) asmi (I am).
iha (here) [aham] (I) lokān (worlds) samāhartum (to withdraw) pravṛttaḥ (who starts) [asmi] (I am).
praty-anīkeṣu (in the opposed armies) ye yodhāḥ (those warriors who) avasthitāḥ (situated) sarve (all) tvām ṛte api (except for you) na bhaviṣyanti (they will not be).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
kālaḥ kāla 1n.1 m.time;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
loka-kṣaya-kṛt loka-kṣaya-kṛt 1n.1 m.; yo lokānāṁ kṣayaṁ karoti saḥwho does the destruction of the world (from: loka – world; kṣi – to decrease, PF kṣaya – diminution, destruction; kṛ – to do, -kṛt – suffix: a doer);
pravṛddhaḥ pra-vṛddha (vṛdh – to grow) [PP] 1n.1 m.grown up, experienced, mighty;
lokān loka 2n.3 m.worlds;
samāhartum sam-ā-hṛ (to withdraw, to destroy) [inf.] – to withdraw, to destroy;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
pravṛttaḥ pra-vṛtta (pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass) [PP] 1n.1 m.advancing, proceding, engaged;
ṛte av.without, except;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
tvā yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you (shortened form of: tvām);
na av.not;
bhaviṣyanti bhū (to be) Fut. P 1v.3they will be;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
avasthitāḥ avasthita (ava-sthā – to be present) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are situated;
pratyanīkeṣu praty-anīka 7n.3 n.in the opposed armies (from: prati- – prepositon: against, opposed; anīka – splendour, row, army);
yodhāḥ yodha 1n.3 m.warriors (from: yudh – to fight, caus. yodha – warrior, battle);

 

textual variants


pravṛddho → pravṛddhān (mighty [worlds]);
iha → itaḥ (wherefore);
ṛte pi tvā → ṛte tvad ete / ṛte ‘pi tvāṁ (except you these / although except you);
bhaviṣyanti → bhavaṁti (they [do not] exist);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kālo’smi loka-kṣaya-kṛt lokānāṃ kṣayaṃ karotīti loka-kṣaya-kṛt pravṛddho vṛddhiṃ gataḥ | yad-arthaṃ pravṛddhas tac chṛṇu—lokān samāhartuṃ saṃhartum ihāsmin kāle pravṛttaḥ | ṛte’pi vināpi tvā tvāṃ na bhaviṣyanti bhīṣma-droṇa-karṇa-prabhṛtayaḥ sarve, yebhyas tava āśaṅkā, ye’vasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu anīkam anīkaṃ prati pratyanīkeṣu pratipakṣa-bhūteṣu anīkeṣu yodhā yoddhāraḥ
 

Rāmānuja


āśritavātsalyātirekeṇa viśvāiśvaryaṃ darśayato bhavato ghorarūpāviṣkāre ko ‚bhiprāya iti pṛṣṭo bhagavān pārthasārathiḥ svābhiprāyam āha, pārthodyogena vināpi dhārtarāṣṭrapramukham aśeṣaṃ rājalokaṃ nihantum aham eva pravṛtta iti jñāpanāya mama ghorarūpāviṣkāraḥ, tajjñāpanaṃ ca pārtham udyojayitum iti /
kalayati gaṇayatīti kālaḥ; sarveṣāṃ dhārtarāṣṭrapramukhānāṃ rājalokānām āyuravasānaṃ gaṇayann ahaṃ tatkṣayakṛd ghorarūpeṇa pravṛddho rājalokān samāhartum ābhimukhyena saṃhartum iha pravṛtto ‚smi / ato matsaṃkalpād eva tvām ṛte ‚pi tvadudyogād rte ‚pi ete dhārtarāṣṭrapramukhās tava pratyanīkeṣu ye ‚vasthitā yodhāḥ, te sarve na bhaviṣyanti vinaṅkṣyanti
 

Śrīdhara


evam prārthitaḥ san bhagavān uvāca kāla iti tribhiḥ | lokānāṃ kṣaya-kartā pravṛddho ‚tyutkaṭaḥ kālo ‚smi | lokān prāṇinaḥ saṃhartum iha loke pravṛtto ‚smi | ata ṛte ‚pi tvāṃ hantāraṃ vināpi na bhaviṣyanti na jīviṣyanti | yadyapi tvayā na hantavyā ete tathāpi mayā kālātmanā grastāḥ santo mariṣyanty eva | ke te ? pratyanīkeṣu anīkāni anīkāni prati | bhīṣma-droṇādīnāṃ sarvāsu senāsu ye yodhāro ‚vasthitās te sarve ‚pi
 

Madhusūdana


evam arjunena prārthito yaḥ svayaṃ yad-arthā ca sva-pravṛttis tat sarvaṃ tribhir ślokaiḥ kālo ‚smīti | kālaḥ kriyā-śakty-upahitaḥ sarvasya saṃhartā parameśvaro ‚smi bhavāmīdānīṃ pravṛddho vṛddhiṃ gataḥ | yad-arthaṃ pravṛttas tac chṛṇu lokān samāhartum bhakṣayituṃ pravṛtto ‚ham ihāsmin kāle | mat-pravṛttiṃ vinā katham evaṃ syād iti cen nety āha | ṛte ‚pi tvā tvām arjunaṃ yoddhāraṃ vināpi tvad-vyāpāraṃ vināpi mad-vyāpāreṇaiva na bhaviṣyanti vinaṅkṣyanti sarve bhīṣma-droṇa-karṇa-prabhṛtayo yoddhum anarhatvena sambhāvitā anye ‚pi ye ‚vasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu pratipakṣa-sainyeṣu yodhā yodhāraḥ sarve ‚pi mayā hatatvād eva na bhaviṣyanti | tatra tava vyāpāro ‚kiṃcitkara ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


evam arthito bhagavān uvāca kālo ‚smīti | pravṛddho vyāpī |
yasya brahma ca kṣatraṃ ca ubhe bhavata odanaḥ |
mṛtyur yasyopasecanaṃ ka itthā veda yatra saḥ || [KaṭhU 1.2.25]
iti śrutyā yaḥ kīrtyate sa kālo ‚ham ity arthaḥ | iha samaye lokān duryodhanādīn samāhartuṃ grasituṃ pravṛttaṃ māṃ mat-pravṛtti-phalaṃ ca jānīhi | tvām api yudhiṣṭhirādīṃś ca ṛte sarve na bhaviṣyanti na jīviṣyanti | yad vā, nanu raṇān nivṛtte mayi teṣāṃ kathaṃ kṣayaḥ syād iti cet tatrāha ṛte ‚pīti | tvāṃ yodhāram ṛte tvad-yuddha-vyāpāraṃ vināpi sarve na bhaviṣyanti mariṣyanty eva kālātmanā mayā teṣāṃ āyur-haraṇāt | ke te sarve ity āha pratyanīkeṣu paramparayor ye bhīṣmādayo ‚vasthitāḥ | yuddhān nivṛttasya tava tu svadharma-cyutir eva bhaved iti
 
 


BhG 11.33

tasmāt tvam uttiṣṭha yaśo labhasva jitvā śatrūn bhuṅkṣva rājyaṃ samṛddham
mayaivaite nihatāḥ pūrvam eva nimitta-mātraṃ bhava savyasācin

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syntax


tasmāt (therefore) tvam (you) uttiṣṭha (you must stand up),
[tvam] (you) yaśaḥ (fame) labhasva (you must obtain),
[tvam] (you) śatrūn (enemies) jitvā (after conquering)
samṛddham rājyam (flourishing kingdom) bhuṅkṣva (you must enjoy).
ete (these) mayā eva (just by me) pūrvam eva (just before) nihatāḥ (killed) [santi] (they are).
he savya-sācin (O ambidextrous one),
[tvam] (you) nimitta-mātram (merely the efficient cause) bhava (you must be).

 

grammar

tasmāt av. (5n.1) – therefore (from: tat sn. – z tego);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
uttiṣṭha ut-sthā (to rise) Imperat. P 2v.1stand up;
yaśaḥ yaśas 2n.1 n.fame, honour, splendour, beauty;
labhasva labh (to obtain) Imperat. Ā 2v.1you must obtain;
jitvā ji (to conquer) absol.after conquering;
śatrūn śatru 2n.3 m.enemies, rivals (from: śad – to fall, to disperse, to kill);
bhuṅkṣva bhuj (to eat, to enjoy) Imperat. Ā 2v.1you must enjoy;
rājyam rājya (rāj – to reign) PF 2n.1 n.kingdom;
samṛddham samṛddha (sam-ṛdh – to grow) [PP] 2n.1 n. accomplished, flourishing;
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ete etat sn. 1n.3 m.these;
nihatāḥ ni-hata (ni-han – to kill) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are killed;
pūrvam av. (2n.1) – earlier, before (from: pūrva – previous, ancient);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
nimitta-mātram nimitta-mātra 1n.1 n.merely an efficient cause (from: nimitta – omens, signs, motive, efficient cause; – to measure, mātra – measure, quantity, suffix: being nothing but, merely);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;
savyasācin savyasācin 8n.1 m.; yasya savyena [hastena] sācituṁ śīlam asti saḥwho is able to draw a bow with left [hand]; name of Arjuna (from: – to beget, to produce, savya – reverse, left hand; sac – to be attached, to be associated, to serve; MBh explains:
ubhau me dakṣiṇau pāṇī gāṁḍīvasya vikarṣaṇe
tena deva-manuṣyeṣu savyasācīti māṁ viduḥ

Both my hands are right when I bend Gāṁdiva [bow],
therefore among men and gods I am known as Savyasācin);

 

textual variants


labhasva → bhajasva (you must enjoy);
mayaivaite → mayaiva te / mayaivete / mayaivaitā (they just by me);
nihatāḥ nihitāḥ (placed);
pūrvam eva → sarvam eva (indeed all);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yasmād evaṃ—
tasmāt tvam uttiṣṭha bhīṣma-prabhṛtayo’tirathā ajeyā devair apy arjunena jitā iti yaśaḥ labhasva | kevalaṃ puṇyair hi tat prāpyate | jitvā śatrūn duryodhana-prabhṛtīn bhuṅkṣva rājyaṃ samṛddham asapatnam akaṇṭakam | mayaivaite nihatā niścayena hatāḥ prāṇair viyojitāḥ pūrvam eva | nimitta-mātraṃ bhava tvam | he savyasācin ! savyena vāmenāpi hastena śarāṇāṃ kṣepāt savyasācīty ucyate’rjunaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


tasmāt tvaṃ tān prati yuddhāyottiṣṭha / tān śatrūn jitvā yaśo labhasva; dharmyaṃ rājyaṃ ca samṛddhaṃ bhuṅkṣva / mayaivaite kṛtāparādhāḥ pūrvam eva nihatāḥ hanane viniyuktāḥ / tvaṃ tu teṣāṃ hanane nimittamātraṃ bhava / mayā hanyamānānāṃ śatrādisthānīyo bhava / savyasācin / ṣaca samavāye; savyena śarasacanaśīlaḥ savyasācī; savyenāpi kareṇa śarasamavāyakaraḥ; karadvayena yoddhuṃ samartha ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tasmād iti | yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvaṃ yuddhāyottiṣṭha | devair api durjayā bhīṣmādayo ‚rjunena nirjitā ity evaṃ bhūtaṃ yaśo labhasva prāpnuhi | ayatnataś ca śatrūn jitvā samṛddhaṃ rājyam bhuṅkṣva | ete ca tava śatravas tvadīya-yuddhāt pūrvam eva mayaiva kālātmanā nihata-prāyāḥ | tathāpi tvaṃ nimitta-mātram bhava | he savyasācin ! savyena hastena sācituṃ śarān saṃdhātuṃ śīlaṃ yasyeti vyutpattyā vāmenāpi vāṇa-kṣepāt savyasācīty ucyate
 

Madhusūdana


yasmād evaṃ tasmād iti | tasmāt tvad-vyāpāram antareṇāpi yasmād ete vinaṅkṣanty eva tasmāt tvam uttiṣṭhodyukto bhava yuddhāya devair api durjayā bhīṣma-droṇādayo ‚tirathā jhaṭity evārjunena nirjitā ity evambhūtaṃ yaśo labhasva | mahadbhiḥ puṇyair eva hi yaśo labhyate | ayatnataś ca jitvā śatrūn duryodhanādīn bhuṅkṣva rājyaṃ svopasarjanatvena bhogyatāṃ prāpaya samṛddhaṃ rājyam akaṇṭakam | ete ca tava śatravo mayaiva kālātmanā nihatāḥ saṃhṛtāyuṣas tvadīya-yuddhāt pūrvam eva kevalaṃ tava yaśo-lābhāya rathān na pātitāḥ | atas tvaṃ nimitta-mātram arjunenaite nirjitā iti sārvalaukika-kavy-apadeśāspadaṃ bhava he savyasācin savyena vāmena hastenāpi śarān sacituṃ saṃdhātuṃ śīlaṃ yasya tādṛśasya tava bhīṣma-droṇādi-jayo nāsambhāvitas tasmāt tvad-vyāpārānantaraṃ mayā rathāt pātyamāneṣv eteṣu tavaiva kartṛtvaṃ lokāḥ kalpayiṣyantīty abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvam uttiṣṭha svadharmāya yuddhāya yaśo labhasva sura-durjayā bhīṣmādayo ‚rjunena helayaiva nirjitā iti durlabhāṃ kīrtiṃ prāpnuhi | pūrvaṃ draupadyām aparādha-samaya eva mayaite nihatās tvad-yaśase yantra-pratimāvat pravartante | tasmāt tvaṃ nimitta-mātram bhava | he savyasācin ! savyenāpi hastena bāṇān sacituṃ saṃdhātuṃ śīlaṃ asyeti yuddha-nirbhare prāpte hastābhyām iṣu-varṣinn ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.34

droṇaṃ ca bhīṣmaṃ ca jayadrathaṃ ca karṇaṃ tathānyān api yodha-vīrān
mayā hatāṃs tvaṃ jahivyathiṣṭhā yudhyasva jetāsi raṇe sapatnān

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syntax


[tvam] (you) mayā (by me) hatān (killed) droṇam ca (and Droṇa) bhīṣmam ca (and Bhīṣma) jayadratham ca (and Jayadratha) karṇam (Karṇa) tathā anyān api (and also others) yodha-vīrān (heroes among warriors) jahi (you must kill).
mā vyathiṣṭhāḥ (do not be perturbed!),
yudhyasva (you must fight),
raṇe (in battle) sapatnān (rivals) jetāsi (you will conquer).

 

grammar

droṇam droṇa 2n.1 m.cloud full of rain, tree, Droṇa;
ca av.and;
bhīṣmam bhīṣma 2n.1 m.frightful, Bhīṣma (from: bhī – to scare);
ca av.and;
jayadratham jayad-ratha 2n.1 m.whose chariot wins; Jayadratha (from: ji – to conquer, jaya – victory; ratha – chariot);
ca av.and;
karṇam karṇa 2n.1 m.ear; Karṇa (from: karṇ – to pierce, to bore);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
anyān anya sn. 2n.3 m.others;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
yodha-vīrān yodha-vīra 2n.3 m.; [TP]: yodhānāṁ vīrān iti heroes among warriors (from: yudh – to fight, caus. yodha – warrior, battle; vīr – to be valiant, to display heroism, vīra – brave, a hero);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
hatān hata (han – to strike, to beat, to kill) [PP] 2n.3 m.who are killed;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
jahi han (to strike, to beat, to kill) Imperat. P 2v.1you must kill;
av.not! (bardzo silne zaprzeczenie najczęściej stosowana z aorystem pozbawionym partykuły „a”);
vyathiṣṭhāḥ [] vyath (to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid) Aor. Ā 2v.1[do not] be perturbed!, [do not] tremble!;
yudhyasva yudh Imperat. Ā 2v.1you must fight;
jetāsi ji (to conquer) Fut.p. P 2v.1you will conquer;
raṇe raṇa 7n.1 m.in battle (from: raṇ – to rejoice);
sapatnān sa-patna 2n.3 m.rivals (sa-patnī – co-wife);

 

textual variants


yodha-vīrān → loka-vīrān / vīra-mukhyān / yodhu-mukhyān (heroes of the world / chief heroes / chief among warriors);
hatāṁs tvaṁ → hatāḥ tvaṁ (killed, you);
vyathiṣṭhā → vyatiṣṭhā ([do not] wait);
 
 



Śāṃkara


droṇaṃ ca, yeṣu yeṣu yodheṣv arjunasyāśaṅkā tāṃs tān vyapadiśati bhagavān mayā hatān iti | tatra droṇa-bhīṣmayos tāvat prasiddham āśaṅkā-kāraṇam | droṇas tu dhanur-vedācāryo divyāstra-saṃpannaḥ | ātmanaś ca viśeṣato gurur gariṣṭhaḥ | bhīṣmaś ca svacchanda-mṛtyur divyāstra-saṃpannaś ca paraśurāmeṇa dvandva-yuddham agamat, na ca parājitaḥ | tathā jayadrathaḥ | yasya pitā tapaś carati mama putrasya śiro bhūmau nipātayiṣyati yaḥ, tasyāpi śiraḥ patiṣyatīti | karṇo’pi vāsava-dattayā śaktyā tv amoghayā saṃpannaḥ sūrya-putraḥ kānīno yataḥ, atas tan-nāmnaiva nirdeśaḥ | mayā hatān tvaṃ jahi nimitta-mātreṇa | mā vyathiṣṭhās tebhyo bhayaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | yudhyasva jetāsi duryodhana-prabhṛtīn raṇe yuddhe sapatnān śatrūn
 

Rāmānuja


droṇabhīṣmakarṇādīn kṛtāparādhatayā mayaiva hanane viniyuktān tvaṃ jahi tvaṃ hanyāḥ / etān gurūn bandhūṃś ca anyān api bhogasaktān kathaṃ haniṣyāmīti mā vyathiṣṭhāḥ tān uddiśya dharmādharmabhayena bandhusnehena kāruṇyena ca mā vyathāṃ kṛthāḥ / yatas te kṛtāparādhā mayaiva hanane viniyuktāḥ, ato nirviśaṅko yudhyasva / raṇe sapatnān jetāsi jeṣyasi / naiteṣāṃ vadhe nṛśaṃsatāgandhaḥ; api tu jaya eva labhyata ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


na caite vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ ity āśaṅkā sāpi na kāryety āha droṇam iti | yebhyas tvaṃ śaṅkase tān droṇādīn mayaiva hatāṃs tvaṃ jahi ghātaya | mā vyathiṣṭhā bhayaṃ mā kārṣīḥ | sapatnān śatrūn raṇe yuddhe niścitaṃ jetāsi jeṣyasi
 

Madhusūdana


nanu droṇo brāhmaṇottamo dhanurvedācāryo mama guru viśeṣeṇa ca divyāstra-sampannas tathā bhīṣmaḥ svacchanda-mṛtyur divyāstra-sampannaś ca parāśurāmeṇa dvandva-yuddham upagamyāpi na parājitas tathā yasya pitā vṛddha-kṣatras tapaś carati mama putrasya śiro yo bhūmau pātayiṣyati tasyāpi śiras tat-kālaṃ bhūmau patiṣyatīti sa jayadratho ‚pi jetum aśakyaḥ svayam api mahādevārādhana-paro divyāstra-sampannaś ca tathā karṇo ‚pi svayaṃ sūrya-samas tad-ārādhanena divyāstra-sampannaś ca vāsava-dattayā caika-puruṣa-ghātinyā moghīkartum aśakyayā śaktyā śaktyā viśiṣṭas tathā kṛpāśvatthāma-bhūriśravaḥ-prabhṛtayo mahānubhāvāḥ sarvathā durjayā evaiteṣu satsu kathaṃ jitvā śatrūn rājyaṃ bhokṣye kathaṃ vā yaśo lapsya ity āśaṅkām arjunasyāpanetum āha tad āśaṅkā-viṣayān nāmabhiḥ kathayan droṇam iti |
droṇādīṃs tvad-āśaṅkā-viṣayī-bhūtān sarvān eva yodha-vīrān kālātmanā mayā hatān eva tvaṃ jahi | hatānāṃ hanane ko vā pariśramaḥ | ato mā vyathiṣṭhāḥ katham evaṃ śakṣyāmīti vyathāṃ bhaya-nimittāṃ pīḍāṃ mā gā bhayaṃ tyaktvā yudhyasva | jetāsi jeṣyasy acireṇaiva raṇe saṅgrāme sapatnān sarvān api śatrūn |
atra droṇaṃ ca bhīṣmaṃ ca jayadrathaṃ ceti ca-kāra-trayeṇa pūrvoktājeyatva-śaṅkānūdyate | tathā-śabdena karṇe ‚pi | anyān api yodha-vīrān ity atrāpi-śabdena | tasmāt kuto ‚pi svasya parājayaṃ vadha-nimittaṃ pāpaṃ ca mā śaṅkiṣṭhā ity abhiprāyaḥ |
kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ saṅkhye droṇaṃ ca madhusūdana | iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi pūjārhau ity atrevātrāpi samudāyānvayān antaraṃ pratyekānvayo draṣṭavyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.35
 

Baladeva


yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ iti sva-vijaye saṃśayam ākārṣīr ity āśayenāha droṇaṃ ceti | mayā hatān hatāyuṣo droṇādīṃs tvaṃ jahi māraya | mā vyatiṣṭhāḥ | katham etān divyāstra-sampannān ekaḥ śaknomy ahaṃ vijetum iti bhayaṃ mā gāḥ | mṛtānāṃ māraṇe kaḥ śrama ity arthaḥ | bhayaṃ hitvā yudhyasva raṇa sapatnān ripūn jetāsi jeṣyasi
 
 


BhG 11.35

saṃjaya uvāca
etac chrutvā vacanaṃ keśavasya kṛtāñjalir vepamānaḥ kirīṭī
namas kṛtvā bhūya evāha kṛṣṇaṃ sa-gadgadaṃ bhīta-bhītaḥ praṇamya

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syntax


saṁjayaḥ (Saṁjaya) uvāca (he spoke):
vepamānaḥ (trembling) kṛtāñjaliḥ (with folded hands) kirīṭī (who has a diadem) keśavasya (of Keśava) etat vacana (this speech) śrutvā (after hearing) namas kṛtvā [ca] (and after bowing),
bhīta-bhītaḥ eva (much afraid indeed) praṇamya (after bowing),
sa-gadgadam (with faltering) kṛṣṇam (to Kṛṣṇa) bhūyaḥ (again) āha (he spoke).

 

grammar

saṁjayaḥ sam-jaya 1n.1 m.conquest, complete victory, Saṁjaya (from: sam-ji – to conquer completely, jaya – victory);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
śrutvā śru (to hear, to listen) absol.after hearing;
vacanam vacana 2n.1 n.speech (from: vac – to speak);
keśavasya keśa-va 6n.1 m.of one who has [beautiful] hair (from: keśa – hair; -va = -vant – owner);
or ka-īśa-vathe lord of Brahmā and Śiva (from: ka – Brahmā; īśa – ruler, lord, Śiva; -va = -vant – owner);
kṛtāñjaliḥ kṛta-añjali 1n.1 m.; BV: yenāñjaliḥ kṛto ‘sti saḥ who did folded hands (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; añj – to decorate, to annoint, to honour, añjali – respect, salutation, joined palms slighty hollowed);
vepamānaḥ vepamāna (xvip – to tremble, to shiver) PPr 1n.1 m.[whle] trembling;
kirīṭī kirīṭin 1n.1 m.who has a diadem (from: kirīṭa – diadem, crown; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
namas namaḥ 2n.1 n.obeisance, salutation (from: nam – to bend, to bow);
kṛtvā kṛ (to do) absol.after doing;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
āha ah (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
kṛṣṇaṁ kṛṣṇa 2n.1 m.dark one, Kṛṣṇa;
sa-gadgadam av.with faltering (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; xgad – to speak, to tell);
bhīta-bhītaḥ bhīta-bhīta 1n.1 m.much afraid (from: bhī – to scare, [PP] bhīta – afraid; repetition gives intensification);
praṇamya pra-nam (to bend, to bow) absol.after bowing;

 
 



Śāṃkara


etat śrutvā vacanaṃ keśavasya pūrvoktaṃ kṛtāñjaliḥ san vepamānaḥ kampamānaḥ kirīṭī namaskṛtvā | bhūyaḥ punar evāhoktavān kṛṣṇaṃ sa-gadgadaṃ bhayāviṣṭasya duḥkhābhighātāt snehāviṣṭasya ca harṣodbhavāt, aśru-pūrṇa-netratve sati śleṣmaṇā kaṇṭhāvarodhaḥ | tataś ca vāco’pāṭavaṃ manda-śabdatvaṃ yat sa-gadgadas tena saha vartateti sa-gadgadaṃ vacanam āheti vacana-kriyā-viśeṣaṇam etat | bhīta-bhītaḥ punaḥ punar bhayāviṣṭa-cetāḥ san praṇamya prahvo bhūtvā | āheti vyavahitena saṃbandhaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


etad aśritavātsalyajaladheḥ keśavasya vacanaṃ śrutvā arjunas tasmai namaskṛtya bhītabhīto bhūyas taṃ praṇamya kṛtāñjalir vepamānaḥ kirīṭī sagadgadam āha
 

Śrīdhara


tato yad vṛttaṃ tad eva dhṛtarāṣṭraṃ prati saṃjaya uvāca etad iti | etat pūrva-śloka-trayātmakaṃ keśavasya vacanaṃ śrutvā vepamānaḥ kampamānaḥ kirīṭy arjunaḥ kṛtāñjaliḥ sampuṭīkṛta-hastaḥ kṛṣṇaṃ namaskṛtya punar apy āhoktavān | katham āha ? harṣa-bhayādy-āveśa-vaśāt gadgadena kaṇṭha-kampanena saha vartate iti sa-gadgadaṃ yathā syāt tathā | kiṃ ca bhītād api bhītaḥ san praṇamyāvanato bhūtvā
 

Madhusūdana


droṇa-bhīṣma-jayadratha-karṇeṣu jayāśā-viṣayeṣu hateṣu nirāśrayo duryodhano hata evety anusandhāya jayāśāṃ parityajya yadi dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ sandhiṃ kuryāt tadā śāntir ubhayeṣāṃ bhaved ity abhiprāyavāṃs tataḥ kiṃ vṛttam ity apekṣāyāṃ saṃjaya uvāca etad iti | etat pūrvoktaṃ keśavasya vacanaṃ śrutvā kṛtāñjaliḥ kirīṭīndra-datta-kirīṭaḥ parama-vīratvena prasiddho vepamānaḥ paramāścarya-darśana-janitena sambhrameṇa kampamāno ‚rjunaḥ kṛṣṇaṃ bhaktāgha-karṣaṇaṃ bhagavantaṃ namaskṛtvā namaskṛtya bhūyaḥ punar apy āhoktavān sa-gadgadaṃ bhayena harṣeṇa cāśru-pūrṇa-netratve sati kapha-ruddha-kaṇṭhatayā vāco mandatva-sakampatvādir vikāraḥ sa-gadgadas tad-yuktaṃ yathā syāt | bhīta-bhīto ‚tiśayena bhītaḥ san pūrvaṃ namaskṛtya punar api praṇamyātyanta-namro bhūtvāheti sambandhaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


namaskṛtvety ārṣam
 

Baladeva


tato yad abhūt tat saṃjaya uvāca etad iti | keśavasyaitat padya-trayātmakaṃ vacanaṃ śrutvā kirīṭī pārthaḥ vepamāno ‚tyadbhutātyugra-rūpa-darśanajena sambhrameṇa sakampaḥ | namakṣṭvety ārṣam | kṛṣṇaṃ namaskṛtya, punaḥ praṇamya, bhīta-bhīto ‚tibhayākulaḥ san bhūyaḥ punaar apy āha sa-gadgadaṃ gadgadena kaṇṭha-kampena sahitaṃ yathā syāt tathā
 
 


BhG 11.36

arjuna uvāca
sthāne hṛṣīkeśa tava prakīrtyā jagat prahṛṣyaty anurajyate ca
rakṣāṃsi bhītāni diśo dravanti sarve namasyanti ca siddha-saṃghāḥ

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke),
he hṛṣīkeśa (O Hṛṣīkeśa!),
tava prakīrtyā (by your fame) jagat (the world) prahṛṣyati (it rejoices) anurajyate ca (and it is attracted),
rakṣāṁsi bhītāni (afraid evils) diśaḥ (into directions) dravanti (they run),
sarve ca siddha-saṁghāḥ (and all hosts of perfected beings) namasyanti (they bow down),
[tat] sthāne (it is beffiting).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
sthāne av.in place, it is beffiting (from: sthā – to stand, sthāna – state, place, position);
hṛṣīkeśa hṛṣīkeśa 8n.1 m.O one with erect hair, O Hṛṣīkeśa (from: hṛṣ – to be excited; hṛṣī – erect; keśa – hair);
or [TP]: hṛṣīkāṇām / indriyāṇām īśa itiO lord of the senses (from: hṛṣīka – an organ of senses; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
prakīrtyā prakīrti 3n.1 f.by fame, by glory (from: kīrt – to praise, kīrti – fame, glory);
jagat jagat 1n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
prahṛṣyati pra-hṛṣ (to be excited) Praes. P 1v.1it rejoices;
anurajyate anu-rañj (to be attached) Praes. Ā 1v.1it is attracted;
ca av.and;
rakṣāṁsi rakṣas 1n.3 n. evils, harms, damages (from: rakṣ – to protect);
bhītāni bhīta (bhī – to scare) [PP] 1n.3 n. afraid;
diśaḥ dik 2n.3 f.directions (from: diś – to show);
dravanti dru (to run, to hasten) Praes. P 1v.3they run;
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
namasyanti namasya (to bow down) Praes. P 1v.3 they bow down (from: nam – to bend, to bow);
ca av.and;
siddha-saṁghāḥ siddha-saṁgha 1n.3 m.; TP: siddhānāṁ saṁghā iti hosts of perfected beings (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect [PP] siddha – accomplished, perfected; sam-xhan – to strike together, to join, saṁ-gha – collection, assemblage, crowd);

 

textual variants


bhītāni → bhūtāni (beings);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sthāne yuktam | kiṃ tat ? tava prakītryā tvan-māhātmya-kīrtanena śrutena | he hṛṣīkeśa ! yat jagat prahṛṣyati praharṣam upaiti, tat sthāne yuktam ity arthaḥ | athavā viṣaya-viśeṣaṇaṃ sthāna iti | yukto harṣādi-viṣayo bhagavān, yata īśvaraḥ sarvātmā sarva-bhūta-suhṛc ceti | tathānurajyate’nurāgaṃ copaiti | tac ca viṣaya iti vyākhyeyam | kiṃ ca, rakṣāṃsi bhītāni bhayāviṣṭani diśo dravanti gacchanti | tac ca sthāne viṣaye | sarve namasyanti namaskurvanti ca siddha-saṃghāḥ siddhānāṃ samudāyāḥ kapilādīnām, tac ca sthāne
 

Rāmānuja


sthāne yuktam / yad etad yuddhadidṛkṣayāgatam aśeṣadevagandharvasiddhayakṣavidyādharakinnarakiṃpuruṣādikaṃ jagat, tvatprasādāt tvāṃ sarveśvaram avalokya tava prakīrtyā sarvaṃ prahṛṣyati, anurajyate ca, yac ca tvām avalokya rakṣāṃsi bhītāni sarvā diśaḥ pradravanti, sarve siddhasaṃghāḥ siddhādyanukūlasaṃghāḥ namasyanti ca tad etat sarvaṃ yuktam iti pūrveṇa saṃbandhaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


sthāne ity ekādaśabhir arjunasyoktiḥ | sthāne ity avyayaṃ yuktam ity asminn arthe | he hṛṣīkeśa yata evaṃ tvam adbhuta-prabhāvo bhakta-vatsalaś ca | atas tava prakīrtyā māhātmya-saṅkīrtanena na kevalam aham eva prahṛṣyāmīti, kintu jagat sarvaṃ prahṛṣyaty prakarṣeṇa harṣaṃ prāpnoti | etat tu sthāne yuktam ity arthaḥ | tathā jagad anurajyate cānurāgam upaitīti yat | tathā rakṣāṃsi bhītāni santi | diśaḥ prati dravanti palāyante iti yat | sarve yoga-tapo-mantrādi-siddhānāṃ saṅghā namasyanti praṇamanti iti yat | etac ca sthāne yuktam eva | na citram ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


ekādaśabhir arjuna uvāca sthāna iti | sthāna ity avyayaṃ yuktam ity arthe | he hṛṣīkeśa ! sarvendriya-pravartaka yatas tvam evam atyantādbhuta-prabhāvo bhakta-vatsalaś ca tatas tava prakīrtyā prakṛṣṭayā kīrtyā niratiśaya-prāśastyasya kīrtanena śravaṇena ca na kevalam aham eva prahṛṣyāmi kintu sarvam eva jagac cetana-mātraṃ rakṣo-virodhi prahṛṣyati prakṛṣṭaṃ harṣam āpnotīti yat tat sthāne yuktam evety arthaḥ | tathā sarvaṃ jagad anurajyate ca tad-viṣayam anurāgam upaitīti ca yat tad api yuktam eva | tathā rakṣāṃsi bhītāni bhayāviṣṭāni santi diśo dravanti gacchanti sarvāsu dikṣu palāyanta iti yat tad api yuktam eva | tathā sarve siddhānāṃ kapilādīnāṃ saṃghā namasyanti ceti yat tad api yuktam eva | sarvatra tava prakīrtyety asyānvayaḥ sthāna ity asya ca | ayaṃ śloko rakṣoghna-mantratvena mantra-śāstre prasiddhaḥ | sa ca nārāyaṇāṣṭākṣara-sudarśanāstra-mantrābhyāṃ sampuṭito jñeya iti rahasyam
 

Viśvanātha


bhagavad-vigrahasyātiprasannatvam atighoratvaṃ cedam unmukha-vimukha-viṣayakam iti sahaseva jñātvā tad eva tattvaṃ vyācakṣaṇaḥ stauti sthāna iti | sthāna ity avyayaṃ yuktam ity arthaḥ | he hṛṣīkeśa ! sva-bhaktendriyānāṃ ca svābhimukhye sva-mukhye ca pravartaka ! tava prakīrtyā prakṛṣṭayā tvan-māhātmya-saṅkīrtanena jagad idaṃ prahṛṣyay anurajyate anuraktam bhavatīti yuktam eva jagato ‚sya tvad-aunmukhyād iti bhāvaḥ | tathā rakṣāṃsi rakṣo ‚sura-dānava-piśācādīni bhītāni bhūtvā diśo dravanti diśaḥ prati palāyanta ity etad api sthāne yuktam eva | teṣāṃ tvad-vaimukhyād iti bhāvaḥ | tathā tvad-bhaktyā ye siddhās teṣāṃ saṅghāḥ sarve namasyanti cety api yuktam eva | teṣāṃ tvad-bhaktatvād iti bhāvaḥ | śloko ‚yaṃ rakṣoghna-mantratvena mantra-śāstre prasiddhaḥ
 

Baladeva


pareśasya sakhyuḥ kṛṣṇasyātiramyatvam atyugratvaṃ ca tatra raṅgavad yugapad eva vīkṣya tad-ubhayaṃ sva-saṃmukha-sva-vimukha-viṣayam iti vidvān arjunas tad-anurūpaṃ stauti sthāna ity ekādaśabhiḥ | yuktam ity arthakaṃ sthāna ity ed-antam avyayam | he hṛṣīkeśeti saṃmukha-vimukhendriyāṇāṃ sāṃmukhye vaimukhye capravarakety arthaḥ | yuddha-darśanāyāgataṃ deva-gandharva-siddha-vidyādhara-pramukhaṃ tvat-saṃmukhaṃ jagat tava duṣṭa-saṃhartatva-rūpayā prakīrtyā prahṛṣyaty anurajyate ceti yuktam etat | duṣṭa-svabhāvāni tvad-vimukhāni rakṣāṃsi rākṣasāsura-dānavādīni devādy-udgītayā tat-prakīrtyā bhītāni bhūtvā diśaḥ prati dravanti palāyanta iti ca yuktam | tava prāṇi-bhāvānusāri-rūpa-prakāśitvād iti bhāvaḥ | tad itthaṃ śiṣṭāśiṣṭānugraha-kāritāṃ tava vīkṣya tvad-bhaktāḥ siddha-saṅghāḥ sarve sanakādayo namasyanti jaya jaya bhagavān ity udīrayantaḥ praṇamanti ca yuktaṃ tava bhakta-mano-hāritvāt
 
 


BhG 11.37

kasmāc ca te na nameran mahātman garīyase brahmaṇo py ādikartre
ananta deveśa jagan-nivāsa tvam akṣaraṃ sad asat tat paraṃ yat

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syntax


he mahātman (O you whose self is great!) he ananta (O endless one!) he deveśa (O lord of gods!) he jagan-nivāsa (O abode of the world!),
kasmāt ca (and why?) te (to you) brahmaṇaḥ api (even than brahman) garīyase (more important) ādi-kartre ca (and than the first creator) na nameran (they should not bow down).
yat sat (that which is existence) [yat] asat (that which is non-existence) [yat] tat-param (that which is higher than these two) [tat] akṣaram (that imperishable) tvam (you) [asi] (you are).

 

grammar

kasmāt av. (5n.1) – why? (from: kim – what?);
ca av.and;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
na av.not;
nameran nam (to bend, to bow) Pot. Ā 1v.3they should bow down;
mahātman mahā-ātman 8n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā mahān asti tvamO you, whose self is great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);
garīyase garīyas 4n.1 m. – heavier, better (comparative of: gurugarīyas, gariṣṭha);
brahmaṇaḥ brahman 5n.1 n.than the spirit, from the Veda (from: bṛh – to increase);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ādi-kartre ādi-kartṛ 5n.1 n.; KD: ya ādiḥ karteti tasmai than one who is the first and is a creator (ādi – beginning, the first; kṛ – to do, kartṛ – a doer);
or [TP]: yaḥ kartṝṇām ādir iti tasmai than one who is the first among the creators;
ananta an-anta 8n.1 m.O endless one! (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
deveśa deva-īśa 8n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām īśetiO lord of gods! (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
jagan-nivāsa jagan-nivāsa 8n.1 m.; jagato nivāsetiO abode of the world! (from: gam – to go, jagat – world, moving, mankind; ni-vas – to dwell, to spend time, nivāsa – house, abode);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
akṣaram a-kṣara 1n.1 n. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
sat sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 n.being, existing, true, the essence;
asat a-sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 n.untrue, non-existing (from: sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
tat-param tat-para 1n.1 n.; [TP]: tābhyāṁ param itihigher than these two (from: tat – that; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;

 

textual variants


kasmāc ca te kasmāc caite (and why they);
nameran → namyur (they should bow down);
py ādikartrehy ādikartre (indeed than the first among creators);
sad asat tat paraṁ → sad-asattaḥ paraṁ / sad-asatoḥ paraṁ (highr than existence and non-existence);
 
 



Śāṃkara


bhagavato harṣādi-viṣayatve hetuṃ darśayati—
kasmāc ca hetos te tubhyaṃ na nameran namaskuryur he mahātman ! garīyase gurutarāya | yato brahmaṇo hiraṇyagarbhasyāpi ādi-kartā kāraṇam atas tasmād ādi-kartre | katham ete na namaskuryuḥ ? ato harṣādīnāṃ namaskārasya ca sthānaṃ tvam arho viṣaya ity arthaḥ | he’nanta deveśa he jagan-nivāsa tvam akṣaraṃ tat param, yad vedānteṣu śrūyate | kiṃ tat ? sad asad iti | sad vidyamānam, asac ca yatra nāstīti buddhiḥ | ta upadhāna-bhūte sad-asatī yasyākṣarasya, yad-dvāreṇa sad asad ity upacaryate | paramārthatas tu sad-asatoḥ paraṃ tat akṣaraṃ yad akṣaraṃ veda-vido vadanti [gītā 8.11] | tat tvam eva, nānyad ity abhiprāyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


kasmāc ca te na nameran mahātman garīyase brahmaṇo ‚py ādikartre |
mahātman, te tubhyaṃ garīyase brahmaṇaḥ hiraṇyagarbhasyāpi ādibhūtāya kartre hiraṇyagarbhādayaḥ kasmād dhetor na namaskuryuḥ
ananta deveśa jagannivāsa tvam evākṣaram / na kṣaratīty akṣaraṃ jīvātmatattvam / „na jāyate mriyate vā vipaścit” ity ādiśrutisiddho jīvātmā hi na kṣarati / sad asac ca tvam eva sadasacchabdanirdiṣṭaṃ kāryakāraṇabhāvenāvasthitaṃ prakṛtitattvaṃ, nāmarūpavibhāgavattayā kāryāvasthaṃ sacchabdanirdiṣṭaṃ tadanarhatayā kāraṇāvastham asacchabdanirdiṣṭaṃ ca tvam eva / tat param yat tasmāt prakṛteḥ prakṛtisaṃbandhinaś ca jīvātmanaḥ param anyan muktātmatattvaṃ yat, tad api tvam eva
tvam ādidevaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇas tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam |
atas tvam ādidevaḥ, puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ, tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam / nidhīyate tvayi viśvam iti tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam; viśvasya śarīrabhūtasyātmatayā paramādhārabhūtas tvam evetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tatra hetum āha kasmād iti | he mahātman ! he ananta ! he deveśa ! he jagannivāsa ! kasmād dhetos te tubhyaṃ na nameran na namaskāraṃ kuryuḥ ? kathambhūtāya brahmaṇo ‚py garīyase gurutarāya | ādi-kartre ca brahmaṇo ‚pi janakāya | kiṃ ca sad vyaktam asad-vyaktaṃ tābhyāṃ paraṃ mūla-kāraṇaṃ yad akṣaraṃ brahma | tac ca tvam eva | etair navabhir hetubhis tvāṃ sarve namasyantīti na citram ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


bhagavato harṣādi-viṣayatve hetum āha kasmāc ceti | kasmāc ca hetos te tubhyaṃ na nameran na namaskuryuḥ siddha-saṅghāḥ sarve ‚pi | he mahātman paramodāra-citta ! he ‚nanta sarva-pariccheda-śūnya ! he deveśa hiraṇyagarbhādīnām api devānāṃ niyantaḥ ! he jagan-nivāsa sarvāśraya ! tubhyaṃ kīdṛśāya brahmaṇo ‚pi garīyase gurutarāyādi-kartre tvam brahmaṇo ‚pi janakāya | niyantṛtvam upadeṣṭṛtvaṃ janakatvam ity ādir ekaiko ‚pi hetur namaskāryatā-prayojakaḥ kiṃ punar mahātmatvānantatva-jagan-nivāsatvādi-nānā-kalyāṇa-guṇa-samuccita ity anāścaryatā-sūcanārthaṃ namaskārasya kasmāc ceti vā-śabdārthaś ca-kāraḥ | kiṃ ca sat ? vidhi-mukhena pratīyamānam astīit | asan niṣedha-mukhena pratīyamānaṃ nāstīti | athavā sad-vyaktam asad-vyaktaṃ tvam eva | tathā tat-paraṃ tābhyāṃ sad-asadbhyāṃ paraṃ mūla-kāraṇaṃ yad akṣaraṃ brahma tad api tvam eva tvad-bhinnaṃ kim api nāstīty arthaḥ | tat-paraṃ yad ity atra yac-chabdāt prāk-ca-kāram api kecit paṭhanti | etair hetubhis tvāṃ sarve namasyantīti na kim api citram ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


te kasmān na nameran, api tu namerann eva | ātmanepadam ārṣam | sat-kāryam asat-kāraṇaṃ ca tābhyāṃ paraṃ yad akṣaraṃ brahma tat tvam
 

Baladeva


atha bhagavataḥ sarva-namasyatvam abhidadhat sarva-vyāpitvāt sarvātmakatāṃ pratipādayati kasmāc ceti caturbhiḥ | he mahātman udāra-mate ! he ananta sarva-vyāpin ! he deveśa sarva-deva-niyantaḥ ! he jagannivāsa sarvāśraya ! te siddha-saṅghās te tubhyaṃ kasmād dhetor na nameran ? ātmanepadaṃ chāndasam | api tu praṇameyur eva te | kīdṛśāyety āha | brahmaṇo ‚py garīyase gurutarāya yasmād ādi-kartre tattva-sṛṣṭi-karāyeti namasyatve ‚neke hetavaḥ santīti samuccayālaṅkāraḥ | kiṃ ca yad akṣaraṃ prakṛti-tattvaṃ tat-paraṃ yad iti | tasmāt prakṛti-saṃsṛṣṭāj jīvātma-tattvāt prakṛti-tattvāc cokta-rūpāt param utkṛṣṭaṃ bhinnaṃ ca yan-mukta-jīvātma-tattvaṃ tac ca tvam eva sarva-rūpa ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.38

tvam ādi-devaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇas tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam
vettāsi vedyaṃ ca paraṃ ca dhāma tvayā tataṃ viśvam ananta-rūpa

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syntax


tvam (you) ādi-devaḥ (primeval among divinities) purāṇaḥ (ancient) puruṣaḥ (Person) [asi] (you are),
tvam (you) asya viśvasya (of that all) param nidhānam (the supreme resting place) [asi] (you are),
[tvam] (you) vettā (knower) vedyam ca (and knowledge) paraṁ ca dhāma (and the supreme abode) asi (you are),
he ananta-rūpa (O you whose forms are unlimited),
tvayā (by you) idam viśvam (that all) tatam [asti] (is pervaded).

 

grammar

tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
ādi-devaḥ ādi-deva 1n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām ādir itiprimeval among divinities (from: ādi – beginning, the first; div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity);
puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
purāṇaḥ purāṇa 1n.1 m.ancient, belonging to old times (from: pur – to precede);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
viśvasya viśva 6n.1 m.of all, whole, world (from: viś – to enter);
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
nidhānam nidhāna 1n.1 n.storage place, receptacle, treasure (from: ni-dhā – to put, to deposit);
vettā vettṛ 1n.1 m.knower (from: vid – to know, to understand);
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
vedyam vedya (vid – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be understood;
ca av.and;
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
ca av.and;
dhāma dhāman 1n.1 n.abode, house, state, majesty, splendour (from: dhā – to put);
tvayā yuṣmat sn. 3n.1by you;
tatam tata (tan – to spread, to pervade) [PP] 1n.1 n.spread, pervaded, covered over;
viśvam viśva 1n.1 m.all, whole, world (from: viś – to enter);
ananta-rūpa ananta-rūpa 8n.1 m.; BV: yasyānantāni rūpāṇi santi tvamO you whose forms are unlimited (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death, an-anta – without end, endless; rūp – to form, rūpa – shape, figure, beauty);

 

textual variants


ca paraṁ → paramaṁ (supreme);
ananta-rūpa → idaṁ samastam / anaṁta-rūpam / anantam ādyam (that all / [world] whose forms are unlimited / endless and primeval);
 
 



Śāṃkara


punar api stauti—
tvam ādi-devo jagataḥ sraṣṭṛtvāt | puruṣaḥ, puri śayanāt purāṇaś cirantanas tvam evāsya viśvasya paraṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ nidhānaṃ nidhīyate’smin jagat sarvaṃ mahā-pralayādāv iti | kiṃ ca, vettāsi, veditāsi sarvasyaiva vedya-jātasya | yac ca vedyaṃ vedanārhaṃ tac cāsi paraṃ ca dhāma paramaṃ padaṃ vaiṣṇavam | tvayā tataṃ vyāptaṃ viśvaṃ samastam | he’nanta-rūpa ! anto na vidyate tava rūpāṇām
 

Rāmānuja


jagati sarvo veditā vedyaṃ ca sarvaṃ tvam eva / evaṃ sarvātmatayāvasthitas tvam eva paraṃ ca dhāma sthānam; prāpyasthānam ityarthaḥ / tvayā tataṃ viśvam anantarūpa / tvayātmatvena viśvaṃ cidacinmiśraṃ jagat tataṃ vyāptam
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca tvam ādi-deva iti | tvam ādi-devo devānām ādiḥ | yataḥ purāṇo ‚nādiḥ puruṣas tvam | ataeva tvam asya paraṃ nidhānam laya-sthānam | tathā viśvasya jñātā tvam | yac ca vedyaṃ vastu-jātaṃ paraṃ ca dhāma vaiṣṇavaṃ padaṃ tad api tvam evāsi | ataeva he ananta-rūpa tvayaivedaṃ viśvaṃ tataṃ vyāptam | etaiś ca saptabhir hetubhis tvam eva namaskārya ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


bhakty-udrekāt punar api stauti tvam iti | tvam ādi-devo jagataḥ sarga-hetutvāt | puruṣaḥ pūrayitā | purāṇo ‚nādiḥ | tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam laya-sthānatvān nidhīyate sarvam asminn iti | evaṃ sṛṣṭi-pralaya-sthānatvenopādānatvam uktvā sarvajñatvena pradhānaṃ vyāvartayan nimittatām āha vettā veditā sarvasyāsi | dvaitāpattiṃ vārayati yac ca vedyaṃ tad api tvam evāsi vedana-rūpe veditari paramārtha-sambandhābhāvena sarvasya vedyasya kalpitatvāt | ataeva paraṃ ca dhāma yat sac-cid-ānanda-ghanam avidyā-tat-kārya-nirmuktaṃ viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ tad api tvam evāsi | tvayā sad-rūpeṇa sphūraṇa-rūpeṇa ca kāraṇena tataṃ vyāptam idaṃ svataḥ-sattā-sphūrti-śūnyaṃ viśvam kāryaṃ māyika-sambandhenaiva sthiti-kāla he ‚nantarūpāparicchinna-svarūpa
 

Viśvanātha


nidhānaṃ laya-sthānaṃ paraṃ dhāma guṇātītaṃ svarūpam
 

Baladeva


tvam iti | paraṃ nidhānam paramāśrayo nidhīyate ‚smin iti nirukteḥ | jagati yo vettā yac ca vedyaṃ tad ubhayaṃ tvam eva | kuta evam iti cet tatrāha yat tvayā viśvam idaṃ tataṃ tad-vyāpitvād ity arthaḥ | yac ca paraṃ dhāma parama-vyomākhyaṃ prāpya-sthānam tad api tvam eva parākhya-tvac-chakti-vaibhavatvāt tasya dhāmnaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.39

vāyur yamo gnir varuṇaḥ śaśāṅkaḥ prajāpatis tvaṃ prapitāmahaś ca
namo namas te stu sahasra-kṛtvaḥ punaś ca bhūyo pi namo namas te

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syntax


tvam (you) vāyuḥ (the wind) yamaḥ (death) agniḥ (fire) varuṇaḥ (Varuṇa) śaśāṅkaḥ (Moon) prajāpatiḥ (the lord of creatures) prapitāmahaḥ ca (and great grandfather) [asi] (you are).
sahasra-kṛtvaḥ (thousand times) punaḥ (again) te (to you) namaḥ namaḥ (obeisance and obeisance) astu (it must be),
bhūyaḥ api (and again) te (to you) namaḥ namaḥ (obeisance and obeisance) [astu] (it must be).

 

grammar

vāyuḥ vāyu 1n.1 m.the wind (from: – to blow);
yamaḥ yama 1n.1 m.restrain, control, rule; Yama – the god of death (from: yam – to restrain, to control);
agniḥ agni 1n.1 m.fire (from: ag – to move tortuously);
varuṇaḥ varuṇa 1n.1 m.enveloping sky, Varuṇa, god of waters;
śaśāṅkaḥ śaśa-aṅka 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyāṅkaḥ śaśo ‘sti saḥrabbit-marked, Moon (from: śaśa – rabbit, hare; aṅka – sign, line, mark);
prajāpatiḥ prajā-pati 1n.1 m.the lord of creatures (from: pra-jan – to be born, be produced, to bring forth, pra-jā – offspring, creatures, mankind; pati – husband, lord);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
prapitāmahaḥ pra-pitā-maha 1n.1 m.great grandfaher (from: pra – before, in front; pitṛ – father; mah – to magnify, mahant – great);
ca av.and;
namaḥ namaḥ namaḥ 2n.1 n.obeisance and obeisance (from: nam – to bend, to bow; repetition gives intensification);
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
astu as (to be) Imperat. P 1v.1it must be;
sahasra-kṛtvaḥ av.thousand times(from: sahasra – a thousand; kṛ – to do, kṛtas / kṛt – at the end of compound: -fold, times);
punaḥ av.back, again;
ca av.and;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
namaḥ namaḥ namaḥ 2n.1 n.obeisance and obeisance (from: nam – to bend, to bow; repetition gives intensification);
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);

 

textual variants


… → after the second pada of verse BhG 11.39 there are two padas not found in critical edition:
anādimān apratima-prabhāvaḥ sarveśvaraḥ sarva-mahā-vibhūte
…O you who have all great powers, you have no beginning,
your might is without a match and you are the ruler of everything…
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
vāyus tvaṃ yamaś cāgniḥ varuṇo’pāṃ patiḥ śaśāṅkaś candramāḥ prajāpatis tvaṃ kaśyapādiḥ prapitāmahaś ca pitāmahasyāpi pitā prapitāmahaḥ, brahmaṇo’pi pitā ity arthaḥ | namo namas te tubhyam astu sahasra-kṛtvaḥ | punaś ca bhūyo’pi namo namas te | bahuśo namaskāra-kriyābhyāsāvṛtti-gaṇanaṃ kṛtva-sucocyate | punaś ca bhūyo’pīti śraddhā-bhakta-yati-śayād aparitoṣam ātmano darśayati
 

Rāmānuja


atas tvam eva vāyvādiśabdavācya ity āha
sarveṣāṃ prapitāmahas tvam eva; pitāmahādayaś ca / sarvasāṃ prajānāṃ pitaraḥ prajāpatayaḥ, prajāpatīnāṃ pitā hiraṇyagarbhaḥ prajānāṃ pitāmahaḥ, hiraṇyagarbhasyāpi pitā tvaṃ prajānāṃ prapitāmahaḥ / pitāmahādīnām ātmatayā tattacchabdavācyas tvam evetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


itaś ca sarvais tvam eva namaskāryaḥ sarva-devātmakatvād iti stuvan svayam api namaskaroti vāyur iti | vāyv-ādi-rūpas tvam iti sarva-devātmakatvopalakṣaṇārtham uktam | prajāpatiḥ pitāmahaḥ | tasyāpi janakatvāt prapitāmahas tvam | atas te tubhyaṃ sahasraśo namo ‚stu | punaḥ sahasra-kṛtvo namo ‚stu | bhūyo ‚pi punar api sahasra-kṛtvo namo nama iti
 

Madhusūdana


vāyur yamo ‚gnir varuṇaḥ śaśāṅkaḥ sūryādīnām apy upalakṣaṇam etat | prajāpatir virāḍ hiraṇyagarbhaś ca | prapitāmahaś pitāmahasya hiraṇya-garbhasyāpi pitā ca tvam | yasmād evaṃ sarva-devātmakatvāt tvam eva sarvair namaskāryo ‚si tasmān mamāpi varākasya namo namo namas te tubhyam astu sahasrakṛtvaḥ | punaś ca bhūyo ‚pi punar api ca namo namas te | bhakti-śraddhātiśayena namaskāreṣv alaṃ-pratyayābhāvo ‚nayā namaskārāvṛttyā sūcyate
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.40
 

Baladeva


ataḥ sarva-śabda-vācyas tvam ity āha vāyur iti | sarva-devopalakṣaṇaṃ vāyv-ādi-sarva-deva-rūpas tvaṃ prajāpatiś caturāsyaḥ pitāmahas tvaṃ tat-pitṛtvāt prapitāmahas tvaṃ bhavasi kaṅkaṇādiṣu kanakasyeva cid-acic-chaktimatas tava kāraṇasya vāyv-ādiṣu vyāptes tat tat sarva-rūpas tvam ataḥ sarva-namasyo ‚sīti mayā tvaṃ namasyase ity āha namo namaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.40

namaḥ purastād atha pṛṣṭhatas te namo stu te sarvata eva sarva
ananta-vīryāmita-vikramas tvaṃ sarvaṃ samāpnoṣi tato si sarvaḥ

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syntax


he sarva (O you who are everything!) he ananta-vīrya (O you who have unlimited strength!),
te (to you) purastāt (from the front) namaḥ [astu] (it must be obeisance),
atha pṛṣṭhataḥ (moreover from behind) namaḥ astu (it must be obeisance),
[te] (to you) sarvataḥ eva (just from all sides) [namaḥ astu] (it must be obeisance).
tvam amita-vikramaḥ (you whose heroism is boundless) sarvam (all) samāpnoṣi (you obtain),
tataḥ (therefore) [tvaṁ] (you) sarvaḥ asi (you are all).

 

grammar

namaḥ namaḥ 1n.1 n.obeisance, salutation (from: nam – to bend, to bow);
purastāt av.from the front (from: av. puras – in front);
atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
pṛṣṭhataḥ av.from behind (from: pṛṣṭha – back, rear, hinder; indeclinable ablative with an ending: –tas);
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
namaḥ namaḥ 1n.1 n.obeisance, salutation (from: nam – to bend, to bow);
astu as (to be) Imperat. P 1v.1it must be;
te yuṣmat sn. 4n.1to you (shortened form of: tubhyam);
sarvataḥ av.from all sides, everywhere, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
sarva sarva sn. 8n.1 m.O you who are everything!;
ananta-vīrya ananta-vīrya 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya vīryasyāntaḥ nāsti tvam / yasya vīryam ananam asti tvam O you who have unlimited strength (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death, an-anta – without end, endless; vīrya – manliness, valour, strenght, semen);
amita-vikramaḥ amita-vikrama 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya vikramo ‘mitaḥ asti saḥ / yasya vīryam ananam asti tam whose heroism is boundless (from: vi-kram – to step beyond, to attack, vi-krama – going, courage, valour, heroism; – to measure, [PP] mita – measured, llimited, a-mita – boundless, infinite);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
sarvam sarva sn. 2n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
samāpnoṣi sam-āp (to obtain, to reach) Praes. P 2v.1you obtain, you pervade;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
sarvaḥ sarva sn. 1n.1 m.who is all;

 

textual variants


pṛṣṭhatas te pṛṣṭhatas ca (and from behind);
sarva → sarve / sarvaḥ (all / being everything);
ananta-vīryāmita-vikramasananta-vīryo ‘mita-vikramas / ananta-vīryāmṛta-vikramas (you whose valour is unlimited, whose heroism is boundless / O you whose valour is unlimited! You whose heroism is immortal);
sarvaṁ samāpnoṣi → vyāpnoṣi sarvaṁ ca (and all you pervade);
sarvaḥ → sarva (O you who are everything!);

… → after the second pada of verse BhG 11.40 there are two padas not found in critical edition:
na hi tvad anyaḥ kaś cid apīha deva lokatraye dṛśyate ‚cintyakarmā
O god, indeed no one can be seen here and even in the three worlds,
who would be different from you. [You] performing inconceivable actions…

 
 



Śāṃkara


tathā—
namaḥ purastāt pūrvasyāṃ diśi tubhyam, atha pṛṣṭhatas te pṛṣṭhato’pi ca te namo’stu te sarvata eva sarvāsu dikṣu sarvatra sthitāya | he sarva ! ananta-vīryāmita-vikramo’nantaṃ vīryam asya, amito vikramo’sya | vīryaṃ sāmarthyaṃ vikramaḥ parākramaḥ | vīryavān api kaścit śatru-vadhādi-viṣaye na parākramate, manda-parākramo vā | tvaṃ tv ananta-vīryo’mita-vikramaś cety ananta-vīryāmita-vikramaḥ | sarvaṃ samastaṃ jagat samāpnoṣi samyag ekenātmanā vyāpnoṣi yataḥ, tatas tasmād asi bhavasi sarvas tvam | tvayā vinābhūtaṃ na kiṃcid astīty abhiprāyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


atyadbhutākāraṃ bhagavantaṃ dṛṣṭvā harṣotphullanayano ‚tyantasādhvasāvanataḥ sarvato namaskaroti
amitavīrya, aparimitaparākramas tvaṃ sarvātmatayā samāpnoṣi; tataḥ sarvo ‚si / yatas tvaṃ sarvaṃ cidacidvastujātam ātmatayā samāpnoṣi, ataḥ sarvasya cidacidvastujātasya tvaccharīratayā tvatprakāratvāt sarvaprakāras tvam eva sarvaśabdavācyo ‚sītyarthaḥ / „tvam akṣaraṃ sad asat”, „vāyur yamo ‚gniḥ” ityādisarvasāmānādhikaraṇyanirdeśasyātmatayā vyāptir eva hetur iti suvyaktam uktam, „tvayā tataṃ viśvam anantarūpa”, „sarvaṃ samāpnoṣi tato ‚si sarvaḥ” iti ca
 

Śrīdhara


bhakti-śraddhābhayātiśayena namaskāreṣu tṛptim anadhigacchan punar api bahuśaḥ praṇamati nama iti | he sarva sarvātman sarvāsu dikṣu tubhyaṃ namo ‚stu | sarvātmakam upapādayann āha anantaṃ vīryaṃ sāmarthyaṃ yasya tathā | amito vikramaḥ parākramo yasya saḥ | evaṃ bhūtas tvaṃ sarvaṃ viśvaṃ samyag antar bahiś ca samāpnoṣi vyāpnoṣi | suvarṇam iva kaṭaka-kuṇḍalādi sva-kāryaṃ vyāpya vartase tataḥ sarva-svarūpo ‚si
 

Madhusūdana


tubhyaṃ purastād agra-bhāge namo ‚stu tubhyaṃ puro namaḥ syād iti vā | atha-śabdaḥ samuccaye | pṛṣṭhato ‚pi tubhyaṃ namaḥ syāt | namo ‚stu te tubhyaṃ sarvata eva sarvāsu dikṣu sthitāya he sarva ! vīryaṃ śarīra-balaṃ vikramaḥ śikṣā śastra-prayoga-kauśalam | ekaṃ vīryādhikaṃ manya uttaikaṃ śikṣayādhikam ity ukter bhīma-duryodhanayor anyeṣu caikaikaṃ vyavasthitam | tvaṃ tu ananta-vīryaś cāmita-vikramaś ceti samastam ekaṃ padam | ananta-vīryeti sambodhanaṃ vā | sarvaṃ samastaṃ jagat samāpnoṣi samyag ekenaa sad-rūpeṇāpnoṣi sarvātmanā vyāpnoṣi tatas tasmāt sarvo ‚si tvad-atiriktaṃ kim api nāstīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sarvaṃ sva-kāryaṃ jagad āpnoṣi vyāpnoṣi svarṇam iva kaṭaka-kuṇḍalādikam atas tvam eva sarvaḥ
 

Baladeva


bhakty-atiśayena namaskāreṣv alaṃ bhāvam avidan bahukṛtvaḥ praṇamati namaḥ purastād iti | he sarva ! purastāt pṛṣṭhataḥ sarvataś ca sthitāya te namo namo ‚stu | ananteti karma-dhārayaḥ | vīryaṃ deha-balaṃ vikramas tu dhī-balaṃ śastra-prayogādi-prāvīṇya-rūpam | ekaṃ vīryādhikaṃ manyataikaṃ śikṣayādhikam iti bhīma-duryodhanāv uddiśyokteḥ | sarva-rūpatvehe tum āha sarvaṃ samāpnoṣīti | evam evoktaṃ śrī-vaiṣṇave –
yo ‚yaṃ tavāgato deva samīpaṃ devatā-gaṇaḥ |
sa tvam eva jagat-sraṣṭā yataḥ sarva-gato bhavān || iti
 
 


BhG 11.41-42

sakheti matvā prasabhaṃ yad uktaṃ he kṛṣṇa he yādava he sakheti
ajānatā mahimānaṃ tavedaṃ mayā pramādāt praṇayena vāpi
yac cāvahāsārtham asat-kṛto si vihāra-śayyāsana-bhojaneṣu
eko tha vāpy acyuta tat-samakṣaṃ tat kṣāmaye tvām aham aprameyam

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syntax


he acyuta (O Acyuta!),
[aham] (I) tava (your) idam mahimānam (this greatness) pramādāt (out of delusion) praṇayena vā api (or out of love)
sakha iti („friend”) matvā (after thinking)
he kṛṣṇa (O Kṛṣṇa!) he yādava (O descendant of Yadu!) he sakha iti (O friend!)
yad
(that which) mayā ajānatā (by me not knowing) prasabham (presumptuously) uktam (spoken),
yat ca (and that which) vihāra-śayyāsana-bhojaneṣu (during playing, sleeping, seating or eating) ekaḥ (alone) atha vā (or) tat-samakṣam api (even in the sight of others)
avahāsārtham (for the sake of fun) asat-kṛtaḥ (not respected) asi (you are),
aham (I) aprameyam tvām (you immeasurable) tat (for that) kṣāmaye (I ask for forgiveness).

 

grammar

sakhā sakhi 1n.1 m. friend (from: sac – to be associated or united with);
iti   av.thus (used to close the quotation);
matvā man (to think) absol.after thinking;
prasabham av.by force, presumptuously (pra-sah – to conquer);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
uktam ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.spoken, called;
he av.oh! (mostly before vocative);
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa 8n.1 m.O dark one, O Kṛṣṇa;
he av.oh! (mostly before vocative);
yādava yādava 8n.1 m.O descendant of Yadu (from: yadu – one of the three sons of Yayāti; other sons: Puru and Turvasu);
he av.oh! (mostly before vocative);
sakhā sakhi 1n.1 m. friend (from: sac – to be associated or united with);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ajānatā a-jānant (jña – to know, to understand) PPr 3n.1 m.by not knowing;
mahimānam mahiman 2n.1 m.greatness, glory (from: mah – to magnify, mahi – greatness);
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
idam idam sn. 2n.1 n.this (with word mahiman m. is possible the use of n. idam – ārṣa-prayoga = archaic use);
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
pramādāt pramāda 5n.1 m.out of delusion, out of play (from: pra-mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude);
praṇayena praṇaya 3n.1 m.with love, with affection (from: pra- – to lead, to manifest affection);
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;

****

yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
ca av.and;
avahāsārtham av. avahāsasyārtham itifor the sake of fun (from: ava-has – to laugh at, ava-hāsa – jest, joke; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use);
asat-kṛtaḥ a-sant-kṛta 1n.1 m.not respected (from: as – to be; PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, a-sant – not existing, bad; kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made);
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
vihāra-śayyāsana-bhojaneṣu vihāra-śayya-āsana-bhojana 7n.3 n.; DV: vihāre ca śayyāyāṁ cāsane ca bhojane cetiduring playing, sleeping, seating and eating (from: vi-hṛ – to put asunder, to spend [time], vihāra – walking, amusement, pleasure; śī – to lie, to rest, śayyā – bed, lying, sleeping; ās – to sit, to exist, āsana a seat; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhojana – eating, a meal);
ekaḥ eka sn. 1n.1 m.one, who is alone;
atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
acyuta a-cyuta (cyu – to shake, to fall, to deviate) [PP] 8n.1 m.O unfailling one;
tat-samakṣam av.teṣāṁ samakṣam itibeing within their sight, in front of them (from: tatsn. that; xīkṣ – to see, akṣa – an eye, a sense organ, samakṣa – being within the sight, before the eyes);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
kṣāmaye kṣam (to forgive, to tolerate) caus. Praes. P 3v.1I cause to tolerate, I ask to forgive;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
aprameyam a-pra-meya (pra- – to measure) PF 2n.1 m.not to be measured, immeasurable;

 

textual variants


yad uktaṁ → yad ukto / yathoktaṁ (which spoken / as spoken);
he sakhetihe sakheti ca / he sakhe ca (and, o friend! / and, o friend!);
ajānatāajānato (from one not knowing);
tavedaṁ → tavemaṁ (your this);
praṇayenapraṇavena (with the syllable OM);
vāpi → cāpi (and moreover);
yac cāvahāsārthamyac cāpahāsārtham (that which is for the sake of laughing);
‘si → ‘pi (although);
yac cāvahāsārtham asat-kṛto si yaś cāvahāsārtha-namas-kṛto si (and that you are adored under the pretence of laughing);
tat-samakṣaṁ → sat-samakṣaṁ / mat-samakṣaṁ (in the presences of the holy men / in my presence);
aprameyam → īśam īḍyam / apramya / apramyaḥ (the lord glorified / O immeasurable! / immeasurable);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yato’haṃ tvan-māhātmyāparijñānād aparāddhaḥ | ataḥ—
sakhā samāna-vayā iti matvā jñātvā viparīta-buddhyā prasabham abhibhūya prasahya yad uktaṃ he kṛṣṇa he yādava he sakheti cājānatājñāninā mūḍhena | kim ajānatā ? ity āha—mahimānaṃ māhātmyaṃ tavedam īśvarasya viśva-rūpam | tavedaṃ mahimānam ajānateti vaiyadhikaraṇyena saṃbandhaḥ | tavemam iti pāṭho yady asti, tadā sāmānādhikaraṇyam eva | mayā pramādāt vikṣipta-cittatayā, praṇayena vāpi | praṇayo nāma sneha-nimitto visrambhaḥ | tenāpi kāraṇena yad uktavān asmi
yac cāvahāsārthaṃ parihāsa-prayojanāyāsatkṛtaḥ paribhūto’si bhavasi | kva ? vihāra-śayyāsana-bhojaneṣu | viharaṇaṃ vihāraḥ pāda-vyāyāmaḥ, śayanaṃ śayyā, āsanam āsthāyikā, bhojanam adanam, ity eteṣu vihāra-śayyāsana-bhojaneṣu, ekaḥ parokṣaḥ sann asatkṛto’si paribhūto’si | athavāpi he’cyuta ! tat samakṣam, tac-chabdaḥ kriyā-viśeṣaṇārthaḥ, pratyakṣaṃ vāsatkṛto’si tat sarvam aparādha-jātaṃ kṣāmaye kṣamāṃ kāraye tvām aham aprameyaṃ pramāṇātītam
 

Rāmānuja


tavānantavīryatvāmitavikramatvasarvāntarātmatvasraṣṭṛtvādiko yo mahimā, tam imam ajānatā mayā pramādān mohāt, praṇayena ciraparicayena vā sakheti mama vayasyaḥ iti matvā, he kṛṣṇa, he yādava, he sakhā iti tvayi prasabham vinayāpetaṃ yad uktaṃ, yac ca prihāsārthaṃ sarvadaiva satkārārhas tvam asatkṛto ‚si, vihāraśayyāsanabhojaneṣu ca sahakṛteṣu ekānte vaḥ samakṣaṃ vā yad asatkṛto ‚si; tat sarvaṃ tvām aprameyam ahaṃ kṣāmaye
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ bhagavantaṃ kṣamāpayati sakhetīti dvyābhyām | tvaṃ prākṛteḥ sakhety evaṃ matvā prasabhaṃ haṭhāt tiraskāreṇa yad uktaṃ tat kṣāmaye tvām ity uttareṇānvayaḥ | kiṃ tat ? he kṛṣṇa he yādava he sakheti ca | sandhir ārṣam | prasabhoktau hetuḥ – tava mahimānaṃ idaṃ ca viśva-rūpam ajānatā ca mayā pramādāt praṇayena snehena yad uktam iti
kiṃ ca yac ceti | he acyuta ! yac ca parihāsārthaṃ krīḍādiṣu tiraskṛto ‚si | ekatra ekalaḥ | sakhīn vinā rahasi sthita ity arthaḥ | athavā tat-samakṣaṃ teṣāṃ parihasatāṃ sakhīnāṃ samakṣaṃ purato ‚pi | tat sarvam aparādha-jātaṃ tvām aprameyam acintya-prabhāvaṃ kṣāmaye kṣamāṃ kārayāmi
 

Madhusūdana


yato ‚haṃ tvan-māhātmyāparijñānād aparādhān ajasrām akārṣaṃ tataḥ parama-kāruṇikaṃ tvāṃ praṇamyāparādha-kṣamāṃ kāryāmītyāha sakhetīti dvābhyām | tvaṃ mama sakhā samāna-vayā iti matvā prasabhaṃ svotkarṣa-khyāpana-rūpeṇābhibhavena yad uktaṃ mayā tavedaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ tathā mahimānam aiśvaryātiśayam ajānatā | puṃ-liṅga-pāṭha imaṃ viśva-rūpātmakaṃ mahimānaṃ ajānatā | pramādāc citta-vikṣepāt praṇayena snehena vāpi kim uktam ity āha he kṛṣṇa he yādava he sakheti
yac cāvahāsārtham parihāsārthaṃ vihāra-śayyāsana-bhojaneṣu vihāraḥ krīḍā vyāyāmo vā, śayyā tūlikādyāstaraṇa-viśeṣaḥ, āsanaṃ siṃhāsanādi | bhojanaṃ bahūnāṃ paṅkāvaśanaṃ teṣu viṣaya-bhūteṣu asatkṛto ‚si mayā paribhūto ‚si ekaḥ sakhīn vihāya rahasi sthito vā tvam | athavā tat-samakṣaṃ teṣāṃ sakhīnāṃ samakṣaṃ vā, he ‚cyuta ! sarvadā nirvikāra ! tat sarvaṃ vacana-rūpam asat-karaṇa-rūpaṃ cāparādha-jātaṃ kṣāmaye kṣāmayāmi tvām aprameyam acintya-prabhāveṇa nirvikāreṇa ca parama-kāruṇikena bhagavatā tvan-māhātmyānabhijñasya mamāparādhāḥ kṣantavyā ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


hanta hantaitādṛśa-mahā-mahaiśvaryamat tvayy ahaṃ kṛta-mahāparādha-puñjo ‚smīty anutāpam āviṣkurvann āha sakhetīti | he kṛṣṇeti | tvaṃ vasudeva-nāmno narasyārdharathatvenāpy aprasiddhasya putraḥ kṛṣṇa iti prasiddhaḥ | he yādaveti | yadu-vaṃśasya tava nāsti rājatvaṃ, mama tu puru-vaṃśasyāsty eva rājatvam | he sakheti | sandhir ārṣaḥ | tad api tvayā saha mama yat sakhyaṃ tatra tava paitrika-prabhāvo na hetuḥ | nāpi kaulikaḥ | kintu tāvaka evety abhiprāyato yeat prasabhaṃ sa-tiraskāram uktaṃ mayā tat kṣāmaye kṣamayāmīty uttareṇānvayaḥ | tavedaṃ viśva-rūpātmakaṃ svarūpam eva mahimānaṃ pramādād vā praṇayena snehena vā parihāsārthaṃ vihārādiṣv asatkṛto ‚si tvaṃ satyavādī niṣkapaṭaḥ parama-sarala ity-ādi-vakroktyā tiraskṛto ‚si | tvam ekaḥ sakhīn vinaiva rahasi | athavā tat samakṣaṃ teṣāṃ parihasatāṃ sakhīnāṃ samakṣaṃ purato ‚si yadā sthitas tadā jātaṃ tat sarvam aparādha-sahasraṃ kṣāmaye | he prabho ! kṣamasvety anunayāmīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


evam arjunaḥ sahasra-śīrṣādi-lakṣaṇaṃ sva-sakhaṃ kṛṣṇaṃ vilokya saṃstutya praṇamya ca sva-sakhyasyaiśvarya-jñāna-saṃmiśratvāt tad-anurūpam anunayati sakheti dvābhyām | kṛṣṇo bhagavān me sakhā mitram iti matvā niścitya tavedaṃ sahasra-śīrṣatvādi-lakṣaṇaṃ mahimānam ajānatānanubhavatā mayā pramādād anavadhānataḥ praṇayena sakhya-premṇā vā yat tvāṃ prati prasabhaṃ haṭhād uktam | tad idānīṃ kṣāmaye kṣamayāmi | kiṃ tad iti cet tatrāha he kṛṣṇety ādi | sakhetīty atra sandhiś chāndasaḥ | etāni trīṇi sambodhanāny anādara-garbhāṇi he kṛṣṇety atra śrī-pūrvakatvābhāvāt | he yādavety atra rājya-vaṃśyatvābhāvāvedanāt | he sakhety atra savayastva-mātra-sūcanāt | kiṃ ca, yac ca vihārādiṣv avahāsārthaṃ parihāsāyāsatkṛto ‚si satya-vāk saralo niṣkapaṭas tvam ity evaṃ vyañjaka-śabdair avajñāto ‚si | ekaḥ sakhīn vinā vijane sthitas tat samakṣaṃ vā teṣāṃ parihasatāṃ sakhīnāṃ purato vā sthita ity arthaḥ | tat sarva-vacana-rūpam asatkāra-rūpaṃ vāparādha-jātaṃ kṣāmaye kṣamasva prabho bhagavann ity anunayāmi | he acyuteti saty apy aparādhe ‚vicyuta-sakhety arthaḥ | aprameyam atarkya-prabhāvam
 
 


BhG 11.43

pitāsi lokasya carācarasya tvam asya pūjyaś ca gurur garīyān
na tvat-samo sty abhyadhikaḥ kuto nyo loka-traye py apratima-prabhāva

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syntax


he apratima-prabhāva (O you whose majesty is incomparable!),
tvam (you) carācarasya lokasya (of the world with the moving and non-moving [creatures]) pitā asi (you are the father),
[tvam] (you) pūjyaḥ ca (and worshipable) guruḥ (heavy) garīyān (heavier) [asi] (you are),
loka-traye api (even in the three worlds) tvat-samaḥ (equal to you) na asti (there is not),
abhyadhikaḥ anyaḥ (other more powerful) kutaḥ [syāt] (how could it be?).

 

grammar

pitā pitṛ 1n.1 m.father, ancestor;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
lokasya loka 6n.1 m. of the world;
carācarasya cara-acara 6n.1 m.; DV / BV: yat caraiś cācaraiś ca sahāsti tasyaof being with the moving and non-moving [creatures] (from: car –to move, to go, cara – moving, living; a-cara – non-moving, not living);
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
pūjyaḥ pūjya (pūj – to honour, to worship) PF 1n.1 m.to be worshipped;
ca av.and;
guruḥ guru 1n.1 m.heavy one, master, preceptor;
garīyān garīyas 1n.1 m.heavier, better (comparative of: gurugarīyas, gariṣṭha);
na av.not;
tvat-samaḥ tvat-sama 1n.1 m.equal to you (from: tvat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „you” singular used in compounds; sama – the same, equal, equivalent);
asti as (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
abhyadhikaḥ abhyadhika 1n.1 m.surpassing, superior, greater (from: abhi – prefix: towards, over; adhi – over, above, adhika – additional, subsequent, superior);
kutaḥ av.from where, how? (from: kim – what? indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
loka-traye loka-traya 7n.1 n.; lokānāṁ traya itiin the three worlds (from: loka – world; tri – three; traya – triple);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
apratima-prabhāva apratima-prabhāva 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya prabhāvo ‘pratimo ‘stītiwhose majesty is incomparable (from: prati-– to imitate, to copy, a-pratima – unequalled, without a match; pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, prabhava – birth, source, prabhāva – might, majesty, power);

 

textual variants


pitāsi → pitāsya / pitā hi (of father / indeed father);
tvam asya→ tvam adya (you today);
pūjyaś ca → viśvasya (of the world);
abhyadhikaḥ → adhikaḥ / apy adhikaḥ / abhyadikaṁ (superior / although superior / surpassing);
kuto nyo → kuto nu (really how?);
apratima-prabhāva → apratima-prabhāvaḥ / apratima-svabhāva (whose majesty is incomparable / O you whose nature is incomparable!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yatas tvaṃ—
pitāsi janayitāsi lokasya prāṇi-jātasya carācarasya sthāvara-jaṅgamasya | na kevalaṃ tvam asya jagataḥ pitā | pūjyaś ca pūjārhaḥ, yato gurur garīyān gurutaraḥ | kasmād gurutaras tvam ity āha—na tvat-samas tvat-tulyo’sti | na hīśvara-dvayaṃ saṃbhavati, aneke varatve vyavahārānupapatteḥ | tvat-sama eva tāvad anyo na saṃbhavati | kuta evānyo’bhyadhikaḥ syāt loka-traye’pi sarvasmin ? apratima-prabhāva ! pratimīyate yayā sā pratimā, na vidyate pratimā yasya tava prabhāvasya sa tvam apratima-prabhāvo he’pratima-prabhāva niratiśaya-prabhāva ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


apratimaprabhāva! tvam asya sarvasya carācarasya lokasya pitāsi / asya lokasya guruś cāsi; atas tvam asya carācarasya lokasya garīyān pūjyatamaḥ / na tvatsamo ‚sty abhyadhikaḥ kuto ‚nyaḥ lokatraye ‚pi tvadanyaḥ kāruṇyādinā kenāpi guṇena na tvatsamo ‚sti / kuto ‚bhyadhikaḥ?
 

Śrīdhara


acintya-prabhāvatvam evāha piteti | na vidyate pratimā upamā yasya so ‚pratimaḥ | tathāvidhaḥ prabhāvo yasya tava he apratima-prabhāva | tvam asya carācarasya lokasya pitā janako ‚si | ataeva pūjyaś ca guruś ca guror api garīyān gurutaraḥ | ato loka-traye ‚pi na tvat-sama eva tāvad-anyo nāsti | parameśvarasyānyasyābhāvāt | tvatto ‚bhyadhikaḥ punaḥ kutaḥ syāt ?
 

Madhusūdana


acintya-prabhāvatām eva prapañcayati pitāsīti | asya carācarasya lokasya pitā janakas tvam asi | pūjyaś cāsi sarveśvaratvāt | guruś cāsi śāstropadeṣṭā | ataḥ sarvaiḥ prakārair garīyān gurutaro ‚si | ataeva na tvat-samo ‚sty abhyadhikaḥ kuto ‚nyo loka-traye ‚pi | he apratima-prabhāva ! yasya samo ‚pi nāsti dvitīyasya parameśvarasyābhāvāt tasyādhiko ‚nyaḥ kutaḥ syāt sarvathā na sambhāvyata evety arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 11.44
 

Baladeva


aprameyatām āha pitāsīti | asya lokasya pitā pūjyo guruḥ śāstropadeṣṭā ca tvam asi | ataḥ sarvaiḥ prakārair garīyān gurutaras tvam | he ‚pratima-prabhāva ! ato ‚smin loka-traye nikhile ‚pi jagati tvat-sama eva nāsti | dvitīyasya pareśasyābhāvād eva tvad-adhiko ‚nyaḥ kutaḥ syāt ? śrutiś caivam āha na tat-samaś cābhyadhikaś ca dṛśyate iti
 
 


BhG 11.44

tasmāt praṇamya praṇidhāya kāyaṃ prasādaye tvām aham īśam īḍyam
piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyuḥ priyaḥ priyāyārhasi deva soḍhum

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syntax


he deva (O God!),
tasmāt (therefore) aham (I) kāyam (body) praṇidhāya (after prostrating) praṇamya (after bowing),
īśam (the Lord) īḍyam (worshipable) tvām (you) prasādaye (I appease).
putrasya (to a son) pitā iva (like a father),
sakhyuḥ (to a friend) sakhā iva (like a friend),
priyāyāḥ (to a beloved) priyaḥ iva (like a beloved),
[mama aparādham] (my offence) soḍhum (to tolerate) arhasi (you deign).

 

grammar

tasmāt av.therefore (from: tat sn. 5n.1 m. – from that);
praṇamya pra-nam (to bend, to bow) absol.after bowing;
praṇidhāya pra-ni-dhā (to put, to deposit) absol.after prostrating;
kāyam kāya 2n.1 m.body;
prasādaye pra-sad (to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful) caus. Praes. Ā 3v.1I satisfy, I appease;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
īśam īśa 2n.1 m.ruler, lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign);
īḍyam īḍya (√xīḍ – to ask, to praise) PF 2n.1 m.to be praised, worshipable;
pitā pitṛ 1n.1 m.father, ancestor;
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
putrasya putra 6n.1 m.of the son (from: puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell);
sakhā sakhi 1n.1 m.friend, companion (from: sac – to be associated or united with);
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
sakhyuḥ sakhi 6n.1 m.of a friend (from: sac – to be associated or united with);
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);
priyāya priya 6n.1 f. of one liked, of dear one (from: prī – to please);
arhasi arh (to deserve, to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1 you deign;
deva deva 8n.1 m.O god!, O divinitiy! (from: div – to shine, to play);
soḍhum sah (to overcome, to tolerate) [inf.] – to tolerate;

 

textual variants


kāyaṁ → kāmaṁ (desire);
īśam īḍyam → aprameyaṁ / īśa-mīḍhyaṁ / īḍyam īśaṁ (immeasurable / to reward the Lord / worshipable Lord);
priyāyārhasi → priyasyārhasi / priyāyā iva (you deign [to forgive] the dear one / as if dear one);
deva soḍhum → soḍhym arhan (deigning to forgive);

… → verses, not found in critical edition, after verse 11.44:
44a divyāni karmāṇi tavādbhutāni pūrvāṇi pūrve ‚py ṛṣayaḥ smaranti
nānyo ‚sti kartā jagatas tvam eko dhātā vidhātā ca vibhur bhavaś ca

44b tavādbhutaṁ kiṁ nu bhaved asahyaṁ kiṁ vāśakyaṁ parataḥ kīrtayiṣye
kartāsi sarvasya yataḥ svayaṁ vai vibho tataḥ sarvam idaṁ tvam eva
44c atyadbhutaṁ karma na duṣkaraṁ te karmopamānaṁ na hi vidyate te
na te guṇānāṁ parimāṇam asti na tejaso nāpi balasya na rddheḥ

Even sages of the past remember
your primeval divine and wonderful actions.
No one else is the creator of the world,
you alone are the founder, disposer, power and existence.

Are your wonders to be tolerated
or may I glorify the impossible [to describe]?
O powerful one, you are the creator of everything,
You alone are yourself and all that.

Wonderful actions are not difficult for you to do,
In you indeed there is [nothing] resembling action.
There is no limit to your virtue or dignity or powers or wealth.

imāni karmāṇi tavādbhutāni kṛtāni pūrve munayo vadanti
na te guṇānāṁ parimāṇam asti na tejasaś cāpi balasya viṣṇo

Sages of the past are telling
about your perfect wonderful actions.
O Viṣṇu, there is no limit to your virtue or dignity or powers.

 
 



Śāṃkara


yata evaṃ—
tasmāt praṇamya namaskṛtya, praṇidhāya prakarṣeṇa nīcair dhṛtvā kāyaṃ śarīram, prasādaye prasādaṃ kāraye tvām aham īśam īśitāram, īḍyaṃ stutyam | tvaṃ punaḥ putrasyāparādhaṃ pitā yathā kṣamate, sarvaṃ sakheva sakhyur aparādham, yathā vā priyaḥ priyāyā aparādhaṃ kṣamate | evam arhasi he deva ! soḍhuṃ prasahituṃ kṣantum ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


yasmāt tvaṃ sarvasya pitā pūjyatamo guruś ca kāruṇyādiguṇaiś ca sarvādhiko ‚si, tasmāt tvām īśam īḍyaṃ praṇamya praṇidhāya ca kāyaṃ, prasādaye; yathā kṛtāparādhasyāpi putrasya, yathā ca sakhyuḥ, praṇāmapūrvaṃ prārthitaḥ pitā vā sakhā vā prasīdati; tathā tvaṃ paramakāruṇikaḥ priyāya me sarvaṃ soḍhum arhasi
 

Śrīdhara


yasmād evaṃ tasmād iti | tasmāt tvām īśaṃ jagataḥ svāminam | īḍyaṃ tubhyam | prasādaye prasādayāmi | kathaṃ kāyaṃ praṇidhāya dantavan nipātya | praṇamya prakarṣeṇa natvā | atas tvaṃ mahāparādhaṃ soḍhuṃ kṣantum arhati | kasya kva iva ? putrasyāparādhaṃ kṛpayā pitā yathā sahate | sakhur mitrasyāparādhaṃ sakhā nirupādhi-bandhuḥ sahate | priyaś ca priyāyā aparādhaṃ tat-priyārthaṃ yathā sahate tadvat
 

Madhusūdana


yasmād evaṃ tasmād iti | tasmāt praṇamya namaskṛtya tvāṃ praṇidhāya prakarṣeṇa nīcair dhṛtvā kāyaṃ daṇḍavad bhūmau patitveti yāvat | prasādaye tvām īśam īḍyam sarva-stutyam aham aparādhī | ato he deva ! piteva putrasyāparādhaṃ sakheva sakhyur aparādhaṃ priyaḥ priyāyāḥ pativratāyā aparādhaṃ mamāparādhaṃ tvaṃ soḍhum kṣantum arhasi ananya-śaraṇatvān mama | priyāyārhasīty atreva-śabda-lopaḥ sandhiś ca chāndasaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kāyaṃ praṇidhāya bhūmau daṇḍavan nipātya priyāyārhasīti sandhir ārṣaḥ
 

Baladeva


yasmād evaṃ tasmād iti | kāyaṃ bhūmau praṇidhāya praṇamyeti sāṣṭāṅgaṃ praṇatiṃ kṛtvā | he deva ! mamāparādhaṃ soḍhum arhasi | kaḥ kasyevety āha piteveti | sakheva sakhyur iti tu tadā mahaiśvaryaṃ vīkṣya svasmin dāsatva-mananāt | priyāyārhasīti visarga-lopaḥ sandhiś cārṣaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.45

adṛṣṭa-pūrvaṃ hṛṣito smi dṛṣṭvā bhayena ca pravyathitaṃ mano me
tad eva me darśaya deva rūpaṃ prasīda deveśa jagan-nivāsa

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syntax


he deva (O God!) he deveśa (O lord of gods!) he jagan-nivāsa (O abode of the world!)
tava (your) adṛṣṭa-pūrvam [rūpam] ([form] not seen before) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing)
hṛṣitaḥ (excited) asmi (I am),
bhayena ca (and by fear) me (my) manaḥ (mind) pravyathitam [asti] (is perturbed),
[tvam] (you) me (me) tat eva rūpam (just this form) darśaya (you must show),
prasīda (be merciful).

 

grammar

adṛṣṭa-pūrvam adṛṣṭa-pūrva 2n.1 n.; BV: yasya pūrvaṁ dṛṣṭaṁ nāstīti tat not see before (from: dṛś – to see, [PP] dṛṣṭa – seen, a-dṛṣṭa – not seen; pūrva – previous, ancient);
hṛṣitaḥ hṛṣita (hṛṣ – to be excited, to become erect) [PP] 1n.1 m. – rejoiced, excited;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
bhayena bhaya 3n.1 n. by fear (from: bhī – to scare);
ca av.and;
pravyathitam pravyathita (pra-vyath – to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid) [PP] 1n.1 n.perturbed;
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
darśaya dṛś (to see) caus. Imperat. P 2v.1you must show;
deva deva 8n.1 n.O God! O Divinity! (from: div – to shine, to play);
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
prasīda pra-sad (to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful) Imperat. P 2v.1be satisfied, be merciful;
deveśa deva-īśa 8n.1 m.; [TP]: devānām īśetiO lord of gods! (from: div – to shine, to play, deva – god, divinity; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
jagan-nivāsa jagan-nivāsa 8n.1 m.; jagato nivāsetiO abode of the world! (from: gam – to go, jagat – world, moving, mankind; ni-vas – to dwell, to spend time, nivāsa – house, abode);

 

textual variants


deva rūpaṃ → divya-rūpaṃ / deva-rūpaṃ (divine form / form of God);
 
 



Śāṃkara


adṛṣṭa-pūrvaṃ na kadācid api dṛṣṭa-pūrvam idaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ tava mayānyairvā, tat ahaṃ dṛṣṭvā hṛṣito’smi | bhayena ca pravyathitaṃ manaḥ me | atas tad eva me mama darśaya he deva rūpaṃ yat matsakham | prasīda deveśa, jagan-nivāsa jagato nivāso jagan-nivāsaḥ, he jagan-nivāsa
 

Rāmānuja


adṛṣṭapūrvam atyadbhutam atyugraṃ ca tava rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā hṛṣito ‚smi prīto ‚smi / bhayena pravyathitaṃ ca me manaḥ / atas tad eva tava suprasannaṃ rūpaṃ me darśaya / prasīda deveśa jagannivāsa mayi prasādaṃ kuru, devānāṃ brahmādīnām apīśa, nikhilajagadāśrayabhūta
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ kṣamāpayitvā prārthayate adṛṣṭa-pūrvam iti dvābhyām | he deva pūrvam adṛṣṭaṃ tava rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā hṛṣito hṛṣṭo ‚smi | tathā bhayena ca me manaḥ pravyathitaṃ pracalitam | tasmān mama vyathā-nivṛntaye tad eva rūpaṃ darśaya | he devaśa he jagannivāsa prasanno bhava
 

Madhusūdana


evam aparādha-kṣamāṃ prārthya punaḥ prāg-rūpa-darśanaṃ viśvarūpopasaṃhareṇa prārthayate adṛṣṭa-pūrvam iti dvābhyām | kadāpy adṛṣṭa-pūrvaṃ pūrvam adṛṣṭaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā hṛṣito hṛṣṭo ‚smi | tad-vikṛta-rūpa-darśanajena bhayena ca pravyathitaṃ vyākulīkṛtaṃ mano me | atas tad eva prācīnam eva mama prāṇāpekṣayāpi priyaṃ rūpaṃ me darśaya he deva he deveśa he jagan-nivāsa prasīda prāg-rūpa-darśana-rūpaṃ prasādaṃ me kuru
 

Viśvanātha


yadyapy adṛṣṭa-pūrvam idaṃ te viśva-rūpātmakaṃ vapur dṛṣṭvā hṛṣito ‚smi tad apy asya ghoratvād bhayena manaḥ pravyathitam abhūt | tasmāt tad eva mānuṣaṃ rūpaṃ mat-prāṇa-koṭy-adhika-priyaṃ mādhurya-pārāvāraṃ vasudeva-nandanākāraṃ me darśaya prasīdety alaṃ tavaitādṛśaiśvaryasya darśanāyeti bhāvaḥ | deveśeti tvaṃ sarvedvānām īśvaraḥ sarva-jagan-nivāso bhavasy eveti mayā pratītam iti bhāvaḥ | atra viśva-rūpa-darśana-kāle sarva-svarūpa-mūla-bhūtaṃ narākāraṃ kṛṣṇa-vapus tatraiva sthitam api yogamāyācchāditatvād arjunena na dṛṣṭam iti gamyate
 

Baladeva


atha kiṃ vakṣi kiṃ cecchasīti cet tatrāha adṛṣṭeti | tvayi kṛṣṇe sattvena jñātam apīdam aiśvaraṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvāhaṃ harṣito ‚smi mat-sakhasyedam asādhāraṇaṃ rūpam iti mudito ‚smi manaś ca mama tad-ghoratva-darśana-jena bhayena pravyathitaṃ bhavati | ata idaṃ prārthayed evety ādi sarva-deva-niyantā tat-sarvādhāraḥ pareśas tvam asīti mayā pratyakṣīkṛtam ataḥparaṃ tad-antarbhāvya tad eva mad-abhīṣṭaṃ kṛṣṇa-rūpaṃ darśaya prādurbhāvayety arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.46

kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakra-hastam icchāmi tvāṃ draṣṭum ahaṃ tathaiva
tenaiva rūpeṇa catur-bhujena sahasra-bāho bhava viśva-mūrte

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syntax


he viśva-murte (O form of everything!), he sahasra-bāho (O thousand-armed one!),
tathā eva (just so) aham (I) tvām (you) kirīṭinam (who has a diadem) gadinam (who has a club) cakra-hastam (with disc in hand) draṣṭum icchāmi (I desire to see),
tena eva (just with that) catur-bhujena rūpeṇa (four-armed form) bhava (you must appear).

 

grammar

kirīṭinam kirīṭin 2n.1 m.who has a diadem (from: kirīṭa – diadem, crown; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
gadinam gadin 2n.1 m.who has a club (from: gadā – mace, club; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
cakra-hastam cakra-hasta 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya haste cakram asti saḥ in whose hand is a disc (from: car – to move or from: kṛ – to do, cakra – wheel, cycle, discus; hasta – hand);
icchāmi iṣ (to desire) Praes. P 3v.1I desire;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tena tat sn. 3n.1 n.by that;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
rūpeṇa rūpa 3n.1 n. with the form (from: rūp – to form);
catur-bhujena catur-bhuja 3n.1 n.; BV: yasya catvāro bhujāḥ santi tena with the four-armed (from: catur – four; bhuja – the arm, hand);
sahasra-bāho sahasra-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya sahasraṁ bāhavaḥ santi tvam O you who have thousand arms (from: sahasra – a thousand; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;
viśva-mūrte viśva-mūrti 8n.1 n.; BV: yasya viśvaṁ mūrtir asti tvamO you whose form is of everything! (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world; mūrti – form, shape, embodiment);

 

textual variants


tvāṁ → tvā (you);
catur-bhujena → bhujadvayena (with the two-armed);
viśva-mūrte → viśva-mūrteḥ (from one whose form is of everything);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kirīṭinaṃ kirīṭavantaṃ tathā gadinaṃ gadāvantaṃ cakra-hastam icchāmi tvāṃ prārthaye tvāṃ draṣṭum aham, tathaiva pūrvavad ity arthaḥ | yata evam, tasmāt tenaiva rūpeṇa vasudeva-putra-rūpeṇa catur-bhujena, sahasra-bāho ! vārtamānikena viśva-rūpeṇa, bhava viśva-mūrte | upasaṃhṛtya viśva-rūpam, tenaiva rūpeṇa bhavety arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


tathaiva pūrvavat, kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakrahastaṃ tvāṃ draṣṭum icchāmi / atas tenaiva pūrvasiddhena caturbhujena rūpeṇa yukto bhava / sahasrabāho viśvamūrte idānīṃ sahasrabāhutvena viśvaśarīratvena dṛśyamānarūpas tvaṃ tenaiva rūpeṇa yukto bhavetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tad eva rūpaṃ viśeṣayann āha kirīṭinam iti | kirīṭavantam gadāvantaṃ cakra-hastaṃ ca tvāṃ draṣṭum icchāmi | pūrvaṃ yathā dṛṣṭo ‚si tathaiva | ataeva he sahasra-bāho | he viśva-mūrte ! idaṃ viśva-rūpam upasaṃhṛtya tenaiva kirīṭādi-yuktena caturbhujena bhavāvirbhava | tad anena śrī-kṛṣṇam arjunaḥ pūrvam api kirīṭādi-yuktam eva paśyatīti gamyate | yat tu pūrvam uktaṃ viśva-rūpa-darśane kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca paśyāmīti | tad-bahu-kirīṭādy-abhiprāyeṇa | yad vā etāvantaṃ kālaṃ yaṃ tvāṃ kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca suprasannam apaśyaṃ tam evedānīṃ tejo-rāśiṃ durnirīkṣyaṃ paśyāmībhy evam atra vacanasya vyaktir ity avirodhaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tad eva rūpaṃ vivṛṇoti kirīṭinam iti | kirīṭavantam gadāvantaṃ cakra-hastaṃ ca tvāṃ draṣṭum icchāmy ahaṃ tathaiva pūrvavad eva | atas tenaiva rūpeṇa catur-bhujena vasudevātmajatvena bhava he idānīṃ sahasra-bāho he viśva-mūrte | upasaṃhṛtya viśvarūpaṃ pūrva-rūpeṇaiva prakaṭo bhavety arthaḥ | etena sarvadā caturbhujādi-rūpam arjunena bhagavato dṛśyata ity uktam
 

Viśvanātha


viśeṣayann āha kirīṭinam iti | kirīṭavantam gadāvantaṃ cakra-hastaṃ ca tvāṃ draṣṭum icchāmi | pūrvaṃ yathā dṛṣṭo ‚si tathaiva | ataeva he sahasra-bāho | he viśva-mūrte ! idaṃ viśva-rūpam upasaṃhṛtya tenaiva kirīṭādi-yuktena caturbhujena bhavāvirbhava | tad anena śrī-kṛṣṇam arjunaḥ pūrvam api kirīṭādi-yuktam eva paśyatīti gamyate | yat tu pūrvam uktaṃ viśva-rūpa-darśane kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca paśyāmīti | tad-bahu-kirīṭādy-abhiprāyeṇa | yad vā etāvantaṃ kālaṃ yaṃ tvāṃ kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca suprasannam apaśyaṃ tam evedānīṃ tejo-rāśiṃ durnirīkṣyaṃ paśyāmībhy evam atra vacanasya vyaktir ity avirodhaḥ
 

Baladeva


tat kīdṛg ity āha kirīṭinam iti | he samprati sahasra-bāho ! he viśva-mūrte ! idaṃ rūpam antarbhāvya divyābhinetṛ-naṭavat tenaiva caturbhujena rūpeṇa viśiṣṭaḥ san prādurbhava
 
 


BhG 11.47

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
mayā prasannena tavārjunedaṃ rūpaṃ paraṃ darśitam ātma-yogāt
tejo-mayaṃ viśvam anantam ādyaṃ yan me tvad anyena na dṛṣṭa-pūrvam

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he arjuna (O Arjuna),
mayā prasannena (by my satisfaction) ātma-yogāt (from own yoga) tava (your) tejo-mayam (full of splendour) viśvam (world) anantam (endless) ādyam (the first) me (my) idam param rūpam (this supreme form) darśitam [asti] (is shown)
yat (that which) tvad-anyena (by the other than you) na dṛṣṭa-pūrvam (not seen before).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
prasannena prasanna (pra-sad – to settle down, to be pleased, to be successful) [PP] 3n.1 m.by the satisfaction;
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
rūpam rūpa 1n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
darśitam darśita (dṛś – to see) caus. [PP] 1n.1 n. – shown;
ātma-yogāt ātma-yoga 5n.1 m.; [TP]: ātmanaḥ yogād iti by the own yoga / by yoga of the self (from: ātman – self; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
tejo-mayam tejo-maya 1n.1 n. – made of splendour (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate, tejas – sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen; –maya – in compounds: made of, of the nature of);
viśvam viśva 1n.1 n.all, whole, world (from: viś – to enter);
anantam an-anta 1n.1 n.without end, endless (from: anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
ādyam ādya 1n.1 n.first, main, excellent;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
tvat yuṣmat sn. 5n.1than you;
anyena anya sn. 3n.1 m.by the other;
na av.not;
dṛṣṭa-pūrvam dṛṣṭa-pūrva 1n.1 n.seen before (from: dṛś – to see, [PP] dṛṣṭa – seen; pūrva – previous, ancient);

 
 



Śāṃkara


arjunaṃ bhītam upalabhya, upasaṃhṛtya viśva-rūpam, priya-vacanena āśvāsayan śrī-bhagavān uvāca—
mayā prasannena, prasādo nāma tvayy anugraha-buddhiḥ, tadvatā prasannena mayā tava | he’rjuna ! idaṃ paraṃ rūpaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ darśitam ātma-yogād ātmana aiśvaryasya sāmarthyāt | tejo-mayaṃ tejaḥ-prāyaṃ viśvaṃ samastam anantam anta-rahitam ādau bhavam ādyaṃ, yad rūpaṃ me mama tvad-anyena tvatto’nyena kenacin na dṛṣṭa-pūrvam
 

Rāmānuja


yan me tejomayaṃ tejasāṃ rāśiḥ; viśvaṃ viśvātmabhūtam, anantam antarahitam; pradarśanārtham idam; ādimadhyāntarahitam; ādyam madvyatiriktasya kṛtsnasyādibhūtam, tvadanyena kenāpi na dṛṣṭapūrvaṃ rūpam tad idaṃ prasannena mayā madbhaktāya te darśitam; ātmayogād atmanas satyasaṃkalpatvayogāt
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ prārthitas tam āśvāsayan bhagavān uvāca mayeti tribhiḥ | he arjuna kim iti tvaṃ bibheṣi ? yato mayā prasannena kṛpayā tavedaṃ param uttamaṃ rūpaṃ darśitam | ātmano mama yogād yoga-māyā-sāmārthyāt | paratvam evāha tejo-mayam | viśvam viśvātmakam | anantam ādyaṃ ca | yan mama rūpaṃ tvad-anyena tvādṛśād bhaktād anyena pūrvaṃ na dṛṣṭaṃ tat
 

Madhusūdana


evam arjunena prasādito bhaya-vādhitam arjunam upalabhyopasaṃhṛtya viśva-rūpam ucitena vacanena tam āśvāsayan śrī-bhagavān uvāca mayeti tribhiḥ | he ‚rjuna mā bhaiṣīḥ | yato mayā prasannena tvad-viṣaya-kṛpātiśayavatedaṃ viśva-rūpātmakaṃ paraṃ śreṣṭhaṃ rūpaṃ tava darśitam ātma-yogād asādhāraṇān nija-sāmarthyāt | paratvaṃ vivṛṇoti tejo-mayaṃ tejaḥ-pracuraṃ viśvam samastam anantam ādyaṃ ca yan mama rūpaṃ tvad-anyena kenāpi na dṛṣṭa-pūrvam pūrvaṃ na dṛṣṭam
 

Viśvanātha


bho arjuna ! draṣṭum icchāmi te rūpam aiśvaraṃ puruṣottama iti tvat-prārthanayaivedaṃ mayā mad-aṃśasya viśva-rūpa-puruṣasya rūpaṃ darśitam | katham atra te manaḥ pravyathitam abhūt ? yataḥ prasīda prasīdety uktyā tan-mānuṣam eva rūpaṃ me didṛkṣase, tasmāt kim idam āścaryaṃ brūṣe ity āha mayeti | prasannenaiva mayā tava tubhyam evedaṃ rūpaṃ darśitam | nānyasmai, yatas tvatto ‚nyena kenāpi etan na pūrvaṃ dṛṣṭam | tad api tvam etan na spṛhayasi kim iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


evaṃ prārthito bhagavān uvāca mayeti | he arjuna ! draṣṭum icchāmi te rūpam ity ādi tvat-prārthitaṃ prasannena mayedaṃ tejo-mayaṃ paramaiśvaraṃ rūpaṃ vaidūryavad abhinetṛ-naṭavac ca tvad-abhīṣṭe kṛṣṇe mayi sthitam eva tava darśitam | ātma-yogān nijācintya-śaktyā me mama yad rūpaṃ tvad-anyena janena pūrvaṃ na dṛṣṭam | tat-prasaṅgād idānīṃ tv anyair api devādibhir dṛṣṭaṃ bhakti-dṛśyaṃ mama tat-svarūpaṃ bhaktaṃ tvāṃ prati pradarśayatā mayā tvad-dṛṣṭasya bahu-sākṣikatvāya devādibhyo ‚pi bhaktimadbhyaḥ pradarśitam | yat tu gaja-sāhvaye duryodhanādibhir api viśvarūpaṃ dṛṣṭaṃ tan nedṛgvidham iti tvad-anyena na dṛṣṭa-pūrvam ity uktam
 
 


BhG 11.48

na veda-yajñādhyayanair na dānair na ca kriyābhir na tapobhir ugraiḥ
evaṃ-rūpaḥ śakya ahaṃ nṛ-loke draṣṭuṃ tvad anyena kuru-pravīra

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syntax


he kuru-pravīra (O hero among the Kurus!),
nṛ-loke (in the world of men) tvad-anyena (by other than you) veda-yajñādhyayanaiḥ (by studying the Vedas and sacrifice) dānaiḥ (by charities) kriyābhiḥ ca (and by performing the religious acts) ugraiḥ tapobhiḥ (by powerful austerities) evaṁ-rūpaḥ (such a form) aham (I) draṣṭum (to see) na śakyaḥ (not possible).

 

grammar

na av.not;
veda-yajñādhyayanaih veda-yajña-adhyayana 3n.3 n.; DV / [TP]: vedānāṁ ca yajñānāṁ cādhyayanaiḥ by studying the Vedas and sacrifice (from: vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas; yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, yajña – sacrifice, worship; adhi-i – to turn the mind towards, to study, adhy-ayana – reading, studying);
na av.not;
dānaiḥ dāna 3n.3 n.by charities (from: – to give);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
kriyābhiḥ kriyā 3n.3 f.act, work, especially religious one (from: kṛ – to do);
na av.not;
tapobhiḥ tapas 3n.3 n.by austerities (from: tap – to scorch);
ugraiḥ ugra 3n.3 n.by powerful, terrible, cruel;
evaṁ-rūpaḥ evaṁ-rūpa 1n.1 m.such a form (from: rūp – to form; rūpa shape, figure, beauty; av. evam – thus; in compounds: of this kind);
śakyaḥ śakya (śak – to be able to) PF 1n.1 m. possible;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
nṛ-loke nṛ-loka 7n.1 m.; [TP]: nṛṇām loka iti in the world of men (from: nṛ man, mankind; loka – world, people);
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
tvat-anyena tvat-anya 3n.1 m.; [TP]: tvattaḥ kenāpy anyeneti by other than you (from: tvat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „you” singular used in compounds; anya other);
kuru-pravīra kuru-pravīra 8n.1 m.; [TP]: kurūṇāṁ pravīretiO hero among the Kurus (from: kuru – Kuru, Kurus – descendants of Kuru; pra-vīra – brave, a hero, the chief among);

 

textual variants


veda-yajñādhyayanair veda-yajñādhigamair (by understanding the Vedas and sacrifice);
evaṁ-rūpaḥ → evaṁ-rūpaṁ (such a form);
śakya ahaṁ → śakyate māṁ / śakyam ahaṁ / draṣṭum ahaṁ / śakyo haṁ / śakyas tv ahaṁ / śakyate ‘ham ([not] possible, me / I, possible / to see I / I can / but I can / [not] possible, I);
nṛ-loke → tri-loke / na loke (in the three worlds / not in the world);
draṣṭum → dṛṣṭaṁ / śakyaṁ (seen / possible);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ātmano mama rūpa-darśanena kṛtārtha eva tvaṃ saṃvṛtta iti tat stauti—
na veda-yajñādhyayanaiś caturṇām api vedānām adhyayanair yathāvat yajñādhyayanaiś ca—vedādhyayanair eva yajñādhyayanasya siddhatvāt pṛthak yajñādhyayana-grahaṇaṃ yajña-vijñānopalakṣaṇārthaṃ—tathā na dānais tulā-puruṣādibhiḥ, na ca kriyābhir agnihotrādibhiḥ śrautādibhiḥ, nāpi tapobhir ugraiś cāndrāyaṇādibhir ugrair ghoraiḥ, evaṃ-rūpo yathā-darśitaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ yasya so’ham evaṃ-rūpo na śakyo’haṃ nṛ-loke manuṣya-loke draṣṭuṃ tvad-anyena tvatto’nyena kura-pravīra
 

Rāmānuja


ananyabhaktivyatiriktaiḥ sarvair apy upāyair yathāvad avasthito ‚haṃ draṣṭuṃ na śakya ity āha
evaṃrūpo yathāvad avathito ‚haṃ mayi bhaktimatas tvatto ‚nyena ekāntabhaktirahitena kenāpi puruṣeṇa vedayajñādibhiḥ kevalair draṣṭuṃ na śakyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


etad-darśanam atidurlabhaṃ labdhvā tvaṃ kṛtārtho ‚sīty āha na vedeti | vedādhyayanam avyatirekeṇa yajñādhyayanasyābhāvād yajña-śabdena yajña-vidyāḥ kalpa-sūtrādyā lakṣyante | vedānāṃ yajña-vidyānāṃ cādhyayanair ity arthaḥ | na ca dānaiḥ | na ca kriyābhir agnihotrādibhiḥ | na cograis tapobhiś cāndrāyaṇādibhiḥ | evaṃ-rūpo ‚haṃ tvatto ‚nyena manuṣya-loke draṣṭuṃ śakyaḥ | api tu tvam eva kevalaṃ mat-prasādena dṛṣṭvā kṛtārtho ‚si
 

Madhusūdana


etad-rūpa-darśanātmakam atidurlabhaṃ mat-prasādaṃ labdhvā kṛtārtha evāsi tvam ity āha na vedeti | vedānāṃ caturṇām api adhyayanair akṣara-grahaṇa-rūpaiḥ, tathā mīmāṃsākalpa-sūtrādi-dvārā yajñānāṃ veda-bodhita-karmaṇām adhayayanair artha-vicāra-rūpair veda-yajñādhyayanaiḥ | dānais tulī-puruṣādibhiḥ | kriyābhir agnihotrādi-śrauta-karmabhiḥ | tapobhiḥ kṛcchra-cāndrāyaṇādibhir ugraiḥ kāyendriya-śoṣakatvena duṣkarair evaṃ-rūpo ‚haṃ na śakyo nṛ-loke manuṣya-loke draṣṭuṃ tvad-anyena mad-anugraha-hīnena he kuru-pravīra ! śakyo ‚ham iti vaktavye visarga-lopaś chāndasaḥ | pratyekaṃ na-kārābhyāso niṣedha-dāḍhyāya | na ca kriyābhir ity atra ca-kārād anukta-sādhanāntara-samuccayaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tubhyaṃ darśitam idaṃ rūpaṃ tu vedādi-sādhanair api durlabham ity āha na vedeti | tvatto ‚nyena na kenāpy aham evaṃrūpo draṣṭuṃ śakyaḥ | śakyo ‚ham iti | yad-dvaya-lopāv ārṣau | tasmād alabhya-lābham ātmano matvā tvam asminn eveśvare, sarva-durlabhe rūpe mano-niṣṭhāṃ kuru | etad-rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvāpy alaṃ te punar me mānuṣa-rūpeṇa didṛkṣiteneti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha sahasra-śīrṣādi-lakṣaṇasyaiśvara-rūpasya pumarthatām āha na vedeti | vedānām adhyayanair akṣara-grahaṇaiḥ | yajñānām adhayayanair mīmāṃśā-kalpa-sūtrebhyo ‚rpaṇaiḥ | kriyābhir agnihotrādi-karmabhiḥ | tapobhiḥ kṛcchrādibhir ugrair deha-śoṣakatvena duṣkaraiḥ | ebhiḥ kevalair vedādhyayanādibhir bhakti-yuktāt tvatto ‚nyena bhakti-riktena kenāpi puṃsā evaṃ-rūpo ‚haṃ draṣṭuṃ na śakyo, bhaktiṃ vinā bhūtāni vedādhyayanādīni mad-darśana-sādhanāni na bhavantīti | yad uktaṃ –
dharmaḥ satyādayopeto vidyā vā tapasānvitā |
mad-bhaktyāpetam ātmānaṃ na samyak prapunāti hi || iti |
tvayā tu bhaktimatā dṛṣṭa evāham anyaiś ca bhaktimadbhir devādibhiḥ | śakyo ‚ham iti vaktavye visarga-lopaś chāndasaḥ | na-kārābhyāso niṣedhāḍhyārthaḥ | nṛ-loke ity uktes tal-loke tad-bhaktā devā bahavas tad draṣṭuṃ śaknuvantīty uktam
 
 


BhG 11.49

mā te vyathā mā ca vimūḍha-bhāvo dṛṣṭvā rūpaṃ ghoram īdṛṅ mamedam
vyapeta-bhīḥ prīta-manāḥ punas tvaṃ tad eva me rūpam idaṃ prapaśya

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syntax


mama (my) īdṛk (of this kind) ghoram (terrible) idam rūpam (this form) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing)
te (your) vyathā (perturbation) [astu] (it should not be),
vimūḍha-bhāvaḥ ca (and bewildered state) [astu] (it should not be),
tvam (you) vyapeta-bhīḥ (whose fear is gone) prīta-manāḥ (whose mind is pleased) punaḥ (again) me (my) idam (this) tat eva rūpaṁ (just this form) prapaśya (you must see).

 

grammar

av.not! (bardzo silne zaprzeczenie najczęściej stosowana z aorystem pozbawionym partykuły „a”);
te yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your (shortened form of: tava);
vyathā vyathā 1n.1 f.perturbation, pain, fear (from: vyath – to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid);
av.not! (bardzo silne zaprzeczenie najczęściej stosowana z aorystem pozbawionym partykuły „a”);
ca av.and;
vimūḍha-bhāvaḥ vimūḍha-bhāva 1n.1 m.; [TP]: vimūḍhasya bhāva itibewildered state (from: vi-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, [PP] vimūḍha – bewildered; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
ghoram ghora 2n.1 n.terrible, ghastly (from: ghur – to cry frightfully);
īdṛk īdṛś 1n.1 n. of this kind, like this;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
idam idam sn. 2n.1 n.this;
vyapeta-bhīḥ vyapeta-bhī 1n.1 m.; yasya bhīr vyapetāsti saḥ whose fear is gone (from: apa-i – to go away, to withdraw, to vanish, [PP] vi-apeta – gone, vanished; bhī – to scare, bhī – fear);
prīta-manāḥ prīta-manas 1n.1 m.; yasya manaḥ prītam asti saḥ whose mind is pleased (from: prī – to please, to be pleased, [PP] prīta – pleased, delighted, satisfied; man – to think, manas – the mind);
punaḥ av.back, again;
tvam yuṣmat sn. 1n.1you;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
prapaśya pra-dṛś (to see) Imperat. P 2v.1you must see;

 

textual variants


mā ca → na ca (and not);
vimūḍha-bhāvo → vimūḍhatā bhūd (the bewilderment may not be);
ghoram īdṛṅ → ghoram ugraṁ (terrible and cruel);
vyapeta-bhīḥ → vyapeta-bhītaḥ (whose fear is gone);
 
 



Śāṃkara


mā te vyathā mā bhūt te bhayam, mā ca vimūḍha-bhāvo vimūḍha-cittatā, dṛṣṭvopalabhya rūpaṃ ghoram īdṛk yathā-darśitaṃ mamedam | vyapeta-bhīr vigata-bhayaḥ, prīta-manāś ca san punar bhūyas tvaṃ tad eva catur-bhujaṃ rūpaṃ śaṅkha-cakra-gadādharaṃ taveṣṭaṃ rūpam idaṃ prapaśya
 

Rāmānuja


īdṛśaghorarūpadarśanena te yā vyathā, yaś ca vimūḍhabhāvo vartate, tadubhayaṃ mā bhūt; tvayā abhyastapūrvam eva saumyaṃ rūpaṃ darśayāmi, tad evedaṃ mama rūpaṃ prapaśya
 

Śrīdhara


evam api cet tavedaṃ ghoraṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā vyathā bhavati tarhi tad eva rūpaṃ darśayāmīty āha mā ta iti | īdṛg īdṛśaṃ ghoraṃ madīyaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā te ā te vyathā māstu | vimūḍha-bhāvo vimūḍhatvaṃ ca māstu | vigata-bhayaḥ prīta-manāś ca san punas tvaṃ tad evedaṃ mama rūpaṃ prakarṣeṇa paśya
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ ghoram īdṛg aneka-bāhv-ādi-yuktatvena bhayaṅkaraṃ mama rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā sthitasya te tava yā vyathā bhaya-nimittā pīḍā sā mā bhūt | tathā mad-rūpa-darśane ‚pi yo vimūḍha-bhāvo vyākula-cittatvam aparitoṣaḥ so ‚pi mā bhūt | kintu vyapeta-bhīr apagata-bhayaḥ prīta-manāś ca san punas tvaṃ tad eva caturbhujaṃ vāsudevatvādi-viśiṣṭaṃ tvayā sadā pūrva-dṛṣṭaṃ rūpam idaṃ viśva-rūpopasaṃhāreṇa prakaṭīkriyamāṇaṃ prapaśya prakarṣeṇa bhaya-rāhityena santoṣeṇa ca paśya
 

Viśvanātha


bhoḥ parameśvara ! māṃ tvaṃ kiṃ na gṛhṇāsi ? yad anicchate ‚pi mahyaṃ punar idam eva balād ditsasi | dṛṣṭvedaṃ tavaiśvaryaṃ mama gātrāṇi vyathante, mano me vyākulībhavati | muhur ahaṃ mūrcchāmi | tavāsmai paramaiśvaryāya dūrata eva mama namo namo ‚stu, na kadāpy ahaṃ evaṃ draṣṭuṃ prārthayiṣye | kṣamasva kṣamasva | tad eva mānuṣākāraṃ vapur apūrva-mādhurya-dhurya-smita-hasita-sudhā-sāra-varṣi-mukha-candraṃ me darśaya darśayeti vyākulam arjunaṃ prati sāśvāsam āha mā te iti
 

Baladeva


yac ca tasminn eva mad-rūpe saṃhartṛtvaṃ mayā pradarśitaṃ tat khalu drapadī-pragharṣaṇaṃ vīkṣyāpi tuṣṇīṃ sthitā bhīṣmādayaḥ sarve tat-pragharṣaṇa-kupitena mayaiva nihantavyā na tu tan-nihanana-bhāras taveti bodhayitum atas tena tvaṃ vyathito mābhūr ity āha mā te vyatheti | tad eva caturbhujaṃ prārthita-rūpam
 
 


BhG 11.50

saṃjaya uvāca
ity arjunaṃ vāsudevas tathoktvā svakaṃ rūpaṃ darśayāmāsa bhūyaḥ
āśvāsayāmāsa ca bhītam enaṃ bhūtvā punaḥ saumya-vapur mahātmā

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syntax


saṁjayaḥ (Saṁjaya) uvāca (he spoke):
mahātmā (whose self is great) vāsudevaḥ (Vāsudeva) arjunam (to Arjuna) iti uktvā (thus after speaking)
bhūyaḥ (again) saumya-vapuḥ (pleasing form) bhūtvā (after being),
tathā (thus) svakam rūpam (own form) darśayāmāsa (he showed),
punaḥ ca (and again) enam bhītam (this afraid one) āśvāsayāmāsa (he caused to breath).

 

grammar

saṁjayaḥ sam-jaya 1n.1 m.conquest, complete victory, Saṁjaya  (from: sam-ji – to conquer completely, jaya – victory);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
arjunam arjuna 2n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
vāsudevaḥ vāsudeva 1n.1 m. son of Vasudeva (from: vas – to dwell, vasu – wealth, one of eight Vasus; deva – god, divinity; vasudeva – father of Kṛṣṇa);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
uktvā vac (to speak) absol.after speaking;
svakam svaka 2n.1 n. own (from: sva – own);
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
darśayāmāsa dṛś (to see) caus. [Perf.] (periphrastic) P 1v.1he showed;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
āśvāsayāmāsa ā-śvas (to breath) caus. [Perf.] (periphrastic) P 1v.1he caused to breath, he consoled;
ca av.and;
bhītam bhīta (bhī – to scare) [PP] 2n.1 m.afraid;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
bhūtvā bhū (to be) absol. after becoming;
punaḥ av.back, again
saumya-vapuḥ saumya-vapus 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya vapuḥ saumyam asti saḥwhose form is gentle (from: vapus – form, figure, beauty; su – to extract, soma – juice, nectar, Moon, soma, saumya – related to nectar; gentle, mild);
mahātmā mahā-ātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā mahān asti saḥwhose self is great (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; ātman – self);

 

textual variants

saumya-vapur → kāmya-vapur (desired form);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ity evam arjunaṃ vāsudevas tathā-bhūtaṃ vacanam uktvā, svakaṃ vasudevasya gṛhe jātaṃ rūpaṃ darśayāmāsa darśitavān bhūyaḥ punaḥ | āśvāsayāmāsa ca āśvāsitavān bhītam enam, bhūtvā punaḥ saumya-vapuḥ prasanna-deho mahātmā
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ pāṇḍutanayaṃ bhagavān vasudevasūnur uktvā bhūyaḥ svakīyam eva caturbhujaṃ rūpaṃ darśayām āsa; aparicitarupadarśanena bhītam enaṃ punar api paricitasaumyavapur bhūtvā āśvāsayām āsa ca, mahātmā satyasaṅkalpaḥ / asya sarveśvarasya paramapuruṣasya parasya brahmaṇo jagadupakṛtimartyasya vasudevasūnoś caturbhujam eva svakīyaṃ rūpam; kaṃsād bhītavasudevaprārthanena ākaṃsavadhād bhujadvayam upasaṃhṛtaṃ paścād āviṣkṛtaṃ ca / „jāto ‚si deva deveśa śaṅkhacakragadādhara / divyaṃ rūpam idaṃ deva prasādenopsaṃhara // ….. upasaṃhara viśvātman rūpam etac caturbhujam” iti hi prārthitam / śiśupālasyāpi dviṣato ‚navaratabhāvanāviṣayaś caturbhujam eva vasudevasūno rūpam, „udārapīvaracaturbāhuṃ śaṅkhacakragadādharam” iti / ataḥ pārthenātra tenaiva rūpeṇa caturbhujanety ucyate
 

Śrīdhara


evam uktvā prāktanam eva rūpaṃ mat-sakhaṃ prasannaṃ tava saumyaṃ janārdana idānīm adhunāsmi saṃvṛttaḥ saṃjātaḥ | kim ? sa-cetāḥ prasanna-cittaḥ | prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ gataś cāsmi
 

Madhusūdana


vāsudevo ‚rjunam iti prāg-uktam uktvā yathā pūrvam āsīt tathā svakaṃ rūpaṃ kirīṭa-makara-kuṇḍala-gadā-cakrādi-yuktaṃ caturbhujaṃ śrīvatsa-kaustubha-vanamālā-pītāmbarādi-śobhitaṃ darśayāmāsa bhūyaḥ punar āśvāsayāmāsa ca bhītam enam arjunaṃ bhūtvā punaḥ pūrvavat saumya-vapur anugra-śarīro mahātmā parama-kāruṇikaḥ sarveśvaraḥ sarvajña ity ādi-kalyāṇa-guṇākaraḥ
 

Viśvanātha


yathā svāṃśasya mahogra-rūpaṃ darśayāmāsa | tathā mahā-madhuraṃ svakaṃ rūpaṃ caturbhujaṃ kirīṭa-gadā-cakrādi-yuktaṃ tat-prārthitaṃ madhuraiśvarya-mayaṃ bhūyo darśayāmāsa | tataḥ punaḥ sa mahātmā somya-vapuḥ kaṭaka-kuṇḍaloṣṇīṣa-pītāmbara-dharo dvibhujo bhūtvā bhītam enam āśvāsayāmāsa
 

Baladeva


tato yad abhūt tat saṃjaya uvāca ity arjunam iti | vāsudevo ‚rjunaṃ prati pūrvoktam uktvā yathā saṅkalpenaiva sahasra-śiraskaṃ rūpaṃ darśitavān tathaiva svakaṃ nīlotpala-śyāmalatvādi-guṇakaṃ devakī-putra-lakṣaṇaṃ caturbhujaṃ rūpaṃ darśayāmāsa evaṃ saumya-vapuḥ sundara-vigraho bhūtvā bhītam enam arjunaṃ punar āśvāsayāmāsa | mahātmā udāra-manā
 
 


BhG 11.51

arjuna uvāca
dṛṣṭvedaṃ mānuṣaṃ rūpaṃ tava saumyaṃ janārdana
idānīm asmi saṃvṛttaḥ sa-cetāḥ prakṛtiṃ gataḥ

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he janārdana (O Janārdana!),
tava (your) idam saumyam (this gentle) mānuṣam rūpam (human form) dṛṣṭvā (after seeing)
idānīm (now) [aham] (I) sa-cetāḥ (with rational mind) saṁvṛttaḥ (being) prakṛtim (in nature) gataḥ (gone) asmi (I am).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
dṛṣṭvā dṛś (to see) absol.after seeing;
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
mānuṣam mānuṣa 2n.1 n. human (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person);
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
tava yuṣmat sn. 6n.1your;
saumyam saumya 2n.1 n.gentle, mild (from: su – to extract, soma – juice, nectar, Moon, soma);
janārdana jana-ardana 8n.1 m.exciting / agitating people, O Janārdana (from: jan – to be born, to produce, jana – man, people, creature; ard – to torment, to hurt, ardana – tormenting, destroying);
or BV: yo janānām abhadram ardati saone who destroys inauspiciousness of people;
idānīm av.now, today;
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
saṁvṛttaḥ sam-vṛtta (sam-vṛt – to become) [PP] 1n.1 m.having become;
sa-cetāḥ sa-cetas [PP] 1n.1 m.; BV: yo cetasā saha vartate saḥwith the mind, conscious, rational (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; occurs mostly in compounds, requires instrumental; cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
gataḥ gata (gam – to go) [PP] 1n.3 m. gone;

 

textual variants


dṛṣṭvedaṁ → dṛṣṭvaivaṁ (thus after seeing);
saumyaṁ → saumya (O gentle one!);
 
 



Śāṃkara


dṛṣṭvedaṃ mānuṣaṃ rūpaṃ mat-sakhaṃ prasannaṃ tava saumyaṃ janārdana, idānīm, adhunāsmi saṃvṛttaḥ saṃjātaḥ | kiṃ ? sa-cetāḥ prasanna-cittaḥ prakṛtiṃ svabhāvaṃ gataś cāsmi
 

Rāmānuja


anavadhikātiśayasaundaryasaukumāryalāvaṇyādiyuktaṃ tavaivāsādhāraṇaṃ manuṣyatvasaṃsthānasaṃsthitam atisaumyam idaṃ tava rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvā idānīṃ sacetās saṃvṛtto ‚smi; prakṛtiṃ gataś ca
 

Śrīdhara


tato nirbhayaḥ sann arjuna uvāca dṛṣṭvedam iti | sa-cetāḥ prasanna-cittaḥ | idānīṃ saṃvṛtto jāto ‚smi | prakṛtiṃ svāsthyaṃ ca prāpto ‚smi | śeṣaṃ spaṣṭam
 

Madhusūdana


tato nirbhayaḥ san arjuna uvāca dṛṣṭvedam iti | idānīṃ sacetā bhaya-kṛta-vyāmohābhāvenāvyākula-cittaḥ saṃvṛtto ‚smi tathā prakṛtiṃ bhaya-kṛta-vyathā-rāhityena svāsthyaṃ gato ‚smi | spaṣṭam anyat
 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca mahā-madhura-mūrtiṃ kṛṣṇam ālokyānanda-sindhu-snātaḥ sann āha idānīm evāhaṃ sa-cetāḥ saṃvṛttaḥ sa-ceto abhuvaṃ prakṛtiṃ gataḥ svāsthyaṃ prāpto ‚smi
 

Baladeva


tato nirvyathaḥ prasanna-manāḥ sann arjuna uvāca dṛṣṭvedam iti | he janārdana tavedaṃ saumyaṃ manojñaṃ caturbhujaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvāham idānīṃ sa-cetāḥ prasanna-cittaḥ prakṛtiṃ vyathādy-abhāvena svāsthyaṃ ca gataḥ saṃvṛtto jāto ‚smi | kīdṛśaṃ rūpam ity āha mānuṣam iti | caitanyānanda-vigrahaḥ kṛṣṇo vakṣyamāṇa-śruti-smṛtibhyaḥ | sa hi yaduṣu | pāṇḍaveṣu dvibhujaḥ kadācic caturbhujaś ca krīḍati | tad-ubhaya-rūpasyāsya mānuṣavat saṃsthānāc ceṣṭitāc ca | mānuṣa-bhāvenaiva vyapadeśa iti prāg abhāṣi
 
 


BhG 11.52

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
sudurdarśam idaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭavān asi yan mama
devā apy asya rūpasya nityaṃ darśana-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke),
[tvam] (you) mama (my) yat idam su-durdarśam rūpam (that form which is very difficult to behold) dṛṣṭavān (one who saw) asi (you are).
devāḥ api (even the divinities) nityam (always) asya rūpasya (of this form) darśana-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ (desiring to see) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
sudurdarśam su-dur-darśa 2n.1 n.very difficult to behold (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; dṛś – to see, darśa – view, appearance);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
rūpam rūpa 2n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
dṛṣṭavān dṛṣṭavant (dṛś – to see) [PP] 1n.1 m.one who saw;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
devāḥ deva 1n.3 m.the gods, divinities (from: div – to shine, to play);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
rūpasya rūpa 6n.1 n. of shape, of figure (from: rūp – to form);
nityam av.constantly, eternally (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
darśana-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ darśana-kāṅkṣin 1n.3 m.; [TP]: darśanaṁ kāṅkṣiṇa itidesiring to see (from: dṛś – to see, darśana – seeing, observing, vision; kāṅkṣ – to desire, to expect; kāṅkṣin – desiring);

 

textual variants


sudurdarśam → sudarśanam / durdarśanam (good to see / bad to see);
nityaṁ darśana-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ → nityaṁ vaṁdana-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ / nitya-darśana-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ (always desiring to adore / desiring to see constantly);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sudurdarśaṃ suṣṭhu duḥkhena darśanam asyeti sudurdarśam | idaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭavān asi yan mama, devā apy asya mama rūpasya nityaṃ sarvadā darśana-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ | darśanepsavo’pi na tvam iva dṛṣṭavantaḥ, na drakṣyanti cety abhiprāyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


mama idaṃ sarvasya praśāsane ‚vasthitaṃ sarvāsrayaṃ sarvakāraṇabhūtaṃ rūpaṃ yad dṛṣṭavān asi, tat sudurdarśaṃ na kenāpi draṣṭuṃ śakyam / asya rūpasya devā api nityaṃ darśanakāṅkṣiṇaḥ, na tu dṛṣṭavantaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


svakṛtasyānugrahasyātidurlabhatvaṃ darśayana bhagavān uvāca sudurdarśam iti | yan mama viśva-rūpaṃ tvaṃ dṛṣṭavān asi | idaṃ sudurdarśam atyantaṃ draṣṭum aśakyam | yato devā apy asya rūpasya nityaṃ sarvadā darśanam icchanti kevalam | na punar idaṃ paśyanti
 

Madhusūdana


sva-kṛtasyānugrahasyātidurlabhatvaṃ darśayan śrī-bhagavān uvāca sudurdarśam iti caturbhiḥ | mama yad rūpam idānīṃ tvaṃ dṛṣṭavān asi, idaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ sudurdarśam atyantaṃ draṣṭum aśakyam | yato devā apy asya rūpasya nityaṃ sarvadā darśana-kāṅkṣiṇo na tu tvam iva pūrvaṃ dṛṣṭavanto na vāgre drakṣyantīty abhiprāyaḥ | darśanākāṅkṣāyā nityatvokteḥ
 

Viśvanātha


darśitasya svarūpasya māhātmyam āha sudurdarśam iti tribhiḥ | devatā api asya darśanākāṅkṣiṇa eva na tu darśanaṃ labhante | tvaṃ tu naivedam api spṛhayasi | man-mūla-svarūpa-narākāra-mahā-mādhurya-nityāsvādine tvac-cakṣuse katham etad coratām ? ataeva mayā divyaṃ dadāmi te cakṣuḥ iti divyaṃ cakṣur dattam | kintu divya-cakṣur iva divyaṃ mano na dattam ataeva divya-cakṣuṣāpi tvayā na samyaktayā rocitaṃ man-mānuṣa-rūpa-mahā-mādhuryaika-grāhi-manaskatvāt | yadi divyaṃ mano ‚pi tubhyam adāsyaṃ tadā deva-loka iva bhavān apy etad viśvarūpa pūruṣa-svarūpam arocayiṣyad eveti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


mayā pradarśitaṃ na veda-yajñādhyayaniḥ ity ādinā ślāghitaṃ ca sahasra-śiraskaṃ mad-rūpaṃ śraddadhāno mat-priya-sakho ‚rjuno manuṣya-bhāva-bhāvite śrī-kṛṣṇe mayi kadācid viślatha-bhāvo mābhūd iti bhāvena svaka-rūpasya parama-puruṣārthatām upadiśati sudurdarśam iti | sahasra-śiraskaṃ mad-rūpaṃ durdarśam eva | idaṃ ca mama kṛṣṇa-rūpaṃ sudurdarśam | nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ sarvasya ity ukteḥ | yat tvaṃ sucirād dṛṣṭavān asi katham evaṃ praty emīti cet tatrāha devā apy asyeti | etac ca daśamādau garbha-stuty-ādinā prasiddham eva
 
 


BhG 11.53

nāhaṃ vedair na tapasā na dānena na cejyayā
śakya evaṃ-vidho draṣṭuṃ dṛṣṭavān asi māṃ yathā

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syntax


[tvam] (you) yathā (as) mām (me) dṛṣṭavān (one who saw) asi (you are),
aham evaṁ-vidhaḥ (I of this kind) na vedaiḥ (not by the Vedas) na tapasā (not by austerity) na dānena (not by charity) na ca ijyayā (and not by worship) draṣṭuṁ (to see) śakyaḥ (possible) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

na av.not;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
vedaiḥ veda 3n.1 m.by the Vedas (vid – to know, to understand);
na av.not;
tapasā tapas 3n.1 n.by heat, by austerity (from: tap – to scorch);
na av.not;
dānena dāna 3n.1 n.by charity (from: – to give);
na av.not;
ca av.and;
ijyayā ijyā 3n.1 f.by sacrifice, by worship (from: yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship);
śakyaḥ śakya (śak – to be able to) PF 1n.1 m. possible;
evaṁ-vidhaḥ evaṁ-vidha 1n.1 m.of this kind (from: av. evam – thus; in compounds: of this kind; vidh – to form; vidha rodzaj, gatunek, sposób);
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
dṛṣṭavān dṛṣṭavant (dṛś – to see) [PP] 1n.1 m.one who saw;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);

 

textual variants


dānena → dānair (by charities);
draṣṭuṁ → dṛṣṭaṁ (seen);
māṁ yathā → ye yathā / māṁ tathā (as those who / me in that manner);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kasmāt ?—
nāhaṃ vedaiḥ ṛg-yajuḥ-sāmātharva-vedaiś caturbhir api, na tapasā ugreṇa cāndrāyaṇādinā, na dānena go-bhū-hiraṇyādinā, na cejyayā yajñena pūjayā vā śakyaḥ evaṃ-vidho yathā-darśita-prakāro draṣṭuṃ dṛṣṭavān asi māṃ yathā tvam
 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 11.54
 

Śrīdhara


atra hetum āha nāham iti | spaṣṭo ‚rthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


kasmād devā etad-rūpaṃ na dṛṣṭavanto na vā drakṣyanti mad-bhakti-śūnyatvād ity āha nāham iti | na veda-yajñādhyayanair ity ādinā gatārthaḥ ślokaḥ parama-durlabhatva-khyāpanāyābhyastaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca yuṣmad-aspṛhaṇīyam apy etat svarūpam anye puruṣārtha-sāratvena ye spṛhayanti, tair vedādhyayanādibhir api sādhanair etaj jñātuṃ draṣṭuṃ cāśakyam eveti pratīhīty āha nāham iti
 

Baladeva


sudurlabhatām āha nāham iti | evaṃvidho devakī-sūnuś caturbhujas tvat-sakho ‚haṃ vedādibhir api sādhanaiḥ kenāpi puṃsā bhakti-śūnyena draṣṭuṃ na śakyo yathā tvaṃ māṃ dṛṣṭavān asi
 
 


BhG 11.54

bhaktyā tv ananyayā śakya aham evaṃ-vidho rjuna
jñātuṃ draṣṭuṃ ca tattvena praveṣṭuṃ ca paraṃtapa

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syntax


he parantapa (O scorcher of enemies!), he arjuna (O Arjuna!),
ananyayā tu bhaktyā (but by unalloyed devotion) ahaṁ evaṁ-vidhaḥ (I of this kind) tattvena (truly) jñātum (to know) draṣṭum (to see) praveṣṭum ca (and to enter) śakyaḥ (possible) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

bhaktyā bhakti 3n.1 f.with devotion, with love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
ananyayā an-anyā 3n.1 f. by no other, by not devoted to anything else (from: anya – other);
śakyaḥ śakya (śak – to be able to) PF 1n.1 m. possible;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
evaṁ-vidhaḥ evaṁ-vidha 1n.1 m.of this kind (from: av. evam – thus; in compounds: of this kind; vidh – formować; vidha rodzaj, gatunek, sposób);
arjuna arjuna 8n.1 m.white, clear, O Arjuna;
jñātum jñā (to know, to understand) [inf.] – to understand;
draṣṭum dṛś (to see) [inf.] – to see;
ca av.and;
tattvena av.truly (from: tat – to, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality);
praveṣṭum pra-viś (to enter) [inf.] – to enter;
ca av.and;
paraṁtapa param-tapa 8n.1 m.; yaḥ parān tāpayati tvamone who torments enemies (from: para – another, strange; tap – to scorch, tapas – heat, austerity);

 

textual variants


śakya śakyam (possible);
aham → hy aham / tv aham (indeed I / but I);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kathaṃ punaḥ śakya ity ucyate—
bhaktyā tu kiṃ-viśiṣṭayā ity āha—ananyayāpṛthag-bhūtayā, bhagavato’nyatra pṛthaṅ na kadācid api yā bhavati sā tv ananyā bhaktiḥ | sarvair api karaṇaiḥ vāsudevād anyan na upalabhyate yayā, sānanyā bhaktiḥ, tayā bhaktyā śakyo’ham evaṃ-vidho viśva-rūpa-prakāro he’rjuna, jñātuṃ śāstrataḥ | na kevalaṃ jñātuṃ śāstrataḥ, draṣṭuṃ ca sākṣāt-kartuṃ tattvena tattvataḥ, praveṣṭuṃ ca mokṣaṃ ca gantuṃ parantapa
 

Rāmānuja


kuta ity atra āha
vedair adhyāpanapravacanādhyayanaśravaṇajapaviṣayaiḥ, yāgadānahomatapobhiś ca madbhaktivirahitaiḥ kevalaiḥ yathāvad avasthito ‚haṃ draṣṭum aśakyaḥ / ananyayā tu bhaktyā tattvataś śāstrair jñātuṃ tattvatas sākṣātkartuṃ, tattvataḥ praveṣṭuṃ ca śakyaḥ / tathā ca śrutiḥ, „nāyam ātmā pravacanena labhyo na medhayā na bahunā śrutena / yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyas tasyaiṣa ātmā vivṛṇute tanūṃ svām” iti
 

Śrīdhara


tarhi kenopāyena tvaṃ draṣṭuṃ śakya iti | tatrāha bhaktyā tv iti | ananyayā mad-eka-niṣṭhayā bhaktyā tv evambhūto viśvarūpo ‚haṃ tattvena paramārthato jñātuṃ śakyaḥ śāstrataḥ draṣṭuṃ pratyakṣataḥ praveṣṭuṃ ca tādātmyena śakyaḥ | nānyair upāyaiḥ
 

Madhusūdana


yadi veda-tapo-dānejyābhir draṣṭum aśakyas tvaṃ tarhi kenopāyena draṣṭuṃ śakyo ‚sīty ata āha bhaktyeti | sādhanānantara-vyāvṛttya-arthas tu-śabdaḥ | bhaktyaivānanyayā mad-eka-niṣṭhayā niratiśaya-prītyaivaṃvidho divya-rūpa-dharo ‚haṃ jñātuṃ śakyo ‚nanyayā bhaktyā kintu tattvena draṣṭuṃ ca svarūpeṇa sākṣātkartuṃ ca śakyo vedānta-vākya-śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsana-paripākeṇa | tataś ca svarūpa-sākṣātkārād avidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttau tattvena praveṣṭuṃ ca mad-rūpatayaivāsuṃ cāhaṃ śakyaḥ | he parantapa ! ajñāna-śatru-damaneti praveśa-yogyatā sūcayati
 

Viśvanātha


tarhi kena sādhanenaivaṃ prāpyata ity ata āha bhaktyā tv iti | śakyo ‚ham iti ca | yad vayalopāvārya | yadi nirvāṇa-mokṣecchā bhavet, tadā tattvena brahma-svarūpatvena praveṣṭum apy ananyayā bhaktyaiva śakyo nānyathā | jñānināṃ guṇībhūtāpi bhaktir antima-samaye jñāna-saṃnyāsānāntaram urvaritāllīyasy ananyaiva bhavet tayaiva teṣāṃ sāyujyaṃ bhaved iti tato māṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tad-anantaram ity atra pratipādayiṣyāmaḥ
 

Baladeva


abhimatāṃ para-bhaktaika-dṛśyatāṃ sphuṭayann āha bhaktyeti | evaṃvidho devakī-sūnuś caturbhujo ‚ham ananyayā mad-ekāntayā bhaktyā tu vedādibhis tattvato jñātuṃ śakyaḥ | draṣṭuṃ pratyakṣaṃ kartuṃ tattvataḥ praveṣṭuṃ saṃyoktuṃ ca śakyaḥ | puraṃ praviśatīty atra pura-saṃyoga eva pratīyate | tatra vedo gopālopaniṣat | tapo maj-janmāṣṭamy-ekādaśy-ādy-upoṣaṇam | dānaṃ mad-bhakta-sampradānakaṃ sva-bhogyānām arpaṇam | ijyā man-mūrti-pūjā | śrutiś caivam āha yasya deve parā bhaktiḥ ity ādyā |
tu-śabdo ‚tra bhinnopakramārthaḥ | na ca sudurdarśam ity ādi-trayaṃ sahasra-śīrṣa-rūpa-param iti vācyam | ity arjunaṃ ity ādi-dvayasya narākṛti-caturbhuja-svarūpa-parasyāvyavahita-pūrvatvāt | tad-dvayena sahasra-śīrṣa-rūpasya vyavadhānāc ca | tatra yasya tad-eka-vākyatāyāṃ nāhaṃ vedaiḥ ity ādeḥ paunarukty-āpatteś ca |
yat tu divya-dṛṣṭi-dānena liṅgena narākārāc caturbhujāt sahasra-śīrṣṇo devākārasyotkarṣam āha tad-avicāritābhidhānam eva devākārasya tasya caturbhuja-narākārādhīnatvāt | tattvaṃ ca tasya yuktam eva yaḥ kāraṇārṇava-jale bhajati sma yoga-nidrām iti smaraṇāt | idaṃ narākṛti-kṛṣṇa-rūpaṃ saccidānandaṃ sarva-vedānta-vedyaṃ vibhuṃ sarvāvatārīti pratyetavyaṃ –
sac-cid-ānanda-rūpāya kṛṣṇāyākliṣṭa-kāriṇe |
namo vedānta-vedyāya gurave buddhi-sākṣiṇe || [GTU 1.1]
kṛṣṇo vai paramaṃ daivatam [GTU 1.3] | eko vaśī sarvagaḥ kṛṣṇa īḍyaḥ [GTU 1.19] | eko ‚pi san bahudhā yo ‚vabhāti [GTU 1.19] ity ādi śravaṇāt |
īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ saccidānanda-vigrahaḥ |
anādir ādir govindaḥ sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam || [Bs 5.1]
yatrāvatīrṇaṃ kṛṣṇākhyaṃ paraṃ brahma narākṛti | ete cāṃśa-kalāḥ puṃsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayaṃ ity ādi smaraṇāc ca |
atrāpi svayam evoktaṃ mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat iti, aham ādir hi devānāṃ ity ādi ca | arjunena ca – paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma ity ādi | tasmād atiprabhāveṇa saṃkrānte sahasra-śīrṣṇi rūpe tena saṃkrāntaiva dṛṣṭir grāhiṇī yuktā, na tv atisaundarya-lāvaṇya-nidhi-narākṛti-kṛṣṇa-rūpānbhāvinī dṛṣṭis tatra grāhiṇīti bhāvena kṛṣṇa-rūpe sahasra-śīrṣatvavad arjuna-cakṣuṣi tādṛg-rūpa-grāhi tejastvam eva saṃkramitam iti mantavyam | na tu yuktyābhāsa-lābhena haitukatvaṃ svīkāryam, na cārjuno ‚py anya-manuṣyavac carma-cakṣuṣkaḥ | tasya bhāratādiṣu nara-bhagavad-avatāratvenāsakṛd-ukteḥ | karmodbhūtayā vidyayā sa-niṣṭhaiḥ sahasra-śiraskaṃ rūpaṃ labhyam iti durdarśaṃ tat narākṛti-kṛṣṇa-rūpaṃ tv ananyayā bhaktyaiveti sudurdarśaṃ tad uktam
 
 


BhG 11.55

mat-karma-kṛn mat-paramo mad-bhaktaḥ saṅga-varjitaḥ
nirvairaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu yaḥ sa mām eti pāṇḍava

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syntax


he pāṇḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!),
yaḥ (he who) mat-karma-kṛt (who does my work) mat-paramaḥ (for whom I am the supreme) mad-bhaktaḥ (my devotee) saṅga-varjitaḥ (who is free from attachment) sarva-bhūteṣu nirvairaḥ (who is without enmity towards all beings),
saḥ (he) mām (to me) eti (he goes).

 

grammar

mat-karma-kṛt mat-karma-kṛt 1n.1 m.; yo mama karma karoti saḥwho does my work (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; -kṛt – suffix indicates a doer);
mat-paramaḥ mat-parama 1n.1 m.; yasyāhaṁ paramaḥ ‘smi saḥfor whom I am the supreme, devoted to me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest);
mad-bhaktaḥ mad-bhakta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mama bhakta itimy devotee (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
saṅga-varjitaḥ saṅga-varjita 1n.1 m.; [TP]: saṅgena varjita iti who is free from attachment (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment; vṛj – to exclude, to avoid, caus. [PP] varjita – excluded, deprived of, without);
nirvairaḥ nir-vaira 1n.1 m.who is without enmity (from: niḥ out of, away from, without; vira – brave, a hero, vaira – enmity);
sarva-bhūteṣu sarva-bhūta 7n.3 m.; sarveṣu bhūteṣu ititowards all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eti i (to go) Praes. P 1v.1he goes;
pāṇḍava pāṇḍava 8n.1 m.O son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);

 
 



Śāṃkara


adhunā sarvasya gītā-śāstrasya sāra-bhūto’rtho niḥśreyasārtho’nuṣṭheyatvena samuccityocyate—
mat-karma-kṛn mad-arthaṃ karma mat-karma, tat karotīti mat-karma-kṛt | mat-paramaḥ—karoti bhṛtyaḥ svāmi-karma, na tv ātmanaḥ paramā pretya gantavyā gatir iti svāminaṃ pratipadyate | ayaṃ tu mat-karma-kṛn mām eva paramāṃ gatiṃ pratipadyate iti mat-paramaḥ, ahaṃ paramaḥ parā gatir yasya so’yaṃ mat-paramaḥ | tathā mad-bhakto mām eva sarva-prakāraiḥ sarva-prakāraiḥ sarvātmanā sarvotsāhena bhajate iti mad-bhaktaḥ | saṅga-varjito dhana-putra-mitra-kalatra-bandhu-vargeṣu saṅga-varjitaḥ saṅgaḥ prītiḥ snehas tad-varjitaḥ | nirvairo nirgata-vairaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu śatru-bhāva-rahita ātmano’ tyantāpakāra-pravṛtteṣv api | ya īdṛśo mad-bhaktaḥ sa mām eti | aham eva tasya parā gatiḥ, nānyā gatiḥ kācit bhavati | ayaṃ tavopadeśa iṣṭo mayā upadiṣṭaḥ | he pāṇḍāva ! it
 

Rāmānuja


vedādhyayanādīni sarvāṇi karmāṇi madārādhanarūpāṇīti yaḥ karoti, sa matkarmakṛt / matparamaḥ sarveṣām ārambhāṇām aham eva paramoddeśyo yasya, sa matparamaḥ / madbhaktaḥ atyarthamatpriyatvena matkīrtanastutidhyānārcanapraṇāmādibhir vinā ātmadhāraṇam alabhamāno madekaprayojanatayā yaḥ satataṃ tāni karoti, sa madbhaktaḥ / saṅgavarjitaḥ madekapriyatvenetarasaṅgam asahamānaḥ / nirvairas sarvabhūteṣu matsaṃśleṣaviyogaikasukhaduḥkhasvabhāvatvāt svaduḥkhasya svāparādhananimittatvānusaṃdhānāc ca sarvabhūtānāṃ paramapuruṣaparatantratvānusaṃdhānāc ca sarvabhūteṣu vairanimittābhāvāt teṣu nirvairaḥ / ya evaṃ bhūtaḥ, sa mām iti māṃ yathāvad avasthitaṃ prāpnoti; nirastāvidyādyaśeṣadoṣagandho madekānubhavo bhavatītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


ataḥ sarva-śāstra-sāraṃ paramaṃ rahasyaṃ śṛṇv ity āha mat-karma-kṛd iti | mad-arthaṃ karma karotīti mat-karma-kṛt | aham eva paramaḥ puruṣārtho yasya saḥ | mamaiva bhakta āśritaḥ | putrādiṣu saṅga-varjitaḥ | nirvairaś ca sarva-bhūteṣu | evaṃ bhūto yaḥ sa māṃ prāpnoti | nānya iti
 

Madhusūdana


adhunā sarvasya gītā-śāstrasya sāra-bhūto ‚rtho niḥśreyasārthinām anuṣṭhānāya puñjīkṛtyocyate mad iti | mad-arthaṃ karma veda-vihitaṃ karotīti mat-karma-kṛt | svargādi-kāmanāyāṃ satyāṃ katham evam iti nety āha mat-paramaḥ | aham eva paramaḥ prāptavyatvena niścito na tu svargādir yasya saḥ | ataeva mat-prāpty-āśayā mad-bhaktaḥ sarvaiḥ prakārair mama bhajana-paraḥ | putrādiṣu snehe sati katham evaṃ syād iti nety āha saṅga-varjitaḥ | bāhya-vastu-spṛhā-śūnyaḥ | śatruṣu dveṣe sati katham evaṃ syād iti nety āha nivairaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu | apakāriṣv api dveṣa-śūnyo yaḥ sa mām ety abhedena | he pāṇḍava ! ayam arthas tvayā jñātum iṣṭo mayopadiṣṭo nātaḥ paraṃ kiṃcit kartavyam astīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


atha bhakti-prakaraṇopasaṃhārārthaṃ saptamādhyāyādiṣu ye ye bhaktā uktās teṣāṃ sāmānya-lakṣaṇam āha mat-karma-kṛd iti | saṅga-varjitaḥ saṅga-rahitaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha sva-prāpti-karīm ananyāṃ bhaktim upadiśann upasaṃharati mad iti | mat-sambandhinī man-mandira-nirmāṇa-tad-vimārjana-mat-puṣpa-bāṭī-tulasī-kānana-saṃskāra-tat-sevanādīni karmādīni karotīti mat-karma-kṛt | mat-paramo mām eva na tu svargādikaṃ sva-pumarthaṃ jānan | mad-bhakto mac-chravaṇādi-nava-vidha-bhakti-rasa-nirataḥ | saṅga-varjito mad-vimukha-saṃsargam asahamānaḥ | sarva-bhūteṣu nirvairaḥ | teṣv api mad-vimukheṣu pratikūleṣu satsu vaira-śūnyaḥ | sva-kleśasya sva-pūrvakarma-nimittakatva-vimarśena teṣu vaira-nimittābhāvāt | evambhūto yo māṃ narākāraṃ kṛṣṇam eti labhate, nānyaḥ
 
 


BhG 11.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi trayastriṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation

Thus [ends] the thirty-third chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde viśva-rūpa-darśanaṃ / viśva-rūpa-darśana-yogo / vibhūti-yoga-viśva-rūpaṃ / viśva-rūpīyo / śrī-kṛṣṇa-viśva-rūpa-darśano / bhagavad-viśva-rūpa-darśana-yogo / viśva-rūpa-pradarśanaṃ nāmaikdādaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the eleventh  chapter entitled: Beholding the Form of All / The Yoga of Beholding the Form of All / The Form of All and Yoga of Power / The Shape of All / Beholding the Glorious Kṛṣṇa’s Form of All / Beholding the Lord’s Form of All / Showing the Form of All.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


devair api sudurdarśaṃ tapo-yajñādi-koṭibhiḥ |
bhaktāya bhagavān evaṃ viśva-rūpam adarśayat ||
iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
viśva-rūpa-darśaṃ nāma ekādaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ ||
 

Madhusūdana


śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām viśva-rūpa-darśana-nirūpaṇaṃ nāma ekādaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kṛṣṇasyaiva mahaiśvaryaṃ mamaivāsmin raṇe jayaḥ |
ity arjuno niścikāyety-adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsv ekādaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||
 

Baladeva


pūrṇaḥ kṛṣṇo ‚vatāritvāt tad-bhaktānāṃ jayo raṇe |
bhārate pāṇḍu-putrāṇām ity ekādaśa-nirṇayaḥ ||
iti śrīmad-bhagavad-gītopaniṣad-bhāṣye ekādaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ