atha dvādaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ – bhakti-yogaḥ

Now the twelfth chapter: “The Yoga of Devotion”

 


Śāṃkara


dvitīyādhyāya-prabhṛtiṣu vibhūty-anteṣu adhyāyeṣu paramātmano brahmaṇo’kṣarasya vidhvasta-sarvopādhi-viśeṣasyopāsanam uktam | sarva-yogaiśvarya-sarva-jñāna-śaktimat-sattvopādher īśvarasya tatra copāsanaṃ tatra tatroktam | viśva-rūpādhyāye tv aiśvaram ādyaṃ samasta-jagad-ātma-rūpaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ tvadīyaṃ darśitam upāsanārtham eva tvayā | tac ca darśayitvā uktavān asi mat-karma-kṛd [gītā 11.55] ity ādi | ato’ham anayor ubhayoḥ pakṣayor viśiṣṭatara-bubhutsayā tvāṃ pṛcchāmīty arjuna uvāca—
 

Rāmānuja


bhaktiyoganiṣṭhānāṃ prāpyabhūtasya parasya brahmaṇo bhagavato nārāyaṇasya niraṅkuśāiśvaryaṃ sākṣātkartukāmāyārjunāya anavadhikātiśayakāruṇyāudāryasauśīlyādiguṇasāgareṇa satyasaṃkalpena bhagavatā svāiśvaryaṃ yathāvad avasthitaṃ darśitam; uktaṃ ca tattvato bhagavajjñānadarśanaprāptīnām aikāntikātyantikabhagavadbhaktyekalabhyatvam / ananataram ātmaprāptisādhanabhūtād atmopāsanād bhaktirūpasya bhagavadupāsanasya svasādhyaniṣpādane śaighryāt susukhopādānatvāc ca śraiṣṭhyam, bhagavadupāsanopāyaś ca, tadaśaktasyākṣaraniṣṭhatā, tadapekṣitāś cocyante / bhagavadupāsanasya prāpyabhūtopāsyaśraiṣṭhyāc śraiṣṭhyaṃ tu, „yoginām api sarveṣāṃ madgatenāntarātmanā / śraddhāvān bhajate yo mām sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
 

Śrīdhara


nirguṇopāsanasyaivaṃ sa-guṇopāsanasya ca |
śreyaḥ katarad ity etan nirṇetuṃ dvādaśodyamaḥ ||
 

Madhusūdana


pūrvādhyāyānte –
mat-karma-kṛn mat-paramo mad-bhaktaḥ saṅga-varjitaḥ |
nirvairaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu yaḥ sa mām eti pāṇḍava || [Gītā 11.55] ity uktam |
tatra mac-chabdārthe sandehaḥ kiṃ nirākāram eva sarva-svarūpaṃ vastu mad-chabdenoktaṃ bhagavatā kiṃ vā sākāram iti | ubhayatrāpi prayoga-darśanāt |
bahūnāṃ janmanām ante jñānavān māṃ prapadyate |
vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ || [Gītā 7.19]
ity ādau nirākāraṃ vastu vyapadiṣṭam | viśva-rūpa-darśanānantaraṃ ca –
nāhaṃ vedair na tapasā na dānena na cejyayā |
śakya evaṃ-vidho draṣṭuṃ dṛṣṭavān asi māṃ yathā || [Gītā 11.53]
iti sākāraṃ vastu | ubhayoś ca bhagavad-upadeśayor adhikāri-bhedenaiva vyavasthayā bhavitavyam anyathā virodhāt | tatraivaṃ sati mayā mumukṣuṇā kiṃ nirākāram eva vastu cintanīyaṃ kiṃ vā sākāram iti svādhikāra-niścayāya sa-guṇa-nirguṇa-vidyayor viśeṣa-bubhutsayā arjuna uvāca evam iti |
 

Viśvanātha


dvādaśe sarva-bhaktānāṃ jñānibhyaḥ śraiṣṭhyam ucyate |
bhakteṣv api praśasyante ye ‚dveṣādi-guṇānvitāḥ ||
 

Baladeva


upāyeṣu samasteṣu śuddhā bhaktir mahā-balā |
prāpayet tvarayā yan mām ity āha dvādaśe hariḥ ||
 
 

BhG 12.1

arjuna uvāca
evaṃ satata-yuktā ye bhaktās tvāṃ paryupāsate
ye cāpy akṣaram avyaktaṃ teṣāṃ ke yoga-vittamāḥ

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
evam (thus) ye satata-yuktāḥ (those who are constantly engaged) bhaktāḥ (devotees) tvām (you) paryupāsate (they worship),
ye ca api (and those who) avyaktam (unmanifested) akṣaram (imperishable) [paryupāsate] (they worship),
teṣām (of them) ke (who?) yoga-vittamāḥ (the best of knowers of yoga) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
evam av.thus;
satata-yuktāḥ satata-yukta 1n.3 m.constantly engaged (from: sa-tata – constant, uninterrupted, av. – constantly; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
bhaktāḥ bhakta (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) [PP] 1n.3 m.distributed, divided, loved; worshippers, devotees;
tvām yuṣmat sn. 2n.1you;
paryupāsate pari-upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
akṣaram a-kṣara 2n.1 n. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
avyaktam a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 2n.1 n.unmanifested, invisible;
teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m. of those;
ke kim sn. 1n.3 m. who and who?;
yoga-vittamāḥ yoga-vittama 1n.3 m.; ye yogaṁ viduḥ tethe best of knowers of yoga (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows; vittama – superlative of: vit – vit-tara, vit-tama);

 

textual variants


bhaktās → bhaktyā (with devotion);
cāpy akṣaramcāpy kṣaram (and just imperishable);
teṣāṁ ke yoga-vittamāḥ → teṣāṁ ke yoga-vittamaḥ / teṣāṁ ke yuktatamāḥ (fo them who are the best / of them who are the most engaged);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evam ity atītānantara-lokena uktam arthaṃ parāmṛśati mat-karma-kṛd ity ādinā | evaṃ satata-yuktāḥ, nairantaryeṇa bhagavat-karmādau yathokte’rthe samāhitāḥ santaḥ pravṛttā ity arthaḥ | ye bhaktā ananya-śaraṇāḥ santas tvāṃ yathā-darśitaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ paryupāsate dhyāyanti | ye cānye’pi tyakta-sarveṣaṇāḥ saṃnyasta-sarva-karmāṇo yathā-viśeṣitaṃ brahmākṣaraṃ nirasta-sarvopādhitvād avyaktam akaraṇa-gocaram | yad dhi karaṇa-gocaraṃ tad vyaktam ucyate, añjer dhātos tat-karmakatvāt | idaṃ tv akṣaraṃ tad-viparītam, śiṣṭau ca ucyamānair viśeṣaṇair viśiṣṭam, tad ye cāpi paryupāsate, teṣām ubhayeṣāṃ madhye ke yogi-vittamāḥ ? ke’tiśayena yoga-vida ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


evam „matkarmakṛt” ityādinoktena prakāreṇa, satatayuktāḥ bhagavantaṃ tvām eva paraṃ prāpyaṃ manvānāḥ ye bhaktāḥ, tvām sakalavibhūtiyuktam anavadhikātiśayasaundaryasauśīlyasārvajñyasatyasaṃkalpatvādyanantaguṇasāgaraṃ paripūrṇam upāsate, ye cāpy akṣaraṃ pratyagātmasvarūpam tad eva ca avyaktaṃ cakṣurādikaraṇānabhivyaktasvarūpam upāsate; teṣām ubhayeṣāṃ ke yogavittamāḥ ke svasādhyaṃ prati śīghragāmina ityarthaḥ, „bhavāmi na cirāt pārtha” iti uttaratra yogavittamatvaṃ śaighryaviṣayam iti hi vyañjayiṣyate
 

Śrīdhara


pūrvādhyāyānte mat-karma-kṛn mat-parama [Gītā 11.55] ity evaṃ bhakti-niṣṭhasya śreṣṭhatvam uktam | kaunteya pratijānīhīty [Gītā 9.31] ādinā ca tatra tatra tasyaiva śreṣṭhatvaṃ nirṇītam | tathā teṣāṃ jñānī nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir viśiṣyata [Gītā 7.17] ity ādinā sarvaṃ jñāna-plavenaiva vṛjinaṃ santariṣyasi [Gītā 4.36] ity ādinā ca jñāna-niṣṭhasya śreṣṭhatvam uktam | evam ubhayoḥ śraiṣṭhye ‚pi viśeṣa-jijñāsayā śrī-bhagavantaṃ praty arjuna uvāca evam iti | evaṃ sarva-karmārpaṇādinā satata-yuktās tvan-niṣṭhāḥ santo ye bhaktās tvāṃ viśva-rūpaṃ sarvajñaṃ sarva-śaktiṃ paryupāsate dhyāyanti | ye cāpy akṣaraṃ brahmāvyaktaṃ nirviśeṣam upāsate | teṣām ubhayeṣāṃ madhye ke ‚tiśayena yoga-vido ‚tiśreṣṭhā ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ mat-karma-kṛd [Gītā 11.55] ity-ādy-anantarokta-prakāreṇa satata-yuktā nairantaryeṇa bhagavat-karmādau sāvadhānatayā pravṛttā bhaktāḥ sākāra-vastv-eka-śaraṇāḥ santas tvām evaṃ-vidhaṃ sākāraṃ ye paryupāsate satataṃ cintayanti | ye cāpi sarvato viraktās tyakta-sarva-karmāṇo ‚kṣaraṃ na kṣaraty aśnute vety akṣaram etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadanty asthūlam anaṇv ahrasvam adīrgham [BAU 3.8.9] ity ādi-śruti-pratiṣiddha-sarvopādhi nirguṇaṃ brahma | ataevāvyaktaṃ sarva-karaṇāgocaraṃ nirākāraṃ tvāṃ paryupāsate teṣām ubhayeṣāṃ madhye ke yoga-vittamāḥ atiśayena yoga-vidaḥ | yogaṃ samādhiṃ vindanti vidantīti vā yoga-vida ubhaye ‚pi | teṣāṃ madhye ke śreṣṭhā yoginaḥ keṣāṃ jñānaṃ mayānusaraṇīyam ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


bhakti-prakaraṇasyopakrame –
yoginām api sarveṣāṃ mad-gatenāntarātmanā |
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ || [Gītā 6.47]
iti bhakteḥ sarvotkarṣo yathā śruteḥ | tathaivopasaṃhāre ‚pi tasyā evaṃ sarvotkarṣaṃ śrotu-kāmaḥ pṛcchati | evaṃ satata-yuktā mat-karma-kṛn mat-paramaḥ [Gītā 11.55] iti tvad-ukta-lakṣaṇā bhaktās tvāṃ śyāmasundarākāraṃ ye ca avyaktaṃ nirviśeṣam akṣaraṃ etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā abhivadanty asthūlam anaṇv ahrasvam [BAU 3.8.9] ity ādi-śruty-uktaṃ brahma upāsate | teṣām ubhayeṣāṃ yoga-vidāṃ madhye ke ‚tiśayena yogavidaś ca tva-prāntau śreṣṭham upāyaṃ jānanti na labhante vā | te yoga-vittarā iti vaktavye yoga-vittamā ity uktir yoga-vittarāṇām api bahūnāṃ madhye ke yogavittamā ity arthaṃ bodhayati
 

Baladeva


jīvātmānaṃ yathāvaj jñātvā vijñāya ca tad-aṃśī harir dhyeya iti avināśi tu tad viddhi [Gītā 2.17] ity ādibhir dvitīyādiṣv ekaḥ panthā varṇitaḥ | jīvātmānaṃ harer aṃśaṃ jñātvaiva tad-aṃśī haris tac-chravaṇādi-bhaktibhir dhyeya iti mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha [Gītā 7.1] ity ādibhiḥ saptamādiṣu dvitīya-panthāḥ pradarśitaḥ | teṣv eva prayāṇa-kāle [Gītā 8.10] ity ādinā yogopasṛṣṭā | jñāna-yajñena cāpy anye [Gītā 9.15] ity anena jñānopasṛṣṭā ca bhaktir uktā | bhakti-ṣaṭkāt prāk ṣaṣṭhānte kevalāṃ bhaktim upadekṣyatā yoginām api sarveṣāṃ [Gītā 6.47] ity ādi-padyena svaikāntinām yuktatamatāṃ cābhihitā | tatrārjunaḥ pṛcchati evam iti | evaṃ mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha [Gītā 7.1] ity ādi-tvad-ukta-vidhayā satata-yuktā ye tvāṃ śyāmasundaraṃ kṛṣṇaṃ paritaḥ kāyādi-vyāpārair upāsate, ye cākṣaraṃ jīva-svarūpaṃ cakṣur-ādibhir avyaktaṃ paryupāsate dhāraṇādhyāna-samādhibhiḥ sākṣāt-kartum īhante paramātma-kāmās teṣām ubhayeṣāṃ madhye yoga-vittamāḥ śīghropāyinaḥ ke bhavanti ? ayaṃ bhāvaḥ | svānubhava-pūrvakasya hari-dhyānasya bandha-mūlatvāt tena nirvighnā tat-prāptir ity eke | nīrūpasyātisūkṣmasya jīvātmano durdhyānatvāt kiṃ tad-dhyānena ? kintu hari-bhaktir eva sarva-vighna-vimardinī hari-prāpaṇīty eke | tasyām eva niratās teṣām ubhayeṣām upāyeṣu kaḥ śreyān upāya iti taṃ bhaṇeti
 
 


BhG 12.2

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
mayy āveśya mano ye māṃ nitya-yuktā upāsate
śraddhayā parayopetās te me yuktatamā matāḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
ye (those who) parayā śraddhayā (with supreme faith) upetāḥ (endowed with) mayi (in me) manaḥ (the mind) āveśya (after absorbing)
nitya-yuktāḥ (always engaged) mām (me) upāsate (they worship),
te (they) yukta-tamāḥ [iti] (the best of the engaged) me (by me) matāḥ (regarded).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
āveśya āveśya (ā-viś – to approach, to enter) caus. absol.after causing to enter, after absorbing;
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
nitya-yuktāḥ nitya-yukta 1n.3 m.; nityaṁ yuktā itialways engaged (from: av. nityam – constantly, eternally; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
upāsate upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;
śraddhayā śrad-dhā 3n.1 f.with faith (from: śrat – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith]);
parayā para 3n.1 f.with beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
upetāḥ upeta (upa-i – to go near, to attain) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are endowed with, who attained;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
yuktatamā yukta-tama 1n.3 m. the best of the engaged (from: yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage; superlative of: [PP] yukta – yoked, endowed with);
matāḥ mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.3 m.regarded, esteemed;

 

textual variants


yukta-tamā → yukta-tamo ([one] the best of the engaged);
te me yuktatamā matāḥte me yuktāḥ samā matāḥ (they are regarded by me as the equally engaged);

The second pada of verse 12.2 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 9.14;

 
 



Śāṃkara


śrī-bhagavān uvāca—ye tv akṣaropāsakāḥ samyag-darśino nivṛttaiṣaṇās te tāvat tiṣṭhantu | tān prati yad vaktavyam, tad upariṣṭād vakṣyāmaḥ | ye tv itare—
mayi viśva-rūpe parameśvara āveśya samādhāya mano ye bhaktāḥ santaḥ, māṃ sarva-yoge varāṇām adhīśvaraṃ sarvajñaṃ vimukta-rāgādi-kleśa-timira-dṛṣṭim, nitya-yuktā atītānantarādhyāyāntokta-ślokārtha-nyāyena satata-yuktāḥ santa upāsate śraddhayā parayā prakṛṣṭayopetāḥ, te me mama matā abhipretā yuktatamā iti | nairantaryeṇa hi te mac-cittatayāho-rātram ativāhayanti | ato yuktaṃ tān prati yuktatamā iti vaktum
 

Rāmānuja


atyarthamatpriyatvena mano mayy āveśya śraddhayā parayopetāḥ nityayuktāḥ nityayogaṃ kāṅkṣamāṇāḥ ye mām upāsate prāpyaviṣayaṃ mano mayy āveśya ye mām upāsata ityarthaḥ te yuktatamāḥ māṃ sukhenācirāt prāpnuvantītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tatra prathamāḥ śreṣṭhā ity uttaraṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca mayīti | mayi parameśvare sarvajñādi-guṇa-viśiṣṭe | mana āveśyaikāgraṃ kṛtvā | nitya-yuktā mad-artha-karmānuṣṭhānādinā man-niṣṭhāḥ santaḥ śreṣṭhayā śraddhayā yuktā ye mām ārādhayanti te yuktatamā mamābhimatāḥ
 

Madhusūdana


brak komentarza do BhG 12.4
 

Viśvanātha


tatra mad-bhaktāḥ śreṣṭhā ity āha mayi śyāmasundarākāre mama āveśyāviṣṭaṃ kṛtvā nitya-yuktā man-nitya-yoga-kāṅkṣiṇaḥ parayā guṇātītayā śraddhayā | yad uktaṃ –
sāttviky ādhyātmikī śraddhā karma-śraddhā tu rājasī |
tāmasy adharme yā śraddhā mat-sevāyāṃ tu nirguṇā || [BhP 11.25.27] iti |
te me madīyā ananya-bhaktā yuktatamā yoga-vittamā ity arthaḥ | tenānanya-bhaktebhyo nyūnā anye jñāna-karmādi-miśra-bhaktimanto yoga-vittarā ity artho ‚bhivyañjito bhavati | tataś ca jñānād bhaktiḥ śreṣṭhā bhaktāv apy ananya-bhaktiḥ śreṣṭhety upapāditam
 

Baladeva


evaṃ pṛṣṭho bhagavān uvāca mayīti | ye bhaktā mayi nīlotpala-śyāmalatvādi-dharmiṇi svayaṃ bhagavati devakī-sūnau mana āveśya nirataṃ kṛtvā parayā dṛḍhayā śraddhayopetāḥ santo mām ukta-lakṣaṇam upāsate | śravaṇādi-lakṣaṇām upāsanāṃ mama kurvanti | nitya-yuktā nityaṃ mad-yogam icchantas te mama matena yuktatamā matāḥ | śīghra-mat-prāpakopāyinas te
 
 


BhG 12.3-4

ye tv akṣaram anirdeśyam avyaktaṃ paryupāsate
sarvatra-gam acintyaṃ ca kūṭa-stham acalaṃ dhruvam
saṃniyamyendriya-grāmaṃ sarvatra sama-buddhayaḥ
te prāpnuvanti mām eva sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ

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syntax


ye tu (but those who) indriya-grāmam saṁniyamya (after restraining all of the senses)
sarvatra sama-buddhayaḥ (those whose intelligence is equal everywhere)
sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ (who rejoice in the welfare of all beings)
acintyam (inconceivable) anirdeśyam (indescribable) sarvatra-gam (everywhere going) kūṭa-stham (situated on top) acalam (motionless) dhruvam (fixed) avyaktam (invisible) akṣaram ca (and imperishable) paryupāsate (they worship),
te (they) mām eva (just me) prāpnuvanti (they obtain).

 

grammar

ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
akṣaram a-kṣara 2n.1 n. imperishable, a syllable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
anirdeśyam a-nirdeśya (nir-diś – to point out, to name) PF 2n.1 n.not to be pointed out, indescribable;
avyaktam a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 2n.1 m.unnmanifested, invisible;
paryupāsate pari-upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;
sarvatra-gam sarvatra-gam 1n.1 m.; yat sarvatra gacchati tat going everywhere (from: sarva – all; av. – everywhere, in every case; indeclinable locative with an ending –tra; gam – to go, -ga – suffix: moving, going);
acintyam a-cintya (cint – to think, to consider) PF 2n.1 n.not to be thought about, inconceivable;
ca av.and;
kūṭa-stham kūṭa-stha 2n.1 n.; yat kūṭe tiṣṭhati tatsituated on top (from: kūṭa – summit, peak, heap; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
acalam a-cala 2n.1 n.motionless (from: cal – to move, to shake, cala – moving, shaking);
dhruvam dhruva 2n.1 n.certain, fixed (from: dhṛ – to hold or dhru – to be firm);

*****

saṁniyamya sam-ni-yam (to restrain) absol.after restraining;
indriya-grāmam indriya-grāma 2n.1 m.; [TP]: indriyāṇāṁ grāmam itigroups of the senses (from: ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; grāma – collection, multitude, village);
sarvatra av.everywhere, in every case (from: sarva – all; indeclinable locative with an ending –tra);
sama-buddhayaḥ sama-buddhi 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ buddhiḥ samāsti te whose intelligence is equal (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
prāpnuvanti pra-āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.3they obtain;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
sarva-bhūta-hite sarva-bhūta-hita 7n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ bhūtānāṁ hita iti in the welfare of all creatures (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; dhā – to put, [PP] hita – set, beneficial, useful, friendly);
ratāḥ rata (ram – to play, to rejoice) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are pleased, who rejoice (requires locative);

 

textual variants


paryupāsate → mām upāsate (me they worship);

The fourth pada of verse 12.4 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 5.25;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kim itare yuktatamā na bhavanti ? na | kiṃtu tān prati yad vaktavyam, tac chṛṇu—
ye tv akṣaram anirdeśyam, avyaktatvād aśabda-gocareti na nirdeṣṭuṃ śakyate, ato’nirdeśyam | avyaktaṃ na kenāpi pramāṇena vyajyata ity avyaktaṃ paryupāsate pari samantād upāsate | upāsanaṃ nāma yathā-śāstram upāsyasyārthasya viṣayī-karaṇena sāmīpyam upagamya taila-dhārāvat samāna-pratyaya-pravāheṇa dīrgha-kālaṃ yad āsanam, tad upāsanam ācakṣate | akṣarasya viśeṣaṇam āha—sarvatra-gaṃ vyomavad vyāpy acintyaṃ cāvyaktatvād acintyam | yad dhi karaṇa-gocaram, tan manasāpi cintyam, tad-viparītatvād acintyam akṣaram, kūṭa-sthaṃ dṛśyamāna-guṇam antar-doṣaṃ vastu kūṭam | kūṭa-rūpaṃ kūṭa-sākṣyam ity ādau kūṭa-śabdaḥ prasiddho loke | tathā cāvidyādy-aneka-saṃsāra-bījam antar-doṣavan māyā-vyākṛtādi-śabda-vācyatayā māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaraṃ [śāstrvetuttaṃ 4.10], mama māyā duratyayā [gītā 7.14] ity ādau prasiddhaṃ yat tat kūṭam, tasmin kūṭe sthitaṃ kūṭa-sthaṃ tad-adhyakṣatayā | athavā, rāśir iva sthitaṃ kūṭa-stham ata evācalam | yasmād acalam, tasmād dhruvam, nityam ity arthaḥ ||12.3||
saṃniyamya samyak niyamya upasaṃhṛtya indriya-grāmam indriya-samudāyaṃ sarvatra sarvasmin kāle sama-buddhayaḥ samā tulyā buddhir yeṣām iṣṭāniṣṭa-prāptau te sama-buddhayaḥ | te ye evaṃ-vidhās te prāpnuvanti mām eva sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ | na tu teṣāṃ vaktavyaṃ kiṃcit māṃ te prāpnuvantīti | jñānī tv ātmaiva me matam iti hy uktam | na hi bhagavat-svarūpāṇāṃ satāṃ yuktatamatvam ayuktatamatvaṃ vā vācyam
 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 12.5
 

Śrīdhara


tarhītare kiṃ na śreṣṭhā iti ? ata āha ye tv iti dvābhyām | ye tv akṣaram paryupāsate dhyāyanti te ‚pi mām eva prāpnuvantīti dvayor anvayaḥ | akṣarasya lakṣaṇam anirdeśyam ity ādi | anirdeśyaṃ śabdena nirdeṣṭum aśakyam | yato ‚vyaktaṃ rūpādi-hīnam | sarvatra-gaṃ sarva-vyāpi | avyaktatvād evācintyam | kūṭasthaṃ kūṭe māyā-prapañce ‚dhiṣṭhānatvenāvasthitam | acalaṃ spandana-rahitam | ataeva dhruvaṃ nityaṃ vṛddhy-ādi-rahitam | spaṣṭam anyat
 

Madhusūdana


nirguṇa-brahma-vid-apekṣayā saguṇa-brahma-vidāṃ ko ‚tiśayo yena ta eva yuktatmās tavābhimatā ity apekṣāyāṃ tam atiśayaṃ vaktuṃ tan nirūpakān nirguṇa-brahma-vidaḥ prastauti ye tv iti dvābhyām | ye ‚kṣaram mām upāsate te ‚pi mām eva prāpnuvantīti dvitīya-gatenānvayaḥ | pūrvebhyo vailakṣaṇya-dyotanāya tu-śabdaḥ | akṣaraṃ nirviśeṣaṃ brahma vācaknavī-brāhmaṇe prasiddhaṃ tasya samarpaṇāya sapta viśeṣaṇāni | anirdeśyaṃ śabdena vyapadeṣṭum aśakyaṃ yato ‚vyaktaṃ śabda-pravṛtter nirviśeṣe pravṛtty-ayogāt | kuto jātyādi-rāhityam ata āha sarvatra-gaṃ sarva-vyāpi sarva-kāraṇam | ato jātyādi-śūnyaṃ paricchinnasya kāryasyaiva jātyādi-yoga-darśanāt | ākāśādīnām api kāryatvābhyupagamāc ca | ataevācintyaṃ śabda-vṛtter iva mano-vṛtter api na viṣayaḥ | tasyā api paricchinna-viṣayatvāt | yato vāco nivartante | aprāpya manasā saha iti śruteḥ |
tarhi kathaṃ taṃ tv aupaniṣadaṃ puruṣaṃ pṛcchāmi iti | dṛśyate tv agryayā buddhyā iti ca śrutiḥ | śāstra-yonitvāt iti sūtraṃ ca | ucyate, avidyā-kalpita-sambandhena śabda-janyāyāṃ buddhi-vṛttau caramāyāṃ paramānanda-bodha-rūpe śuddhe vastuni pratibimbite ‚vidyā-tat-kāryayoḥ kalpitayor nivṛtty-upapatter upacāreṇa viṣayatvābhidhānāt | atas tatra kalpitam aivdyā-sambandhaṃ pratipādayitum āha kūṭasthaṃ, yan mithyā-bhūtaṃ satyatayā pratīyate tat-kūṭam iti lokair ucyate | yathā kūṭa-kārṣā-paṇaḥ kūṭa-sākṣitvam ity ādau | ajñānam api māyākhyaṃ saha kārya-prapañcena mithyā-bhūtam api laukikaiḥ satyatayā pratīyamānaṃ kūṭaṃ tasminn ādhyāsikena sambandhenādhiṣṭhānatayā tiṣṭhatīti kūṭastham ajñāna-tat-kāryādhiṣṭhānam ity arthaḥ | etena sarvānupapatti-parihāraḥ kṛtaḥ | ataeva sarva-vikārāṇām avidyā-kalpitatvāt tad-adhiṣṭhānam sākṣi-caitanyaṃ nirvikāram ity āha acalaṃ calanaṃ vikāraḥ | acalatvād eva dhruvam apariṇāmi nityam | etādṛśaṃ śuddhaṃ brahma māṃ paryupāsate śravaṇena pramāṇa-gatām asambhāvanām apohya mananena ca prameya-gatām anantaraṃ viparīta-bhāvanā-nivṛttaye dhyāyanti vijātīya-pratyaya-tiraskāreṇa taila-dhārāvad avicchinna-samāna-pratyaya-tiraskāreṇa taila-dhārāvad avicchinna-samāna-pratyaya-pravāheṇa nididhyāsana-saṃjñakena dhyānena viṣayīkurvantity arthaḥ |
kathaṃ punar viṣayendriya-saṃyoge sati vijātīya-pratyaya-tiraskāro ‚ta āha saṃniyamya sva-viṣayebhya upasaṃhṛtyendriya-grāmaṃ karaṇa-samudāyam | etena śama-damādi-sampattir uktā |
viṣaya-bhoga-vāsanāyāṃ satyāṃ kuta indriyāṇāṃ tato nivṛttis tatrāha sarvatra viṣaye samā tulyā harṣa-viṣādābhyāṃ rāga-dveṣābhyāṃ ca rahitā matir yeṣāṃ samyag-jñānena tat-kāraṇasyājñānasyāpanītatvād viṣayeṣu doṣa-darśanābhyāsena spṛhāyā nirasanāc ca te sarvatra sama-buddhayaḥ | etena vaśīkāra-saṃjñā vairāgyam uktam | ataeva sarvatrātma-dṛṣṭyā hiṃsā-kāraṇa-dveṣa-rahitatvāt sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ abhayaṃ sarva-bhūtebhyo mattaḥ svahā iti mantreṇa datta-sarva-bhūtābhaya-dakṣiṇāḥ kṛta-saṃnyāsā iti yāvat abhayaṃ sarva-bhūtebhyo dattvā saṃnyāsam ācaret iti smṛteḥ | evaṃvidhāḥ sarva-sādhana-sampannāḥ santaḥ svayaṃ brahma-bhūtā nirvicikitsena sākṣātkāreṇa sarva-sādhana-phala-bhūtena mām akṣaraṃ brahmaiva te prāpnuvanti | pūrvam api mad-rūpā eva santo ‚vidyā-nivṛttyā mad-rūpā eva tiṣṭhantīty arthaḥ | brahmaiva san brahmāpy eti, brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati ity-ādi-śrutibhyaḥ | ihāpi ca jñānī tv ātmaiva me matam [Gītā 7.14] ity uktam
 

Viśvanātha


madīya-nirviśeṣa-brahma-svarūpopāsakās tu duḥkhitatvāt tato nyūnā ity āha ye tv iti dvābhyām | akṣaraṃ brahma anirdeśya-śabdena vyapadeṣṭum aśakyam | yato ‚vyaktaṃ rūpādi-hīnam | sarvatra-gaṃ sarva-deśa-vyāpi | acintyaṃ tarkāgamyam | kūṭasthaṃ sarva-kāla-vyāpi | eka-rūpatayā tu yaḥ kāla-vyāpi sa kūṭasthaḥ ity amaraḥ | acalaṃ vṛddhy-ādi-rahitam | dhruvaṃ nityam | mām evety akṣarasya tasya matto bhedābhāvāt
 

Baladeva


ye tu sva-sākṣāt-kṛti-pūrvikāṃ mad-upāsanāṃ na kurvanti, teṣām api mat-prāptiḥ syād eva kintv atikleśenāticireṇaivāntas tebhyo ‚pakṛṣṭās ta ity āha ye tv iti tribhiḥ | ye tv akṣara-svātma-caitanyam eva pūrvam upāsate | teṣām adhikataraḥ kleśa iti sambandhaḥ | akṣaraṃ viśinaṣṭi anirdeśyaṃ dehād bhinnatvena dehābhidhāyibhir deva-mānavādi-śabdair nirdeṣṭum aśakyam | avyaktaṃ cakṣur-ādy-agocaraṃ pratyak sarvatra-gaṃ dehendriya-prāṇa-vyāpi | acintyaṃ tarkāgamyaṃ śruti-mātra-vedyam jñāna-svarūpam eva jñātṛ-svarūpam acalaṃ jñānatvād api calana-rahitam | dhruvaṃ paramātmaika-śeṣatāyāṃ sarvadā sthiram | akṣaropāsane vidhim āha saṃniyamyeti | karaṇa-grāmaṃ śrotrādīndriya-vṛndaṃ saṃniyamya śabdādi-saṃcārebhyas tad-vyāpārebhyaḥ pratyāhṛtya sarvatra suhṛn-mitrāry-udāsīnādiṣu sama-buddhayas tulya-dṛṣṭayaḥ | yad vā, sarveṣu cetanācetaneṣu vastuṣu sthite same brahmaṇi buddhir yeṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ hite upakāre ratāḥ sarveṣāṃ śaṃ bhūyād iti yathāyathaṃ yatamānāḥ evaṃ svātma-sākṣātkṛti-pūrvikāyāṃ mad-bhaktau mad-arpita-karma-lakṣaṇāyāṃ ye pravartante, te ‚pi mām eva pāramaiśvarya-pradhānaṃ prāpunuvantīti nāsti saṃśayaḥ
 
 


BhG 12.5

kleśo dhikataras teṣām avyaktāsakta-cetasām
avyaktā hi gatir duḥkhaṃ dehavadbhir avāpyate

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syntax


teṣām avyaktāsakta-cetasām (of those whose minds are attached to the unmanifested) adhika-taraḥ kleśaḥ (greater trouble) [bhavati] (it is),
dehavadbhiḥ (by the embodied ones) avyaktā gatiḥ (unmanifested goal) duḥkham hi (with difficulty indeed) avāpyate (it is obtained).

 

grammar

kleśaḥ kleśa 1n.1 m.pain, affliction, anguish, trouble (from: kliś – to trouble, to afflict; five troubles in the yoga system: avidyā, asmitā, rāga, dveṣa, abhiniveśa);
adhikataraḥ adhikatara 1n.1 m.higher, greater (from: adhi – over, above, adhika – additional, subsequent, superior; comparative of: adhika – adhika-tara, adhika-tama);
teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m. of those;
avyaktāsakta-cetasām avyakta-āsakta-cetas 6n.3 m.; [TP] / BV: yeṣāṁ ceto ‘vyakta āsaktam asti teṣāmwhose minds are attached to the invisible (from: vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible, [PP] vyakta – visible, manifest; ā-sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, ā-sakta – attached; cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
avyaktā a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 1n.1 f.invsible, unevolved, unmanifested;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
gatiḥ gati 1n.1 f.moving, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);
duḥkham av.with difficulty (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy,happiness);
dehavadbhiḥ dehavant 3n.3 m.by the embodied ones (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
avāpyate ava-āp (to obtain) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is obtained;

 

textual variants


avyaktāsakta-cetasām → sarvatrāvyakta-cetasām (of those whose minds arre always unmanifested);
dehavadbhir → deha-bhṛddbhir (by those carrying the body);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ tu—
kleśo’dhikataraḥ | yadyapi mat-karmādi-parāṇāṃ kleśo’dhika eva | kleśo’dhikataras tv akṣarātmanāṃ paramārtha-darśināṃ dehābhimāna-parityāga-nimittaḥ | avyaktāsakta-cetasām avyakta āsaktaṃ ceto yeṣāṃ te’vyaktāsakta-cetasas teṣām avyaktāsakta-cetasām | avyaktā hi yasmād yā gatir akṣarātmikā duḥkhaṃ sā dehavadbhir dehābhimānavadbhir avāpyate | ataḥ kleśo’dhikataraḥ | akṣaropāsakānāṃ yad vartanam, tad upariṣṭād vakṣyāmaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


ye tu akṣaram pratyagātmasvarūpam, anirdeśyam dehād anyatayā devādiśabdānirdeśyam tata eva cakṣurādikaraṇānabhivyaktam, sarvatragam acintyaṃ ca sarvatra devādideheṣu vartamānam api tadvisajātīyatayā tena tena rūpeṇa cintayitum anarham, tata eva kūṭastham sarvasādhāraṇam tat tad devādyasādhāraṇākārāsaṃbaddham ityarthaḥ apariṇāmitvena svāsādhāraṇākārān na calati na cyavata ity acalam, tata eva dhruvam, nityam / sanniyāmyendriyagrāmam cakṣurādikam indriyagrāmaṃ sarvaṃ svavyāpārebhyas samyaṅniyamya, sarvatra samabuddhayaḥ sarvatra devādiviṣamākāreṣu deheṣv avasthiteṣv ātmasu jñānaikākāratayā samabuddhayaḥ, tata eva sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ sarvabhūtāhitarahitatvān nivṛttāḥ / sarvabhūtāhitarahitatvaṃ hy ātmano devādiviṣamākārābhimānanimittam / ya evam akṣaram upāsate, te ‚pi māṃ prāpnuvanty eva matsamānākāram asaṃsāriṇam ātmānaṃ prāpnuvanty evetyarthaḥ / „mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ” iti hi vakṣyate / śrūyate ca, „nirañjanaḥ paramaṃ sāmyam upaiti” iti / tathā akṣaraśabdanirdiṣṭāt kūṭasthād anyatvaṃ parasya brahmaṇo vakṣyate, „kūṭastho ‚kṣara ucyate / uttamaḥ puruṣas tv anyaḥ” iti / „atha parā yayā tad akṣaram adhikgamyate” ity akṣaravidyāyāṃ tu akṣaraśabdanirdiṣṭaṃ param eva brahma, bhūtayonitvādeḥ /teṣām avyaktāsaktacetasāṃ kleśas tv adhikataraḥ / avyaktā hi gatiḥ avyaktaviṣayā manovṛttiḥ dehavadbhiḥ dehātmābhimānayuktaiḥ duḥkhenāvāpyate / dehavanto hi deham eva ātmānaṃ manyante
 

Śrīdhara


nanu ca te ‚pi cet tvām eva prāpnuvanti tarhītareṣāṃ yuktatamatvaṃ kuta ity apekṣāyāṃ kleśākleśa-kṛtaṃ viśeṣam āha kleśa iti tribhiḥ | avyakte nirviśeṣe ‚kṣara āsaktaṃ ceto yeṣāṃ teṣāṃ kleśo ‚dhikataraḥ | hi yasmād avyakta-viṣayā gatir niṣṭhā dehābhimānibhir duḥkhaṃ yathā bhavaty evam avāpyate | dehābhimānināṃ nityaṃ pratyak-pravaṇatvasya durghaṭatvād iti
 

Madhusūdana


idānīm etebhyaḥ pūrveṣām atiśayaṃ darśayann āha kleśa iti | pūrveṣām api viṣayebhya āhṛtya saguṇe mana-āveśe satataṃ tat-karma-parāyaṇatve ca para-śraddhopetatve ca kleśo ‚dhiko bhavaty eva | kintu avyaktāsakta-cetasāṃ nirguṇa-brahma-cintana-parāṇāṃ teṣāṃ pūrvokta-sādhanavatāṃ kleśa āyāso ‚dhikataro ‚tiśayenādhikaḥ |
atra svayam eva hetum āha bhagavān — avyaktā hi gatiḥ | hi yasmād akṣarātmakaṃ gantavyaṃ phala-bhūtaṃ brahma duḥkhaṃ yathā syāt tathā kṛcchreṇa dehavadbhir deha-mānibhir avāpyate | sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaṃ kṛtvā gurum upasṛtya vedānta-vākyānāṃ tena tena vicāreṇa tat-tad-bhrama-nirākaraṇe mahān prayāsaḥ | pratyakṣa-siddhas tataḥ kleśo ‚dhikataras teṣām ity uktam | yadyapy ekam eva phalaṃ tathāpi ye duṣkareṇopāyena prāpnuvanto bhavanti śreṣṭhā ity abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tarhi kenāṃśena teṣām apakarṣas tatrāha kleśa iti | na kenāpi vyajyata ity avyaktaṃ brahma tatraivāsakta-cetasāṃ tad evānububhūṣūṇāṃ teṣāṃ tat-prāntau kleśo ‚dhikataraḥ | hi yasmād avyaktā gatiḥ kenāpi prakāreṇa vyaktībhavatisā gatir dehavadbhir jīvair duḥkhaṃ yathā bhavaty evam avāpyate | tathā hīndriyāṇāṃ śabdādi-jñāna-viśeṣa eva śaktiḥ | na tu viśeṣatara-jñānam iti | ata indriya-nirodhas teṣāṃ nirviśeṣa-jñānam icchatām avaśya-kartavya eva | indriyāṇāṃ nirodhas tu srotasvatīnām iva sroto-nirodho duṣkara eva | yad uktaṃ sanatkumāreṇa –
yat-pāda-paṅkaja-palāśa-vilāsa-bhaktyā
karmāśayaṃ grathitam udgrathayanti santaḥ |
tadvan na rikta-matayo yatayo |pi ruddha-
sroto-gaṇās tam araṇaṃ bhaja vāsudevam || [BhP 4.22.39]
kleśo mahān iha bhavārṇavam aplaveśāṃ
ṣaḍ-varga-nakram asukhena titīrṣanti |
tat tvaṃ harer bhagavato bhajanīyam aṅghriṃ
kṛtvoḍupaṃ vyasanam uttara dustarārṇam || [BhP 4.22.40] iti |
tāvatā kleśenāpi sā gatir yadyapy avāpyate | tad api bhakti-miśreṇaiva | bhagavati bhaktiṃ vinā kevala-brahmopāsakānāṃ tu kevala-kleśa eva lābho na tu brahma-prāptiḥ | yad uktaṃ brahmaṇā –
teṣām asau kleśala eva śiṣyate
nānyad yathā sthūla-tuṣāvaghātinām | [BhP 10.14.4] iti
 

Baladeva


nanu te ‚pi cet tvām eva prāpnuyus tarhi pūrveṣāṃ yuktatamatvaṃ kiṃ nibandhanam ? tatrāha kleśo ‚dhiketi | avyaktāsakta-cetasām atisūkṣma-nīrūpa-jīvātma-samādhi-nirata-manasāṃ teṣām adhikataraḥ kleśaḥ | yadyapi pūrveṣām api tat-tan-mad-bhakty-asaṅga-samācāro mad-anya-viṣayebhyaḥ karaṇānāṃ pratyāhāraś ca kleśo ‚sty eva, tathāi tatrānanda-mūrter mama sphuraṇān na kleśatayā vibhāti | kuto ‚dhikataratvaṃ sudurāpāstam ? hi yasmād avyaktā gatir avyaktākṣara-viṣayā mano-vṛttir dehavadbhir dehābhimānibhir janair duḥkhaṃ yathā syāt tathāvāpyate | dehavantaḥ khalu sthūla-deham eva sucirād ātmatvenānuśīlitavantaḥ katham aṇu-caitanyaṃ sucirojjhita-vimarśam ātmatvenānuśīlituṃ prabhaveyur iti bhāvaḥ |
yat tv atra vyācakṣate | sa-guṇaṃ nirguṇaṃ ceti dvirūpaṃ brahma | tatra saguṇopāsanam ākāravad-viṣayatvāt sukaram apramādaṃ ca | nirguṇopāsanaṃ tu tattvābhāvād duḥkha-karaṃ sa-pramādaṃ ca | tac ca nirguṇaṃ brahmākṣara-śabdenocyate | nairguṇya-pratipattaye sapta viśeṣaṇāni anirdeśyaṃ vedāgocaraṃ, yato ‚vyaktaṃ jātyādi-śūnyam | sarvatra-gaṃ vyāpi | acintyaṃ manasāpy agamyam | śrutiś ca – yato vāco nivartante aprāpya manasā saha [TaittU 2.4.1] ity ādyā | kūṭasthaṃ mithā-bhūtam api satyavat pratītaṃ jagat kūṭam ucyate | yathā kūtakārṣāpaṇādi | tasminn ādhyāsika-sambandhenādhiṣṭhānatayā sthitam | acaram avikāram ato dhruvaṃ nityam iti | tad-vidāṃ khalu gurūpasatti-pūrvakopaniṣad-vicāra-tad-artha-manana-tan-nididhyāsanair mahān kleśaḥ |
pūrveṣāṃ tu tair vinaiva gurūkta-bhagavat-prasādāvirbhūtenājñāna-tat-kārya-vimardinā vijñānena bhagavat-svarūpa-bhūta-nirguṇākṣarātmaikya-lakṣaṇā muktir iti phalaikye ‚pi kleśākleśābhyām apakarṣotkarṣāv iti | tad idaṃ mandaṃ gati-sāmānyāt iti sūtre brahmaṇo dvairūpya-nirāsāt | yathā tad akṣaram adhigamyate iti tasya veda-vedyatva-śravaṇāt | yato vācaḥ ity āde kārtsnyāgocaratvārthatvāt | pravṛtti-nimittābhāvena nirguṇasyāpramāṇatvāt taucchyāc ca lakṣyatvaṃ tu na, sarva-śabda-vācyatva-svīkārāt | sadaikāvasthasya vastunaḥ kūṭasthatvenābhidhānān na ca jagat kūṭam |
kavir manīṣī paribhūḥ svayambhur
yāthātathyato ‚rthān vyadadhāc chāśvatībhyaḥ samābhyaḥ [Īśopaniṣad 8]
ity ādau tasya satyatva-śravaṇāt | yaśodā-stanandhaya-vibhu-cid-vigrahasya para-brahmatva-śravaṇena tad-anta-stha-nirguṇākṣara-kalpanasya śraddhā-jāḍya-kṛtatvāt
 
 


BhG 12.6-7

ye tu sarvāṇi karmāṇi mayi saṃnyasya mat-parāḥ
ananyenaiva yogena māṃ dhyāyanta upāsate
teṣām ahaṃ samuddhartā mṛtyu-saṃsāra-sāgarāt
bhavāmi nacirāt pārtha mayy āveśita-cetasām

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syntax


he pārtha (O son of Pṛthā),
ye tu (but those who) mat-parāḥ (consider me the supreme) sarvāṇi karmāṇi (all activities) mayi (in me) sannyasya (after abandoning),
ananyena eva yogena (just by unalloyed yoga) mām (me) dhyāyantaḥ (who are contemplating) [mām] upāsate (me they worship),
teṣām (of those) mayi āveśita-cetasāṁ (whose minds are offered in me) mṛtyu-saṁsāra-sāgarāt (from the ocean of repeated death) na-cirāt (quickly) aham samuddhartā (I, the deliverer) bhavāmi (I am).

 

grammar

ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
sarvāṇi sarva sn. 2n.3 n.all;
karmāṇi karman 2n.3 n. activities (from: kṛ – to do);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
saṁnyasya sam-ni-as (to lay aside, to renounce, to give up) absol.after abandoning, after giving up;
mat-parāḥ mat-para 1n.3 m.yeṣām ahaṁ paro ‘smi tethose for whom I am the supreme (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; suffix: para – devoted, engaged in, mat-para – devoted to me);
ananyena an-anyā 3n.1 m. by no other, by unalloyed (from: anya – other);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yogena yoga 3n.1 m. by yoga, by yoking, by application, by means (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
dhyāyantaḥ dhyāyant (dhyai – to think) PPr 1n.3 m.those who are contemplating;
upāsate upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;

*****

teṣām tat sn. 6n.3 m. of those;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
samuddhartā sam-ud-dhartṛ (ud-hṛ – to carry up or ud-dhṛ – to raise) 1n.1 m.who lifts, who delivers;
mṛtyu-saṁsāra-sāgarāt mṛtyu-saṁsāra-vartman 5n.1 n.; [TP]: mtyo sasārasya sāgarāt itifrom the ocean of repeated deaths (from: mṛ – to die, mṛtyu – death; sam-xs – to flow together, to undergo transmigration; sasāra – passing, transmigration, world; gṝ – to invoke, to devour, sa-gara – with praise,devouring, Sagara – the king who started to bring Ganga to the earth, sāgara – related to Sagara, an ocean; vartman – track of a wheel, path, way, course);
bhavāmi bhū (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
nacirāt av.speedily, not for long (from: cira – long, delay);
pārtha pārtha 8n.1 m.O son of Pṛthā (from: pṛth – to extend, pṛthā – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
āveśita-cetasām āveśita-cetas 6n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ ceta āveśitam asti teṣām of those whose minds are offered (from: ā-viś – to approach, to enter, caus. [PP] āveśita – caused to enter, offered; cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);

 

textual variants


sarvāṇi and karmāṇi interchange;
mṛtyu-saṁsāra-sāgarāt → mṛtyuḥ saṁsāra-sāgarāt ([I as] the death from the ocean of transmigration);

The second pada of verse 12.6 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 18.57;

 
 

Śāṃkara

ye tu sarvāṇi karmāṇi mayīśvare saṃnyasya mat-parā ahaṃ paro yeṣāṃ te mat-parāḥ santo’nanyenaivāvidyamānam anyat ālambanaṃ viśva-rūpaṃ devam ātmānaṃ muktvā yasya so’nanyas tenānanyenaiva | kena ? yogena samādhinā māṃ dhyāyantaś cintayanta upāsate

teṣāṃ kiṃ ?—

teṣāṃ mad-upāsanaika-parāṇām aham īśvaraḥ samuddhartā | kutaḥ ? ity āha—mṛtyu-saṃsāra-sāgarān mṛtyu-yuktaḥ saṃsāro mṛtyu-saṃsāraḥ, sa eva sāgara iva sāgaraḥ, dustaratvāt, tasmāt mṛtyu-saṃsāra-sāgarāt ahaṃ teṣāṃ samuddhartā bhavāmi na cirāt | kiṃ tarhi ? kṣipram eva he pārtha, mayi āveśita-cetasāṃ mayi viśva-rūpa āveśitaṃ samāhitaṃ ceto yeṣāṃ te mayy āveśita-cetasas teṣām

 

Rāmānuja

bhagavantam upāsīnānāṃ yuktatamatvaṃ suvyaktam āha

ye tu laukikāni dehayātrāśeṣabhūtāni, dehadhāraṇārthāni ca aśanādīni karmāṇi, vaidikāni ca yagadānahomatapaḥprabhṛtīni sarvāṇi sakāraṇāni soddeśyāni adhyātmacetasā mayi saṃnyasya, matparāḥ madekaprāpyāḥ, ananyenaiva yogena ananyaprayojanena yogena māṃ dhyāyanta upāsate dhyānārcanapraṇāmastutikīrtanādīni svayam evātyarthapriyāṇi prāpyasamāni kurvanto mām upāsata ityarthaḥ / teṣāṃ matprāptivirodhitayā mṛtyubhūtāt saṃsārākhyāt sāgarād aham acireṇaiva kālena samuddhartā bhavāmi

 

Śrīdhara

mad-bhaktānāṃ tu mat-prasādād anāyāsenaiva siddhir bhavatīty āha ye tv iti dvābhyām | ye mayi parameśvare sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṃnyasya samarpya mat-parā bhūtvā | māṃ dhyāyantaḥ | ananyena na vidyate ‚nyo bhajanīyo yasmiṃs tenaiva | ekānta-bhakti-yogenopāsata ity arthaḥ |

teṣām iti | evaṃ mayy āveśitaṃ ceto yais teṣām | mṛtyu-yuktāt saṃsāra-sāgarād ahaṃ samyag uddhartācireṇa bhavāmi

 

Madhusūdana

nanu phalaikye kleśālpatvādhikyābhyāsam utkarṣa-nikarṣau syātāṃ, tad eva tu nāsti nirguṇa-brahma-vidāṃ hi phalam avidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttyā nirviśeṣa-paramānanda-bodha-brahma-rūpatā | saguṇa-brahma-vidāṃ tv adhiṣṭhāna-pramāyā abhāvenāvidyā-nivṛtty-abhāvād aiśvarya-viśeṣaḥ kārya-brahma-loka-gatānāṃ phalam | ataḥ phalādhikyārtham āyāsādhikyaṃ na nyūnatām āpādayatīit cet, na suguṇopāsanayā nirasta-sarva-pratibandhānāṃ vinā gurūpadeśaṃ vinā ca śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanādy-āvṛtti-kleśaṃ svayam āvirbhūtena vedānta-vākyeneśvara-prasāda-sahakṛtena tattva-jñānodayād avidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛttyā brahma-loka evaiśvarya-bhogānte nirguṇa-brahma-vidyā-phala-parama-kaivalyopapatteḥ | sa etasmāj jīva-ghanāt parātparaṃ puriśayaṃ puruṣam īkṣate iti śruteḥ sa prāpta-hiraṇyagarbhaiśvaryo bhogānta etasmāj jīva-ghanāt sarva-jīva-samaṣṭi-rūpāt parāc chreṣṭhād dhiraṇyagarbhāt paraṃ vilakṣaṇaṃ śreṣṭhaṃ ca puriśayaṃ sva-hṛdaya-guhā-niviṣṭaṃ puruṣaṃ pūrṇaṃ pratyag-abhinnam advitīyaṃ paramātmānam īkṣate svayam āvirbhūtena vedānta-pramāṇena sākṣātkaroti, tāvatā ca mukto bhavatīty arthaḥ | tathā ca vināpi prāg-ukta-kleśena saguṇa-brahma-vidām īśvara-prasādena nirguṇa-brahma-vidyā-phala-prāptir itīmam artham āha ye tv iti dvyābhyām |

tu-śabda uktāśaṅkā-nivṛtty-arthaḥ | ye sarvāṇi karmāṇi mayi saṃnyasya saguṇe vāsudeve samarpya mat-parā ahaṃ bhagavān vāsudeva eva paraḥ prakṛṣṭaḥ prīti-viṣayo yeṣāṃ te tathā santo ‚nanyenaiva yogena na vidyate māṃ bhagavantaṃ muktvānyad-ālambanaṃ yasya tādṛśenaiva yogena samādhinaikānta-bhakti-yogāpara-nāmnā māṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevaṃ sakala-saundarya-sāra-nidhānam ānanda-ghana-vigrahaṃ dvibhujaṃ caturbhujaṃ vā samasta-jana-mano-mohinīṃ muralīm antimanoharaiḥ saptabhiḥ svarair āpūrayantaṃ vā dara-kamala-kaumodakī-rathāṅga-saṅgi-pāṇi-pallavaṃ vā narasiṃha-rāghavādi-rūpaṃ vā yathā-darśita-viśva-rūpaṃ vā dhyāyanta upāsate samānākāram avicchinnaṃ citta-vṛtti-pravāhaṃ saṃtanvate samīpa-vartitayā ‚sate tisṭhanti vā tesāṃ mayy āveśita-cetasāṃ mayi yathokta āveśitam ekāgratayā praveśitaṃ ceto yais teṣām ahaṃ satatopāsito bhagavān mṛtyu-saṃsāra-sāgarām mṛtyu-yukto yaḥ saṃsāro mithyā-jñāna-tat-kārya-prapañcaḥ sa eva sāgarā iva duruttaras tasmāt samuddhartā samyag anāyasenordhve sarva-bādhāv adhibhūte śuddhe brahmaṇi dhartā dhārayitā jñānāvaṣṭambha-dānena bhavāmi na cirāt kṣipram eva tasminn eva janmani | he pārtheti sambodhanam āśvāsārtham

 

Viśvanātha

bhaktānāṃ tu jñānaṃ vinaiva kevalayā bhaktyaiva sukhena saṃsārān muktir ity āha ye tv iti | mayi yat prānty arthaṃ saṃnyasya tyaktvā saṃnyāsa-śabdasya tyāgārthatvāt | ananyenaiva jñāna-karma-tapasyādi-rahitenaiva yogena bhakti-yogena yad uktaṃ yat karmabhir yat tapasā jñāna-vairāgyataś ca yat [BhP 11.20.32] ity anantaram |

sarvaṃ mad-bhakti-yogena mad-bhakto labhate ‚ñjasā |
svargāpavargaṃ mad-dhāma kathañcid yadi vāñchati || [BhP 11.20.33] iti |
nanu tad api teṣāṃ saṃsāra-taraṇe kaḥ prakāra iti cet ? satyaṃ | teṣāṃ saṃsāra-taraṇa-prakāre jijñāsā naiva jñāyate | yatas tat-prakāraṃ vinaivāham eva tāṃs tārayiṣyāmīty āha teṣām iti | tena bhagavato bhakteṣv eva vātsalyaṃ na tu jñāniṣv iti dhvaniḥ

 

Baladeva

tathātma-yāthātmyaṃ śrutvaivātmāṃśino mama kevalāṃ bhaktiṃ ye kurvanti, na tv ātma-sākṣātkṛtaye prayatante, teṣāṃ tu kevalayā mad-bhaktyaiva mat-prāptir acireṇaiva syād ity āha ye tv iti dvābhyām | ye mad-ekāntino mayi mat-prāpty-arthaṃ sarvāṇi sva-vihitāny api karmāṇi saṃnyasya bhakti-vikṣepakatva-buddhyā parityajya mat-parā mad-eka-puruṣārthāḥ santo ‚nanyena kevalena mac-chravaṇādi-lakṣaṇena yogenopāyena māṃ kṛṣṇam upāsate | tal-lakṣaṇāṃ mad-upāsanāṃ kurvanti dhyāyantaḥ śravaṇādi-kāle ‚pi man-niviṣṭa-manasaḥ | teṣāṃ mayy āveśita-cetasāṃ mad-ekānurakta-manasāṃ bhaktānām aham eva mṛtyu-yuktāt saṃsārāt sāgaravad dustarāt samuddhartā bhavāmi | na cirāt tvarayā tat-prāpti-vilambāsahamānas tān ahaṃ garuḍa-skandham āropya sva-dhāma prāpayāmīty arcir-ādi-nirapekṣā teṣāṃ mad-dhāma-prāptiḥ –

nayāmi paramaṃ sthānam arcir ādi-gatiṃ vinā |
garuḍa-skandham āropya yatheccham anivāritaḥ || iti vārāha-vacanāt |
karmādi-nirapekṣāpi bhaktir abhīṣṭa-sādhikā-
yā vai sādhana-sampattiḥ puruṣārtha-catuṣṭaye |
tayā vinā tad āpnoti naro nārāyaṇāśrayaḥ || iti nārāyaṇīyāt |
sarva-dharmojjhitā viṣṇor nāma-mātraika-jalpakāḥ |
sukhena yāṃ gatiṃ yānti na tāṃ sarve ‚pi dhārmikāḥ || iti pādmāc ca

 
 

BhG 12.8

mayy eva mana ādhatsva mayi buddhiṃ niveśaya
nivasiṣyasi mayy eva ata ūrdhvaṃ na saṃśayaḥ

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syntax


[tvam] (you) mayi eva (only in me) manaḥ (the mind) ādhatsva (you must put),
mayi (in me) buddhim (intelligence) niveśaya (you must cause to enter),
ataḥ (by that) ūrdhvam (upwards) mayi eva (only in me) nivasiṣyasi (you will dwell) [atra] (here) saṁśayaḥ (doubt) na [asti] (there is not).

 

grammar

mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
manaḥ manas 2n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
ādhatsva ā-dhā (to put, to place) Imperat. Ā 2v.1you must put;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
buddhim buddhi 2n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
niveśaya ni-viś (to approach, to enter) Imperat. caus. P 2v.1you must place, you must cause to enter;
nivasiṣyasi ni-vas (to dwell, to inhabit) Fut. P 2v.1you will dwell;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ataḥ av.from this, hence, therefore (indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
ūrdhvam av. upwards (from: vṛdh – to grow, ūrdhva – upper, high);
na av.not;
saṁśayaḥ saṁśaya 1n.1 m.doubt, hesitation (from: sam-śī – to waver);

 

textual variants


nivasiṣyasi → nivivatsyasi tvaṁ (you will dwell);
na saṁśayaḥ → dhanaṁjaya (O winner of wealth);
ata ūrdhvaṁ na saṁśayaḥ → yogam uttamam āsthitaḥ (situated in the supreme yoga);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yata evam, tasmāt—
mayy eva viśva-rūpa īśvare manaḥ saṃkalpa-vikalpātmakam ādhatsva sthāpaya | mayy evādhyavasāyaṃ kurvatīṃ buddhim ādhatsva niveśaya | tatas te kiṃ syād iti sṛṇu—nivasiṣyasi nivatsyasi niścayena mad-ātmanā mayi nivāsaṃ kariṣyasi | evātaḥ śarīra-pātād ūrdhvam | na saṃśayaḥ, saṃśayo’tra na kartavyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


ato ‚tiśayitapuruṣārthatvāt sulabhatvād aciralabhyatvāc ca mayy eva mana ādhatsva mayi manassamādhānaṃ kuru / mayi buddhiṃ niveśaya aham eva paramaprāpya ity adhyavasāyaṃ kuru / ata ūrdhvaṃ mayy eva nivasiṣyasi / aham eva paramaprāpya ity adhyavasāyapūrvakamanoniveśanānantaram eva mayi nivasiṣyasītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt mayy eveti | mayy eva saṅkalpa-vikalpātmakaṃ mana ādhatsva sthirīkuru | buddhim api vyavasāyātmikāṃ mayy eva niveśaya | evaṃ kurvan mat-prasādena labdha-jñānaḥ san ata ata ūrdhvaṃ dehānte mayy eva nivasiṣyasi nivatsyasi | yad ātmanā vāsaṃ kariṣyasi | nātra saṃśayaḥ | yathā ca śrutiḥ dehānte devaḥ paraṃ brahmā tārakaṃ vyacaṣṭe iti
 

Madhusūdana


tad evam iyatā prabandhena saguṇopāsanāṃ stutvedānīṃ vidhatte mayy eveti | mayy eva saguṇe brahmaṇi manaḥ saṅkalpa-vikalpātmakam ādhatsva sthāpaya sarvā manovṛttīr mad-viṣayā eva kuru | eva-kārānuṣaṅgena mayy eva buddhim adhyavasāya-lakṣaṇāṃ niveśaya | sarvā buddhi-vṛttīr mad-viṣayā eva kuru, viṣayāntara-parityāgena sarvadā māṃ cintayety arthaḥ | tataḥ kiṃ syād ity ata āha nivasiṣyasi nivatsyasi labdha-jñānaḥ san mad-ātmanā mayy eva śuddha ata ūrdhvam etad-dehānte na saṃśayo nātra pratibandha-śaṅkā kartavyety arthaḥ | eva ata ūrdhvam ity atra sandhy-abhāvaḥ śloka-pūraṇārthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


yasmān mad-bhaktir eva śreṣṭhā tasmāt tvaṃ bhaktim eva kurv iti tām upadiśati mayy eveti tribhiḥ | eva-kāreṇa nirviśeṣa-vyāvṛttiḥ | mayi śyāmasundare pītāmbare vanamālini mana ādhatsva mat-smaraṇaṃ kurv ity arthaḥ | tathā buddhiṃ vivekavatīṃ niveśaya man-mananaṃ kurv ity arthaḥ | tac ca mananaṃ dhyāna-pratipādaka-śāstra-vākyānuśīlanam | tataś ca mayy eva nivasiṣyasīti chāndasam | mat-samīpa eva nivāsaṃ prāpnoṣīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


yasmād evaṃ tasmāt tvaṃ mayy eva na tu svātmani mana ādhatsva samāhitaṃ kuru | buddhiṃ mayi niveśayārpaya | evaṃ kurvāṇas tvaṃ mayy eva mama kṛṣṇasya sannidhāv eva nivatsyasi, na tu sa-niṣṭhavat sargādikam anubhavann aiśvarya-pradhānaṃ māṃ prāpsyasīty arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 12.9

atha cittaṃ samādhātuṃ na śaknoṣi mayi sthiram
abhyāsa-yogena tato mām icchāptuṃ dhanaṃjaya

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syntax


he dhanaṁjaya (O winner of wealth!),
atha (but if) [tvam] (you) mayi (in me) cittam sthiram (steady thought) samādhātum (to put) na śaknoṣi (you are not able to),
tataḥ (then) abhyāsa-yogena (by applying the practice) mām (me) āptum (to obtain) iccha (you must desire).

 

grammar

atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
cittam citta (cit – to perceive, to think) [PP] 2n.1 n.thought; mind, consciousness;
samādhātum sam-ā-dhā (to put, to fix, to compose, to concentrate) [inf.] – to put;
na av.not;
śaknoṣi śak (to be able to) Praes. P 2v.1you are able to;
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
sthiram sthira 2n.1 n.firm, hard, solid (from: sthā – to stand);
or av.firmly, steadily;
abhyāsa-yogena abhyāsa-yoga 3n.1 n.; [TP]: abhyāsasya yogeneti by applying the practice (from: abhi-as – to repeat, to study, abhy-āsa repetition, practice, discipline; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
iccha   iṣ (to desire) Imperat. P 2v.1you must desire;
āptum āp (to obtain, to reach) [inf.] – to obtain, to reach;
dhanaṁjaya dhanaṁ-jaya 8n.1 m.O winner of wealth, O Dhanaṁjaya (yo dhanaṁ jayati saḥ – one who wins wealth; dhana – booty, prey, riches; ji – to conquer, jaya – victory);

 

textual variants


atha cittaṁ samādhātuṁ → athāveśayituṁ cittaṁ (but if to put thoughts…);
sthiram → sthitam (situated);
na śaknoṣi mayi sthirammayi śaknoṣi na sthiram (in me you are not able to steadily);
mām icchāptuṁ → mām ihāptuṁ (me here to obtain);
 
 



Śāṃkara


atha evaṃ yathāvocaṃ tathā mayi cittaṃ samādhātuṃ sthāpayituṃ sthiram acalaṃ na śaknoṣi cet, tataḥ paścād abhyāsa-yogena | cittasyaikasmin ālambane sarvataḥ samāhṛtya punaḥ punaḥ sthāpanam abhyāsaḥ | tat-pūrvako yogaḥ samādhāna-lakṣaṇas tenābhyāsa-yogena māṃ viśva-rūpam iccha prārthayasva āptuṃ prāptum | he dhanañjaya
 

Rāmānuja


atha sahasaiva mayi sthiraṃ cittaṃ samādhātuṃ na śaknoṣi, tato ‚bhyāsayogena mām āptum iccha svābhāvikānavadhikātiśayasaundaryasauśīlyasauhārdavātsalyakāruṇyamādhuryagāmbhīryāudāryaśairyavīryaparākramasārvajñyasatyakāmatvasatyasaṃkalpatvasarveśvaratvasakalakāraṇatvādyasaṃkhyeyaguṇasāgare nikhilaheyapratyanīke mayi niratiśayapremagarbhasmṛtyabhyāsayogena sthiraṃ cittasamādhānaṃ labdhvā māṃ prāptum iccha
 

Śrīdhara


atrāśaktaṃ prati sugamopāyam āha atheti | sthiraṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ mayi cittaṃ dhārayituṃ yadi śakto na bhavasi tarhi vikṣiptaṃ cittaṃ punaḥ punaḥ pratyāhṛtya mad-anusmaraṇa-lakṣaṇo yo ‚bhyāsa-yogas tena māṃ prāptum iccha | prayatnaṃ kuru
 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ saguṇa-brahma-dhyānāśaktānām aśakti-tāratāmyena prathamaṃ pratimādau bāhye bhagavad-dhyānābhyāsas tad-aśaktau bhāgavata-dharmānuṣṭhānaṃ tad-aśaktau sarva-karma-phala-tyāga iti trīṇi sādhanāni tribhiḥ ślokair vidhatte atheti | atha pakṣāntare sthiraṃ yathā syāt tathā cittaṃ samādhātuṃ sthāpayituṃ mayi na śaknoṣi cet tata ekasmin pratimādāv ālambane sarvataḥ samāhṛtya cetasaḥ punaḥ punaḥ sthāpanam abhyāsas tat-pūrvako yogaḥ samādhis tenābhyāsa-yogena mām āptum iccha yatasva | he dhanañjaya ! bahūn śatrūn jitvā dhanam āhṛtavān asi rājasūyādy-artham ekaṃ manaḥ-śatruṃ jitvā tatva-jñāna-dhanam āhariṣyasīti na tavāścaryam iti sambodhanārthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sākṣāt smaraṇāsamarthaṃ prati tat-prāpty-upāyam āha atheti | abhyāsa-yogenānyatrānyatra gatam api manaḥ punaḥ pratyāhṛtya mad-rūpa eva sthāpanam abhyāsaḥ | sa eva yogas tena | prākṛtatvād iti kutsita-rūpa-rasādiṣu calantyā manonadyās teṣu calanaṃ nirudhya atisubhadreṣu madīya-rūpa-rasādiṣu tac-calanaṃ śanaiḥ śanaiḥ sampādayety arthaḥ | he dhanañjayeti bahūn śatrūn jitvā dhanam āhṛtavatā tvayā mano ‚pi jitvā dhyāna-dhanaṃ grahītuṃ śakyam eveti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


nanu gaṅgeva yeṣāṃ mano-vṛtti-rodhavatī teṣāṃ tvat-prāptis tvarayā syān mama tu tādṛśī na tad-vṛttis tataḥ kathaṃ seti cet tatrāha atheti | sthiraṃ yathā syāt tathā mayi cittaṃ samyag anāyāsenādhātum arpayituṃ na śaknoṣi cet tato ‚bhyāsa-yogena mām āptum iccha yatasva | tato ‚nyatra gatasya manasaḥ pratyāhṛtya śanaiḥ śanair mayi sthāpanam abhyāsas tena manasi mat-pravaṇe sati mat-prāptiḥ sulabhā syād iti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 12.10

abhyāse py asamartho si mat-karma-paramo bhava
mad-artham api karmāṇi kurvan siddhim avāpsyasi

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syntax


[yadi] (if) abhyāse api (even in practice) asamarthaḥ (uncapable) asi (you are),
[tarhi] (then) mat-karma-paramaḥ (one for whom my activity is supreme) bhava (you must be),
mad-artham api (even for my sake) karmāṇi kurvan (doing activities) siddhim (perfection) avāpsyasi (you will obtain).

 

grammar

abhyāse abhyāsa 7n.1 m. in practice (from: abhi-as – to repeat, to study, abhy-āsa repetition, practice, discipline);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
asamarthaḥ asamartha 1n.1 m.unsuitable, uncapable, not competent (from: sam-arth – to make ready);
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
mat-karma-paramaḥ mat-karma-parama 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya mama karma paramam asti saḥfor whom my activity is supreme (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest);
bhava bhū (to be) Imperat. P 2v.1you must be;
mad-artham av.for my sake (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth, use, suffix: for the sake of, on account of);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
karmāṇi karman 2n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
kurvan kurvant (kṛ to do) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] doing;
siddhim siddhi 2n.1 f.accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
avāpsyasi ava-āp (to obtain) Fut. P 2v.1you will obtain;

 

textual variants


‘si → san / tvaṁ / hi (being / you / indeed);
siddhim → muktim (liberation);
 
 



Śāṃkara


abhyāse’py asamartho’sy aśakto’si, tarhi mat-karma-paramo bhava mad-arthaṃ karma mat-karma tat-paramaḥ mat-karma-paramaḥ, mat-karma-pradhāna ity arthaḥ | abhyāsena vinā mad-artham api karmāṇi kevalaṃ kurvan siddhiṃ sattva-śuddhi-yoga-jñāna-prāpti-dvāreṇāvāpsyasi
 

Rāmānuja


athaivaṃvidhasmṛtyabhyāse ‚py asamartho ‚si, matkarmaparamo bhava / madīyāni karmāṇy ālayanirmāṇodyonakaraṇapradīpāropaṇamārjanābhyukṣaṇopalepanapuṣpāharaṇapūjāpravartananāmasaṃkīrtanapradakṣiṇastutinamaskārādīni; tāni atyarthapriyatvenācara / atyarthapriyatvena madarthaṃ karmāṇi kurvann api acirād abhyāsayogapūrvikāṃ mayi sthirāṃ cittasthitiṃ labdhvā matprāptirūpāṃ siddhim avāpsyasi
 

Śrīdhara


yadi punar naivaṃ tatrāha abhyāsa iti | yadi punar abhyāse ‚py aśakto ‚si tarhi mat-prīty-arthāni yāni karmāṇi ekādaśy-upavāsa-vrata-caryā-pūjā-nāma-saṅkīrtanādīni tad-anuṣṭhānam eva paramaṃ yasya tādṛśo bhava | evaṃ-bhūtāni karmāṇy api mad-arthaṃ kurvan mokṣaṃ prāpsyasi
 

Madhusūdana


mat-prīṇanārthaṃ karma mat-karma śravaṇa-kīrtanādi-bhāgavata-dharmas tat-paramas tad-eka-niṣṭho bhava | abhyāsāsamarthye mad-arthaṃ bhāgavata-dharma-saṃjñakāni karmāṇy api kurvan siddhiṃ brahma-bhāva-lakṣaṇāṃ sattva-śuddhi-jñānotpatti-dvāreṇāvāpsyasi
 

Viśvanātha


abhyāse ‚pīti yathā pitta-dūṣitā rasanā matsyaṇḍikāṃ necchati | tathaivāvidyā-dūṣitaṃ manas tad-rūpādikaṃ madhuram api na gṛhṇātīty atas tena durgraheṇa mahā-prabalena manasā saha yoddhuṃ mayā naiva śakyata iti manyase ced iti bhāvaḥ | mat-karmāṇi paramāṇi yasya saḥ | karmāṇi madīya-śravaṇa-kīrtana-vandanārcana-man-mandira-mārjanābhyukṣaṇa-puṣpāharaṇādi-paricaraṇādi kurvan vināpi mat-smaraṇaṃ siddhiṃ premavat-pārṣadatva-lakṣaṇāṃ prāpsyatīti
 

Baladeva


nanu vāyor iva manaso ‚ticāpalyāt tasya pratyāhāre mama na śaktir iti cet tatrāha abhyāse ‚pīti | ukta-lakṣaṇe ‚bhyāse ‚pi cet tvam asamarthas tarhi mat-karmāṇi paramāṇi pumartha-bhūtāni yasya tādṛśo bhava | tāni ca man-niketa-nirmāṇa-mat-puṣpa-bāṭī-secanādīni pūrvam uktāni | evaṃ sukarāṇi mad-arthāni karmāṇi kurvāṇas tvaṃ tatra tarāti-manojña-man-mūrty-uddeśa-mahimnā tādṛśe mayi nirata-manāḥ saṃsiddhiṃ mat-sāmīpya-lakṣaṇām avāpsyasīty atisugamo ‚yam upāyaḥ
 
 


BhG 12.11

athaitad apy aśakto si kartuṃ mad-yogam āśritaḥ
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān

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syntax


atha (but) [tvam] (you) etat api kartum (even to do that) aśaktaḥ (unable) asi (you are),
tataḥ (then) mad-yogam āśritaḥ (surrendered to my yoga) yatātmavān (having a restrained self) sarva-karma-phala-tyāgam (abandonment of the fruit of all activities) kuru (you must do).

 

grammar

atha av.then, now, moreover, certainly, rather;
etat etat sn. 2n.1 n.this;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
aśaktaḥ a-śakta (śak – to be able to) [PP] 1n.1 m.unable;
asi as (to be) Praes. P 2v.1you are;
kartum kṛ (to do) [inf.] – to do;
mad-yogam mad-yoga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: mama yoga itimy yoga (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
āśritaḥ āśrita (ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.1 m.taken shelter (of whom? – requires accusative);
sarva-karma-phala-tyāgam sarva-karma-phala-tyāga 2n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣāṁ karmaṇāṁ phalasya tyāgam iti abandonment of the fruit of all activities (from: sarva – all, whole; kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
kuru kṛ (to do) Imperat P 2v.1you must do;
yatātmavān yata-ātmavant 1n.1 m. having a restrained self (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; ātman – self; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, ātmavant – having the self, composed);

 

textual variants


mad-yogam → udyogam (effort, undertaking);
āśritaḥāsthitaḥ (placed);
yatātmavān → yatātma-vāk / jitātmavān (whose self and speech are restrained / having conquered self);
 
 



Śāṃkara


atha punar etad api yad uktaṃ mat-karma-paramatvam, tat kartum aśakto’si, mad-yogam, āśrito mayi kriyamāṇāni karmāṇi saṃnyasya yat karaṇaṃ teṣām anuṣṭhānaṃ sa mad-yogaḥ, tam āśritaḥ san, sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ sarveṣāṃ karmaṇāṃ phala-saṃnyāsaṃ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ tato’nantaraṃ kuru yatātmavān saṃyata-cittaḥ san ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


atha madyogam āśrityaitad api kartuṃ na śaknoṣi madguṇānusandhānakṛtamadekapriyatvākāraṃ bhaktiyogam āśritya bhaktiyogāṅkurarūpam etan matkarmāpi kartuṃ na śaknoṣi, tato ‚kṣarayogam ātmasvabhāvānusandhānarūpaṃ parabhaktijananaṃ pūrvaṣaṭkoditam āśritya tadupāyatayā sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṃ kuru / matpriyatvena madekaprāpyatābuddhir hi prakṣīṇāśeṣapāpasyaiva jāyate / yatātmavān yatamanaskaḥ / tato ‚nabhisaṃhitaphalena madārādhanarūpeṇānuṣṭhitena karmaṇā siddhenātmadhyānena nivṛttāvidyādisarvatirodhāne maccheṣataikasvarūpe pratyagātmani sākṣātkṛte sati mayi parā bhaktiḥ svayam evotpadyate / tathā ca vakṣyate, „svakarmaṇā tam abhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ” ity ārabhya, „vimucya nirmamaś śānto brahmabhūyāya kalapate / brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati / samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu madbhaktiṃ labhate parām” iti
 

Śrīdhara


atyantaṃ bhagavad-dharma-pariniṣṭhāyām aśaktasya pakṣāntaram āha atheti | yady etad api kartuṃ na śaknoṣi tarhi mad-ayogaṃ mad-eka-śaraṇatvam āśritaḥ san sarveṣāṃ dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthānām āvaśyakānāṃ cāgnihotrādi-karmaṇāṃ phalāni niyata-cittaṃ bhūs tvā parityaja | etad uktaṃ bhavati mayā tāvad īśvarājñayā yathā-śakti karmāṇi kartavyāni | phalaṃ tāvad dṛṣṭam adṛṣṭaṃ vā parameśvarādhīnam ity evaṃ mayi bhāram āropya phalāsaktiṃ parityajya vartamāno mat-prasādena kṛtārtho bhaviṣyasīti
 

Madhusūdana


atha bahir-viṣayākṛṣṭa-cetastvād etan-mat-karma-paratvam api kartuṃ na śaknoṣi, tato mad-yogaṃ mad-eka-śaraṇatvam āśrito mayi sarva-karma-samarpaṇaṃ mad-yogas taṃ vāśritaḥ san yatātmavān yataḥ saṃyata-sarvendriya ātmavān vivekī ca san sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ kuru phalābhisandhiṃ tyajety arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


etad api kartum aśaktaś cet tarhi mad-yogam āśrito mayi sarva-karma-samarpaṇam | mad-yogas tam āśritaḥ san sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ prathama-ṣaṭkoktaṃ kuru | ayam arthaḥ — prathama-ṣaṭke bhagavad-arpita-niṣkāma-karma-yoga eva mokṣopāya uktaḥ | dvitīya-ṣaṭke ‚smin bhakti-yoga eva bhagavat-prāpty-upāya uktaḥ | sa ca bhakti-yogo dvividhaḥ – bhagavan-niṣṭho ‚ntaḥ-karaṇa-vyāpāro, bahiṣkaraṇa-vyāpāraś ca | tatra prathamas trividhaḥ – smaraṇātmako, mananātmakaś cākhaṇḍa-smaraṇāsāmarthye tad-anurāgināṃ tad-abhyāsa-rūpaṃ ceti trika evāyaṃ manda-dhiyāṃ durgamaḥ | sudhiyāṃ niraparādhānāṃ tu sugama eva | dvitīyaḥ śravaṇa-kīrtanātmakaṃ tu sarveṣāṃ sugama evopāyaḥ | evam ubhayopāya-vanto ‚dhikāriṇaḥ sarvataḥ prakṛṣṭā dvitīya-ṣaṭke ‚sminn uktāḥ | etat-kṛtya-samarthā indriyāṇāṃ bhagavan-niṣṭhīkṛtāv aśraddhālavaś ca bhagavad-arpita-niṣkāma-karmiṇaḥ prathama-ṣaṭkotādhikāriṇo ‚smān nikṛṣṭā eveti
 

Baladeva


atha mahākulīnatva-loka-mukhyatvādinā pratibandhena bādhitas tvam anyo vai tan-man-niketa-vimārjanādi-mat-prītikara-mati-sukaram api karma cet kartum aśakto ‚si tato mad-yogaṃ mac-charaṇatām āśritaḥ san sarveṣām anuṣṭhīyamānānāṃ karmaṇāṃ phala-tyāgaṃ kuru yatātmavān vijita-manā bhūtvā, tathā ca phalābhisandhi-śūnyair agnihotra-darśa-paurṇamāsy-ādibhir mad-ārādhana-rūpaiḥ karmabhir viṣa-tantuvad-antar-abhyuditena jñānena sva-parātmanoḥ śeṣa-śeṣi-bhāve ‚bhyudite sva-śeṣiṇi sarvottamatvena vidite śanaiḥ śanaiḥ parāpi bhaktiḥ syād iti | evam eva vakṣyati yataḥ pravṛttir bhūtānāṃ ity ādinā mad-bhaktiṃ labhate parām ity anena
 
 


BhG 12.12

śreyo hi jñānam abhyāsāj jñānād dhyānaṃ viśiṣyate
dhyānāt karma-phala-tyāgas tyāgāc chāntir anantaram

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syntax


abhyāsāt hi (indeed than practice) jñānam (knowledge) śreyaḥ [asti] (is better),
jñānāt (than knowledge) dhyānam (contemplation) viśiṣyate (is distinguished),
dhyānāt (than contemplation) karma-phala-tyāgaḥ (abandonment of the fruit of activities) [śreṣṭhaḥ asti] (is the best),
tyāgāt (than renunciation) anantaraṁ (immediately) śāntiḥ (tranquility) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

śreyaḥ śreyas 1n.1 n. better, higher, perfect, the auspiciousness, the welfare (comparative of: śrī – śreyas, śreṣṭha);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
abhyāsāt abhyāsa 5n.1 m. than practice (from: abhi-as – to repeat, to study, abhy-āsa repetition, practice, discipline);
jñānāt jñāna 5n.1 n.than knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
dhyānam dhyāna 1n.1 n.meditation, contemplation (dhyai – to think);
viśiṣyate vi-śiṣ (to distinguish) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is distinguished, the best;
dhyānāt dhyāna 5n.1 n.than meditation, contemplation (dhyai – to think);
karma-phala-tyāgaḥ karma-phala-tyāga 1n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇāṁ phalasya tyāga iti abandonment of the fruit of activities (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; phal – to ripen; phala – fruit, result; tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment);
tyāgāt tyāga 5n.1 m.than leaving, than renunciation (from: tyaj – to abandon, to give up);
śāntiḥ śānti 1n.1 f.tranquility, peace, satisfaction, end, death (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
anantaram av.immediately, after (from: antara – inside; anantara – uninterrupted, continuous);

 

textual variants


śreyo hi jñānam → śreyo ‘bhi-jñānam (better ascertainment);
anantaram → anaṁtarā / niraṁtarā ([tranquility] unbroken / constant);
 
 



Śāṃkara


idānīṃ sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaṃ stauti—
śreyo hi praśasyataraṃ jñānam | kasmāt ? viveka-pūrvakād abhyāsāt | tasmād api jñānāj jñāna-pūrvakaṃ dhyānaṃ viśiṣyate | jñānavato dhyānād api karma-phala-tyāgo viśiṣyata ity anuṣajyate | evaṃ karma-phala-tyāgāt pūrva-viśeṣaṇavataḥ śāntir upaśamaḥ sa-hetukasya saṃsārasyānantaram eva syāt, na tu kālāntaram apekṣate |
ajñasya karmaṇi pravṛttasya pūrvopadiṣṭopāyānuṣṭhānāśaktau sarva-karmaṇāṃ phala-tyāgaḥ śreyaḥ-sādhanam upadiṣṭam, na prathamam eva | ataś ca śreyo hi jñānam abhyāsād ity uttarottara-viśiṣṭatvopadeśena sarva-karma-phala-tyāgaḥ stūyate, saṃpanna-sādhanānuṣṭhānāśaktau anuṣṭheyatvena śrutatvāt | kena sādharmyeṇa stutitvaṃ ? yadā sarve pramucyanta iti sarva-kāma-prahāṇād amṛtatvam uktam | tat prasiddham | kāmāś ca sarve śrauta-smārta-karmaṇāṃ phalāni | tat-tyāge ca viduṣo dhyāna-niṣṭhasyānantaraiva śāntir iti sarva-kāma-tyāga-sāmānyam ajña-karma-phala-tyāgasyāstīti tat-sāmānyāt sarva-karma-phala-tyāga-stutir iyaṃ prarocanārthā | yathāgastyena brāhmaṇena samudraḥ pīta itīdānīṃtanā api brāhmaṇā brāhmaṇatva-sāmānyāt stūyante, evaṃ karma-phala-tyāgāt karma-yogasya śreyaḥ sādhanatvam abhihitam
 

Rāmānuja


atyarthaprītivirahitāt karkaśarūpāt smṛtyabhyāsād akṣarayāthātmyānusandhānapūrvakaṃ tadāparokṣyajñānam eva ātmahitatvena viśiṣyate / ātmāparokṣyajñānād apy aniṣpannarūpāt tadupāyabhūtātmadhyānam evātmahitatve viśiṣyate / taddhyānād apy aniṣpannarūpāt tadupāyabhūtaṃ phalatyāgenānuṣṭhitaṃ karmaiva viśiṣyate / anabhisaṃhitaphalād anuṣṭhitāt karmaṇo ‚nantaram eva nirastapāpatayā manasaś śāntir bhaviṣyati; śānte manasi ātmadhyānaṃ saṃpatsyate; dhyānāc ca tadāparokṣyam; tadāparokṣyāt parā bhaktiḥ iti bhaktiyogābhyāsāśaktasyātmaniṣṭhaiva śreyasī / ātmaniṣṭhasyāpi aśāntamanaso niṣṭhāprāptaye antargatātmajñānānabhisaṃhitaphalakarmaniṣṭhaiva śreyasītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tam imaṃ phala-tyāgaṃ stauti śreya iti | samyag-jñāna-rahitād abhyāsāt yukti-sahitopadeśa-pūrvakaṃ jñānaṃ śreṣṭham | tasmād api tat-pūrvaṃ dhyānaṃ viśiṣṭam | tatas tu taṃ paśyati niṣkalaṃ dhyāyamāna iti śruteḥ | tasmād apy ukta-lakṣaṇaḥ karma-phala-tyāgaḥ śreṣṭhaḥ | tasmād evaṃbhūtāt karma-phala-tyāgāt karmasu tat-phaleṣu cāsakti-nivṛttyā mat-prasādena ca samanantaram eva saṃsāra-śāntir bhavati
 

Madhusūdana


idānīm atraiva sādhana-vidhāna-prayavasānād imaṃ sarva-phala-tyāgaṃ stauti śreya iti | śreyaḥ praśasyataraṃ hi eva jñānaṃ śabda-yuktibhyām ātma-niścayo ‚bhyāsā jñānārtha-śravaṇābhyāsāt | jñānāc chravaṇa-manana-pariniṣpannād api dhyānaṃ nididhyāsana-saṃjñaṃ viśiṣyate ‚tiśayitaṃ bhavati sākṣātkārāvyavahita-hetutvāt | tad evaṃ sarva-sādhana-śreṣṭhaṃ dhyānaṃ tato ‚py atiśayitatvenājña-kṛtaḥ karma-phala-tyāgaḥ stūyate |
dhyānāt karma-phala-tyāgo viśiṣyata ity anuṣajyate | tyāgān niyata-cittena puṃsā kṛtāt sarva-karma-phala-tyāgāc chāntir upaśamaḥ sa-hetukasya saṃsārasyānantaram apy avadhānena na tu kālāntaram apekṣate | atra –
yadā sarve pramucyante kāmā ye ‚sya hṛdi sthitāḥ |
atha martyo ‚mṛto bhavaty atra brahma samaśnute ||
ity ādi śrutiṣu prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān ity ādi-sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇeṣu ca sarva-kāma-tyāgasyāmṛtatva-sādhanatvam avagatam | karma-phalāni ca kāmās tat-tyāgo ‚pi kāma-tyāgatva-sāmānyāt sarva-kāma-tyāga-phalena stūyate | yathāgastyena brāhmaṇena samudraḥ pīta iti, yathā vā jāmadagnyena brāhmaṇena niḥkṣatrā pṛthivī kṛteti bāhmaṇatva-sāmānyād idānīntanā api brāhmaṇā aparimeya-parākramatvena stūyante tadvat
 

Viśvanātha


athoktānāṃ smaraṇa-mananābhyāsānāṃ yathā-pūrvaṃ śraiṣṭhyaṃ spaṣṭīkṛyāha śreyo hīti | abhyāsāj jñānaṃ mayi buddhiṃ niveśayety uktaṃ man-mananaṃ śreyaḥ śreṣṭham | abhyāse saty āyāsata eva dhyānaṃ syāt | manane sati tv anāyāsata eva dhyānam iti viśeṣāt tasmāt jñānād api dhyānaṃ viśiṣyate śreṣṭham ity arthaḥ | kuta ity ata āha – dhyānāt karma-phalānāṃ svargādi-sukhānāṃ niṣkāma-karma-phalasya mokṣasya ca tyāgas tat-spṛhā-rāhityaṃ syāt | svataḥ prāptasyāpi tasyopekṣā | niścala-dhyānāt pūrvaṃ tu bhaktānām ajāta-ratīnāṃ mokṣa-tyāgecchaiva bhavet | niścala-dhyānavatāṃ tu mokṣopekṣā | saiva mokṣa-laghutā-kāriṇī | yad uktaṃ bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhau – kleśa-ghnī śubhadā [BRS 1.1.7] ity atra ṣaḍbhiḥ padair etan-māhātmyaṃ kīrtitam iti | yad uktaṃ –
na pārameṣṭhyaṃ na mahendra-dhiṣṇyaṃ
na sārvabhaumaṃ na rasādhipatyam |
na yoga-siddhīr apunar-bhavaṃ vā
mayy arpitātmecchati mad vinānyat || [BhP 11.14.14] iti |
mayy arpitātmā mad-dhyāna-niṣṭhaḥ | tyāgād vaitṛṣṇyād anantaram eva śāntir mad-rūpa-guṇādikaṃ vinā sarva-viṣayeṣv evendriyāṇām uparatiḥ | atra pūrvārdhe śreyaḥ iti viśiṣyate iti pada-dvayenānvayād uttarārdhe tu anantaram ity anenaivānvayād eṣaiva vyākhyā samyag upapadyate nānyety avadheyam
 

Baladeva


sukaratvād apramādatvāj jñāna-garbhatvāc cānibhisaṃhitaṃ phalaṃ karma-yogaṃ stauti śreyo hīti | abhyāsān mat-smṛti-sātatya-rūpād aniṣpannāj jñānaṃ svātma-sākṣātkṛti-rūpaṃ śreyaḥ praśastataram | paramātmopalabdhi-dvāratvāt jñānāc ca tasmād aniṣpannāt sādhana-bhūtaṃ dhyānaṃ svātma-cintana-lakṣaṇaṃ viśiṣyate sva-hitatve śreyo bhavati | dhyānāc ca tasmād aniṣpannāt karma-phala-tyāgād anantaraṃ śāntis tyakta-phalād anuṣṭhitā karmaṇo ‚nantaraṃ manaḥ-śuddhir ity arthaḥ | tathā ca śuddhe manasi dhyānaṃ niṣpadyate | niṣpanne dhyāne sva-sākṣātkṛti-rūpaṃ jñānaṃ | jñāne niṣpanne tat-phala-bhūtaṃ paramātma-jñānam | tena parā bhaktis tayiśvarya-pradhānasya mama prāptir iti durgamo ‚yam upāya iti bhāvaḥ | na cāyam arjunaṃ praty upadeśas tasyaikāntitvāt | san-niṣṭhā niṣkāma-karma-ratā hari-dhyāyinaś ca svātmānam anubhūya tato ‚bhyuditayā hari-viṣayakatyā pāramaiśvarya-guṇayā parayā bhaktyā hariṃ premāspadam anubhavanto vimucyanta iti gītā-śāstrārtha-paddhatiḥ | kintv ekāntitvāsaktaṃ pratīti-bodhyam
 
 


BhG 12.13-14

adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṃ maitraḥ karuṇa eva ca
nirmamo nirahaṃ-kāraḥ sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ kṣamī
saṃtuṣṭaḥ satataṃ yogī yatātmā dṛḍha-niścayaḥ
mayy arpita-mano-buddhir yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ

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syntax


yaḥ mad-bhaktaḥ (he who is my devotee) sarva-bhūtānām adveṣṭā (is without hatred to any being) maitraḥ (friendly) karuṇaḥ eva ca (and indeed compassionate) nirmamaḥ (unselfish) nirahaṅkāraḥ (without egotism) sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ (equal to pleasure and distress) kṣamī (forbearing) satataṁ santuṣṭaḥ (ever satisfied) yogī (a yogī) yatātmā (whose self is restrained) dṛḍha-niścayaḥ (whose determination is firm) mayi arpita-mano-buddhiḥ (whose mind and intelligence are entrusted in me)
saḥ (he) me priyaḥ [asti] (is dear to me).

 

grammar

adveṣṭā a-dveṣṭ 1n.1 m.one who is without enmity, hatred (from: dviṣ – to hate);
sarva-bhūtānām sarva-bhūta 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ bhūtānām itiof all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
maitraḥ maitra 1n.1 m. friendly (from: mitra – friend, companion);
karuṇaḥ karuṇa 1n.1 m. mournful, miserable, compassionate (from: xk – to scatter, to cast);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
nirmamaḥ nir-mama 1n.1 m.without [the notion of] ‘mine’, unselfish, uninterested (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; mama – my);
nirahaṁ-kāraḥ nir-ahaṁ-kāra 1n.1 m.without egotism, unselfish, not proud (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer; ahaṁ-kāra – ego, egotism, pride);
sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ sama-duḥkha-sukha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya duḥkhaṁ ca sukhaṁ ca same sta safor whom pleasure and distress are equal (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not;
or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā);
kṣamī kṣamin 1n.1 m.patient, enduring, forbearing (from: kṣam – to forgive, to tolerate; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);

*****

saṁtuṣṭaḥ saṁtuṣṭa (sam-tuṣ – to rejoice) [PP] 1n.1 m.completely satisfied;
satatam av.constantly (from: sa-tata – constant, uninterrupted);
yogī yogin 1n.1 m.a yogī, engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
yatātmā yatātman 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyātmā yato ‘sti sawhose self is restrained (from: yam – to hold back, to restrain, [PP] yata – held back, restrained; ātman – self);
dṛḍha-niścayaḥ dṛḍha-niścaya 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya niścayo dṛḍho ‘sti sawhose determination is firm (from: dṛṁh – to make strong, [PP] dṛḍha – firm, hard, not to be bent; niś-ci – to ascertain, to determine, niś-caya – certainty, fixed opinion);
mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
arpita-mano-buddhiḥ arpita-mano-buddhi 1n.1 m.; BV / DV: yena manaś ca buddhiś cārpitau staḥ sa whose mind and intelligence are entrusted (from: – to go, to reach, caus. [PP] arpita – offered, entrusted, dedicated; man – to think, manas – the mind; budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mad-bhaktaḥ mad-bhakta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mama bhakta itimy devotee (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);

 

textual variants


adveṣṭāaceṣṭā (motionless);
eva caātmavān (who controls the self);
kṣamī kṣamaḥ (forbearance);
yatātmājitātmā (whose self is conquered);
mad-bhaktaḥme bhaktaḥ (my devotee);
yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥyo bhaktaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ (he who is my devotee is dear to me);

The third pada of verse 12.13 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 2.71;
The third pada of verse 12.14 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 8.7;

 
 



Śāṃkara


atra cātmeśvara-bhedam āśritya viśva-rūpa īśvare cetaḥ-samādhāna-lakṣaṇo yoga uktaḥ, īśvarārthaṃ karmānuṣṭhānādi ca | athaitad apy aśakto’si [gītā 12.11] ity ajñāna-kārya-sūcanān nābheda-darśino’kṣaropāsakasya karma-yoga upapadyata iti darśayati | tathā karma-yogino ’kṣaropāsanānupapattim | te prāpnuvanti mām eva [gītā 12.4] ity akṣaropāsakānāṃ kaivalya-prāptau svātantryam uktvā, itareṣāṃ pāratantryād īśvarādhīnatāṃ darśitavān teṣām ahaṃ samuddhartā [gītā 12.7] iti | yadi hīśvarasyātma-bhūtās te matā abheda-darśitvāt, akṣara-svarūpā eva ta iti samuddharaṇa-karma-vacanaṃ tān praty apeśalaṃ syāt | yasmāc cārjunasyātyantam eva hitaiṣī bhagavān tasya samyag-darśanānanvitaṃ karma-yogaṃ bheda-dṛṣṭimantam eva upadiśati | na cātmānam īśvaraṃ pramāṇato buddhvā kasyacid guṇa-bhāvaṃ jigamiṣati kaścid, virodhāt | tasmād akṣaropāsakānāṃ samyag darśana-niṣṭhānāṃ saṃnyāsināṃ tyakta-sarveṣaṇānām adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānām ity ādi-dharma-pūgaṃ sākṣād amṛtatva-kāraṇaṃ vakṣyāmīti pravartate—
adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṃ na dveṣṭā, ātmano duḥkha-hetum api na kiṃcid dveṣṭi, sarvāṇi bhūtāny ātmatvena hi paśyati | maitro mitra-bhāvo maitrī mitratayā vartata iti maitraḥ | karuṇa eva ca, karuṇā kṛpā duḥkhiteṣu dayā, tadvān karuṇaḥ, sarva-bhūtābhaya-pradaḥ, saṃnyāsīty arthaḥ | nirmamo mama-pratyaya-varjitaḥ | nirahaṃkāro nirgatāhaṃ-pratyayaḥ | sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ same duḥkha-sukhe dveṣa-rāgayor apravartake yasya sa sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ | kṣamī kṣamāvān, ākruṣṭo’bhihato vāvikriya evāste
saṃtuṣṭaḥ satataṃ nityaṃ deha-sthiti-kāraṇasya lābhe’lābhe ca utpannālaṃ-pratyayaḥ | tathā guṇaval-lābhe viparyaye ca saṃtuṣṭaḥ | satataṃ yogī samāhita-cittaḥ | yatātmā saṃyata-svabhāvaḥ | dṛḍha-niścayo dṛḍhaḥ sthiro niścayo’dhyavasāyo yasyātma-tattva-viṣaye sa dṛḍha-niścayaḥ | mayy arpita-mano-buddhiḥ saṃkalpa-vikalpātmakaṃ manaḥ, adhyavasāya-lakṣaṇā buddhiḥ, te mayy evārpite sthāpite yasya saṃnyāsinaḥ sa mayy arpita-mano-buddhiḥ | ya īdṛśo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ | priyo hi jñānino’ty artham ahaṃ sa ca mama priya iti saptame’dhyāye sūcitam, tad iha prapañcyate
 

Rāmānuja


anabhisaṃhitaphalakarmaniṣṭhasyopādeyān guṇān āha
adveṣṭā sarvabhūtānām vidviṣatām apakurvatām api sarveṣāṃ bhūtānām adveṣṭā madaparādhānuguṇam īśvarapreritāny etāni bhūtāni dviṣanty apakurvanti cety anusandadhānaḥ; teṣu dviṣatsu apkurvatsu ca sarvabhūteṣu maitrīṃ matiṃ kurvan maitraḥ, teṣv eva duḥkhiteṣu karuṇāṃ kurvan karuṇaḥ, nirmamaḥ dehendriyeṣu tatsaṃbandhiṣu ca nirmamaḥ, nirahaṅkāraḥ dehātmābhimānarahitaḥ, tata eva samaduḥkhasukhaḥ sukhaduḥkhāgamayoḥ sāṅkalpikayoḥ harṣodvegarahitaḥ, kṣamī sparśaprabhavayor avarjanīyayor api tayor vikārarahitaḥ, saṃtuṣṭaḥ yadṛcchopanatena yena kenāpi dehadhāraṇadravyeṇa saṃtuṣṭaḥ, satataṃ yogī satataṃ prakṛtiviyuktātmānusandhānaparaḥ, yatātmā niyamitamanovṛttiḥ, dṛḍhaniścayaḥ adhyātmaśāstroditeṣv artheṣu dṛḍhaniścayaḥ, mayy arpitamanobuddhiḥ bhagavān vāsedeva evānabhisaṃhitaphalenānuṣṭhitena karmaṇā ārādhyate, ārādhitaś ca mama ātmāparokṣyaṃ sādhayiṣyatīti mayy arpitamanobuddhiḥ, ya evaṃbhūto madbhaktaḥ evaṃ karmayogena māṃ bhajamāno yaḥ, sa me priyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ-bhūtasya bhaktasya kṣipram eva parameśvara-prasāda-hetūn dharmān āha adveṣṭety aṣṭabhiḥ | sarva-bhūtānāṃ yathāyatham adveṣṭā maitraḥ karuṇaś ca | uttameṣu dveṣa-śūnyaḥ | sameṣu mitratayā vartata iti maitraḥ | hīneṣu kṛpālur ity arthaḥ | nirmamo nirahaṃkāraś ca kṛpālutvād eva anyaiḥ saha same duḥkha-sukhe yasya saḥ | kṣamī kṣamāśīlaḥ |
saṃtuṣṭa iti | satataṃ lābhe ‚lābhe ca saṃtuṣṭaḥ suprasanna-cittaḥ | yogī apramattaḥ yatātmā saṃyata-svabhāvaḥ | dṛḍho mad-viṣayo yasya | mayy arpite mano-buddhī yena | evaṃbhūto yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ mandam adhikāriṇaṃ pratyatiduṣkaratvenākṣaropāsana-nindayā sukaraṃ saguṇopāsanaṃ vidhāyāśakti-tāratamyānuvādenānyāny api sādhanāni vidadhau bhagavān vāsudevaḥ kathaṃ nu nāma sarva-pratibandha-rahitaḥ sann uttamādhikāritayā phala-bhūtāyām akṣara-vidyāyām avatared ity abhiprāyeṇa sādhana-vidhānasya phalārthatvāt | tad uktam –
nirviśeṣaṃ paraṃ brahma sākṣātkartum anīśvarāḥ |
ye mandās te ‚nukampyante saviśeṣa-nirūpaṇaiḥ ||
vaśīkṛte manasy eṣāṃ saguṇa-brahma-śīlanāt |
tad evāvirbhavet sākṣād apetopādhi-kalpanam || iti |
bhagavatā patañjalinā coktaṃ samādhi-siddhir īśvara-praṇidhānāt iti | tataḥ pratyak-cetanādhigamo ‚py antarāyābhāvaś ca iti ca | tata itīśvara-praṇidhānād ity arthaḥ | tad evam akṣaropāsana-nindā saguṇopāsana-stutaye na tu heyatayā, udita-homa-vidhāvanudita-homa-nindāvat | na hi nindā nindyaṃ nindituṃ pravartate ‚pi tu vidheyaṃ stotum iti nyāyāt | tasmād akṣaropāsakā eva paramārthato yoga-vittamāḥ |
priyo hi jñānino ‚tyartham ahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ |
udārāḥ sarva evaite jñānī tv ātmaiva me matam || [Gītā 7.17-18]
ity ādinā punaḥ punaḥ praśastatamatayoktās teṣām eva jñānaṃ dharma-jātaṃ cānusaraṇīyam adhikāram āsādya tvayety arjunaṃ bubodhayiṣuḥ parama-hitaiṣī bhagavān abheda-darśinaḥ kṛta-kṛtyānakṣaropāsakān prastauti adveṣṭeti saptabhiḥ |
sarvāṇi bhūtāny ātmatvena paśyann ātmano duḥkha-hetāv api pratikūla-buddhy-abhāvān na dveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṃ kintu maitrī snigdhatā tadvān | yataḥ karuṇaḥ karuṇā duḥkhiteṣu dayā tadvān sarva-bhūtābhaya-dātā paramahaṃsa-parivrājaka ity arthaḥ | nirmamo dehe ‚pi mameti pratyaya-rahitaḥ | nirahaṅkāro vṛtta-svādhyāyādi-kṛtāhaṅkārān niṣkrāntaḥ | dveṣa-rāgayor apravartakatvena same duḥkha-sukhe yasya saḥ | ataeva kṣamī ākrośana-tāḍanādināpi na vikriyām āpadyate |
tasyaiva viśeṣaṇāntarāṇi santuṣṭa iti | satataṃ śarīra-sthiti-kāraṇasya lābhe ‚lābhe ca saṃtuṣṭaḥ utpannālaṃ-pratyayaḥ | tathā guṇaval-lābhe viparyaye ca | satatam iti sarvatra sambadhyate | yogī samāhita-cittaḥ | yatātmā saṃyata-śarīrendriyādi-saṃghātaḥ | dṛḍhaḥ kutārkikair abhibhavitum aśakyatayā sthiro niścayo ‚ham asmy akaartra-bhloktṛ-saccidānandādvitīyaṃ brahmety adhyavasāyo yasya sa dṛḍha-niścayaḥ sthita-prajña ity arthaḥ | mayi bhagavati vāsudeve śuddhe brahmaṇi arpita-mano-buddhiḥ samarpitāntaḥ-karaṇaḥ | īdṛśo yo mad-bhaktaḥ śuddhākṣara-brahmavit sa me priyaḥ, mad-ātmatvāt
 

Viśvanātha


etādṛśyāḥ śāntyā bhaktaḥ kīdṛśo bhavatīty apekṣāyāṃ bahuvidha-bhaktānāṃ svabhāva-bhedān āha adveṣṭety aṣṭabhiḥ | adveṣṭā dviṣatsv api dveṣaṃ na karoti pratyuta mitro mitratayā vartate | karuṇa eṣām asad-gatir mā bhavatv iti buddhyā teṣu kṛpāluḥ | nanu kīdṛśena vivekena dviṣatsv api maitrī-kāruṇye syātām | tatra vivekaṃ vinaivety āha nirmamo nirahaṃkāra iti putra-kalatrādiṣu mamatvābhāvād dehe cāhaṅkārābhāvāt tasya mad-bhaktasya kvāpi dveṣa eva naiva phalati | kutaḥ punar dveṣa-janita-duḥkha-śānty-arthaṃ tena vivekaḥ svīkartavya iti bhāvaḥ |

nanu tad apy anya-kṛta-pāduka-muṣṭi-prahārādibhir deha-vyathādīnaṃ duḥkhaṃ kiṃcid bhavaty eva ? tatrāha sama-duḥkha-sukham | yad uktaṃ bhagavatā candrārdha-śekhareṇa –

nārāyaṇa-parāḥ sarve na kutaścana bibhyati |
svargāpavarga-narakeṣv api tulyārtha-darśinaḥ || [BhP 6.17.28] iti |
sukha-duḥkhayoḥ sāmyaṃ sama-darśitvam | tac ca mama prārabdha-phalam idam avśya-bhogyam iti bhāvanā-mayam | sāmye ‚pi sahiṣṇuvaiva duḥkhaṃ sahyata ity āha kṣamī kṣamavān | kṣam sahane dhātuḥ |
nanv etādṛśasya bhaktasya jīvikā kathaṃ sidhyet ? tatrāha santuṣṭaḥ | yadṛcchopasthite kiṃcid yatnopasthite vā bhakṣya-vastuni santuṣṭaḥ |
nanu sama-duḥkha-sukham ity uktam | tat kathaṃ svabhakṣam ālakṣya santuṣṭa iti tatrāha satataṃ yogī bhakti-yoga-yukto bhakti-siddhārtham iti bhāvaḥ | yad uktaṃ-
āhārārthaṃ yatataiva yuktaṃ tat-prāṇa-dhāraṇam |
tattvaṃ vimṛśyate tena tad vijñāya paraṃ vrajet || iti |
kiṃ ca deivād aprāpta-bhaikṣyo ‚pi yatātmā saṃyata-cittaḥ kṣobha-rahita ity arthaḥ | daivāc citta-kṣobhe saty api tad-upaśamārtham aṣṭāṅga-yogābhyāsādikaṃ naiva karotīty āha dṛḍha-niścayo ‚nanya-bhaktir eva me kartavyeti niścayas tasya na śithilībhavatīty arthaḥ | sarvatra hetuḥ mayy arpita-mano-buddhir mat-smaraṇa-manana-parāyaṇa ity arthaḥ | īdṛśo bhaktas tu me priyo mām atiprīṇayatīty arthaḥ

 

Baladeva


evam ekānti-bhaktān pariniṣṭhitādīn anekānti-bhaktān saniṣṭhāṃś ca tat-tat-sādhana-bhedair upavarṇya teṣāṃ sarvoparañjakān guṇān vidadhāti adveṣṭeti saptabhiḥ | sarva-bhūtānām adveṣṭā dveṣaṃ kurvatsv api teṣu mat-prārabhdānuguṇa-pareśa-preritāny amūni mahyaṃ dviṣantīti dveṣa-śūnyaḥ | pareśādhiṣṭhānāny amūnīti teṣu maitraḥ snigdhaḥ | kenacin nimittena khinneṣu mābhūd eṣāṃ kheda iti karuṇaḥ | dehādiṣu nirmamaḥ prakṛter amī vikārā na mameti teṣu mamatā-śūnyaḥ | nirahaṅkāras teṣv ātmābhimāna-rahitaḥ | sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ sukhe sati harṣeṇa duḥkhe sati udvegena cāvyākulaḥ | yataḥ kṣamī tat-tat-sahiṣṇuḥ | satataṃ santuṣṭo lābhe ‚lābhe ca prasanna-cittaḥ | yato yogī gurūpadiṣṭopāya-niṣṭhaḥ | yatātmā vijitendriya-vargaḥ | dṛḍha-niścayo dṛḍhaḥ kutarkair abhibhavitum aśakyatayā sthiro niścayo hareḥ kiṅkaro ‚smīti adhyavasāyo yasya saḥ | ato mayy arpita-mano-buddhiḥ | evaṃ-bhūto yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ prīti-kartā
 
 


BhG 12.15

yasmān nodvijate loko lokān nodvijate ca yaḥ
harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegair mukto yaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ

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lokaḥ (world) yasmāt (because of which) na udvijate (one is not disturbed),
yaḥ ca (and which) lokāt (because of the world) na udvijate (one is not disturbed),
yaḥ (which) harāmara-bhayodvegaiḥ muktaḥ (liberated from jubilation, anger, fear, distress),
sa ca (and he) me (to me) priyaḥ (dear).

 

grammar

yasmāt yat sn. 5n.1 m.from which;
na av.not;
udvijate ud-vij (to be agitated, to tremble, to fear) Praes. Ā 1v.3one is agitated, one is disturbed;
lokaḥ loka 1n.1 m. world, people;
lokāt loka 5n.1 m. from the world, from people;
na av.not;
udvijate ud-vij (to be agitated, to tremble, to fear) Praes. Ā 1v.3one is agitated, one is disturbed;
ca av.and;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegaiḥ harṣa-amarṣa-bhaya-udvega 3n.3 m.; DV: hareṇa cāmareṇa ca bhayena codvegena ceti by jubilation, anger, fear, distress (from: hṛṣ – to be excited, to become erect, harṣa – bristling, erection, excitement; mṛṣ – to disregard, marṣa – patience, endurance, amarṣa – impatience, anger; bhī – to scare, bhaya – fear; ud-vij – to be agitated, to tremble, to fear, udvega – trembling, fear, distress caused by separation from the beloved object);
muktaḥ mukta (muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.1 m.liberated;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
ca av.and;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);

 

textual variants


lokān nodvijate ca yaḥ→ lokād udvijate na yaḥ (which is not disturbed because of the world);
ca yaḥ → tu yaḥ / hi saḥ (but which / indeed he);
harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegair harṣāmarṣa-bhaya-krodhair / harṣāmarśa-bhayodvegair / harṣamanyu-bhaya-krodhair / harṣād dharṣa-bhayodvegair (by jubilation, impatience, fear and anger / by jubilation, touching, fear and distress / jubilation, pride, fear and anger / by jubilation and by jubilation, fear and distress);
sa ca → sa hi (he indeed);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yasmāt saṃnyāsino nodvijate nodvegaṃ gacchati na santapyate na saṃkṣubhyati lokaḥ, tathā lokān nodvijate ca yaḥ, harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegair harṣaś cāmarṣaś ca bhayaṃ codvegaś ca tair harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegair muktaḥ | harṣaḥ priya-lābhe’ntaḥ-karaṇasyotkarṣo romāñcanāśrupātādi-liṅgaḥ | amarṣo’sahiṣṇutā | bhayaṃ trāsaḥ | udvega udvignatā | tair mukto yaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


yasmāt karmaniṣṭhāt puruṣān nimittabhūtāl loko nodvijate yo lokodvegakaraṃ karma kiñcid api na karotītyarthaḥ / lokāc ca nimittabhūtād yo nodvijate yam uddiśya sarvaloko nodvegakaraṃ karma karoti; sarvāvirodhitvaniścayāt / ata eva kañcana prati harṣeṇa, kañcana prati amarṣeṇa, kañcana prati bhayena, kañcana prati udvegena muktah; evaṃbhūto yaḥ, so ‚pi mama priyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca yasmād iti | yasmāt sakāśāl loko jano nodvijate bhaya-śaṅkayā saṃkṣobhaṃ na prāpnoti | yaś ca lokān nodvijate | yaś ca svābhāvikair harṣādibhir yuktaḥ | tatra harṣaḥ svasyeṣṭa-lābha utsāhaḥ | amarṣaḥ parasya lābhe ‚sahanam | bhayaṃ trāsaḥ | udvego bhayādi-nimittaś citta-kṣobhaḥ | etair vimukto yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


punas tasyaiva viśeṣaṇāni yasmād iti | yasmāt sarva-bhūtābhaya-dāyinaḥ saṃnyāsino hetor nodvijate na santapyate loko yaḥ kaścid api janaḥ | tathā lokān niraparādhodvejanaika-vratāt khala-janān nodvijate ca yaḥ | advaita-darśitvāt parama-kāruṇikatvena kṣamā-śīlatvāc ca | kiṃ ca harṣaḥ svasya priya-lābhe romāñcāśru-pātādi-hetur ānandābhivyañjakaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ | amarṣaḥ parotkarṣāsahana-rūpaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣaḥ | bhayaṃ vyāghrādi-darśanādhīnaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣas trāsaḥ | udvega ekākī kathaṃ vijane sarva-parigraha-śūnyo jīviṣyāmīty evaṃvidho vyākulatā-rūpaś citta-vṛtti-viśeṣas tair harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegair mukto yaḥ | advaita-darśitayā tad-ayogyatvena tair eva svayaṃ parityakto na tu teṣāṃ tyāgāya svayaṃ vyāpṛta iti yāvat | tena mad-bhakta ity anukṛṣyate | īdṛśo mad-bhakto yaḥ sa me priya iti pūrvavat
 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca yasyāsti bhaktir bhagavaty akiṃcanā sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ [BhP 5.18.12] ity-ādy-ukter mat-prīti-janakā anye ‚pi guṇā mad-bhaktyā muhur abhyastayā svata evotpadyante, tān api tvaṃ śṛṇv ity āha | yasmād iti pañcabhiḥ | harṣādibhIḥ prākṛtair harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegair mukta ity ādinoktān api kāṃścid guṇān durlabhatva-jñāpanārthaṃ punar āha yo na hṛṣyatīti
 

Baladeva


yasmāl lokaḥ ko ‚pi jano nodvijate bhaya-śaṅkayā kṣobhaṃ na labhate | yaḥ kāruṇikatvāj janodvejakaṃ karma na karoti | lokāc ca yo nodvijate sarvāvirodhitva-viniścayād yad-udvejakaṃ karma loko na karoti | yaś ca harṣādibhiḥ kartṛbhir mukto, na tu teṣāṃ mocane svayaṃ vyāpārī | atigambhīrātma-rati-nimagnatvāt tat-sparśenāpi rahita ity arthaḥ | tatra sva-bhogyāgamotsāho harṣaḥ, para-bhogyāgamāsahanam amarṣaḥ | duṣṭa-sattva-darśanādhīno vitrāsaḥ bhayam | kathaṃ nirudyamasya mama jīvanam iti vikṣobhas tūdvegaḥ | etāś catasraś citta-vṛttayaḥ
 
 


BhG 12.16

anapekṣaḥ śucir dakṣa udāsīno gata-vyathaḥ
sarvārambha-parityāgī yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ

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yaḥ mad-bhaktaḥ (he who is my devotee) anapekṣaḥ (independent) śuciḥ (pure) dakṣaḥ (dexterous) udāsīnaḥ (neutral) gata-vyathaḥ (free from anxiety) sarvārambha-parityāgī (who abandons all undertakings),
sa (he) me (to me) priyaḥ (dear).

 

grammar

anapekṣaḥ an-apekṣa 1n.1 m. independent, impartial, careless, without expectation (from: apa-īkṣ – to look away, to respect, to wait for, apekṣā – expectation, dependence on);
śuciḥ śuci 1n.1 m. pure (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet);
dakṣaḥ dakṣa 1n.1 m. fit, expert, dexterous, intelligent (from: dakṣ – to be skilful, to be strong);
udāsīnaḥ udāsīna 1n.1 m. indifferent, neutral (from: ud-ās – to sit away);
gata-vyathaḥ gata-vyatha 2n.3 m.; BV: yasya vyathā gatāsti saḥwhose anxiety is gone (from: gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone; vyath – to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid, vyathā – agitation, anxiety, fear);
sarvārambha-parityāgī sarva-ārambha-parityāgin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣām ārambhāṇām parityāgīti who abandons all undertakings (from: sarva – all, whole; ā-rabh – to reach, to undertake, to begin, ā-rambha – beginning, unertaking; pari-tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mad-bhaktaḥ mad-bhakta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mama bhakta itimy devotee (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);

 

textual variants


gata-vyathaḥ → dṛḍha-vyathaḥ / na ca kṣamī (with constant anxiety / and not suffering);
sarvārambha-parityāgī → sarvārambha-phala-tyāgī (who abandons the fruit of all undertakings);
yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa yo me bhaktaḥ sa / bhakti-mān yaḥ sa / mad-bhaktaḥ sa ca (he who is my devotee, he / he who has devotion / and that my devotee);

The third pada of verse 12.16 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 14.25;

 
 



Śāṃkara


dehendriya-viṣaya-saṃbandhādiṣu apekṣā-viṣayeṣu anapekṣo niḥspṛhaḥ | śucir bāhyena ābhyantareṇa ca śaucena saṃpannaḥ | dakṣaḥ pratyutpanneṣu kāryeṣu sadyo yathāvat pratipattuṃ samarthaḥ | udāsīno na kasyacit mitrādeḥ pakṣaṃ bhajate yaḥ, sa udāsīno yatiḥ | gata-vyatho gata-bhayaḥ | sarvārambha-parityāgī ārabhyanteti | ārambhā ihāmutra-phala-bhogārthāni kāma-hetūni karmāṇi sarvārambhāḥ, tān parityaktuṃ śīlam asyeti sarvārambha-parityāgī yaḥ mad-bhaktaḥ saḥ me priyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


anapekṣaḥ ātmavyatirikte kṛtsne vastuny anapekṣaḥ, śuciḥ śāstravihitadravyavardhitakāyaḥ, dakṣaḥ śāstrīyakriyopādānasamarthaḥ, anyatrodāsīnaḥ, ganavyathaḥ śāstrīyakriyānirvṛttau avarjanīyaśītoṣṇapuruṣasparśādiduḥkheṣu vyathārahitaḥ, sarvārambhaparityāgī śāstrīyavyatiriktasarvakarmārambhaparityāgī, ya evaṃbhūto madbhaktaḥ, sa me priyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca anapekṣa iti | anapekṣo yadṛcchayopasthite ‚py arthe nispṛhaḥ | śucir bāhyābhyantara-śauca-sampannaḥ | dakṣo ‚nalasaḥ | udāsīnaḥ pakṣapāta-rahitaḥ | gata-vyatha ādhi-śūnyaḥ | sarvān dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthān ārambhānudyamān parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ | evaṃ-bhūtaḥ san yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca anapekṣa iti | nirapekṣaḥ sarveṣu bhogopakaraṇeṣu yadṛcchopanīteṣv api niḥspṛhaḥ | śuci-bāhyābhyantara-śauca-sampannaḥ | dakṣa upasthiteṣu jñātavyeṣu kartavyeṣu ca sadya eva jñātuṃ kartuṃ ca samarthaḥ | udāsīno na kasyacin mitrādeḥ pakṣaṃ bhajate yaḥ | gata-vyathaḥ parais tāḍyamānasyāpi gatā notpannā vyathā pīḍā yasya saḥ | utpannāyām api vyathāyām apakarṛṣv anapakartṛtvaṃ kṣamitvam | vyathā-kāraṇeṣu satsv apy anutpanna-vyathatvaṃ gata-gata-vyathatvam iti bhedaḥ | aihikāmuṣmika-phalāni sarvāṇi karmāṇi sarvārambhās tān parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya sa sarvārambha-parityāgī sannyāsī yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


anapekṣo vyavahārika-kāryāpekṣā-rahita udāsīno vyavahārika-lokeṣv anāsaktaḥ | sarvān vyavahārikān dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthāṃs tathā pāramārthikān api kāṃścit śāstrādhyāpanādīn ārambhān udyamān parihartuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ
 

Baladeva


anapekṣaḥ svayam āgate ‚pi bhogye nispṛhaḥ | śucir bāhyābhyantara-pāvitryavān | dakṣaḥ sva-śāstrārtha-vimarśa-samarthaḥ | udāsīnaṃu para-pakṣāgrāhī | gata-vyatho ‚pakṛto ‚py ādhi-śūnyaḥ | sarvārambha-parityāgī sva-bhakti-pratīpākhilodyama-rahitaḥ
 
 


BhG 12.17

yo na hṛṣyati na dveṣṭi na śocati na kāṅkṣati
śubhāśubha-parityāgī bhaktimān yaḥ sa me priyaḥ

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yaḥ (he who) na hṛṣyati (does not rejoice) na dveṣṭi (does not hate) na śocati (does not lament) na kāṅkṣati (does not desire),
yaḥ śubhāśubha-parityāgī (he who abandons auspicious nad inauspicious) bhaktimān (who has devotion)
sa (he) me (to me) priyaḥ (dear).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
na av.not;
hṛṣyati hṛṣ (to be excited) Praes. P 1v.1he rejoices;
na av.not;
dveṣṭi dviṣ (to hate) Praes. P 1v.1he hates;
na av.not;
śocati śuc (to lament, to bewail) Praes. P 1v.1he laments;
na av.not;
kāṅkṣati kāṅkṣ (to desire, to expect) Praes. P 1v.1he desires;
śubhāśubha-parityāgī śubha-aśubha-parityāgin 1n.1 m.; DV / [TP]: śubhasya cāśubhasya ca parityāgīti who abandons the good and bad (from: śubh – to shine, śubha – splendid, pleasant, auspicious, good; pari-tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
bhaktimān bhaktiman 1n.1 m.who has devotion (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving, bhakti – devotion, love, fondness; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);

 

textual variants


śubhāśubha-parityāgīśubhāśubha-phala-tyāgī (who abandons the fruit of good and bad);
bhakti-mānyaḥ yo mad-bhaktaḥ (he who is my devotee);

The second pada of verse 12.17 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 18.54;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
yo na hṛṣyatīṣṭa-prāptau, na dveṣṭy aniṣṭa-prāptau, na śocati priya-viyoge, na cāprāptaṃ kāṅkṣati, śubhāśubhe karmaṇī parityaktuṃ śīlam asyeti śubhāśubha-parityāgī bhaktimān yaḥ sa me priyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


yo na hṛṣyati yan manuṣyāṇāṃ harṣanimittaṃ priyajātam, tat prāpya yaḥ karmayogī na hṛṣyati; yac cāpriyam, tat prāpya na dveṣṭi; yac ca manuṣyāṇāṃ śokanimittaṃ bhāryāputravittakṣayādikam, tat prāpya na śocati; tathāvidham aprāptaṃ ca na kāṅkṣati; śubhāśubhaparityāgī pāpavat puṇyasyāpi bandhahetutvāviśeṣād ubhayaparityāgī / ya evaṃbhūto bhaktimān, sa me priyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca ya iti | priyaṃ prāpya yo na hṛṣyati | apriyaṃ prāpya yo na dveṣṭi | iṣṭārtha-nāśe sati yo na śocati | aprāptam arthaṃ yo na kāṅkṣati | śubhāśubhe puṇya-pāpe parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ | evaṃ-bhūto bhūtvā yo mad-bhaktimān sa me priyaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca ya iti | sama-duḥkha-sukha ity etad vivṛṇoti | yo na hṛṣyatīṣṭa-prāptau, na dveṣṭi aniṣṭa-prāptau na śocati prāpteṣṭa-viyoge | na kāṅkṣati aprāpteṣṭa-yoge | sarvārambha-parityāgīty etad vivṛṇoti śubhāśubhe sukha-sādhana-duḥkha-sādhane karmaṇī parityaktuṃ śīlam asyeti śubhāśubha-parityāgī bhaktimān yaḥ sa me priyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 12.18
 

Baladeva


yaḥ priyaṃ putra-śiṣyādi prāpya na hṛṣyati | apriyaṃ tat prāpya tatra na dveṣṭi | priye tasmin vinaṣṭe na śocati | aprāptam tan nākāṅkṣati | śubhaṃ puṇyam aśubhaṃ pāpaṃ tad-ubhayaṃ pratibandhakatva-sāmyāt parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ
 
 


BhG 12.18-19

samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca tathā mānāvamānayoḥ
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu samaḥ saṅga-vivarjitaḥ
tulya-nindā-stutir maunī saṃtuṣṭo yena kena-cit
aniketaḥ sthira-matir bhaktimān me priyo naraḥ

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syntax


[yaḥ] bhaktimān naraḥ (a man who has devotion) śatrau mitre ca (towards an enemy and a friend) samaḥ (equal),
tathā (and) mānāpamānayoḥ (towards honour and dishonour) [samaḥ] (equal),
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu (in cold and heat, in pleasure and distress) samaḥ (equal),
saṅga-varjitaḥ (who is free from attachment) tulya-nindā-stutiḥ (for whom blame and praise are equal) maunī (silent) yena kenacit (with which something) santuṣṭaḥ (satisfied) aniketaḥ (with no residence) sthira-matiḥ (with steady thought),
[saḥ] (he) me (to me) priyaḥ [asti] (is dear).

 

grammar

samaḥ sama sn. 1n.1 m.the same, equal, equivalent;
śatrau śatru 7n.1 m.towards an enemy, towards a rival (from: śad – to fall, to disperse, to kill);
ca av.and;
mitre mitra 7n.1 m.towards a friend;
ca av.and;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
mānāvamānayoḥ māna-avamāna 7n.2 m.; DV: māne ca avamāne cetiin honour and dishonour (from: man – to think, māna – respect, honour, pride; ava-man – to despise, avamāna – disrespect, dishonour);
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu śīta-uṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha 7n.3 n.; DV: śīte coṣṇe ca sukhe ca duḥkhe cetiin cold and heat, in pleasure and distress (from: śīta – cold, frigid; uṣ – to burn, uṣṇa – hot, warm; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not;
or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā);
samaḥ sama sn. 1n.1 m.the same, equal, equivalent;
saṅga-vivarjitaḥ saṅga-vivarjita 1n.1 m.; [TP]: saṅgena vivarjita iti who is free from attachment (from: (from: sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment; vi-vṛj – to exclude, to avoid, caus. [PP] vivarjita – excluded, deprived of, without);

*****

tulya-nindā-stutiḥ tulya-nindā-stuti 1n.1 m.; BV / DV: yasya nindā ca stutiś ca tulye staḥ saḥfor whom blame and praise are equal (from: tul – to lift, to weigh, to measure, tulā – weight, tulya – equal, the same, similar; nind – to criticize, nindā – blame, reproach; xstu – to praise, to sing, stuti – praise, prayer, hymn);
maunī maunin 1n.1 m.observing a vow of silence, taciturn (from: man – to think, to imagine, muni – sage, saint, seer, mauna – silence, restrain of tongue; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
saṁtuṣṭaḥ saṁtuṣṭa (sam-tuṣ – to rejoice) [PP] 1n.1 m.completely satisfied;
yena yat sn. 3n.1 n.with which, wherefore;
kena-cit kim-cit sn. 3n.1 n.with something (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
aniketaḥ a-niketa 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya niketo nāsti saḥwho has no residence (from: niketa – mark, house, residence);
sthira-matiḥ sthira-buddhi 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya matiḥ sthirāsti saḥwhose thought is steady (from: sthā – to stand, sthira – firm, hard, steady; man – to think, mati – thought, opinion, view);
bhaktimān bhaktiman 1n.1 m.who has devotion (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving, bhakti – devotion, love, fondness; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
priyaḥ priya 1n.1 m.liked, dear, pleasant (from: prī – to please);
naraḥ nara 1n.1 m.a man, a person (from: nṛ man, mankind);

 

textual variants


samaḥ śatrau sama-śatrau;
mitre → mitrau;
mānāvamānayoḥmānāpamānayoḥ (towards honour and dishonour);
tulya-nindā-stutir nindā-tulya-stutir (for whom praise is equal to blame);
bhaktimān me priyo naraḥ → bhaktimān yaḥ sa me priyo (he who has devotion he is dear to me);

The second and third pada of verse 12.18 are the same as the third and fourth pada of verse BhG 6.7;

 
 



Śāṃkara


samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca, tathā mānāpamānayoḥ pūjā-paribhavayoḥ, śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu samaḥ | sarvatra ca saṅga-vivarjitaḥ |
kiṃ ca—
tulya-nindā-stutiḥ | nindā ca stutiś ca nindā-stutī | te tulye yasya sa tulya-nindā-stutiḥ | maunī maunavān saṃyata-vāk | saṃtuṣṭaḥ yena kenacit śarīra-sthiti-hetu-mātreṇa | tathā coktaṃ—
yena kenacid ācchanno yena kenacid āśitaḥ |
yatra kvacana śāyī syāt taṃ devā brāhmaṇaṃ viduḥ || [mātrbh 12.245.12] iti |
kiṃ ca, aniketo niketa āśrayo nivāso niyato na vidyate yasya so’niketaḥ, nāgāre ity ādi-smṛty-antarāt | sthira-matiḥ sthirā paramārtha-viṣayā yasya matiḥ saḥ sthira-matiḥ | bhaktimān me priyo nara
 

Rāmānuja


„adveṣṭā sarvabhūtānām” ityādinā śatrumitrādiṣu dveṣādirahitatvam uktam; atra teṣu sannihiteṣv api samacittatvaṃ tato ‚py atirikto viśeṣa ucyate / ātmani sthiramatitvena niketanādiṣv asakta ity aniketaḥ; tata eva mānāvamānādiṣv api samaḥ; ya evaṃbhūto bhaktimān, sa me priyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca sama iti | śatrau ca mitre ca sama eka-rūpaḥ | mānāpamānayor api tathā sama eva | harṣa-viṣāda-śūnya ity arthaḥ | śītoṣṇayoḥ sukha-duḥkhayoś ca samaḥ | saṅga-vivarjitaḥ kvacid apy anāsaktaḥ |
kiṃ ca tulya-nindā-stutir iti | tulyā nindā-stutiś ca yasya saḥ | maunī saṃyata-vāk | yena kenacit yathā-labdhena saṃtuṣṭaḥ | aniketo niyatāvāsa-śūnyaḥ | sthira-matir vyavasthita-cittaḥ | evaṃ-bhūto bhaktimān yaḥ sa naro mama priyaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca sama iti | pūrvasyaiva prapañcaḥ | saṅga-vivarjitaś cetanācetana-sarva-viṣaya-śobhanādhyāsa-rahitaḥ | sarvadā harṣa-viṣāda-śūnya ity arthaḥ | spaṣṭam |
kiṃ ca tulya-nindā-stutir iti | nindā doṣa-kathanam | stutir guṇa-kathanam | te duḥkha-sukhājanakatayā tulye yasya sa tathā | maunī saṃyata-vāk | nanu śarīra-yātrā-nirvāhāya vāg-vyāpāro ‚pekṣita eva nety āha saṃtuṣṭo nivṛtta-spṛhaḥ | kiṃ ca — aniketo niyata-nivāsa-rahitaḥ | sthirā paramārtha-vastu-viṣayā matir yasya sa sthira-matiḥ | īdṛśo yo bhaktimān sa me priyo naraḥ | atra punaḥ punar bhakter upādānaṃ bhaktir evāpavargasya puṣkalaṃ kāraṇam iti draḍhayitum
 

Viśvanātha


aniketaḥ prākṛta-svāspadāsakti-śūnyaḥ
 

Baladeva


samaḥ śatrau ceti sphuṭārthaḥ | saṅga-varjitaḥ kusaṅga-śūnyaḥ | tulyeti nindayā duḥkhaṃ stutyā sukhaṃ ca yo na vindati | maunī yata-vāk sveṣṭa-manana-śīlo vā | yena kenacid adṛṣṭākṛṣṭena rukṣeṇa snigdhena vānnādinā santuṣṭaḥ | aniketo niyata-nivāsa-rahito niketa-moha-śūnyo vā | sthira-matir niścita-jñānaḥ | eṣv adveṣṭety ādiṣu saptasu yeṣu guṇānāṃ punar apy abhidhānaṃ tat teṣām atidaurlabhya-jñāpanārtham ity adoṣaḥ | san-niṣṭhādīnāṃ tri-vidhānāṃ bhaktānāṃ sambhūya sthitā ete ‚dveṣṭṛtvādayo dharmā yathā-sambhava-tāratamyenaiva sudhībhiḥ saṅgamanīyāḥ
 
 


BhG 12.20

ye tu dharmyāmṛtam idaṃ yathoktaṃ paryupāsate
śraddadhānā mat-paramā bhaktās te tīva me priyāḥ

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syntax


ye tu [janāḥ] (but those [people]) mat-paramāḥ (for whom I am the supreme) idam yathā uktam dharmyāmṛtam (this nectar of dharma, described in that way) paryupāsate (they worship),
te śraddadhānāḥ (those who have faith) bhaktāḥ (devotees) me (to me) atīva (exceedingly) priyāḥ [bhavanti] (are dear).

 

grammar

ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
dharmyāmṛtam dharmya-amṛta 2n.1 n.; [TP]: dharmyasya amṛtam itinectar of dharma, immortal law (from: dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law, lawfulness; dharmya – lawful, righteous; mṛ – to die; mṛta [PP] – dead, a-mṛta – not dead, eternal, nectar of immortality);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
uktam ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 2n.1 n.spoken, called;
paryupāsate pari-upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend;
śraddadhānāḥ śrad-dadhāna 1n.3 m.who have faith (from: śrat- – in compounds: faith; dhā – to put [faith], PPr dadhāna – who have);
mat-paramāḥ mat-parama 1n.3 m.; yeām ahaṁ paramaḥ ‘smi tethose for whom I am the supreme (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest);
bhaktāḥ bhakta (bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) [PP] 1n.3 m.distributed, divided, loved; worshippers, devotees;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
atīva av.excessively, very, exceedingly;
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
priyāḥ priya 1n.3 m.dear ones (from: prī – to please);

 

textual variants


dharmyāmṛtam → dharmāmṛtam (immortal law);
me priyāḥ → mat-priyāḥ (my dear ones);
 
 



Śāṃkara


adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṃ [gītā 12.13] ity ādinākṣaropāsakānāṃ nivṛtta-sarveṣaṇānāṃ saṃnyāsināṃ paramārtha-jñāna-niṣṭhānāṃ dharma-jātaṃ prakrāntam upasaṃhriyate—
ye tu saṃnyāsino dharmyāmṛtaṃ dharmād anapetaṃ dharmyaṃ ca tad amṛtaṃ ca tat, amṛtatva-hetutvāt, idaṃ yathoktam, adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānām ity ādinā paryupāsate’nutiṣṭhanti śraddadhānāḥ santaḥ mat-paramāḥ yathokto’ham akṣarātmā paramo niratiśayā gatir yeṣāṃ te mat-paramāḥ, mad-bhaktāś cottamāṃ paramārtha-jñāna-lakṣaṇāṃ bhaktim āśritāḥ, te’tīva me priyāḥ | priyo hi jñānino’ty arthaṃ [gītā 7.18] iti yat sūcitaṃ tat vyākhyāyehopasaṃhṛtaṃ bhaktās te’tīva me priyā iti | yasmād dharmyāmṛtam idaṃ yathoktam anutiṣṭhan bhagavato viṣṇoḥ parameśvarasyātīva priyo bhavati, tasmād idaṃ dharmyāmṛtaṃ mumukṣuṇā yatnato’nuṣṭheyaṃ viṣṇoḥ priyaṃ paraṃ dhāma jigamiṣuṇeti vākyārthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


asmād ātmaniṣṭhād bhaktiyoganiṣṭhasya śraiṣṭhyaṃ pratipādayan yathopakramam upasaṃharati
dharmyaṃ cāmṛtaṃ ceti dharmyāmṛtam, ye tu prāpyasamaṃ prāpakaṃ bhaktiyogam, yathoktam „mayy āveśya mano ye mām”ityādinoktena prakāreṇa upāsate; te bhaktāḥ atitarāṃ mama priyāḥ
 

Śrīdhara


uktaṃ dharma-jātaṃ sapahalam upasaṃharati ye tv iti | yathoktam ukta-prakāram | dharma evāmṛtam | amṛtatva-sādhanatvāt | dharmyāmṛtam iti kecit paṭhanti | ye tad upāsate ‚nutiṣṭhanti śraddhāṃ kurvantaḥ | mat-parāś ca santaḥ | mad-bhaktās te ‚tīva me priyā iti
 

Madhusūdana


adveṣṭety ādinākṣaropāsakādīnāṃ jīvanmuktānāṃ saṃnyāsināṃ lakṣaṇa-bhūtaṃ svabhāva-siddhaṃ dharma-jāta-muktam| yathoktaṃ vārtike –
utpannātmāvabodhasya hy adveṣṭṛtvādayo guṇāḥ |
ayatnato bhavanty eva na tu sādhana-rūpiṇaḥ || iti |
etad eva ca purā sthita-prajña-lakṣaṇa-rūpeṇābhihitam | tad idaṃ dharma-jātaṃ prayatnena sampādyamānaṃ mumukṣor mokṣa-sādhanaṃ bhavatīti pratipādayann upasaṃharati ye tv iti | ye tu saṃnyāsino mumukṣavo dharmāmṛtaṃ dharma-rūpam amṛta-sādhanatvād amṛtavad āsvādyatvād vedaṃ yathoktam adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānām ity ādinā pratipāditaṃ paryupāsate ‚nutiṣṭhanti prayatnena śraddadhānāḥ santo mat-paramā ahaṃ bhagavān akṣarātmā vāsudeva eva paramaḥ prāptavyo niratiśayā gatir yeṣāṃ te mat-paramā bhaktā māṃ nirupādhikaṃ brahma bhajamānās te ‚tīva me priyāḥ | priyo hi jñānino ‚tyartham ahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ iti pūrva-sūcitasyāyam upasaṃhāraḥ |
yasmād dharmāmṛtam idaṃ śraddhayānutiṣṭhan bhagavato viṣṇoḥ parameśvarasyātīva priyo bhavati tasmād idaṃ jñānavataḥ svabhāva-siddhatayā lakṣaṇam api mumukṣuṇātma-tattva-jijñāsunātma-jñānopāyatvena yatnād anuṣṭheyaṃ viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ jigamiṣuṇeti vākyārthaḥ | tad evaṃ sopādhika-brahmābhidhyāna-paripākān nirupādhikaṃ brahmānusandadhānasyādveṣṭṛtvādi-dharma-viśiṣṭasya mukhyasyādhikāriṇaḥ śravaṇa-manana-nididhyāsanāny āvartayato vedānta-vākyārtha-tattva-sākṣātkāra-sambhavāt tato mukty-upapater mukti-hetu-vedānta-mahāvākyārthānvaya-yogyas tat-padārtho ‚nusandheya iti madhyamena ṣaṭkena siddham
 

Viśvanātha


uktavān bahuvidha-svabhakta-niṣṭhān dharmān upasaṃharan kārtsnyenaital-lipsūnāṃ tac-chravaṇa-vicāraṇādi-phalam āha ye tv iti | ete bhakty-uttha-śānty-uttha-dharmā na prākṛtā guṇāḥ bhaktyā tuṣyati kṛṣṇo na guṇaiḥ ity ukta-koṭitaḥ | tu bhinnopakrame ukta-lakṣaṇā bhaktā ekaika-susvabhāva-niṣṭhāḥ | ete tu tat-tat-sarva-sal-lakṣaṇepsavaḥ sādhakā api tebhyaḥ siddhebhyo ‚pi śreṣṭhāḥ | ataevāteti padam
 

Baladeva


ukta-bhakti-yogam upasaṃharan tasmin niṣṭhā-phalam āha ye tv iti | ye bhaktā yathoktaṃ mayy āveśya mano ye mām ity ādibhir yathā-gatam idaṃ dharmāmṛtaṃ paryupāsate | prāpyaṃ mām iva prāpakaṃ tat samāśrayanti | śraddadhānā bhakti-śraddhā-lavo mat-paramā man-niratās te mamātīva priyā bhavanti
 
 


BhG 12.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi catustriṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation


Thus [ends] the thirty-fourth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.
 

textual variants


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde bhakti-saṃnyāsa-yogo / bhakti-yogo / bhakti-yogaḥ, jñāna-vijñāna-darśano / yoga-vittama-vivaraṇa-pūrvakaṃ karma-phala-tyāga-rūpa-dharmāmṛtopadeśo / bhakti-saṃjñā-yogo nāma dvādaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the twelfth chapter entitled: The Yoga of Renunciation and Devotion / The Yoga of Devotion / The Yoga of Devotion, Showing the Knowledge and Wisdom / Teaching on Immortal Law as the Renunciation of the Fruit of Activities, Explained Earlier by the Best Knower of Yoga / The Yoga Called Devotion.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


duḥkham avyakta-vartmaiva tad-bahu-vighnam ato budhaḥ |
sukhaṃ kṛṣṇa-padāmbhojaṃ bhakti-sat-pathavān bhajet ||
iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
bhakti-yogo nāma dvādaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ ||
 

Madhusūdana


iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-
śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām bhakti-yogo nāma dvādaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sarva-śreṣṭhā sukha-mayī sarva-sādhya-susādhikā |
bhaktir evādbhuta-guṇety adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ ||
nimba-drākṣe iva jñāna-bhaktī yadyapi darśite |
ādīyete tad apy ete tat-tad-āsvāda-lobhibhiḥ ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsu dvādaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||
 

Baladeva


vaśaḥ svaika-juṣāṃ kṛṣṇaḥ sva-bhakty-eka-juṣāṃ tu saḥ |
prītyaivātivaśaḥ śrīmān iti dvādaśa-nirṇayaḥ ||