atha trayodaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ – kṣetra-kṣetrajña-yogaḥ

Now the thirteenth chapter: “The Yoga of the Field and of the Knower of the Field”


Śāṃkara


saptame’dhyāye sūcite dve prakṛtī īśvarasya triguṇātmikāṣṭadhā bhinnāparā saṃsāra-hetutvāt, parā cānyā jīva-bhūtā kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇeśvarātmikā | yābhyāṃ prakṛtibhyām īśvaro jagad-utpatti-sthiti-laya-hetutvaṃ pratipadyate | tatra kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇa-prakṛti-dvaya-nirūpaṇa-dvāreṇa tadvata īśvarasya tattva-nirdhāraṇārthaṃ kṣetrādhyāya ārabhyate | atītānantarādhyāye ca adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṃ [gītā 12.13] ity ādinā yāvad-adhyāya-parisamāptis tāvat tattva-jñānināṃ sannyāsināṃ niṣṭhā yathā te vartanta ity etad uktam | kena punas te tattva-jñānena yuktā yathokta-dharmācaraṇād bhagavataḥ priyā bhavanty evam arthaś cāyam adhyāya ārabhyate | prakṛtiś ca triguṇātmikā sarva-kārya-karaṇa-viṣayākāreṇa pariṇatā puruṣasya bhogāpavargārtha-kartavyatayā dehendriyādyākāreṇa saṃhanyate | so’yaṃ saṅghāta idaṃ śarīram | tad etad bhagavān uvāca —
 

Rāmānuja


pūrvasmin ṣaṭke paramaprāpyasya parasya brahmaṇo bhagavato vāsudevasya prāptyupāyabhūtabhaktirūpabhagavadupāsanāṅgabhūtaṃ prāptuḥ pratyagātmano yāthātmyadarśanaṃ jñānayogakarmayogalakṣaṇaniṣṭhādvayasādhyam uktam / madhyame ca paramaprāpyabhūtabhagavadtattvayāthātmyatanmāhātmyajñānapūrvakāikāntikātyantikabhaktiyoganiṣṭhā pratipāditā / atiśayitāiśvaryāpekṣāṇām ātmakaivalyamātrāpekṣāṇāṃ ca bhaktiyogas tattadapekṣitasādhanam iti coktam / idānīm uparitane ṣaṭke prakṛtipuruṣatatsaṃsargarūpaprapañceśvaratadyāthātmyakarmajñānabhaktisvarūpatadupādānaprakārāś ca ṣaṭkadvayoditā viśodhyante / tatra tāvat trayodaśe dehātmanoḥ svarūpam, dehayāthātmyaśodhanam, dehaviyuktātmaprāptyupāyaḥ, viviktātmasvarūpasaṃśodhanam, tathāvidhasyātmanaś cācitsaṃbandhahetuḥ, tato vivekānusandhānaprakāraś cocyate
 

Śrīdhara


bhaktānām aham uddhartā saṃsārād ity avādi yat |
tradośe ‚tha tat-siddhyai tattva-jñānam udīryate ||
 

Madhusūdana


dhyānābhyāsa-vaśīkṛtena manasā tan nirguṇaṃ niṣkriyaṃ
jyotiḥ kiṃcana yogino yadi paraṃ paśyanti paśyantu te |
asmākaṃ tu tad eva locana-camatkārāya bhūyāc ciraṃ
kālindī-pulineṣu yat kim api tan nīlaṃ maho dhāvati ||
 

Viśvanātha


namo ‚stu bhagavad-bhaktyai kṛpayā svāṃśa-leśataḥ |
jñānādiṣv api tiṣṭhet tat sārthakī-karaṇā yayā ||
ṣaṭke tṛtīye ‚tra bhakt–miśraṃ jñānaṃ nirūpyate |
tan-madhye kevalā bhaktir api bhaṅgyā prakṛṣyate ||
trayodaśe śarīraṃ ca jīvātma-paramātmanoḥ |
jñānasya sādhanaṃ jīvaḥ prakṛtiś ca viśiṣyate ||
 

Baladeva


kathitāḥ pūrva-ṣaṭkābhyām arthāj jīvādayo ‚tra ye |
svarūpāṇi viśodhyante teṣāṃ ṣaṭke ‚ntime sphuṭam ||
bhaktau pūrvopadiṣṭāyāṃ jñānaṃ dvāraṃ bhavaty ataḥ |
deha-jīveśa-vijñānaṃ tad vaktavyaṃ trayodaśe ||
 
 

BhG 13.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
idaṃ śarīraṃ kaunteya kṣetram ity abhidhīyate
etad yo vetti taṃ prāhuḥ kṣetra-jña iti tad-vidaḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
idam śarīram (this body) kṣetram iti (the field) abhidhīyate (it is called),
yaḥ (he who) etat (this) vetti (he knows)
tad-vidaḥ (those who know that) tam (him) kṣetra-jñaḥ iti (‘the knower of the field’) prāhuḥ (they declare).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
idam idam 1n.1 n.this;
śarīram śarīra 1n.1 n. body (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on;
or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
kṣetram kṣetra 1n.1 n.field (from: kṣi – to possess);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
abhidhīyate abhi-dhā (to name, to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is called;
etat etat sn. 2n.1 n.this;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.him;
prāhuḥ pra-ah (to declare) [Perf.] P 1v.3they declared (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
kṣetra-jñaḥ kṣetra-jña 1n.1 m.knower of the field (from: kṣi – to possess, kṣetra – field; jñā – to know, to understand, -jña – suffix: knower);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
tad-vidaḥ tad-vit 1n.3 m.; ye tat viduḥ tethose who know that (from: tat – to; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);

 

textual variants


kṣetram → kṣetra;
vetti → veda (he knows);
kṣetra-jñakṣetra-jñam (knower of the field);
tad-vidaḥtad-vidhāḥ (of this kind, similar to that);

… → verses not found in critical edition before verse BhG 13.1:
arjuna uvāca
prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva kṣetraṁ kṣetrajñam eva ca
etad veditum icchāmi jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava

Arjuna spoke:
O Keśava! I desire to know the nature and the human,
also the field and the knower of the field, and knowledge and subject of knowledge.

prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva kṣetraṁ kṣetrajñam eva ca
etat te kathayiṣyāmi jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca bhārata
O descendant of Bhārata! I will describe to you now the nature and the human,
also the field and the knower of the field, and knowledge and subject of knowledge.

 
 



Śāṃkara


idam iti sarva-nāmnoktaṃ viśinaṣṭi śariram iti | he kaunteya ! kṣata-trāṇāt kṣayāt kṣaraṇāt, kṣetravad vāsmin karma-phala-niṣpatteḥ kṣetram iti | iti-śabda evaṃ-śabdedārthakaḥ | kṣetram ity evam abhidhīyate kathyate | etac charīraṃ kṣetraṃ yo vetti vijānāti, āpāda-tala-mastakaṃ jñānena viṣayīkaroti, svābhāvikenaupadeśikena vā vedanena viṣayīkaroti vibhāgaśaḥ, taṃ veditāraṃ prāhuḥ kathayanti kṣetrajña iti | iti-śabdaḥ evaṃ-śabda-padārthaka eva pūrvavat | kṣetrajñaḥ ity evam āhuḥ | ke ? tad-vidas tau kṣetra-kṣetrajñau ye vidanti te tad-vidaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


idaṃ śarīram devo ‚ham, manuṣyo ‚ham, sthūlo ‚ham, kṛśo ‚ham iti ātmano bhoktrā saha sāmānādhikaraṇyena pratīyamānaṃ bhoktur ātmano ‚rthāntarabhūtasya bhogakṣetram iti śarīrayāthātmyavidbhir abhidhīyate / etad avayavaśaḥ saṃghātarūpeṇa ca, idam ahaṃ vedmīti yo vetti, taṃ vedyabhūtād asmād veditṛtvenārthāntarabhūtam, kṣetrajña iti tadvidaḥ ātmayāthātmyavidaḥ prāhuḥ / yady api dehavyatiriktaghaṭādyarthānusandhānavelāyāṃ „devo ‚ham, manuṣyo ‚haṃ ghaṭādikaṃ jānāmi” iti dehasāmānādhikaraṇyena jñātāram ātmānam anusandhatte, tathāpi dehānubhavavelāyāṃ deham api ghaṭādikam iva „idam ahaṃ vedmi” iti vedyatayā veditānubhavatīti veditur ātmano vedyatayā śarīram api ghaṭādivad arthāntarabhūtam / tathā ghaṭāder iva vedyabhūtāc charīrād api veditā kṣetrajño ‚rthāntarabhūtaḥ / sāmānādhikaraṇyena pratītis tu vastutaś śarīrasya gotvādivad atmaviśeṣaṇataikasvabhāvatayā tadapṛthaksiddher upapannā / tatra veditur asādhāraṇākārasya cakṣurādikaraṇāviṣayatvād yogasaṃskṛtamanoviṣayatvāc ca prakṛtisannidhānād eva mūḍhāḥ prakṛtyākāram eva veditāraṃ paśyanti, tathā ca vakṣyati, „utkrāmantaṃ sthitaṃ vāpi bhuñjānaṃ vā guṇānvitam / vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti paśyanti jñānacakṣuṣaḥ” iti
 

Śrīdhara


teṣām ahaṃ samuddhartā mṛtyu-saṃsāra-sāgarāt, bhavāmi na cirāt pārtha [Gītā 12.7] iti pūrvaṃ pratijñātam | na cātma-jñānaṃ vinā saṃsārād uddharaṇaṃ sambhavatīti tattva-jñānopadeśārthaṃ prakṛti-puruṣa-vivekādhyāya ārabhyate | tatra yat saptame ‚dhyāye aparā parā ceti prakṛti-dvayam uktaṃ tayor avivekāj jīva-bhāvam āpannasya cid-aṃśasyāyaṃ saṃsāraḥ | yābhyāṃ ca jīvopabhogārtham īśvarasya sṛṣṭy-ādiṣu pravṛttiḥ | tad eva prakṛti-dvayaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-śabda-vācyaṃ parasparaṃ viviktaṃ tattvato nirūpayiṣyan bhagavān uvāca idam iti | idaṃ bhogāyatanaṃ śarīraṃ kṣetram ity abhidhīyate | saṃsārasya praroha-bhūmitvāt | etad yo vetti ahaṃ mameti manyate taṃ kṣetrajña iti prāhuḥ | kṛṣībalavat tat-phala-bhoktṛtvāt | tad-vidaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor vivekajñāḥ
 

Madhusūdana


prathama-madhyama-ṣaṭkayos tat-tvaṃ-padārthāv uktāv uttaras tu ṣaṭko vākyārtha-niṣṭhaḥ samyag-dhī-pradhāno ‚dhunārabhyate | tatra – teṣām ahaṃ samuddhartā mṛtyu-saṃsāra-sāgarād bhavāmi [Gītā 12.7] iti prāg uktam | na cātma-jñāna-lakṣaṇān mṛtyor ātma-jñānaṃ vinoddharaṇaṃ sambhavati | ato yādṛśenātma-jñānena mṛtyu-saṃsāra-nivṛttir yena ca tattva-jñānena yuktā adveṣṭṛtvādi-guṇa-śālinaḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ prāgvyākhyātās tadātma-tattva-jñānaṃ vaktavyam | tac cādvitīyena paramātmanā saha jīvasyābhedam eva viṣayīkaroti | tad-bheda-bhrama-hetukatvāt sarvānarthasya |
tatra jīvānāṃ saṃsāriṇāṃ pratikṣetraṃ bhinnānām asaṃsāriṇaikena paramātmanā katham abhedaḥ syād ity āśaṅkāyāṃ saṃsārasya bhinnatvasya cāvidyā-kalpitānātma-dharmatvān na jīvasya saṃsāritvaṃ bhinnatvaṃ ceti vacanīyam | tad arthaṃ dehendriyāntaḥ-karaṇebhyaḥ kṣetrebhyo vivekena kṣetrajñaḥ puruṣo jīvaḥ pratikṣetram eka eva nirvikāra iti pratipādanāya kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vivekaḥ kriyate ‚sminn adhyāye | tatra ye dve prakṛtī bhūmy-ādi-kṣetra-rūpatayā jīva-rūpa-kṣetrajñatayā cāpara-para-śabda-vācye sūcite tad-vivekena tattvaṃ nirūpayiṣyan śrī-bhagavān uvāca idaṃ śarīram iti |
idam indriyāntaḥ-karaṇa-sahitaṃ bhogāyatanaṃ śarīraṃ he kaunteya ! kṣetram ity abhidhīyate | sasyasyevāsminn asakṛt karmaṇaḥ phalasya nirvṛtteḥ | etad yo vetti ahaṃ mamety abhimanyate taṃ kṣetrajña iti prāhuḥ kṛṣībalavat tat-phala-bhoktṛtvāt | tad-vidaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor viveka-vidaḥ | atra cābhidhīyata iti karmaṇi prayogeṇa kṣetrasya jaḍatvāt karmatvaṃ kṣetrajña-śabde ca dvityāṃ vinaveti-śabdam āharan svaprakāśatvāt karmatvābhāvam avivekina evāhuḥ sthūla-dṛśām agocaratvād iti kathayituṃ vilakṣaṇa-vacana-vyaktyaikatra kartṛ-padopādānena ca nirdiśati bhagavān
 

Viśvanātha


tad evaṃ dvitīyena ṣaṭkena kevalayā bhaktyā bhagavat-prāptiḥ | tato ‚nyā ahaṃgrahopāsanādyās tisra upāsanāś coktāḥ | atha prathama-ṣatkoditānāṃ niṣkāmakarma-yogināṃ bhakti-miśra-jñāṇād eva mokṣas tac ca jñānaṃ saṅkṣepād uktam api punaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajñādi-vivecanena vivarituṃ tṛitīyaṃ ṣaṭkam ārabhate ||
tatra kiṃ kṣetraṃ kaḥ kṣetrajña ity apekṣāyām āha idam iti | idaṃ sendriyaṃ bhogāyatanaṃ śarīraṃ kṣetraṃ saṃsārasya praroha-bhūmitvāt | tad yo vetti bandha-daśāyām ahaṃ-mamety abhimanyamānaṃ sva-sambandhitvenaiva jānāti, mokṣa-daśāyām ahaṃ-mamety-abhimāna-rahitaḥ sva-sambandha-rahitam evayo jānāti, tam ubhayāvasthaṃ jīvaṃ kṣetrajñam iti prāhuḥ | kṛṣībalavat sa eva kṣetrajñas tat-phala-bhoktā ca | yad uktaṃ bhagavatā —
adanti caikaṃ phalam asya gṛdhnā
grāmecarā ekam araṇya-vāsāḥ |
haṃsā ya ekaṃ bahurūpam ijyair
māyāmayaṃ veda sa veda vedam || iti | [BhP 11.12.23]
asyārthaḥ gṛdhnantīti gṛdhrā grāmecarā baddha-jīvā asya vṛkṣasyakaṃ phalaṃ duḥkham adanti, pariṇāmataḥ svargāder api duḥkha-rūpatvāt | araṇya-vāsā haṃsā mukta-jīvā eka-phalaṃ sukham adanti, sarvathā sukha-rūpasyāpavargasyāpy etaj-janyatvāt | evam ekam api saṃsāra-vṛkṣaṃ bahuvidha-naraka-svargāpavarga-prāpakatvād bahu-rūpaṃ māyā-śakti-samudbhūtatvān māyāmayam | ijyaiḥ pūjyair gurubhiḥ kṛtvā yo vedeti tad-vidaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor veditāraḥ
 

Baladeva


ādya-ṣaṭke niṣkāma-karma-sādhyaṃ j-jñānopayogitayā darśitam | madhya-ṣatke tu bhakti-śabditaṃ paramātmopāsanaṃ tan-mahima-nigada-pūrvakam upadiṣṭam | tac ca kevalaṃ tad-vaśyatākaraṃ sat tat-prāpakam | ārtādīnāṃ tu tam upāsīnānām ārti-vināśādi-karaṃ tad-ekānti-prasaṅgena kevalaṃ sat tat-prāpakaṃ ca |
yogena jñānena copasṛṣṭaṃ tv aiśvarya-pradhāna-tad-rūpopalambhakaṃ mocakaṃ cety uktam | tathāsminn antya-ṣatke prakṛti-puruṣa-tat-saṃyoga-hetuka-jagat tad-īśvara-svarūpāṇi karma-jñāna-bhakti-svarūpāṇi ca vivicyante | jñāna-vaiśadyāya etāvat trayogaśe ‚sminn adhyāye deha-jīva-pareśa-svarūpāṇi vivecanīyāni | dehādi-viviktasyāpi jīvātmano deha-sambandha-hetus tad-vivekānusandhi-prakāraś ca vimarśanīyaḥ | tad idam arthajātam abhidhātuṃ bhagavān uvāca idam iti | he kaunteya idaṃ sendriya-prāṇaṃ śarīraṃ bhoktur jīvasya bhogya-sukha-duḥkhādi-prarohakatvāt kṣetram ity abhidhīyate tattva-jñaiḥ | etac charīraṃ devo ‚haṃ mānavo ‚haṃ sthūlo ‚ham ity ajñair ātma-bhedena pratīyamānam api yaḥ śayyāsanādivad-ātmano bhannam ātma-bhoga-mokṣa-sādhanaṃ ca vetti, taṃ vedyāc charīrāt tad-veditṛtayā bhinnaṃ tad-vidaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-svarūpa-jñāḥ kṣetrajñam iti prāhuḥ | bhoga-mokṣa-sādhanatvaṃ śarīrasyoktaṃ śrī-bhagavate –
adanti caikaṃ phalam asya gṛdhnā
grāmecarā ekam araṇya-vāsāḥ |
haṃsā ya ekaṃ bahu-rūpam ijyair
māyā-mayaṃ veda sa veda vedam || iti | [BhP 11.12.23]
śarīrātmavādī tu kṣetrajño na, kṣetratvema taj-jñānābhāvāt
 
 


BhG 13.2

kṣetra-jñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu bhārata
kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor jñānaṃ yat taj jñānaṃ mataṃ mama

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
[tvam] ca (and you) sarva-kṣetreṣu (in all bodies) mām api (me also) kṣetra-jñam (knower of the field) viddhi (you must know).
kṣetra-kṣetra-jñayoḥ (of the field and the knower of the field) yat jñānam (which knowledge)
tat jñānam (that knowledge) mama (by me) matam (is considered).

 

grammar

kṣetra-jñam kṣetra-jña 2n.1 m.knower of the field (from: kṣi – to possess, kṣetra – field; jñā – to know, to understand, -jña – suffix: one who knows);
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
sarva-kṣetreṣu sarva-kṣetra 7n.3 n.; sarveṣu kṣetreṣv itiin all fields (from: sarva – all, whole; kṣi – to possess, kṣetra – field);
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
kṣetra-kṣetrajñayoḥ kṣetra-kṣetra-jña 6n.2 n.; DV: kṣetrasya ca kṣetrajñasya cetiof the field and the knower of the field (from: kṣi – to possess, kṣetra – field; jñā – to know, to understand, -jña – suffix: one who knows);
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
matam mata (man – to think) [PP] 1n.1 n.regarded, esteemed; thought, opinion, view;
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;

 

textual variants


kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi → kṣetra-jñam api / kṣetra-jña iti / kṣetra-jñaṁ vāpi (moreover knower of the field / ‘knower of the field’ / or moreover knower of the field);
kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor → kṣetra-jña-kṣetrayor (of the knower of the field and the field);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajñau uktau | kim etāvan-mātreṇa jñānena jñātavyau? iti nety ucyate—
kṣetrajñaṃ yathokta-lakṣaṇaṃ cāpi māṃ parameśvaram asaṃsāriṇaṃ viddhi jānīhi | sarva-kṣetreṣu yaḥ kṣetrajño brahmādi-stamba-paryantāneka-kṣetropādhi-pravibhaktaḥ | taṃ nirasta-sarvopādhi-bhedaṃ sad-asad-ādi-śabda-pratyayāgocaraṃ viddhīty abhiprāyaḥ | he bhārata ! yasmāt kṣetra-kṣetrajñeśvara-yāthātmya-vyatirekeṇa na jñāna-gocaram anyad avaśiṣṭam asti, tasmāt kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor jñeya-bhūtayor yaj jñānaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajñau yena jñānena viṣayīkriyete, taj jñānaṃ samyag-jñānam iti matam abhiprāyaḥ mameśvarasya viṣṇoḥ ||
nanu sarva-kṣetreṣv eka eveśvaraḥ | nānyas tad-vyatirikto bhoktā vidyate cet, tata īśvarasya saṃsāritvaṃ prāptam | īśvara-vyatirekeṇa vā saṃsāriṇo’nyasyābhāvāt saṃsārābhāva-prasaṅgaḥ | tac cobhayam aniṣṭam, bandha-mokṣa-tad-dhetu-śāstrānarthakya-prasaṅgāt, pratyakṣādi-pramāṇa-virodhāc ca | pratyakṣeṇa tāvat sukha-duḥkha-tad-dhetu-lakṣaṇaḥ saṃsāra upalabhyate | jagad-vaicitryopalabdhe ca dharmādharma-nimittaḥ saṃsāro’numīyate | sarvam etad anupapannam ātmeśvaraikatve | na | jñānājñānayor anyatvenopapatteḥ | dūram ete viparīte viṣūcī avidyā yā ca vidyeti jñātā [kṛtaṭhuttaṃ 1.2.4] tathā tayor vidyāvidyā-viṣayayoḥ phala-bhedo’pi viruddho nirdiṣṭaḥ—śreyaś ca preyaś ca [kṛtaṭhuttaṃ 1.2.2] iti | vidyā-viṣayaḥ śreyaḥ, preyas tv avidyā-kāryam iti | tathā ca vyāsaḥ—dvāv imāv atha panthānau [mātrbh 12.241.6] ity ādi, imau dvāv eva panthānāv ity ādi ca | iha ca dve niṣṭhe ukte | avidyā ca saha kāryeṇa vidyayā hātavyeti śruti-smṛti-nyāyebhyo’vagamyate |
śrutayas tāvat—iha ced avedīd atha satyam asti na ced ihāvedīn mahatī vinaṣṭiḥ [kṛtenauttaṃ 2.5],
tam evaṃ vidvān amṛta iha bhavati [sthitaitteṇa 3.12], nānyaḥ panthā vidyate’yanāya [śāstrvetuttaṃ 3.8] vidvān na bibheti kutaścana [sthitaittuttaṃ 2.9] |
aviduṣas tu—atha tasya bhayaṃ bhavati [sthitaittuttaṃ 2.7], avidyāyām antare vartamānāḥ [kṛtaṭhuttaṃ 1.2.5], brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati [mātruṇḍuttaṃ 3.2.9], anyo’sāv anyo’ham asmīti na sa veda yathā paśur evaṃ sa devānāṃ [bhāvātmauttaṃ 1.4.10] | ātmavid yaḥ sa idaṃ sarvaṃ bhavati [bhāvātmauttaṃ 1.4.10], yadā carmavat [śāstrvetuttaṃ 6.20] ity ādyāḥ sahasraśaḥ |
smṛtayaś ca—ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ [gītā 5.25], ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṃ sāmye sthitaṃ manaḥ [gītā 5.19], samaṃ paśyan hi sarvatra [gītā 13.29] ity ādyāḥ |
nyāyataś ca—
sarpān kuśāgrāṇi tathodapānaṃ
jñātvā manuṣyāḥ parivarjayanti |
ajñānatas tatra patanti kecij jñāne
phalaṃ paśya yathā-viśiṣṭam || [mātrbh 12.201.17] iti |
tathā ca—dehādiṣu ātma-buddhir avidvān rāga-dveṣādi-prayukto dharmādharmānuṣṭhāna-kṛj jāyate mriyate cety avagamyate | dehādi-vyatiriktātma-darśino rāga-dveṣādi-prahāṇāpekṣa-dharmādharma-pravṛtty-upaśamān mucyanta iti na kenacit pratyākhyātuṃ śakyaṃ nyāyataḥ | tatraivaṃ sati, kṣetrajñasyeśvarasyaiva sato’vidyā-kṛtopādhi-bhedataḥ saṃsāritvam iva bhavati, yathā dehādy-ātmatvam ātmanaḥ | sarva-jantūnāṃ hi prasiddho dehādiṣv anātmasu ātma-bhāvo niścito’vidyā-kṛtaḥ, yathā sthāṇau puruṣa-niścayaḥ | na caitāvatā puruṣa-dharmaḥ sthāṇor bhavati, sthāṇu-dharmo vā puruṣasya | tathā na caitanya-dharmo dehasya, deha-dharmo vā cetanasya sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakatvādir ātmano na yuktaḥ | avidyā-kṛtatvāviśeṣāt, jarā-mṛtyuvat |
na, atulyatvāt | iti cet—sthāṇu-puruṣau jñeyāv eva santau jñātrānyonyasminn adhyastāv avidyayā | dehātmanos tu jñeya-jñātror eva itaretarādhyāsaḥ, iti na samo dṛṣṭāntaḥ |
ato deha-dharmo jñeyo’pi jñātur ātmano bhavatīti cet, na | acaitanyādi-prasaṅgāt | yadi hi jñeyasya dehādeḥ kṣetrasya dharmāḥ sukha-duḥkha-mohecchādayo jñātur bhavanti, tarhi, jñeyasya kṣetrasya dharmāḥ kecit ātmano bhavanty avidyādhyāropitāḥ, jarā-maraṇādayas tu na bhavantīti viśeṣa-hetur vaktavyaḥ | na bhavantīty asty anumānaṃ—avidyādhyāropitatvāj jarā-maraṇādivad iti, heyatvāt, upādeyatvāc cety ādi |
tatraivaṃ sati, kartṛtva-bhoktṛtva-lakṣaṇaḥ saṃsāro jñeya-stho jñātary avidyayādhyāropita iti, na tena jñātuḥ kiṃcid duṣyati | yathā bālair adhyāropitenākāśasya tala-malinatvādinā |
evaṃ ca sati, sarva-kṣetreṣv api sato bhagavataḥ kṣetrajñasyeśvarasya saṃsāritva-gandha-mātram api nāśaṅkayam | na hi kvacid api loke’vidyādhyastena dharmeṇa kasyacid upakāro’pakāro vā dṛṣṭaḥ |
yat tūktaṃ—na samo dṛṣṭānta iti, tad asat | kathaṃ ? avidyādhyāsa-mātraṃ hi dṛṣṭānta-dārṣṭāntikayoḥ sādharmyaṃ vivakṣitam | tan na vyabhicarati | yat tu jñātari vyabhicaratīti manyase, tasyāpy anaikāntikatvaṃ darśitaṃ jarādibhiḥ ||
avidyāvattvāt kṣetrajñasya saṃsāritvam iti cet, na | avidyāyās tāmasatvāt | tāmaso hi pratyayaḥ, āvaraṇātmakatvād avidyā viparīta-grāhakaḥ, saṃśayopasthāpako vā, agrahaṇātmako vā | viveka-prakāśa-bhāve tad-abhāvāt tāmase cāvaraṇātmake timirādi-doṣe saty agrahaṇāder avidyā-trayasya upalabdheḥ ||
atrāha—evaṃ tarhi jñātṛ-dharmo’vidyā | na | karaṇe cakṣuṣi taimirikatvādi-doṣopalabdheḥ | yat tu manyase—jñātṛ-dharmo’vidyā, tad eva cāvidyā-dharmavattvaṃ kṣetrajñasya saṃsāritvam | tatra yad uktam īśvara eva kṣetrajñaḥ, na saṃsārīty etad ayuktam iti, tan na | yathā karaṇe cakṣuṣi viparīta-grāhakādi-doṣasya darśanāt | na viparītādi-grahaṇaṃ tan-nimittaṃ vā taimirikatvādi-doṣo grahītuḥ, cakṣuṣaḥ saṃskāreṇa timire’panīte grahītur adarśanān na grahītur dharmo yathā | tathā sarvatraivāgrahaṇa-viparīta-saṃśaya-pratyayās tan-nimittāḥ karaṇasyaiva kasyacit bhavitum arhanti, na jñātuḥ kṣetrajñasya | saṃvedyatvāc ca teṣāṃ pradīpa-prakāśavan na jñātṛ-dharmatvam | saṃvedyatvād eva svātma-vyatirikta-saṃvedyatvam | sarva-karaṇa-viyoge ca kaivalye sarva-vādibhir avidyādi-doṣavat-tvānabhyupagamāt | ātmano yadi kṣetrajñasyāgny-uṣṇavat svo dharmaḥ, tato na kadācid api tena viyogaḥ syāt | avikriyasya ca vyomavat sarva-gatasyāmūrtasya ātmanaḥ kenacit saṃyoga-viyogānupapatteḥ, siddhaṃ kṣetrajñasya nityam eveśvaratvam | anāditvān nirguṇatvād [gītā 13.32] ity ādīśvara-vacanāc ca ||
nanv evaṃ sati saṃsāra-saṃsāritvābhāve śāstrānarthakyādi-doṣaḥ syād iti cet, na | sarvair abhyupagatatvāt | sarvair hy ātma-vādibhir abhyupagato doṣo naikena parihartavyo bhavati | katham abhyupagata iti ? muktātmanāṃ hi saṃsāra-saṃsāritva-vyavahārābhāvaḥ sarvair eva ātma-vādibhir iṣyate | na ca teṣāṃ śāstrānarthakyādi-doṣa-prāptir abhyupagatā | tathā naḥ kṣetrajñānām īśvaraikatve sati, śāstrānarthakyaṃ bhavatu | avidyā-viṣaye cārthavattvaṃ—yathā dvaitināṃ sarveṣāṃ bandhāvasthāyām eva śāstrādy-arthavattvam, na muktāvasthāyām, evam ||
nanv ātmano bandha-muktāvasthe paramārthata eva vastu-bhūte dvaitināṃ sarveṣām | ato heyopādeya-tat-sādhana-sad-bhāve śāstrādy-arthavattvaṃ syāt | advaitināṃ punaḥ, dvaitasyāparamārthatvāt, avidyā-kṛtatvād bandhāvasthāyāś cātmano’paramārthatve nirviṣayatvāt, śāstrādyānarthakyam iti cet, na | ātmano’vasthā-bhedānupapatteḥ | yadi tāvat ātmano bandha-muktāvasthe, yugapat syātām, krameṇa vā | yugapat tāvat virodhān na saṃbhavataḥ sthiti-gatī ivaikasmin | krama-bhāvitve ca, nirnimittatvaṃ sa-nimittatvaṃ vā ? nirnimittatve’nirmokṣa-prasaṅgaḥ | sa-nimittatve ca svato’bhāvāt aparamārthatva-prasaṅgaḥ | tathā ca saty abhyupagama-hāniḥ |
kiṃ ca, bandha-muktāvasthayoḥ paurvāparya-nirūpaṇāyāṃ bandhāvasthā pūrvaṃ prakalpyā, anādimaty antavatī ca | tac ca pramāṇa-viruddham | tathā mokṣāvasthādimaty anantā ca pramāṇa-viruddhaivābhyupagamyate | na cāvasthāvato’vasthāntaraṃ gacchato nityatvam upapādayituṃ śakyam | athānityatva-doṣa-parihārāya bandha-muktāvasthā-bhedo na kalpyate | ato dvaitinām api śāstrānarthakyādi-doṣo’parihārya eva | iti samānatvān nādvaita-vādinā parihartavyo doṣaḥ ||
na ca śāstrānarthakyam, yathā-prasiddhāvidvat-puruṣa-viṣayatvāc chāstrasya | aviduṣāṃ hi phala-hetvor anātmanor ātma-darśanam, na viduṣām | viduṣāṃ hi phala-hetubhyām ātmano’nyatva-darśane sati, tayor aham ity ātma-darśanānupapatteḥ | na hy atyanta-mūḍha unmattādir api jalāgnyoś chāyā-prakāśayor vaikātmyaṃ paśyati | kim uta vivekī | tasmān na vidhi-pratiṣedha-śāstraṃ tāvat phala-hetubhyām ātmano’nyatva-darśino bhavati |
na hi “devadatta, tvam idaṃ kuru” iti kasmiṃścit karmaṇi niyukte, “viṣṇumitro’haṃ niyuktaḥ” iti tatra-stho niyogaṃ sṛṇvann api pratipadyate | viyoga-viṣaya-vivekāgrahaṇāt tūpapadyate pratipattiḥ | tathā phala-hetvor api ||
nanu prākṛta-saṃbandhāpekṣayā yuktaiva pratipattiḥ śāstrārtha-viṣayā—phala-hetubhyām anyātma-viṣaya-darśane’pi sati—iṣṭa-phala-hetau pravartito’smi, aniṣṭa-phala-hetoś ca nivartito’smīti | yathā pitṛ-putrādīnām itaretarātmānyatva-darśane saty apy anyonya-niyoga-pratiṣedhārtha-pratipattiḥ | na | vyatiriktātma-darśana-pratipatteḥ prāg eva phala-hetvor ātmābhimānasya siddhatvāt | pratipanna-niyoga-pratiṣedhārtho hi phala-hetubhyām ātmano’nyatvaṃ pratipadyate, na pūrvam | tasmād vidhi-pratiṣedha-śāstram avidvad-viṣayam iti siddham ||
nanu svarga-kāmo yajeta [ātmapśravaṇrsāṅkhy. 10.2.1] na kalañjaṃ bhakṣayed ity ādāv ātma-vyatireka-darśinām apravṛttau, kevala-dehādy-ātma-dṛṣṭīnāṃ ca | ataḥ kartur abhāvāc chāstrānarthakyam iti cet, na | yathā-prasiddhita eva pravṛtti-nivṛtty-upapatteḥ | īśvara-kṣetrajñaikatva-darśī brahma-vit tāvan na pravartate | tathā nairātmyavādy api nāsti para-loka iti na pravartate | yathā-prasiddhitas tu vidhi-pratiṣedha-śāstra-śravaṇānyathānupapattyānumitātmāstitva ātma-viśeṣānabhijñaḥ karma-phala-saṃjāta-tṛṣṇaḥ śraddadhānatayā ca pravartate | iti sarveṣāṃ na pratyakṣam | ato na śāstrānarthakyam ||
vivekinām apravṛtti-darśanāt tad-anugāminām apravṛttau śāstrānarthakyam iti cet, na | kasyacid eva vivekopapatteḥ | anekeṣu hi prāṇiṣu kaścid eva vivekī syāt, yathedānīm | na ca vivekinam anuvartante mūḍhāḥ, rāgādi-doṣa-tantratvāt pravṛtteḥ, abhicaraṇādau ca pravṛtti-darśanāt, svābhāvyāc ca pravṛtteḥ | svabhāvas tu pravartate [gītā 5.14] iti hi uktam ||
tasmāt avidyā-mātraṃ saṃsāro yathā-dṛṣṭa-viṣaya eva | na kṣetrajñasya kevalasyāvidyā tat-kāryaṃ ca | na ca mithyā-jñānaṃ paramārtha-vastu dūṣayituṃ samartham | na hy ūṣara-deśaṃ snehena paṅkī-kartuṃ śaknoti marīcy-udakam | tathāvidyā kṣetrajñasya na kiṃcit kartuṃ śaknoti | ataś cedam uktaṃ—kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi | ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ [gītā 5.15] iti ca ||
atha kim idaṃ saṃsāriṇām ivāham evaṃ mamaivedam iti paṇḍitānām api ? sṛṇu | idaṃ tat pāṇḍityam, yat kṣetra evātma-darśanam | yadi punaḥ kṣetrajñam avikriyaṃ paśyeyus tato na bhogaṃ karma vākāṅkṣeyur mama syād iti | vikriyaiva bhoga-karmaṇī | athaivaṃ sati, phalārthitvād avidvān pravartate | viduṣaḥ punar avikriyātma-darśinaḥ phalārthitvābhāvāt pravṛtty-anupapattau kārya-karaṇa-saṃghāta-vyāpāroparame nivṛttir upacaryate ||
idaṃ cānyat pāṇḍityaṃ kasyacid astu—kṣetrajña īśvara eva | kṣetraṃ cānyat kṣetrajñasyaiva viṣayaḥ | ahaṃ tu saṃsārī sukhī duḥkhī ca | saṃsāroparamaś ca mama kartavyaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vijñānena, dhyānena ceśvaraṃ kṣetrajñaṃ sākṣāt kṛtvā tat-svarūpāvasthāneneti | yaś caivaṃ budhyate, yaś ca bodhayati, nāsau kṣetrajña iti | evaṃ manvāno yaḥ sa paṇḍitāpaśabdaḥ | saṃsāra-mokṣayoḥ śāstrasya cārthavattvaṃ karomīti | ātmahā svayaṃ mūḍho’nyāṃ ca vyāmohayati śāstrārtha-saṃpradāya-rahitatvāt, śruta-hānim aśruta-kalpanāṃ ca kurvan | tasmāt asaṃpradāya-vit sarva-śāstra-vid api mūrkhavad eva upekṣaṇīyaḥ ||
yat tūktam īśvarasya kṣetrajñaikatve saṃsāritvaṃ prāpnoti | kṣetrajñānāṃ ceśvaraikatve saṃsāriṇo’bhāvāt saṃsārābhāva-prasaṅga iti | etau doṣau pratyuktau vidyāvidyayor vailakṣaṇyābhyupagamād iti | kathaṃ ? avidyā-parikalpita-doṣeṇa tad-viṣayaṃ vastu pāramārthikaṃ na duṣyatīti | tathā ca dṛṣṭanto darśitaḥ—marīcy-ambhasā ūṣara-deśo na paṅkīkriyata iti | saṃsāriṇo’bhāvāt saṃsārābhāva-prasaṅga-doṣo’pi saṃsāra-saṃsāriṇor avidyā-kalpitatvopapattyā pratyuktaḥ ||
nanu avidyāvattvam eva kṣetrajñasya saṃsāritva-doṣaḥ | tat-kṛtaṃ ca sukhitva-duḥkhitvādi pratyakṣam upalabhyate iti cet, na | jñeyasya kṣetra-dharmatvāt, jñātuḥ kṣetrajñasya tat-kṛta-doṣānupapatteḥ | yāvat kiṃcit kṣetrajñasya doṣa-jātam avidyamānam āsañjayasi, tasya jñeyatvopapatteḥ kṣetra-dharmatvam eva, na kṣetrajña-dharmatvam | na ca tena kṣetrajño duṣyati, jñeyena jñātuḥ saṃsargānupapatteḥ | yadi hi saṃsargaḥ syāt, jñeyatvam eva nopapadyeta | yady ātmano dharmo’vidyāvattvaṃ duḥkhitvādi ca kathaṃ bhoḥ pratyakṣam upalabhyate | kathaṃ vā kṣetrajña-dharmaḥ | jñeyaṃ ca sarvaṃ kṣetraṃ jñātaiva kṣetrajña ity avadhārite, avidyā-duḥkhitvādeḥ kṣetrajña-viśeṣaṇatvaṃ kṣetrajña-dharmatvaṃ tasya ca pratyakṣopalabhyatvam iti viruddham ucyate’vidyā-mātrāvaṣṭambhāt kevalam ||
atrāha—sāvidyā kasya ? iti | yasya dṛśyate tasyaiva | kasya dṛśyate ? iti | atrocyate—avidyā kasya dṛśyate iti praśno nirarthakaḥ | kathaṃ ? dṛśyate ced avidyā, tadvantam api paśyasi | na ca tadvaty upalabhyamāne sā kasya ? iti praśno yuktaḥ | na hi gomati upalabhyamāne gāvaḥ kasya ? iti praśno’rthavān bhavati |
nanu viṣamo dṛṣṭāntaḥ | gavāṃ tadvataś ca pratyakṣatvāt tat-saṃbandho’pi pratyakṣa iti praśno nirarthakaḥ | na tathāvidyā tadvāṃś ca pratyakṣau, yataḥ praśno nirarthakaḥ syāt | apratyakṣeṇāvidyāvatāvidyā-saṃbandhe jñāte, kiṃ tava syāt ? avidyāyā anartha-hetutvāt parihartavyā syāt | yasyāvidyā, sa tāṃ parihariṣyati |
nanu mamaivāvidyā | jānāsi tarhy avidyāṃ tadvantaṃ ca ātmānam | jānāmi, na tu pratyakṣeṇa | anumānenaś cej jānāsi, kathaṃ saṃbandhagrahaṇaṃ ? na hi tava jñātuḥ jñeya-bhūtayāvidyayā tat-kāle saṃbandho grahītuṃ śakyate, avidyāyā viṣayatvenaiva jñātur upayuktatvāt | na ca jñātur avidyāyā ca saṃbandhasya yo grahītā, jñānaṃ cānyat tad-viṣayaṃ saṃbhavati | anavasthā-prāpteḥ | yadi jñātrāpi jñeya-saṃbandho jñāyate, anyo jñātā kalpyaḥ syāt, tasyāpy anyaḥ, tasyāpy anyaḥ ity anavasthāparihāryā | yadi punar avidyā jñeyā, anyad vā jñeyaṃ jñeyam eva | tathā jñātāpi jñātaiva, na jñeyaṃ bhavati | yadā caivam, avidyā-duḥkhitvādyair na jñātuḥ kṣetrajñasya kiṃcit duṣyati ||
nanu ayam eva doṣaḥ, yat doṣavat-kṣetra-vijñātṛtvam | na ca vijñāna-svarūpasyaivāvikriyasya vijñātṛtvopacārāt | yathoṣṇatā-mātreṇāgnes tapti-kriyopacāraḥ, tadvat | yathātra bhagavatā kriyākāraka-phalātmatvābhāva ātmani svata eva darśitaḥ—avidyādhyāropita eva kriyā-kārakādir ātmany upacaryate | tathā tatra tatra ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ [gītā 2.19], prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ [gītā 3.27], nādatte kasyacit pāpaṃ [gītā 5.15] ity ādi-prakaraṇeṣu darśitaḥ | tathaiva ca vyākhyātam asmābhiḥ | uttareṣu ca prakaraṇeṣu darśayiṣyāmaḥ ||
hanta ! tarhy ātmani kriyā-kāraka-phalātmatāyāḥ svato’bhāve, avidyayā cādhyāropitatve, karmāṇy avidvat-kartavyāny eva, na viduṣām iti prāptam | satyam evaṃ prāptam, etad eva ca na hi deha-bhṛtā śakyam ity atra darśayiṣyāmaḥ | sarva-śāstrārthopasaṃhāra-prakaraṇe ca samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā ity atra viśeṣato darśayiṣyāmaḥ | alam iha bahu-prapañcanena, iti upasaṃhriyate
 

Rāmānuja


devamanuṣyādisarvakṣetreṣu veditṛtvākāraṃ kṣetrajñaṃ ca māṃ viddhi madātmakaṃ viddhi; kṣetrajñaṃ cāpīti apiśabdāt kṣetram api māṃ viddhīty uktam iti gamyate / yathā kṣetraṃ kṣetrajñaviśeṣaṇataikasvabhāvatayā tadapṛthaksiddheḥ tatsāmānādhikaraṇyenaiva nirdeśyam, tathā kṣetraṃ kṣetrajñaṃ ca madviśeṣaṇataikasvabhāvatayā madapṛthaksiddheḥ matsāmānādhikaraṇyenaiva nirdeśyau viddhi / pṛthivyādisaṃghātarūpasya kṣetrasya kṣetrajñasya ca bhagavaccharīrataikasvarūpatayā bhagavadātmakatvaṃ śrutayo vadanti, „yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhan pṛthivyā antaro yaṃ pṛthivī na veda yasya pṛthivī śarīraṃ yaḥ pṛthivīm antaro yamayati sa ta ātmāntaryāmy amṛtaḥ” ity ārabhya, „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan ātmano ‚ntaro yam ātmā na veda yasyātmā śarīraṃ ya ātmānam antaro yamayati sa ta ātmāntaryāmy amṛtaḥ” ity ādyāḥ / idam evāntaryāmitayā sarvakṣetrajñānām ātmatvenāvasthānaṃ bhagavataḥ tatsāmānādhikaraṇyena vyapadeśahetuḥ / „aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ”, „na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtaṃ carācaram” ,”viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat” iti purastād upariṣṭāc cābhidhāya, madhye sāmānādhikaraṇyena vyapadiśati, „ādityānām ahaṃ viṣṇuḥ” ityādinā / yad idaṃ kṣetrakṣetrajñayoḥ vivekaviṣayaṃ tayor madātmakatvaviṣayaṃ ca jñānam uktam, tad evopādeyaṃ jñānam iti mama matam / kecid āhuḥ „kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi” iti sāmānādhikaraṇyenaikatvam avagamyate / tataś ceśvarasyaiva sato ‚jñānāt kṣetrajñatvam iva bhavatīty abhyupagantavyam / tannivṛttyarthaś cāyam ekatvopadeśaḥ / anena ca āptatamabhagavadupadeśena, „rajjur eṣā na sarpaḥ” ity āptopadeśena sarpatvabhramanivṛttivat kṣetrajñatvabhramo nivartate iti /
te praṣṭavyāḥ ayam upadeṣṭā bhagavān vāsudevaḥ parameśvaraḥ kim ātmayāthātmyasākṣātkāreṇa nivṛttājñānaḥ uta neti / nivṛttājñānaś cet, nirviśeṣacinmātraikasvarūpe ātmani anyatadrūpādhyāsāsaṃbhāvanayā kaunteyādibhedadarśanaṃ, tān praty upadeśādivyāpārāś ca na saṃbhavanti / athātmasākṣātkārābhāvād anivṛttājñānaḥ, na tarhy ajñatvād evātmajñānopadeśasaṃbhavaḥ; „upadekṣyanti te jñānaṃ jñāninas tattvadarśinaḥ” iti hy uktam / ata evam ādivādā anākalitaśrutismṛtītihāsapurāṇanyāyasvavāgvirodhair ajñānibhir jaganmohanāya pravartitā ity anādaraṇīyāḥ / atredaṃ tattvam
acidvastunaś cidvastunaḥ parasya ca brahmaṇo bhogyatvena bhoktṛtvena ceśitṛtvena ca svarūpavivekam āhuḥ kāścana śrutayaḥ, „asmān māyī sṛjate viśvam etat tasmiṃś cānyo māyayā sanniruddhaḥ”, „māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaraṃ”, „kṣaraṃ pradhānam amṛtākṣaraṃ haraḥ kṣarātmānāv īśate deva ekaḥ” amṛtākṣaraṃ haraḥ iti bhoktā nirdiśyate; pradhānam ātmano bhogyatvena haratīti haraḥ „sa kāraṇaṃ karaṇādhipādhipo na cāsya kaściñ janitā na cādhipaḥ”, „pradhānakṣetrajñapatir guṇeśaḥ”, „patiṃ viśvasyātmeśvaraṃ śāśvataṃ śivam acyutam”, „jñājñau dvāv ajāv īśanīśau”, „nityo nityānāṃ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṃ yo vidadhāti kāmān”, „bhoktā bhogyaṃ preritāraṃ ca matvā”, „pṛthagātmānaṃ preritāraṃ ca matvā juṣṭas tatas tenāmṛtatvam eti”, „tayor anyaḥ pippalaṃ svādv atty anaśnann anyo ‚bhicākaśīti”, „ajām ekāṃ lohitaśuklakṛṣṇāṃ bahvīṃ prajāṃ janayantīṃ sarūpām / ajo hy eko juṣamāṇo ‚nuśete jahāty enāṃ bhuktabhogām ajo ‚nyaḥ” ityādyāḥ / atrāpi, „ahaṅkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā / apareyam itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām / jīvabhūtāṃ”, „sarvabhūtāni kauntteya prakṛtiṃ yānti māmikām / kalpakṣaye punas tāni kalpādau visṛjāmy aham // prakṛtiṃ svām avaṣṭabhya visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ / bhūtagrāmam imaṃ kṛtsnam avaśaṃ prakṛter vaśāt // ….. mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtis sūyate sacarācaram / hetunānena kaunteya jagad dhi parivartate // BhGR_13.”, „prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva viddhy anādī ubhāv api”, „mama yonir mahad brahma tasmin garbhaṃ dadhāmy aham / saṃbhavas sarvabhūtānāṃ tato bhavati bhārata” iti / jagadyonibhūtaṃ mahad brahma madīyaṃ prakṛtyākhyaṃ bhūtasūkṣmam acidvastu yat, tasmin cetanākhyaṃ garbhaṃ saṃyojayāmi; tato matsaṅkalpakṛtāc cidacitsaṃsargād eva devādisthāvarāntānām acinmiśrāṇāṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ saṃbhavo bhavatītyarthaḥ /
evaṃ bhoktṛbhogyarūpeṇāvasthitayoḥ sarvāvasthāvasthitayoś cidacitoḥ paramapuruṣaśarīratayā tanniyāmyatvena tadapṛthaksthitiṃ paramapuruṣasya cātmatvam āhuḥ kāścana śrutayaḥ, „yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhan pṛthivyā antaro yaṃ pṛthivī na veda yasya pṛthivī śarīraṃ yaḥ pṛthivīm antaro yamayati” ity ārabhya, „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan ātmano ‚ntaro yam ātmā na veda yasyātmā śarīraṃ ya ātmānam antaro yamayati sa ta ātmāntaryāmyamṛtāḥ” iti; tathā, „yaḥ pṛthivīm antare sañcaran yasya pṛthivī śarīraṃ yaṃ pṛthivī na veda” ity ārabhya, yo ‚kṣaram antare sañcaran yasyākṣaraṃ śarīraṃ yam akṣaraṃ na veda”, „yo mṛtyum antare sañcaran yasya mṛtyuś śarīraṃ yaṃ mṛtyur na veda eṣa sarvabhūtāntarātmāpahatapāpmā divyo deva eko nārāyaṇa”, atra mṛtyuśabdena tamaśśabdavācyaṃ sūkṣmāvastham acidvastv abhidhīyate, asyām evopaniṣadi, „avyaktam akṣare līyate akṣaraṃ tamasi līyate” iti vacanāt „antaḥpraviṣṭaś śāstā janānāṃ sarvātmā” iti ca / evaṃ sarvāvasthāvasthitacidacidvastuśarīratayā tatprakāraḥ paramapuruṣa eva kāryāvasthakāraṇāvasthajagadrūpeṇāvasthita itīmam arthaṃ jñāpayituṃ kāścana śrutayaḥ kāryāvathaṃ kāraṇāvathaṃ ca jagat sa evety āhuḥ, „sad eva somyedam agra āsīd ekam evādvitīyam”, „tad aikṣata bahu syāṃ prajāyeyeti / tat tejo ‚sṛjata” ity ārabhya, „sanmūlās somyemās sarvāḥ prajās sadāyatanās satpratiṣṭhā”, „aitadātmyam idaṃ sarvaṃ tat satyaṃ sa ātmā tat tvam asi śvetaketo” iti / tathā, „so ‚kāmayata, bahu syāṃ prajāyeyeti / sa tapo ‚tapyata, sa tapas taptvā, idaṃ sarvam asṛjata” ity ārabhya, „satyaṃ cāmṛtaṃ ca satyam abhavat” iti / atrāpi śrutyantarasiddhiś cidacitoḥ paramapuruṣasya ca svarūpavivekaḥ smāritaḥ, „hantāham imās tisro devatā anena jīvenātmanānupraviśya nāmarūpe vyākaravāṇi”, „tat sṛṣṭvā, tad evānupraviśat, tadanupraviśya, sac ca tyac cābhavat ….. vijñānaṃ cāvijñānaṃ ca satyaṃ cānṛtaṃ ca satyam abhavat” iti ca / evaṃbhūtam eva nāmarūpavyākaraṇam, „tad dhedaṃ tarhy avyākṛtam āsīt, tannāmarūpābhyāṃ vyākriyata” ity atrāpy uktam /
ataḥ kāryāvasthaḥ kāraṇāvasthaś ca sthūlasūkṣmacidacidvastuśarīraḥ paramapuruṣa eveti, kāraṇāt kāryasyānanyatvena kāraṇavijñānena kāryasya jñātatayaikavijñānena sarvavijñānaṃ ca samīhitam upapannataram / „hantāham imās tisro devatā anena jīvenātmanānupraviśya nāmarūpe vyākaravāṇi” iti, „tisro devatāḥ” iti sarvam acidvastu nirdiśya tatra svātmakajīvānupraveśena nāmarūpavyākaraṇavacanāt sarve vācakāḥ śabdāḥ acijjīvaviśiṣṭaparamātmana eva vācakā iti kāraṇāvasthaparamātmavācinā śabdena kāryavācinaḥ śabdasya sāmānādhikaraṇyaṃ mukhyavṛttam / ataḥ sthūlasūkṣmacidacitprakāraṃ brahmaiva kāryaṃ kāraṇaṃ ceti brahmopādānaṃ jagat / sūkṣmacidacidvastuśarīraṃ brahmaiva kāraṇam iti jagato brahmopādānatve ‚pi saṃghātasyopādānatvena cidacitor brahmaṇaś ca svabhāvāsaṅkaro ‚py upapannataraḥ / yathā śuklakṛṣṇaraktatantusaṃghātopādānatve ‚pi citrapaṭasya tattattantupradeśa eva śauklyādisaṃbandha iti kāryāvasthāyām api na sarvatra varṇasaṅkaraḥ tathā cidacidīśvarasaṃghātopādānatve ‚pi jagataḥ kāryāvasthāyām api bhoktṛtvabhogyatvaniyantṛtvādyasaṅkaraḥ / tantūnāṃ pṛthaksthitiyogyānām eva puruṣecchayā kadācit saṃhatānāṃ kāraṇatvaṃ kāryatvaṃ ca; iha tu cidacitos sarvāvasthayoḥ paramapuruṣaśarīratvena tatprakāratayaiva padārthatvāt tatprakāraḥ paramapuruṣa eva karāṇa kāryaṃ ca; sa eva sarvadā sarvaśabdavācya iti viśeṣaḥ / svabhāvabhedas tadasaṅkaraś ca tatra cātra ca tulyaḥ / evaṃ ca sati parasya brahmaṇaḥ kāryānupraveśe ‚pi svarūpānyathābhāvābhāvād avikṛtatvam upapannataram / sthūlāvasthasya nāmarūpavibhāgavibhaktasya cidacidvastunaḥ ātmatayāvasthānāt kāryatvam apy upapannam / avasthāntarāpattir eva hi kāryatā / nirguṇavādāś ca parasya brahmaṇo heyaguṇasaṃbandhābhāvād upapadyante / „apahatapāpmā vijaro vimṛtyur viśoko vijighatso ‚pipāsaḥ” iti heyaguṇān pratiṣidhya, „satyakāmas satyasaṅkalpaḥ” iti kalyāṇaguṇagaṇān vidadhatīyaṃ śrutir eva anyatra sāmānyenāvagataṃ guṇaniṣedhaṃ heyaguṇaviṣayaṃ vyavasthāpayati / jñānasvarūpa brahma iti vādaś ca sarvajñasya sarvaśakter nikhilaheyapratyanīkakaylāṇaguṇākarasya brahmaṇaḥ svarūpaṃ jñānaikanirūpaṇīyaṃ svaprakāśatayā jñānasvarūpaṃ cety abhyupagamād upapannataraḥ / „yas sarvajñaḥ sarvavit”, „parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate svābhāvikī jñānabalakriyā ca, „vijñātāram are kena vijānīyāt” ityādikāḥ jñātṛtvam āvedayanti / „satyaṃ jñānam” ityādikāś ca jñānaikanirūpaṇīyatayā svaprakāśatayā ca jñānasvarūpatām / „so ‚kāmayata bahu syām”, „tad aikṣata bahu syām”, „tan nāmarūpābhyām eva vyākriyata” iti brahmaiva svasaṅkalpād vicitrasthiratrasarūpatayā nānāprakāram avasthitam iti tatpratyanīkābrahmātmakavastunānātvam atattvam iti pratiṣidhyate, „mṛtyuḥ sa mṛtyum āpnoti ya iha nāneva paśyati ….. neha nānāsti kiñcana”, „yatra hi dvaitam iva bhavati tad itara itaraṃ paśyati / yatra tv asya sarvam ātmaivābhūt tat kena kaṃ paśyet” ityādinā / na punaḥ, „bahu syāṃ prajāyeya” ityādiśrutisiddhaṃ svasaṅkalpakṛtaṃ brahmaṇo nānānāmarūpabhāktvena nānāprakāratvam api niṣidhyate / „yatra tv asya sarvam ātmaivābhūt” iti niṣedhavākyārambhe ca tat sthāpitam, „sarvaṃ taṃ parādād yo ‚nyatarātmanas sarvaṃ veda”, „tasya etasya mahato bhūtasya niśśvasitam etad yad ṛgvedaḥ” ityādinā /
evaṃ cidacidīśvarāṇāṃ svarūpabhedaṃ svabhāvabhedaṃ ca vadantīnāṃ kāryakāraṇabhāvaṃ kāryakāraṇayor ananyatvaṃ vadantīnāṃ ca sarvāsāṃ śrutīnām avirodhaḥ, cidacitoḥ paramātmanaś ca sarvadā śarīrātmabhāvaṃ śarīrabhūtayoḥ kāraṇadaśāyāṃ nāmarūpavibhāgānarhasūkṣmadaśāpattiṃ kāryadaśāyāṃ ca tadarhasthūladaśāpattiṃ vadantībhiḥ śrutibhir eva jñāyata iti brahmājñānavādasyāupādhikabrahmabhedavādasya anyasyāpi apanyāyamūlasya sakalaśrutiviruddhasya na kathaṃcid apy avakāśo dṛśyata ity alam ativistareṇa
 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ saṃsāriṇaḥ svarūpam uktam | idānīṃ tasyaiva pāramārthikam asaṃsāri-svarūpam āha kṣetrajñam iti | ta ca kṣetrajñaṃ saṃsāriṇaṃ jīvaṃ vastutaḥ sarva-kṣetreṣv anugataṃ mām eva viddhi | tattvam asi iti śrutyā lakṣitena cid-aṃśena mad-rūpasyoktatvāt ādarārtham eva taj-jñānaṃ stauti | kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor yad evaṃ vailakṣaṇeyan jñānaṃ tad eva mokṣa-hetutvān mama jñanaṃ matam | anyat tu vṛthā-pāṇḍityam | bandha-hetutvād ity arthaḥ | tad uktaṃ —
tat karma yan na bandhāya
sā vidyā yā vimuktaye |
āyāsāyāparaṃ karma
vidyānyā śilpa-naipuṇam || iti |
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ dehendriyādi-vilakṣaṇaṃ sva-prakāśaṃ kṣetrajñam abhidhāya tasya pāramārthikaṃ tattvam asaṃsāri-paramātmanaikyam āha kṣetrajñam apīti |
sarva-kṣetreṣu ya ekaḥ kṣetrajñaḥ svaprakāśa-caitanya-rūpo nityo vibhuś ca tam avidyādhyāropita-kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvādi-saṃsāra-dharmaṃ kṣetrajñam avidyaka-rūpa-parityāgena mām īśvaram asaṃsāriṇam advitīya-brahmānanda-rūpaṃ viddhi jānīhi | he bhārata ! evaṃ ca kṣetraṃ māyā-kalpitaṃ mithyā | kṣetrajñaś ca paramārtha-satyas tad-bhramādhiṣṭhānam iti kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor yaj jñānaṃ tad eva mokṣa-sādhanatvāj jñānam avidyā-virodhi-prakāśa-rūpaṃ mama matam anyat tv ajñānam eva tad-virodhitvād ity abhiprāyaḥ |
atra jīveśvarayor āvidyako bhedaḥ pāramārthikas tv abheda ity atra yuktayo bhāṣya-kṛdbhir varṇitāḥ | asmābhis tu grantha-vistara-bhayāt prāg eva bahudhoktatvāc ca nopanyastāḥ
 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ kṣetra-jñānāt jīvātmanaḥ kṣetrajñatvam uktam, paramātmanas tu tato ‚pi kārtsnyena sarva-kṣetrajñatvāt kṣetrajñatvam āha kṣetrajñam iti | sarva-kṣetreṣu niyantṛtvena sthitaṃ māṃ paramātmānaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ viddhi | jīvānāṃ pratyekam akaika-kṣetra-jñnānāṃ tad api na kṛtsnam | mama tv ekasyaiva sarva-kṣetrajñatvaṃ kṛtsnam eveti viśeṣo jñeyaḥ | kiṃ jñānam ity apekṣāyām āha kṣetreṇa saha kṣetrajñayor jīvātma-paramātanor yaj jñānaṃ kṣetra-jīvātma-paramātmanāṃ yaj jñānam ity arthaḥ | tad eva jñānaṃ mama mataṃ sammataṃ ca | tatra -grantha-virodhād vyākhyāntareṇa ekātmavāda-pakṣo nānukartavyaḥ
 

Baladeva


kṣetra-jñānāj jīvātmanaḥ kṣetrajñatvam uktam | atha paramātmanas tad āha kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi mām iti | he bhārat sarva-kṣetreṣu māṃ ca kṣetrajñaṃ viddhi | apir avadhāraṇe | jīvāḥ svaṃ svaṃ kṣetraṃ svabhoga-mokṣa-sādhanaṃ jānantaḥ kṣetrajñāḥ prajāvat | ahaṃ tu sarveśvara eka eva sarvāṇi tāni bhartavyāni ca jānan tat-sarva-kṣetrajño rājavad ity arthaḥ | sarveśvarsyāpi kṣetreśvarasyāpi kṣetrajñatvaṃ —
kṣetrāṇi hi śarīrāṇi
bījaṃ cāpi śubhāśubhe |
tāni vetti sa yogātmā
tataḥ kṣetrajña ucyate || ity ādi smṛtibhyaḥ |
kiṃ jñānam ity apekṣāyām āha kṣetreti | kṣetreṇa sahitau kṣetrajñau jīva-parau kṣetra-kṣetrajñau | tat-sahitayos tayor mitho vivekena yaj-jñānaṃ tad eva jñānaṃ mama matam | tato ‚nyathā tv ajñānam ity arthaḥ |
idam atra bodhyam –prakṛti-jīveśvarāṇāṃ bhogyatva-bhoktṛtva-niyantṛtva-dharmakatvān mithaḥ-sampṛktānām api teṣāṃ na tat tad-dharma-sāṅkaryaṃ citrāmbara-rūpavad ity evam āha sūtrakāraḥ — na tu dṛṣṭānta-bhāvāt iti | śrutayaś ca prakṛty-ādīnāṃ vivikta-tad-dharmakatām āhuḥ [cytwane wersety znajdują się w komentarzu Ramanudźy] –
pṛthag ātmānaṃ preritāraṃ ca matvā
juṣṭas tatas tenāmṛtatvam eti | [ŚvetU 1.6]
jñājñau dvāv ajāv īśānīśānāv ajā
hy ekā bhoktṛ-bhogārtha-yuktau | [ŚvetU 1.9]
kṣaraṃ pradhānam amṛtākṣaraṃ haraḥ
kṣarātmānāv īśate deva ekaḥ | [ŚvetU 1.10]
bhoktā bhogyaṃ preritāraṃ ca matvā
sarvaṃ proktaṃ trividhaṃ brahmam etat | [ŚvetU 1.12]
ajām ekām lohita-śukla-kṛṣṇāṃ
bahvīḥ prajāḥ sṛjamānāṃ sarūpāḥ |
ajo hy eko juṣamāṇo ‚nuśete
jahāty enāṃ bhukta-bhogāṃ ajo ‚nyaḥ || [ŚvetU 4.5]
pradhāna-kṣetrajña-patir guṇeśaḥ | [ŚvetU 6.16] ity ādayaḥ |
atrāpi kṣarākṣara-śabda-bodhyāt kṣetra-kṣetrajña-rūpād yugalāt svasya puruṣottamasyānyatvaṃ vakṣyati dvāv imau puruṣau ity ādibhis tasmān mithaḥ sampṛktānām api prakṛty-ādīnāṃ viviktatayā jñānaṃ tāttvikam iti |
yat tv ekātma-vādinaḥ kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi ity atra sāmānādhikaraṇya-pratītyā sarveśvarasyaiva sato ‚syā vidyayaiva kṣetrajña-bhāvo rajjor iva bhujaṅgamatvam | tan-nivṛttaye harer āptatamasyedaṃ vākyaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi mām iti rajjur iyaṃ na bhujaṅga ity āpta-vākyād bhujaṅgatva-bhrāntir iva kṣetrajñatva-bhrāntir asmād vākyād vinaśyatīty āhus tat kilopadeśyāsambhavād eva nirastam iti dehino ‚smin ity asya bhāṣye draṣṭavyam | evaṃ tu vyākhyātaṃ yujyate | ca-śabdaḥ kṣetra-samuccayārthaḥ | kṣetraṃ kṣetrajñaṃ ca mām eva viddhi | mad-adhīna-sthiti-pravṛttikatvān mad-vyāpyatvāc ca mad-ātmakaṃ jānīhīti | evam evoktaṃ kṣetra-ksetrajñayor iti | tayor mad-adhīna-pravṛttikatvādibhir mad-ātmakatayā yaj-jñānaṃ taj jñānaṃ mama matam ito ‚nyathā tv amatam iti |
 
 


BhG 13.3

tat kṣetraṃ yac ca yādṛk ca yad-vikāri yataś ca yat
sa ca yo yat-prabhāvaś ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu

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syntax


yat tat kṣetram (what that field) ca yādṛk (and what kind) ca yad-vikāri (and by what it transforms / which transforms) yataḥ ca (and from what) yat (that which).
saḥ ca yaḥ (and he who) yat-prabhāvaḥ (what is his might)
tat (that) samāsena (in summary) me (from me) śṛṇu (you must listen).

 

grammar

tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
kṣetram kṣetra 1n.1 n.field (from: kṣi – to possess);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
ca av.and;
yādṛk av.what kind (from: yat – that which; xdṛś – to see, dṛś – suffix: seen, known);
ca av.and;
yad-vikāri yad-vikārin 1n.1 n.; yena vikārītiskutkiem czego podlegający zmianie (from: yat – that which; vi-kṛ to transform, vikāra – change, transformation, vikārin – which undergoes transformation; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
or yad vikārītiwhat changes;
yataḥ av.from which (from: yat – that which; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
ca av.and;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
ca av.and;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
yat-prabhāvaḥ yat-prabhāva 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya yaḥ prabhāvo ‘stītiktórego jaki jest majestat (from: yat – which; pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, prabhava – birth, source, prabhāva – might, majesty, power);
ca av.and;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
samāsena av. (3n.1) – in summary (from: sam-ās – to sit together, to join, samāsa – compound);
me asmat sn. 6n.1my (shortened form of: mama);
śṛṇu śru (to hear, to listen) Imperat. P 2v.1you must listen;

 

textual variants


tat kṣetraṁ → yat kṣetram (which field);
yac ca→ yaś ca (and which);
yat-prabhāvaś → yat-svabhāvaś (whose own nature);
 
 



Śāṃkara


idaṃ śarīraṃ [gītā 13.2] ity-ādi-ślokopadiṣṭasya kṣetrādhyāyārthasya saṃgraha-śloko’yam upanyasyate tat kṣetraṃ yac cety ādi, vyācikhyāsitasya hy arthasya saṃgrahopanyāso nyāyya iti—
yan nirdiṣṭam idaṃ śarīram iti tat tac-chabdena parāmṛśati | yac ca idaṃ nirdiṣṭaṃ kṣetraṃ tat yādṛk yādṛśaṃ svakīyair dharmaiḥ | ca-śabdaḥ samuccayārthaḥ | yad-vikāri yo vikāro yasya tat yad-vikāri, yato yasmāc ca yat, kāryam utpadyate iti vākya-śeṣaḥ | sa ca yaḥ kṣetrajño nirdiṣṭaḥ sa yat-prabhāvo ye prabhāvā upādhi-kṛtāḥ śaktayo yasya sa yat-prabhāvaś ca | tat kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor yāthātmyaṃ yathā-viśeṣitaṃ samāsena saṃkṣepeṇa me mama vākyataḥ śṛṇu | śrutvāvadhāraya ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


tat kṣetraṃ yac ca yad dravyam, yādṛk ca yeṣām āśrayabhūtam, yadvikāri ye cāsya vikārāḥ, yataś ca yato hetor idam utpannam; yasmai prayojanāyotpannam ityarthaḥ, yat yatsvarūpaṃ cedam, sa ca yaḥ sa ca kṣetrajño yaḥ yatsvarūpaḥ, yatprabhāvaś ca ye cāsya prabhāvāḥ, tat sarvam, samāsena saṃkṣepeṇa mattaḥ śṛṇu
 

Śrīdhara


tatra yady api caturviṃśatyā bhedair bhinnā prakṛtiḥ kṣetram ity ābhipretaṃ tathāpi deha-rūpeṇa pariṇatāyām eva tasyām ahaṃ-bhāvena avivekaḥ sphuṭa iti | tad-vivekārtham idaṃ śarīraṃ kṣetram ity ādy uktam | tad etat prapañcayiṣyan pratijānīte tad iti | yad uktaṃ mayā kṣetraṃ tat kṣetraṃ yat svarūpato jaḍaṃ dṛśyādi-svabhāvām | yādṛg yādṛśaṃ ca icchādi-dharmakam | yad-vikāri yair indriyādi-vikārair yuktam | yataś ca prakṛti-puruṣa-saṃyogād bhavati | yad iti yaiḥ prakāraiḥ sthāvara-jaṅgamādi-bhedaiḥ, bhinnam ity arthaḥ | sa ca kṣetrajño yat-svarūpo yat-prabhāvaś ca acintyaiśvarya-yogena yaiḥ prabhāvaiḥ sampannaḥ taṃ sarvaṃ saṅkṣepeto mattaḥ śṛṇu
 

Madhusūdana


saṃkṣepeṇoktam arthaṃ vivarītum ārabhate tat kṣetram iti | tad idaṃ śarīram iti prāg uktaṃ jaḍa-varga-rūpaṃ kṣetraṃ yac ca svarūpeṇa jaḍa-dṛśya-paricchinnādi-svabhāvaṃ yādṛk cecchādi-dharmakaṃ yad-vikāri yair indriyādi-vikārair yuktam | yataś ca kāraṇād yat kāryam utpadyata iti śeṣaḥ | athavā yataḥ prakṛti-puruṣa-saṃyogād bhavati | yad iti yaiḥ sthāvara-jaṅgamādi-bhedair bhinnam ity arthaḥ | atrāniyamena ca-kāra-prayogāt sarva-samuccayo draṣṭavyaḥ | sa ca kṣetrajñayor yaḥ svarūpataḥ sva-prakāśa-caitanyānanda-svabhāvaḥ | yat-prabhāvaś ca ye prabhāvā upādhi-kṛtāḥ śaktayo yasya tat-kṣetra-kṣetrajña-yāthātmyaṃ sarva-viśeṣaṇa-viśiṣṭaṃ samāsena saṃkṣepeṇa me mama vacanāc chṛṇu | śrutvāvadhārayety arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


saṅkṣepeṇoktam arthaṃ vivaritum ārabhate tat kṣetraṃ śarīraṃ yac ca mahābhūta-prāṇendriyādi-saṅghāta-rūpam | yādṛk yādṛśecchādi-dharmakam | yad vikāri vairi-priyādi-vikārair yuktam | yataś ca prakṛti-puruṣa-saṃyogād udbhūtam | yad iti yaiḥ sthāvara-jaṅgamādi-bhedair bhinnam ity arthaḥ | sa kṣetrajño jīvātmā paramātmā ca | yat tad iti napuṃsakam anapuṃsakennaikavac ceti eka-śeṣaḥ | samāsena saṅkṣepeṇa
 

Baladeva


saṅkṣepeṇoktam arthaṃ viśadayitum āha tad iti | tat kṣetraṃ śarīraṃ yac ca yad dravyaṃ yādṛk yad-āśraya-bhūtaṃ yad-vikāri yair vikārair upetaṃ | yataś ca hetor udbhūtaṃ yat prayojanakaṃ ca | yad iti yat svarūpaṃ | sa ca kṣetrajño jīva-lakṣaṇaḥ pareśa-lakṣaṇaś ca yo yat svarūpo ya-prabhāvo yac-chaktikaś ca | napuṃsakam anapuṃsakenaikav cāsyānyatrasyām iti sūtrāt
 
 


BhG 13.4

ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītaṃ chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak
brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva hetu-madbhir viniścitaiḥ

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syntax


ṛṣibhiḥ (by the sages) vividhaiḥ chandobhiḥ (by manifold Vedic hymns) viniścitaiḥ hetu-madbhiḥ (by ascertained arguments) brahma-sūtra-padaiḥ ca eva (and indeed by the words of Brahma-sūtras) pṛthak (separately) bahudhā (in many ways) gītam [asti] (it is sung).

 

grammar

ṛṣibhiḥ ṛṣi 3n.3 m.by sages, by seers;
bahudhā av. in many ways, manifold (from: bahu – many, great; -dhā – suffix to form manifold numerals);
gītam gīta (xgai – to sing) [PP] 1n.1 n.sung;
chandobhiḥ chandas 3n.3 n.by Vedic hymns (from: chandas – desire, will);
vividhaiḥ vi-vidha 3n.3 n.by manifold;
pṛthak av.separately, one by one (from: pṛth – to extend);
brahma-sūtra-padaiḥ brahma-sūtra-pada 3n.3 n.; brahma-sūtrāṇām padair itiprzez słowa Brahma-sutr (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; siv – to sew, to stitch, to join, sūtra – thread, line, short sentence; Brahma-sūtra – work treating of the knowledge of Brahman, Vedānta-sūtra; pad – to fall, to go, to apply to, pada – step, foot, mark, site, part, word);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
hetu-madbhiḥ hetu-mant 3n.3 n.by those having a reason, by arguments (from: hetu – cause, motive, reason; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
viniścitaiḥ vi-niścita (nir-ci – to ascertain, to resolve) [PP] 3n.3 n.by ascertained, by settled;

 

textual variants


bahudhābahubhir (by manifold);
viniścitaiḥ → viniścitaṁ (certainly);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tat kṣetra-kṣetrajña-yāthātmyaṃ vivakṣitaṃ stauti śrotṛ-buddhi-prarocanārthaṃ—
ṛṣibhir vasiṣṭhādibhir bahudhā bahu-prakāraṃ gītaṃ kathitam | chandobhiś chandāṃsi ṛg-ādīni taiś chandobhir vividhair nānā-bhāvair nānā-prakāraiḥ pṛthag vivekato gītam | kiṃ ca, brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva brahmaṇaḥ sūcakāni vākyāni brahma-sūtrāṇi taiḥ padyate gamyate jñāyata iti tāni padāny ucyante tair eva ca kṣetra-kṣetrajña-yāthātmyaṃ gītam ity anuvartate | ātmety evopāsīta ity evam ādibhir brahma-sūtra-padair ātmā jñāyate | hetumadbhir yukti-yuktair viniścitair niḥsaṃśaya-rūpair niścita-pratyayotpādakair ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


tad idaṃ kṣetrakṣetrajñayāthātmyam ṛṣibhiḥ parāśarādibhiḥ bahudhā bahuprakāraṃ gītam „ahaṃ tvam ca tathānye ca bhūtair uhyāma pārthiva / guṇapravāhapatito bhūtavargo ‚pi yātyayam // karmavaśyā guṇā hy ete sattvādyāḥ pṛthivīpate / avidyāsañcitaṃ karma tac cāśeṣeṣu jantuṣu // ātmā śuddho ‚kṣaraś śānto nirguṇaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ // BhGR_13.”; tathā, „piṇḍaḥ pṛthak yataḥ puṃsaḥ śiraḥpāṇyādilakṣaṇaḥ / tato ‚ham iti kutraitāṃ saṃjñāṃ rājan karomy aham”; tathā ca, „kiṃ tvam etacchiraḥ kiṃ nu urastava tathodaram / kim u pādādikaṃ tvaṃ vai tavaitat kiṃ mahīpate // samastāvayavebhyas tvaṃ pṛthak bhūya vyavasthitaḥ / ko ‚ham ity eva nipuṇo bhūtvā cintaya pārthiva // BhGR_13.” iti / evaṃ viviktayor dvayoḥ vāsudevātmakatvaṃ cāhuḥ, „indriyāṇi mano buddhis sattvaṃ tejo balaṃ dhṛtiḥ / vāsudevātmakāny āhuḥ kṣetraṃ kṣetrajñam eva ca // BhGR_13.” iti / chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak pṛthagvidhaiś chandobhiś ca ṛgyajussāmātharvabhiḥ dehātmanoḥ svarūpaṃ pṛthag gītam „tasmād vā etasmād ātmana ākāśas saṃbhūtaḥ / ākāśād vāyuḥ / vāyor agniḥ / agner āpaḥ / adbhyaḥ pṛthivī / pṛthivyā oṣadhayaḥ / oṣadhībhyo ‚nnam / annāt puruṣaḥ / sa vā eṣa puruṣo ‚nnarasamayaḥ” iti śarīrasvarūpam abhidhāya tasmād antaraṃ prāṇamayaṃ tasmāc cāntaraṃ manomayam abhidhāya, „tasmād vā etasmād manomayād anyo ‚ntara ātmā vijñānamayaḥ” iti kṣetrajñasvarūpam abhidhāya, „tasmād vā etasmād vijñānamayād anyo ‚ntara ātmānandamayaḥ” iti kṣetrajñasyāpy antarātmatayā ānanndamayaḥ paramātmābhihitaḥ / evam ṛksāmātharvasu ca tatra tatra kṣetrakṣetrajñayoḥ pṛthagbhāvas tayor brahmātmakatvaṃ ca suspaṣṭaṃ gītam / brahmasūtrapadaiś caiva brahmapratipādanasūtrākhyaiḥ padaiḥ śārīrakasūtraiḥ, hetumadbhiḥ heyayuktaiḥ, viniścitaiḥ nirṇayāntaiḥ; „na viyad aśruteḥ” ityārabhya kṣetraprakāranirṇaya uktaḥ / „nātmā śruter nityatvāc ca tābhyaḥ” ityārabhya kṣetrajñayāthātmyanirṇaya uktaḥ / „parāt tu tacchruteḥ” iti bhagavatpravartyatvena bhagavadātmakatvam uktam / evaṃ bahudhā gītaṃ kṣetrakṣetrajñayāthātmyaṃ mayā saṃkṣepeṇa suspaṣṭam ucyamānaṃ śṛṇv ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kair vistareṇoktasyāyaṃ saṅkṣepa ity apekṣāyām āha ṛṣibhir iti | ṛṣibhir vaśiṣṭhādibhiḥ | yoga-śāstreṣu dhyāna-dhāraṇādi-viṣayatvena virājādirūpeṇa bahudhā gītaṃ nirūpitam | vividhair vicitrair nitya-naimittaika-kāmya-karmādi-viṣayaiḥ | chandobhir vedaiḥ | nānā-yajanīya-devatādi-rūpeṇa bahudhā gītam | brahmaṇaḥ sūtraiḥ padaiś ca | brahma sūtryate sūcyate ebhir iti brahma-sūtrāṇi | yato vā imāni bhūtāni jāyante [TaittU 3.1.1] ity ādīni taṭastha-lakṣaṇa-parāṇy upaniṣad-vākyāni | tathā ca brahma padyate gamyate sākṣāj jñāyata ebhir iti padāni svarūpa-lakṣaṇa-parāṇi satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahma ity ādīni | taiś ca bahudhā gītam | kiṃ ca hetumadbhiḥ sad eva saumyedam agra āsīt katham asataḥ saj jāyeta [Chā 6.2.1] iti | tathā ko hy evānyāt kaḥ prāṇyāt yad eṣa ākāśa ānando na syāt eṣa hy evānandayati [TaittU 2.7.1] ity ādi yuktimadbhiḥ | anyād apāna-ceṣṭāṃ kaḥ kuryāt | prāṇyāt prāṇa-vyāpāraṃ vā kaḥ kuryāt iti śruti-padayor arthaḥ | viniścitair upakramopasaṃhāraika-vākyatayā ‚sandigdhārtha-pratipādakair ity arthaḥ | tad evam etair vistareṇoktaṃ duḥsaṅgrahaṃ saṅkṣepatas tubhyaṃ kathayiṣyāmi | tac chṛṇv ity arthaḥ | yad vā athāto brahma-jijñāsā [Vs. 1.1.1] ity ādīni brahma-sūtrāṇi gṛhyante | tāny eva brahma padyate niścīyate ebhir iti padāni | tair hetumadbhiḥ īkṣater nāśabdam [Vs. 1.1.5], ānandamayo ‚bhyāsāt [Vs 1.1.13] ity ādibhir yuktimadbhir viniścitair ity arthaḥ | śeṣaṃ samānam
 

Madhusūdana


kair vistareṇoktasyāyaṃ saṃkṣepa ity apekṣāyāṃ śrotṛ-buddhi-prarocanārthaṃ stuvann āha ṛṣibhir iti | ṛṣibhir vasiṣṭhādibhir yoga-śāstreṣu dhāraṇā-dhyāna-viṣayatvena bahudhā gītaṃ nirūpitam | etena yoga-śāstra-pratipādyatvam uktam | vividhair nitya-naimittika-kāmya-karmādi-viṣayaiś chandobhir ṛg-ādi-mantrair brāhmaṇaiś ca pṛthag vivekato gītam | etena karma-kāṇḍa-pratipādyatvam uktam | brahma-sūtra-padaiś ca brahma sūtryate sūcyate kiṃcid vyavadhānena pratipādyata ebhir iti brahma-sūtrāṇi — yato vā imāni bhūtāni jāyante | yena jātāni jīvanti | yat prayanty abhisaṃviśanti | [TaittU 3.1.1] ity ādīni taṭastha-lakṣaṇa-parāṇy upaniṣad-vākyāni tathā padyate brahma sākṣāt pratipādyata ebhir iti padāni svarūpa-lakṣaṇa-parāṇi satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahma ity ādīni tair brahma-sūtraiḥ padaiś ca | hetumadbhiḥ — sad eva saumyedam agra āsīd.. ekam evādvitīyam [Chā 6.2.1] ity upakramya tad dhaika āhur asad evedam agra āsīd ekam evādvitīyaṃ tasmād asataḥ saj jāyate iti nāstika-matam upanyasya kutas tu khalu somyaivaṃ syād iti hovāca katham asataḥ saj jāyate ity ādi-yuktīḥ pratipādayadbhir viniścitair upakramopasaṃhāraika-vākyatayā sandeha-śūnyārtha-pratipādakair bahudhā gītaṃ ca | etena jñāna-kāṇḍa-pratipādyatvam uktam | evam etair ativastareṇoktaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-yāthātmyaṃ saṃkṣepeṇa tubhyaṃ kathayiṣyāmi tac chṛṇv ity arthaḥ | athavā brahma-sūtrāṇi tāni padāni ceti karma-dhārayaḥ | tatra vidyā-sūtrāṇi ātmety evopāsīta ity ādīni avidyā-sūtrāṇi na sa veda yathā paśuḥ ity ādīni tair gītam iti
 

Viśvanātha

kair vistareṇoktasyāyaṃ saṅkṣepa ity apekṣāyām āha ṛṣibhir vaśiṣṭhādibhir yoga-śāstreṣu | chandobhir vedaiḥ | brahma-sūtrāṇi athāto brahma-jijñāsā [Vs. 1.1.1] ity ādīni tāny eva sūtrāṇi | brahma padyate jñāyate ebhir iti tāni | tathā taiḥ kīdṛśair hetumadbhiḥ | īkṣater nāśabdam [Vs. 1.1.5], ānandamayo ‚bhyāsāt [Vs. 1.1.13] iti yuktimadbhir viniścitair viśeṣato niścitārthaiḥ
 

Baladeva


idaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-yāthātmyaṃ kair vistareṇoktaṃ yat samāsena brūṣa ity apekṣāyām āha ṛṣibhir iti | ṛṣibhiḥ parāśarādibhir etat kṣetrādi-svarūpaṃ bahudhā gītam –
ahaṃ tvaṃ ca tathānye bhūtair uhyāma pārthiva |
guṇa-pravāha-patito bhūta-vargo ‚pi yāty ayam ||
karma-vaśyā guṇā hy ete sattvādyāḥ pṛthivī-pate |
avidyā-sañcitaṃ karma tac cāśeṣeṣu jantuṣu ||
ātmā śuddho ‚kṣaraḥ śānto nirguṇaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ |
pravṛddhy-apacayau nāsya ekasyākhila-jantuṣu || [ViP 2.13.69]
ity ādibhiḥ | tathā chandobhir vedair vividhair sarvair bahudhā tad gītaṃ yajuḥ-śākhāyāṃ tasmād vā etasmād ātmana ākāśaḥ sambhūtaḥ [TaittU 2.1.3] ity ādinā brahma pucchaṃ pratiṣṭhā [TaittU 2.5.1] ity antenānnamaya-prāṇa-maya-mano-maya-vijñāna-mayānanda-mayāḥ pañca puruṣāḥ paṭhitās teṣv anna-mayādi-trayaṃ jaḍaṃ kṣetra-svarūpaṃ, tato bhinno vijñāna-mayo jīvas tasya bhokteti jīva-kṣetrajña-svarūpaṃ | tasmāc ca bhinnaḥ sarvāntara ānanda-maya itīśvara-kṣetrajña-svarūpam uktam | evaṃ vedāntareṣu mṛgyam | brahma-sūtra-rūpaiḥ padair vākyaiś ca tad-yāthātmyaṃ gītam | teṣu na viyad aśruteḥ [Vs. 2.3.1] ity ādinā kṣetra-svarūpaṃ, nātmā śruteḥ [Vs. 2.3.18] ity ādinā jīva-svarūpaṃ, parāt tu tac chruteḥ [Vs. 2.3.39] ity ādineśvara-svarūpam | sphuṭam anyat ||
 
 


BhG 13.5-6

mahā-bhūtāny ahaṃ-kāro buddhir avyaktam eva ca
indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca pañca cendriya-gocarāḥ
icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ saṃghātaś cetanā dhṛtiḥ
etat kṣetraṃ samāsena sa-vikāram udāhṛtam

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syntax


mahā-bhūtāni (gross elements) ahaṅkāraḥ (egotism) buddhiḥ (intelligence) avyaktam eva ca (and just unmanifested) daśa (ten) ekam ca (and one) indriyāṇi (of the senses) pañca indriya-gocarāḥ (five fields of activities for the senses) icchā dveṣaḥ (desire and hatred) sukham duḥkham (happiness and distress) saṅghātaḥ (an aggregate of matter) cetanā (consciousness) dhṛtiḥ (firmness)
etat (this) samāsena (in summary) sa-vikāram kṣetram (the field with transformation) udāhṛtam (declared) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

mahā-bhūtāni mahā-bhūta 1n.3 n.; mahanti bhūtānītigross elements (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; kṣity-ap-tejo-marud-vyomākhyāni pañca – five [great elements] called: earth, water, fire, wind, space);
ahaṁ-kāraḥ ahaṁ-kāra 1n.1 m. ego, egotism, pride (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer);
buddhiḥ buddhi 1n.1 f.intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand);
avyaktam a-vyakta (vi-añj – to decorate, to make visible) [PP] 1n.1 m.unnmanifested, invisible;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
indriyāṇi indriya 1n.3 n.the senses (from: ind – to be powerful; cakṣuḥ-karṇa-nāsikā-tvag-jihvā-vāk-pāṇi-pāda-pāyūpasthākhyāni – [the senses] called: eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue; speech, hand, foot, anus, genitals);
daśa daśa 1n.3 n.ten;
ekam eka sn. 1n.1 n.one;
ca av.and;
pañca pañca 1n.3 n.five;
ca av.and;
indriya-gocarāḥ indriya-gocara 1n.3 m.; [TP]: indriyāṇāṁ gocarā itifields of activities for the senses (from: ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; go – cow, earth, an organ of sense; car –to move, to go, cara – moving, living; go-cara – pasture ground, field for action; śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhākhyāḥ pañca indriya-viṣayāḥ – five objects of the senses called: sound, touch, form, taste, smell);

*****

icchā icchā 1n.1 f.desire (from: iṣ – to desire);
dveṣaḥ dveṣa 1n.1 m. hatred, enmity (from: dviṣ – to hate);
sukham sukha 1n.1 n.pleasure, comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
duḥkham duḥkha 1n.1 n.distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness);
saṁghātaḥ saṁghāta (sam-han – to strike, to dash together) [PP] 1n.1 m.dashing together, combat, cluster, mass, body;
cetanā cetanā 1n.1 f.consciousness, understanding, intellect (from: cit – to perceive, to think, cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);
dhṛtiḥ dhṛti 1n.1 f.firmness, determination (dhṛ – to hold, [PP] dhṛta – held);
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
kṣetram kṣetra 1n.1 n.field (from: kṣi – to possess);
samāsena av.in summary (from: sam-ās – to sit together, to join, samāsa – compound);
sa-vikāram sa-vikāra 1n.1 n.; BV: yad vikārena sahāsti tatthat which is with transformation (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; vi-kṛ to transform, vikāra – change, transformation);
udāhṛtam ud-ā-hṛta (ud-ā-hṛ – to set up, to declare), [PP] 1n.1 n.set up, declared;

 

textual variants


cendriya-gocarāḥ → kheṁdriya-gocarāḥ (hollows and fields of the senses);
icchā dveṣaḥ → icchā-dveṣāḥ / icchā dveṣaṁ (desires and enmities / desire, hatred);
sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ → sukhaṁ caiva (and happiness indeed);
cetanā dhṛtiḥ → cetanādhṛtiḥ;
 
 



Śāṃkara


stutyābhimukhībhūtāyārjunāyāha bhagavān—
mahā-bhūtāni mahānti ca tāni sarva-vikāra-vyāpakatvād bhūtāni ca sūkṣmāṇi | sthūlāni tv indriya-gocara-śabdenābhidhāyiṣyante | ahaṃkāro mahā-bhūta-kāraṇam ahaṃ-pratyaya-lakṣaṇaḥ | ahaṃkāra-kāraṇaṃ buddhir adhyavasāya-lakṣaṇā | tat-kāraṇam avyaktam eva ca, na vyaktam avyaktam avyākṛtam īśvara-śaktir mama māyā duratyayā ity uktam | eva-śabdaḥ prakṛty-avadhāraṇārtha etāvaty evāṣṭadhā bhinnā prakṛtiḥ | ca-śabdo bheda-samuccayārthaḥ | indriyāṇi daśa, śrotrādīni pañca buddhy-utpādakatvād buddhīndriyāṇi | vāk-pāṇy-ādīni pañca karma-nirvartakatvāt karmendriyāṇi | tāni daśa | ekaṃ ca | kiṃ tat ? mana ekādaśaṃ saṃkalpādyātmakam | pañca cendriya-gocarāḥ śabdādayo viṣayāḥ | tāny etāni sāṃkhyāś catur-viṃśati-tattvāny ācakṣate |
athedānīm ātma-guṇāḥ iti yān ācakṣate vaiśeṣikās te’pi kṣetra-dharmā eva, na tu kṣetrajñasyety āha bhagavān—
icchā yaj-jātīyaṃ sukha-hetum artham upalabdhavān pūrvam, punas taj-jātīyam upalabhamānas tam ādātum icchati sukha-hetur iti | seyam icchāntaḥ-karaṇa-dharmo jñeyatvāt kṣetram | tathā dveṣaḥ, yaj-jātīyam arthaṃ duḥkha-hetutvenānubhūtavān, punas taj-jātīyam artham upalabhamānas taṃ dveṣṭi | so’yaṃ dveṣo jñeyatvāt kṣetram eva | tathā sukham anukūlaṃ prasanna-sattvātmakaṃ jñeyatvāt kṣetram eva | duḥkhaṃ pratikūlātmakam | jñeyatvāt tad api kṣetram | saṃghāto dehendriyāṇāṃ saṃhatiḥ | tasyām abhivyaktāntaḥkaraṇa-vṛttiḥ, tapta iva loha-piṇḍe’gniḥ | ātma-caitanyābhāsa-rasa-viddhā cetanā | sā ca kṣetraṃ jñeyatvāt | dhṛtir yayāvasāda-prāptāni dehendriyāṇi dhriyante | sā ca jñeyatvāt kṣetram | sarvāntaḥ-karaṇa-dharmopalakṣaṇārtham icchādi-grahaṇam | yata uktam upasaṃharati—etad iti | etat kṣetraṃ samāsena sa-vikāraṃ saha vikāreṇa mahad-ādinā udāhṛtam uktam
 

Rāmānuja


mahābhūtāny ahaṃkāro buddhir avyaktam eva ceti kṣetrārambhakadravyāṇi; pṛthivyaptejovāyvākāśāḥ mahābhūtāni, ahaṃkāro bhūtādiḥ, buddhiḥ mahān, avyaktaṃ prakṛtiḥ; indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca pañca cendriyagocarā iti kṣetrāśritāni tattvāni; śrotratvakcakṣurjihvāghrāṇāni pañca jñānendriyāṇi, vākpāṇipādapāyūpasthāni pañca karmendriyāṇīti tāni daśa, ekam iti manaḥ; indriyagocarāś ca pañca śabdasparśarūparasagandhāḥ; icchā dveṣas sukhaṃ duḥkham iti kṣetrakāryāṇi kṣetravikārā ucyante; yady apīcchādveṣasukhaduḥkhāny ātmadharmabhūtāni, tathāpy ātmanaḥ kṣetrasaṃbandhaprayuktānīti kṣetrakāryatayā kṣetravikārā ucyante / teṣāṃ puruṣadharmatvam, „puruṣas sukhaduḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve hetur ucyate” iti vakṣyate; saṃghātaś cetanādhṛtiḥ / ādhṛtiḥ ādhāraḥ sukhaduḥkhe bhuñjānasya bhogāpavargau sādhayataś ca cetanasyādhāratayotpanno bhūtasaṃghātaḥ / prakṛtyādipṛthivyantadravyārabdham indriyāśrayabhūtam icchādveṣasukhaduḥkhavikāri bhūtasaṃghātarūpaṃ cetanasukhaduḥkhopabhogādhāratvaprayojanaṃ kṣetram ity uktaṃ bhavati; etat kṣetraṃ samāsena saṃkṣepeṇa sakivāraṃ sakāryam udāhṛtam
 

Śrīdhara


tatra kṣetra-svarūpam āha mahābhūtānīti dvābhyām | mahā-bhūtāni bhūmy-ādīni pañca | ahaṅkāras tat-kāraṇa-bhūtaḥ | buddhir vijñānātmakaṃ mahat-tattvam | avyaktaṃ mūla-prakṛtiḥ | indriyāṇi daśa bāhyāni jñāna-karmendriyāṇi | ekaṃ ca manaḥ | indriya-goccarāś ca pañca tan-mātra-rūpā eva śabdādaya ākāśādi-viśeṣa-guṇatayā vyaktāḥ santa indriya-viṣayāḥ pañca tad evaṃ caturviṃśati-tattvāni uktāni |
iccheti | icchādayaḥ prasiddhāḥ | saṅghātaḥ śarīram | cetanā jñānātmikā mano-vṛttiḥ | dhṛtir dhairyam | ete ceddhādayo dṛśyatvān nātma-dharmāḥ, api tu mano-dharmā eva | ataḥ kṣetrāntaḥpātina eva | upalakṣaṇaṃ caitat saṅkalpādīnām | tathā ca śrutiḥ — kāmaḥ saṅkalpo vicikitsā śraddhāśraddhā dhṛtir adhṛtir hrīr dhīr bhīr ity etat sarvaṃ mana eva [BAU 1.5.3] iti | anena ca yādṛg iti pratijñātāḥ kṣetra-dharmā darśitāḥ | etat kṣetraṃ savikāram indriyādi-vikāra-sahitaṃ saṅkṣepeṇa tubhyaṃ mayoktam iti kṣetropasaṃhāraḥ
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ prarocitāyārjunāya kṣetra-svarūpaṃ tāvad āha dvābhyām | mahānti bhūtāni bhūmy-ādīni pañca | ahaṅkāras tat-kāraṇa-bhūto ‚bhimāna-lakṣaṇaḥ | buddhir ahaṅkāra-kāraṇaṃ mahat-tattvam adhyavasāya-lakṣaṇam | avyaktaṃ tat-kāraṇaṃ sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇātmakaṃ pradhānaṃ sarva-kāraṇaṃ na kasyāpi kāryam | eva-kāraḥ prakṛty-avadhāraṇārthaḥ | etāvaty evāṣṭadhā prakṛtiḥ | ca-śabdo bheda-samuccayārthaḥ | tad evaṃ sāṅkhya-matena vyākhyātam | aupaniṣadānāṃ tu avyaktam avyākṛtam anirvacanīyaṃ māyākhyā pārameśvarī śaktiḥ | mama māyā duratyayā ity uktam | buddhiḥ sargādau tad-viṣayam īkṣaṇam | ahaṅkāra īkṣaṇānantaram ahaṃ bahu syām iti saṅkalpaḥ | tata ākāśādi-krameṇa pañca-bhūtotpattir iti | na hy avyakta-mahad-ahaṅkārāḥ sāṅkhya-siddhā aupaniṣadair upagamyante ‚śabdatvādi-hetubhir iti sthitam | māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyān māyinaṃ tu maheśvaram [ŚvetU 4.10] te dhyāna-yogānugatā apaśyan devātma-śaktiṃ sva-guṇair nigūḍhām [ŚvetU 1.3] iti śruti-pratipāditam avyaktam | tad aikṣata itīkṣaṇa-rūpā buddhiḥ | bahu syāṃ prajāyeya [ChāU 6.2.3] iti bahu-bhavana-saṅkalpa-rūpo ‚haṅkāraḥ | tasmād vā etasmād ātmana ākāśaḥ sambhūtaḥ | ākāśād vāyuḥ | vāyor agniḥ | agner āpaḥ | adbhyaḥ pṛthivī [TaittU 1.1] iti pañca bhūtāni śrautāni | ayam eva pakṣaḥ sādhīyān |
indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca śrotra-tvak-cakṣū-rasana-ghrāṇākhyāni pañca buddhīndriyāṇi vāk-pāṇi-pāda-pāyūpasthākhyāni pañca karmendriyāṇīti tāni | ekaṃ ca manaḥ saṅkalpa-vikalpātmakam | pañca cendriya-goccarāḥ śabda-sparśa-rūpa-rasa-gandhās te buddhīndriyāṇāṃ jñāpyatvena viṣayāḥ karmendriyāṇāṃ tu kāryatvena | tāny etāni sāṅkhyāś caturviṃśati-tattvāny ācakṣante |
icchā sukhe tat-sādhane cedaṃ me bhūyād iti spṛhātmā citta-vṛttiḥ kāma iti rāga iti cocyate | dveṣo duḥkhe tat-sādhane cedaṃ me mā bhūd iti spṛhā-virodhinī citta-vṛttiḥ krodha itīrṣyeti cocyate | sukhaṃ nirupādhīcchā-viṣayībhūtā dharmāsādhāraṇa-kāraṇikā citta-vṛttiḥ paramātma-sukha-vyañjikā | duḥkhaṃ nirupādhi-dveṣa-viṣayībhūtā citta-vṛttir adharmāsādhāraṇa-kāraṇikā | saṃghātaḥ pañca-mahā-bhūta-pariṇāmaḥ sendriyaṃ śarīram | cetanā svarūpa-jñāna-vyañjikā pramāṇa-sādhāraṇa-kāraṇikā citta-vṛttir jñānākhyā | dhṛtir avasannānāṃ dehendriyāṇām avaṣṭambha-hetuḥ prayatnaḥ | upalakṣaṇam etad icchādi-grahaṇam sarvāntaḥ-karaṇa-dharmāṇām | tathā ca śrutiḥ – kāmaḥ saṅkalpo vicikitsā śraddhā dhṛtir hrīr dhīr bhīr ity etat sarvaṃ mana eva [BAU 1.5.3] iti mṛd-ghaṭa itivad upādānābhedena kāryāṇāṃ kāmādīnāṃ mano-dharmatvam āha | etat paridṛśyamānaṃ sarvaṃ mahā-bhūtādi-dhṛty-antaṃ jaḍaṃ kṣetrajñena sākṣiṇāvabhāsyamānatvāt tad-anātmakaṃ kṣetraṃ bhāsyam acetanaṃ samāsenodāhṛtam uktam |
nanu śarīrendriya-saṃghāta eva cetanaḥ kṣetrajña iti lokāyatikāḥ | cetanā kṣaṇikaṃ jñānam evātmeti sugatāḥ | icchā-dveṣa-prayatna-sukha-duḥkha-jñānāny ātmano liṅgam iti naiyāyikāḥ | tat kathaṃ kṣetram evaitat sarvam iti ? tatrāha sa-vikāram iti | vikāro janmādir nāśāntaḥ pariṇāmo nairuktaiḥ paṭhitaḥ | tat-sahitaṃ sa-vikāram idaṃ mahā-bhūtādi-dhṛty-antam ato na vikāra-sākṣi svotpatti-vināśayoḥ svena draṣṭum aśakyatvāt | anyeṣām api sva-dharmāṇāṃ sva-darśanam antareṇa darśanānupapatteḥ svenaiva sva-darśane ca kartṛ-karma-virodhān nirvikāra eva sarva-vikāra-sākṣī | tad uktaṃ –
na rte syād vikriyāṃ duḥkhī sākṣitā kā vikāriṇaḥ |
dhī-vikriyā-sahasrāṇāṃ sākṣyato ‚ham avikriyaḥ || iti |
tena vikāritvam eva kṣetra-cihnaṃ na tu parigaṇanam ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tatra kṣetrasya svarūpam āha mahābhūtāny ākāśādīny ahaṅkāras tat-kāraṇam | buddhir vijñānātmakaṃ mahat-tattva, ahaṅkāra-kāraṇam | avyaktaṃ prakṛtir mahat-tattva-kāraṇam | indriyāṇi śrotrādīni daśaikaṃ ca manaḥ | indriya-gocarāḥ pañca śabdādayo viṣayās tad evaṃ caturviṃśati-tattvātmakam iti | icchādayaḥ prasiddhāḥ | saṅghātaḥ pañca-mahābhūta-pariṇāmo dehaḥ | cetanā jñānātmikā mano-vṛttir dhṛtir dhairyam icchādayaś caite mano-dharmā eva na tv ātma-dharmāḥ | ataḥ kṣetrāntaḥpātina eva | upalakṣaṇaṃ caitat saṅkalpādīnām | tathā ca śrutiḥ — kāmaḥ saṅkalpo vicikitsā śraddhā dhṛtir hrīr dhīr bhīr ity etat sarvaṃ mana eva [BAU 1.5.3] iti | anena yādṛg iti pratijñātāḥ kṣetra-dharmā darśitāḥ | etat kṣetraṃ sa-vikāraṃ janmādi-ṣaḍ-vikāra-sahitam
 

Baladeva


tat kṣetraṃ yac ca ity ādyārdhakena vaktuṃ pratijñātaṃ kṣetra-svarūpam āha — mahābhūtānīti dvābhyām | mahābhūtāni pañca khādīny ahaṅkāras tad-dhetus tāmaso bhūtādi-saṃjño buddhis tad-dheutr jñāna-pradhāno mahān avyaktaṃ tad-dhetuḥ | triguṇāvasthaṃ pradhānam indriyāṇi śrotrādīni pañca vāg-ādīni ca pañceti bhūtādi-khādy-antarālikāḥ sūkṣmāḥ śabdādi-tanmātrāḥ khādi-viśeṣa-guṇatayā vyaktāḥ santaḥ sthūlāḥ śrotrādi-pañcaka-grāhyā viṣayā ity arthaḥ | evaṃ caturviṃśati-tattvātmakaṃ kṣetraṃ jñeyam | icchādayaś catvāraḥ prasiddhāḥ saṅkalpādīnām upalakṣaṇam etat | ete manodharmāḥ kāmaḥ saṅkalpo vicikitsā śraddhā dhṛtir hrīr dhīr bhīr iti śruteḥ | yadyapy ātma-dharmā icchādayo ya ātmā ity ādau satya-kāmaḥ satya-saṅkalpaḥ iti śravaṇāt, paṭhed ya icchet puruṣaḥ iti sahasranāma-stotrāt, puruṣaḥ sukha-duḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve hetur uchyate iti vakṣyamāṇāc ca, tathāpi mano-dvārābhivyakter manodharmatvam | ataḥ kṣetrāntaḥpātaḥ | saṅghāto bhūta-pariṇāmo dehaḥ | sa ca cetanā dhṛitr bhogāya mokṣāya ca yatamānasya cetanasya jīvasyādhāratayotpanna ity arthaḥ | atra pradhānādi-dravyāṇi kṣetrārambhakāṇiti, ya cety asya śrotrādīndiriyāṇi śrotrāśritānīti yādṛg ity asyencchādīni kṣetra-kāryāṇīti | yad-vikārīty asya cetanā dhṛtir iti | yataś cety asya saṅghāta iti | yad ity asottaram uktam | etat kṣetraṃ savikāraṃ janmādi-ṣaḍ-vikāropetam udāhṛtam uktam
 
 


BhG 13.7-11

amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṃsā kṣāntir ārjavam
ācāryopāsanaṃ śaucaṃ sthairyam ātma-vinigrahaḥ

indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam anahaṃ-kāra eva ca
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam
asaktir anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu
nityaṃ ca sama-cittatvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu
mayi cānanya-yogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī
vivikta-deśa-sevitvam aratir jana-saṃsadi
adhy-ātma-jñāna-nityatvaṃ tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam
etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṃ yad ato nyathā

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syntax


amānitvam (pridelessness) adambhitvam (non-deceit) ahiṁsā (non-violence) kṣāntiḥ (forbearance) ārjavam (simplicity) ācāryopāsanam (worship of a teacher) śaucam (purity) sthairyam (steadiness) ātma-vinigrahaḥ (self-control) indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam (detachment of the objects of the senses) anahaṁkāraḥ eva ca (and certainly lack of egotism) janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam (perceiving the fault and misery in birth, death, old age and disease) asaktiḥ (non-attachment) putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ (lack of intense affection to sons, wives, houses and the other) iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu nityam sama-cittatvam (always even-mindedness in desired and undesired events) mayi ca (and in me) ananya-yogena avyabhicāriṇī bhaktiḥ (undeviating devotion by yoga not devoted to anything else) vivikta-deśa-sevitvam (dwelling in a solitary place) jana-saṁsadi aratiḥ (not taking pleasure in the assembies of people) adhyātma-jñāna-nityatvam (constancy in knowledge of the Supreme Spirit) tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam (seeing the meaning of knowledge of the truth)
etat (this) jñānam iti (knowledge) proktam (said),
yat (that which) ataḥ (from that) anyathā (otherwise) [tat] (that) ajñānam (ignorance).
 

grammar

amānitvam a-mānitva abst. 1n.1 n.pridelessness (from: man – to think, to imagine, mānin – high-minded, proud, arrogant);
adambhitvam a-dambhitva abst. 1n.1 n.non-deceit (from: dabh – to hurt, to deceive, dambhin – deceiver, hypocrite);
ahiṁsā a-hiṁsā 1n.1 f.non-violence, harmlessness (from: hiṁs – to injure, to harm, to kill);
kṣāntiḥ kṣānti 1n.1 f.tolerance, forbearance, endurance (from: kṣam – to forgive, to tolerate);
ārjavam ārjava 1n.1 n.simplicity, honesty, sincerity (from: arj – to obtain; ṛju – upright, honest, sincere);
ācāryopāsanam ācārya-upāsana 1n.1 n.; [TP]: ācāryāṇām upāsanam itiworship of the teachers (from: ā-car – to come near to; ācāra – good conduct, ācārya – teacher; upa-ās –to worship, to attend upon, upāsana – worship);
śaucam śauca 1n.1 n.purity (from: śuc – to shine, to be wet, śuci – pure);
sthairyam sthairya 1n.1 n.steadiness (from: sthā – to stand, sthira – firm, hard, steady);
ātma-vinigrahaḥ ātma-vinigraha 1n.1 m.; [TP]: ātmano vinigraha iticontrol of the self (from: ātman – self; ni-grah – to hold back, to control, nigraha – suppression, control);

*****

indriyārtheṣu indriya-artha 7n.3 m.; [TP]: indriyāṇām artheṣv itiin the objects of the senses (from: ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; arth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth);
vairāgyam vai-rāgya 1n.1 m. freedom from passion, aversion; detachment (from: vi-rañj – to discolour, to change affection, to become indifferent, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty);
anahaṁ-kāraḥ an-ahaṁ-kāra 1n.1 m. lack of egotism (from: aham – I; kṛ – to do, kāra – a doer; ahaṁ-kāra ego, egotism, pride);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣa-anudarśana 1n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: janmasu ca mṛtyuṣu ca jarāsu ca vyādhiṣu ca duḥkhasya doṣasya ca anudarśanam itiperceiving the fault and misery in birth, death, old age and disease (from: jan – to be born, janman – birth; mṛ – to die, mṛtyu – death; jṝ to grow old, to decay, jarā – old age; vyadh – to strike, to beat, vyādhi – disease; kha – cavity, hole, nave; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; duṣ – to become bad, to be defiled, to perish, doṣa – evil, fault, guilt; anu-dṛś – to survey, to behold, anu-darśana – seeing, perceiving, consideration);

*****

asaktiḥ a-sakti 1n.1 f.non-attachment (from: sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace);
anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ an-abhiṣvaṅga 1n.1 m.lack of intense affection (from: svaṅg – to move; abhiṣvaṅga – intense attachment or affection to – requires locative);
putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu putra-dāra-gṛha-ādi 7n.3 n.; DV: putreṣu ca dāreṣu ca gṛheṣu ca ādiṣv cetito sons, wives, houses and the other (from: puṣ – to flourish, to thrive, putra – child, offspring; traditionally:pu-tra – one who saves from hell; dṝ – to split, dāra – wife; grah – to take, gṛha – house, belongings; ādi – beginning, origin, suffix: beginning with, etc.);
nityam nitya 1n.1 n.eternal (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
or av.constantly, eternally (from: nitya – continual, eternal);
ca av.and;
sama-cittatvam sama-citta-tva abst. 1n.1 n.even-mindedness (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; cit – to perceive, to think, [PP] citta – thought; a thought, mind, heart, consciousness);
iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu iṣṭa-an-iṣṭa-upapatti 7n.3 f.; DV / KD: iṣṭāsu cāniṣṭāsu copapattiṣv itiin desired and undesired events (from: iṣ – to desire or yaj – to consecrate, to sacrifice, to worship, [PP] iṣṭa – desired or worshipped; upa-pat – to fly near, to hasten towards, upapatti – happening, event);

*****

mayi asmat sn. 7n.1in me;
ca av.and;
ananya-yogena an-anya-yoga 3n.1 m.; KD: ananyena yogena itiby yoga not devoted to anything else (from: anya – other, ananya – no other, unique, undistracted, not devoted to anything else; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means);
bhaktiḥ bhakti 1n.1 f.devotion, love, fondness (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
avyabhicāriṇī a-vyabhicāriṇī 1n.1 f.undeviating, devoted (from: vi-abhi-√car – to act in an unfriendly way, to offend, vyabhicārin – who acts improperly, vyabhicāriṇī – unchaste wife, wanton woman);
vivikta-deśa-sevitvam vivikta-deśa-sevitva 1n.1 n.; [TP]: viviktasya deśasya sevitvam itidwelling in a solitary place (from: vic – to separate, [PP] vivikta – separated, kept apart, solitary; diś – to show, deśa place, country; sev – to serve, abst. sevitva – seeking, resorting to, honouring, dwelling);
aratiḥ a-rati 1n.1 f. not taking pleasure (from: ram – to play, to rejoice – what? requires locative, rati – pleasure, delight);
jana-saṁsadi jana-saṁsad 7n.1 f.; [TP]: janānām saṁsadītiin the assemblies of people (from: jan – to be born, to produce, jana – race, people; sam-sad – to sit down together, saṁsat – sitting together, assembly);

*****

adhy-ātma-jñāna-nityatvam adhy-ātma-jñāna-nityatva abst. 1n.1 n.; [TP]: adhyātmano jñānasya nityatvam iti – constancy in knowledge of the Supreme Spirit (from: adhi – over, above; ātman – self; adhy-ātma – governing the self, the Supreme Spirit; jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; nitya – continual, eternal, abst. nityatva – constancy);
tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam tattva-jñāna-artha-darśana 1n.1 n.; [TP]: tattvasya jñānasya arthasya darśanam itiseeing the meaning of knowledge of the truth (from: tat – that, abst. tat-tva – truth, reality; jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; √xarth – to strive to obtain, to desire, to request, artha – purpose, advantage, concern, object, wealth; dṛś – to look, to see, darśana – seeing, vision);
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
proktam prokta (pra-vac – to declare, to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.spoken, called;
ajñānam a-jñāna 1n.1 n. ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
ataḥ av.from this, hence, therefore (indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
anyathā av.otherwise (from: anya other);

 

textual variants


amānitvam → adānitvam (lack of charity);
adambhitvam → adāṁbhitvam / aḍaṁbhitvam (non-deceit);
sthairyam → maunam (silence);
anahaṁ-kāra anahaṁ-kāram (freedom of egotism);
asaktir → aśaktir / āsaktir / anaktir (lack of power / worship / not night);
adhy-ātma-jñāna-nityatvaṁadhy-ātma-jñāna-niṣṭhatvaṁ / adhy-ātma-dhyāna-nityatvaṁ (steadiness in the knowledge of the Supreme Spirit / constancy in contemplating the Supreme Spirit);
tattva-jñānārtha-darśanaṁtattva-jñānārtha-ciṁtanam (thinking of the meaning of knowledge of the truth);
yad ato → yat tato / yad ito (which from that…);

The third pada of verse 13.8 is almost the same as the third pada of verse BhG 14.20;

 
 



Śāṃkara


yasya kṣetra-bheda-jātasya saṃhatiḥ idaṃ śarīraṃ kṣetraṃ [gītā 13.2] ity uktam | tat kṣetraṃ vyākhyātaṃ mahā-bhūtādi-bheda-bhinnaṃ dhṛty-antam | kṣetrajño vakṣyamāṇa-viśeṣaṇaḥ—yasya sa-prabhāvasya kṣetrajñasya parijñānād amṛtatvaṃ bhavati, taṃ jñeyaṃ yat tat pravakṣyāmīty ādinā sa-viśeṣaṇaṃ svayam eva vakṣyati bhagavān | adhunā tu taj-jñāna-sādhana-gaṇam amānitvādi-lakṣaṇam, yasmin sati taj-jñeya-vijñāne yogyo’dhikṛto bhavati, yat-paraḥ saṃnyāsī jñāna-niṣṭha ucyate, tam amānitvādi-gaṇaṃ jñāna-sādhanatvāj jñāna-śabda-vācyaṃ vidadhāti bhagavān— amānitvaṃ mānino bhāvaḥ mānitvam ātmano ślāghanam, tad-abhāvo’mānitvam | adambhitvaṃ sva-dharma-prakaṭīkaraṇaṃ dambhitvam, tad-abhāvo’dambhitvam | ahiṃsā hiṃsanaṃ prāṇinām apīḍānam | kṣāntiḥ parāparādha-prāptâv avikriyā | ārjavam ṛju-bhāvo’vakratvam | ācāryopāsanaṃ mokṣa-sādhanopadeṣṭur ācāryasya śuśrūṣādi-prayogeṇa sevanam | śaucaṃ kāya-malānāṃ mṛj-jalābhyāṃ prakṣālanam | antaś ca manasaḥ pratipakṣa-bhāvanayā rāgādi-malānām apanayanaṃ śaucam | sthairyaṃ sthira-bhāvaḥ, mokṣa-mārga eva kṛtādhyavasāyatvam | ātma-vinigraha ātmano’pakārakasya ātma-śabda-vācyasya kārya-karaṇa-saṃghātasya vinigrahaḥ svabhāvena sarvataḥ pravṛttasya san-mārga eva nirodha ātma-vinigrahaḥ | kiṃ ca— indriyārtheṣu śabdādiṣu dṛṣṭādṛṣṭeṣu bhogeṣu virāga-bhāvo vairāgyam | anahaṃkāro ’haṃkārābhāva eva ca | janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanaṃ janma ca mṛtyuś ca jarā ca vyādhayaś ca duḥkhāni ca teṣu janmādi-duḥkhānteṣu pratyekaṃ doṣānudarśanam | janmani garbha-vāsa-yoni-dvāra-niḥsaraṇaṃ doṣaḥ, tasyānudarśanam ālocanam | tathā mṛtyau doṣānudarśanam | tathā jarāyāṃ prajñā-śakti-tejo-nirodha-doṣānudarśanaṃ paribhūtatā ceti | tathā vyādhiṣu śiro-rogādiṣu doṣānudarśanam | tathā duḥkheṣu adhyātmādhibhūtādhidaiva-nimitteṣu | athavā duḥkhāny eva doṣo duḥkha-doṣas tasya janmādiṣu pūrvavad anudarśanam | duḥkhaṃ janma, duḥkhaṃ mṛtyuḥ, duḥkhaṃ jarā, duḥkhaṃ vyādhayaḥ | duḥkha-nimittatvāj janmādayo duḥkham, na punaḥ svarūpeṇaiva duḥkham iti | evaṃ janmādiṣu duḥkha-doṣānudarśanād dehendriyādi-viṣaya-bhogeṣu vairāgyam upajāyate | tataḥ pratyag-ātmani pravṛttiḥ karaṇānām ātma-darśanāya | evaṃ jñāna-hetutvāj jñānam ucyate janmādi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam | kiṃ ca— asaktiḥ saktiḥ saṅga-nimitteṣu viṣayeṣu prīti-mātram, tad-abhāvo’saktiḥ | anabhiṣvaṅgo’bhiṣvaṅgābhāvaḥ | abhiṣvaṅgo nāma āsakti-viśeṣa evānanyātma-bhāvanā-lakṣaṇaḥ | yathānyasmin sukhini duḥkhini vāham eva sukhī, duḥkhī ca, jīvati mṛte vāham eva jīvāmi mariṣyāmi ceti | kva ? ity āha—putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu | putreṣu dāreṣu gṛheṣv ādi-grahaṇād anyeṣv apy atyanteṣṭeṣu dāsa-vargādiṣu | tac cobhayaṃ jñānārthatvāj jñānam ucyate | nityaṃ ca sama-cittatvaṃ tulya-cittatā | kva ? iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣv iṣṭānām aniṣṭānāṃ copapattayaḥ saṃprāptayas tāsv iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu nityam eva tulya-cittatā | iṣṭopapattiṣu na hṛṣyati, na kupyati cāniṣṭopapattiṣu | tac caitan nityaṃ sama-cittatvaṃ jñānam | kiṃ ca— mayi ceśvare’nanya-yogena apṛthak-samādhinā nānyo bhagavato vāsudevāt paro’sti, ataḥ sa eva no gatir ity evaṃ niścitāvyabhicāriṇī buddhir ananya-yogaḥ, tena bhajanaṃ bhaktir na vyabhicaraṇa-śīlā avyabhicāriṇī | sā ca jñānam | vivikta-deśa-sevitvam | viviktaḥ svabhāvataḥ saṃskāreṇa vāśucy-ādibhiḥ sarpa-vyāghrādibhiś ca rahito ’raṇya-nadī-pulina-deva-gṛhādibhir vivikto deśaḥ, taṃ sevituṃ śīlam asyeti vivikta-deśa-sevī, tad-bhāvo vivikta-deśa-sevitvam | vivikteṣu hi deśeṣu cittaṃ prasīdati yatas tataḥ ātmādi-bhāvanā vivikta upajāyate | ato vivakta-deśa-sevitvaṃ jñānam ucyate | aratir aramaṇaṃ jana-saṃsadi | janānāṃ prākṛtānāṃ saṃskāra-śūnyānām avinītānāṃ saṃsat samavāyo jana-saṃsat | na saṃskāravatāṃ vinītānāṃ saṃsat | tasyā jñānopakārakatvāt | ataḥ prākṛta-jana-saṃsady aratir jñānārthatvāj jñānam | kiṃ ca— adhyātma-jñāna-nityatvam ātmādi-viṣayaṃ jñānam adhyātma-jñānam, tasmin nitya-bhāvo nityatvam | amānitvādīnāṃ jñāna-sādhanānāṃ bhāvanā-paripāka-nimittaṃ tattva-jñānam, tasyārtho mokṣaḥ saṃsāroparamaḥ | tasyālocanaṃ tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam | tattva-jñāna-phalālocane hi tat-sādhanānuṣṭhāne pravṛttiḥ syād iti | etad amānitvādi-tattva-jñānārtha-darśanāntam uktaṃ jñānam iti proktaṃ jñānārthatvāt | ajñānaṃ yad ato’smād yathoktād anyathā viparyayeṇa | mānitvaṃ dambhitvaṃ hiṃsā kṣāntir anārjavam ity ādy ajñānaṃ vijñeyaṃ pariharaṇāya, saṃsāra-pravṛtti-kāraṇatvād iti
 

Rāmānuja


atha kṣetrakāryeṣv ātmajñānasādhanatayopādeyā guṇāḥ procyante amānitvam utkṛṣṭajaneṣv avadhīraṇārahitatvam; adambhitvam dhārmikatvayaśaḥprayojanatayā dharmānuṣṭhānaṃ dambhaḥ, tadrahitatvam; ahiṃsā vāṅmanaḥkāyaiḥ parapīḍārahitatvam; kṣāntiḥ paraiḥ pīḍyamānasyāpi tān prati avikṛtacittatvam / ārjavam parān prati vāṅmanaḥkāyaprabhṛtīnām ekarūpatā; ācāryopāsanam ātmajñānapradāyini ācārye praṇipātaparipraśnasevādiniratatvam; śaucaṃ ātmajñānatatsādhanayogyatā manovākkāyagatā śāstrasiddhā; stairyam adhyātmaśāstrodite ‚rthe niścalatvam; ātmavinigrahaḥ ātmasvarūpavyatiriktaviṣayebhyo manaso nivartanam indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam ātmavyatirikteṣu viṣayeṣu sadoṣatānusaṃdhānenodvejanam; anahaṃkāraḥ anātmani dehe ātmābhimānarahitatvam; pradarśanārtham idam; anātmīyeṣv ātmīyābhimānarahitatvaṃ ca vivakṣitam / janmamṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkhadoṣānudarśanam saśarīratve janmamṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkharūpasya doṣasyāvarjanīyatvānusaṃdhānam asaktiḥ ātmavyatiriktaparigraheṣu saṅgarahitatvam; anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu teṣu śāstrīyakarmopakaraṇatvātirekeṇa śleṣarahitatvam; saṃkalpaprabhaveṣv iṣṭāniṣṭopanipāteṣu harṣodvegarahitatvam mayi sarveśvare ca aikāntyayogena sthirā bhaktiḥ, janavarjitadeśavāsitvam, janasaṃsadi cāprītiḥ ātmani jñānam adhyātmajñānam tanniṣṭhatvam, tattvajñānārthacintanam tattvajñānaprayojanaṃ yac cintanaṃ tan niratatvam ityarthaḥ / jñāyate ‚nenātmeti jñānam, ātmajñānasādhanam ityarthaḥ; kṣetrasaṃbandhinaḥ puruṣasyāmānitvādikam uktaṃ guṇabṛnham evātmajñānopayogi, etadvyatiriktaṃ sarvaṃ kṣetrakāryam ātmajñānavirodhīti ajñānam
 

Śrīdhara


idānīm ukta-lakṣaṇāt kṣetrāt atiriktatayā jñeyaṃ śuddhaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ vistareṇa varṇayiṣyan śuddha-jñāna-sādhanāny āha amānitvam iti pañcabhiḥ | amānitvaṃ sva-guṇa-ślāghā-rāhityam | adambhitvaṃ dambha-rāhityam | ahiṃsā para-pīḍā-varjanam | kṣāntiḥ sahiṣṇutvam | ārjavam avakratā | ācāryopāsanaṃ sad-guru-sevā | śaucaṃ bāhma ābhyantaraṃ ca | tatra bāhyaṃ mṛj-jalādinā, ābhyantaraṃ ca rāgādi-mala-kṣālanam | tathā ca śrutiḥ — śaucaṃ ca dvividhaṃ proktaṃ bāhyam abhyantaraṃ tathā | mṛj-jalābhyāṃ smṛtaṃ bāhyaṃ bhāva-śuddhis tathāntaram || iti | dhairyaṃ san-mārge pravṛttasya tad-eka-niṣṭhatā | ātma-vinigrahaḥ śarīra-saṃyamaḥ | etaj jñānam iti proktam iti pañcamenānvayaḥ || kiṃ ca mayīti | mayi parameśvare | ananya-yogena sarvātma-dṛṣṭyā | avyābhicāriṇy ekāntā bhaktiḥ | viviktaḥ śuddha-citta-prasāda-karaḥ | taṃ deśaṃ sevituṃ śīlaṃ yasya tasya bhāvas tattvam | prākṛtānāṃ janānāṃ saṃsadi sabhāyām aratī raty-abhāvaḥ | kiṃ ca adhyātmeti | ātmānam adhikṛtya vartamānaṃ jñānam adhyātma-jñānam | tasmin nityatvaṃ nitya-bhāvaḥ | tattvaṃ padārtha-buddhi-niṣṭhatvam ity arthaḥ | tattva-jñānasyārthaḥ prayojanaṃ mokṣas tasya darśanaṃ mokṣasya sarvotkṛṣṭatvālocanam ity arthaḥ | etad amānitvam adambhitvam ity ādi viṃśati-saṅkhyakaṃ yad uktam etaj jñānam iti proktaṃ vaśiṣṭhādibhiḥ jñāna-sādhanatvāt |ato ‚nyathāsmād viparītaṃ mānitvādi yat tad ajñānam iti proktam | jñāna-virodhitvāt ataḥ sarvathā tyājyam ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ kṣetraṃ pratipādya tat-sākṣiṇaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ kṣetrād vivekena vistarāt pratipādayituṃ taj-jñāna-yogyatvāyāmānitvādi-sādhanāny āha jñeyaṃ yat tad ity ataḥ prāktanaiḥ pañcabhiḥ amānitvam iti | vidyamānair avidyamānair vā guṇair ātmanaḥ ślāghanaṃ mānitvaṃ, lābha-pūjākhyātyarthaṃ svadharma-prakaṭī-karaṇaṃ dāmbhitvaṃ, kāya-vāṅ-manobhiḥ prāṇināṃ pīḍanaṃ hiṃsā, teṣāṃ varjanam amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṃsety uktam | parāparādhe citta-vikāra-hetau prāpte ‚pi nirvikāra-cittatayā tad-aparādha-sahanaṃ kṣāntiḥ | ārjavam akauṭilyaṃ yathā-hṛdayaṃ vyavaharaṇaṃ para-pratāraṇā-rāhityam iti yāvat | ācāryo mokṣa-sādhanasyopadeṣṭātra vivakṣito na tu manūkta upanīyādhyāpakaḥ | tasya śuśrūṣānamaskārādi-prayogeṇa sevanam ācāryopāsanam | śaucaṃ bāhyaṃ kāya-malānāṃ mṛj-jalābhyāṃ kṣālanam ābhyantaraṃ ca mano-malānāṃ rāgādīnāṃ viṣaya-doṣa-darśana-rūpa-pratipakṣa-bhāvanayāpanayanam | sthairyaṃ mokṣa-sādhane pravṛttasyāneka-vidha-vighna-prāptāv api tad-aparityāgena punaḥ punar yatrādhikyam | ātma-vinigraha ātmano dehendriya-saṃghātasya svabhāva-prāptāṃ mokṣa-pratikūle pravṛttiṃ nirudhya mokṣa-sādhana eva vyavasthāpanam | kiṃ ca – indriyārtheṣu śabdādiṣu dṛṣṭeṣv ānuśravikeṣu vā bhogeṣu rāga-virodhiny aspṛhātmikā citta-vṛttir vairāgyam | ātma-ślāghanābhāve ‚pi manasi prādurbhūto ‚haṃ sarvotkṛṣṭa iti garvo ‚haṅkāras tad-abhāvo ‚nahaṅkāraḥ | ayoga-vyavacchedārtham eva-kāraḥ | samuccayārthaś ca-kāraḥ | tenāmānitvādīnāṃ viṃśati-saṅkhyākānāṃ samucito yoga eva jñānam iti proktaṃ na tv ekasyāpy abhāva ity arthaḥ | janmano garbha-vāsa-yoni-dvāra-niḥsaraṇa-rūpasya mṛtyoḥ sarva-marma-cchedana-rūpasya jarāyāḥ prajñā-śakti-tejo-nirodha-para-paribhavādi-rūpāyā vyādhīnāṃ jvarātisārādi-rūpāṇāṃ duḥkhānām iṣṭa-viyogāniṣṭa-saṃyogāniṣṭa-saṃyogāniṣṭa-saṃyoga-jānām adhyātmādhibhūtādhidaiva-nimittānāṃ doṣasya vāta-pitta-śleṣma-mala-mūtrādi-paripūrṇatvena kāya-jugupsitatvasya cānudarśanaṃ punaḥ punar ālocanaṃ janmādi-duḥkhānteṣu doṣasyānudarśanaṃ janmādi-vyādhy-anteṣu duḥkha-rūpa-doṣasyānudarśanam iti vā | idaṃ ca viṣaya-vairāgya-hetutvenātma-darśanasyopakaroti | kiṃ ca | saktir mamedam ity etāvan-mātreṇa prītiḥ | abhiṣvaṅgas tv aham evāyam ity ananyatva-bhāvanayā prīty-atiśayo ‚nyasmin sukhini duḥkhini vāham eva sukhī duḥkhī ceti | tad-rāhityam asaktir anabhiṣvaṅga iti coktam | kutra sakty-abhiṣvaṅgau varjanīyāv ata āha putra-dāra-gṛhādiṣu putreṣu dāreṣu gṛheṣu | ādi-grahaṇād anyeṣv api bhṛtyādiṣu sarveṣu sneha-viṣayeṣv ity arthaḥ | nityaṃ ca sarvadā ca sama-cittatvaṃ harṣa-viṣāda-śūnya-manastvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu | upapattiḥ prāptiḥ | iṣṭopapattiṣu harṣābhāvo ‚niṣṭopapattiṣu viṣādābhāva ity arthaḥ | caḥ samuccaye | kiṃ ca | mayi ca bhagavati vāsudeve parameśvare bhaktiḥ sarvotkṛṣṭatva-jñāna-pūrvikā prītiḥ | ananya-yogena nānyo bhagavato vāsudevāt paro ‚sty ataḥ sa eva no gatir ity evaṃ niścayenāpy avyabhicāriṇī kenāpi pratikūlena hetunā nivārayitum aśakyā | sāpi jñāna-hetuḥ prītir na yāvan mayi vāsudeva na mucyate deha-yogena tāvat [BhP 5.5.6] ity ukteḥ | viviktaḥ svabhāvataḥ saṃskārato vā śuddho ‚śucibhiḥ sarpa-vyāghrādibhiś ca rahitaḥ suradhunī-pulinādi-śrita-prasāda-karo deśas tat-sevana-śīlatvaṃ vivikta-deśa-sevitvam | tathā ca śrutiḥ – same śucau śarkarā-vahni-bālukā- vivarjite śabda-jalāśrayādibhiḥ | mano ‚nukūle na tu cakṣu-pīḍane guhā-nivātāśrayaṇe prayojayet || [ŚvetU 2.10] iti | janānām ātma-jñāna-vimukhānāṃ viṣaya-bhoga-lampaṭatopadeśakānāṃ saṃsadi samavāye tattva-jñāna-pratikūlāyām aratir aramaṇaṃ sādhūnāṃ tu saṃsadi tattva-jñānānukūlāyāṃ ratir ucitaiva | tathā coktam – saṅgaḥ sarvātmanā heyaḥ sa cety uktaṃ na śakyate | sa sadbhiḥ saha kartavyaḥ sataḥ saṅgo hi bheṣajam || iti | kiṃ ca | adhyātma-jñānam ātmānam adhikṛtya pravṛttam ātmānātma-viveka-jñānam adhyātma-jñānaṃ tasmin nityatvaṃ tatraiva niṣṭhāvattvam | viveka-niṣṭho hi vākyārtha-jñāna-samartho bhavati | tattva-jñānasyāhaṃ brahmāsmīti sākṣātkārasya vedānta-vākya-karaṇakasyāmānityatvādi-sarva-sādhana-paripāka-phalasyārthaḥ prayojanam avidyā-tat-kāryātmaka-nikhila-duḥkha-nivṛtti-rūpaḥ paramānandātmāvāpti-rūpaś ca mokṣas tasya darśanam ālocanam | tattva-jñāna-phalālocane hi tat-sādhane pravṛttiḥ syāt | etad amānitvādi-tattva-jñānārtha-darśanāntaṃ viṃśati-saṅkhyākaṃ jñānam iti proktaṃ jñānārthatvāt | ato ‚nyathāsmād viparītaṃ mānitvādi yat tad ajñānam iti proktaṃ jñāna-virodhitvāt | tasmād ajñāna-parityāgena jñānam evopādeyam iti bhāvaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


ukta-lakṣaṇāt kṣetrād viviktatayā jñeyau jīvātma-paramātmānau kṣetrajñau vistareṇa varṇayiṣyan taj-jñānasya sādhanāny amānitvādīni viṃśatim āha pañcabhiḥ | atrāṣṭadaśa bhaktānāṃ jñānināṃ ca sādhāraṇāni kintu bhaktaiḥ mayi cānanya-yogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī ity ekam eva bhagavad-anubhava-sādhanatvena yatnataḥ kriyate | anyāni spatadaśoktābhyāsavatāṃ teṣāṃ svata evotpadyante na tu teṣu yatna iti sāmpradāyikāḥ | antime dve tu jñāninām asādhāraṇa eva | atrāmānitvādīni vispaṣṭārthāni | śaucaṃ bāhyam abhyantaraṃ ca tathā ca smṛtiḥ — śaucaṃ ca dvividhaṃ proktaṃ bāhyam abhyantaraṃ tathā | mṛj-jalābhyāṃ smṛtaṃ bāhyaṃ bhāva-śuddhis tathāntaram || iti | ātma-vinigrahaḥ śarīra-saṃyamaḥ | janmādiṣu duḥkha-rūpasya doṣasyānudarśanaṃ punaḥ punaḥ paryālocanam | asaktiḥ putrādiṣu prīt-tyāgo ‚nabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putrādīnāṃ sukhe duḥkhe cāham eva sukhī duḥkhīty adhyāsābhāva iṣṭāniṣṭayor vyavahārikayor upapattiṣu prāptiṣu nityaṃ sarvadā samacittatvam | mayi śyāmasundarākāre ‚nanya-yogena jñāna-karma-tapo-yogādy-amiśraṇena bhaktiś ca-kārād jñānādi-miśraṇa-prādhānyena ca | ādyā bhaktair anuṣṭheyā dvitīyā jñānibhir iti kecid, anye tv ananyā bhaktir yathā-premṇaḥ sādhanaṃ tathā paramātmānubhavasyāpīti jñāpanārtham atra ṣaṭke ‚py uktir iti bhaktā vyācakṣate | jñāninas tv ananyenaiva yogena sarvātma-dṛṣṭyeti | avyabhicāriṇī pratidinam eva kartavyā | kenāpi nivārayitum aśakyā iti madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāḥ | ātmānam adhikṛtya vartamāṇaṃ jñānam adhyātma-jñānam | tasya nityatvaṃ nityānuṣṭheyatvaṃ padārtha-śuddhi-niṣṭhatvam ity arthaḥ | tattva-jñānasyārthaḥ prayojanaṃ mokṣas tasya darśanaṃ svābhīṣṭatvenālocanam ity arthaḥ | etad viṃśatikaṃ jñānaṃ sādhāraṇyena jīvātma-paramātmanor jñānasya sādhanam | asādhāraṇaṃ paramātma-jñānaṃ tv agre vaktavyam | tato ‚nyathāsmād viparītaṃ mānitvādikam
 

Baladeva


athoktāt kṣetrād vibhinnatvena jñeyaṃ kṣetrajña-dvayaṃ vistareṇa nirūpayiṣyan taj-jñāna-sādhanāny amānitvādīni viṃśatim āha pañcabhiḥ | amānitvaṃ sva-satkārānapekṣatvam | adambhitvaṃ dhārmikatva-khāti-phalaka-dharmācaraṇa-virahaḥ | ahiṃsā parāpīḍanam | kṣāntir apamāna-sahiṣṇutā | ārjavam cchadmiṣv api sāralyam | ācāryopāsanaṃ jñāna-pradasya guror akaitavena saṃsevanam | śaucaṃ bāhyābhyantara-pāvitryam | śaucaṃ ca dvividhaṃ proktaṃ bāhyam abhyantaraṃ tathā | mṛj-jalābhyāṃ smṛtaṃ bāhyaṃ bhāva-śuddhis tathāntaram || iti smṛteḥ | sthairyaṃ sad-vartmaika-niṣṭhatvam | ātma-vinigrahaḥ ātmānusandhi-pratīpād viṣayān manaso niyamanam | indriyārtheṣu śabdādi-viṣayeṣu pratīpeṣu vairāgyaṃ rucy-abhāvaḥ | anahaṅkāro dehādiṣv ātmābhimāna-tyāgaḥ | janmādiṣu duḥkha-rūpasya doṣasyānudarśanaṃ punaḥ punaś cintanam | putrādiṣu paramārtha-pratīpeṣv asaktiḥ pīti-tyāgaḥ | anabhiṣvaṅgas teṣu sukhiṣu duḥkhiṣu ca satsu tat-sukha-duḥkhānabhiniveśaḥ | iṣṭāniṣṭānām anukūla-pratikūlānām arthānām upapattiṣu prāptiṣu samacittatvaṃ harṣa-viṣāda-virahaḥ | nityaṃ sarvadā | mayi parameśe ‚vyābhicāriṇī sthirā bhaktiḥ śravaṇādyā | ananya-yogenaikāntitvena mad-bhakta-sevā | tathā vivikta-deśa-sevitvaṃ nirjana-sthāna-priyatā janānāṃ grāmyāṇāṃ saṃsadi rati-tyāgaḥ | adhyātmam ātmani yaj jñānaṃ tasya nityatvaṃ sarvadā vimṛśyatvam | tattvaṃ tv ahaṃ paraṃ brahma vadanti tattva-vidas tattvaṃ yaj jñānam advayam ity ādi smṛteḥ | taj jñānasya yo ‚rthas tat-prāpti-lakṣaṇas tasya darśanaṃ hṛdi smaraṇam | etad amānitvādikaṃ jñānaṃ paramparayā sākṣāc ca tad-upalabdhi-sādhanaṃ proktam | jñāyate upalabhyate ‚nena iti vyutpatteḥ | yat tato ‚nyathā viparītaṃ mānitvādi tad ajñānaṃ tad-upalabdhi-virodhīti
 
 


BhG 13.12

jñeyaṃ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvāmṛtam aśnute
anādimat paraṃ brahma na sat tan nāsad ucyate

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syntax


yat jñeyam (that which to be known) [asti] (it is)
tat (that) pravakṣyāmi (I will declare),
yat (that which) jñātvā (after knowing) amṛtam (immortality) aśnute (he obtains).
tat (that) anādimat (with no beginning) param brahma (the supreme Brahman),
[tat] (that) sat (existence) asat (non-existence) na ucyate (it is not called).

 

grammar

jñeyam jñeya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be learnt;
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.that which;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
pravakṣyāmi pra-vac (to declare, to speak) Fut. P 3v.1I will declare;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
amṛtam   a-mṛta 2n.1 n.not dead, eternal; nectar of immortality (from: mṛ – to die; [PP] mṛta – dead);
aśnute (to reach, to eat, to enjoy) Praes. Ā 1v.1he obtains;
anādi / anādimat an-ādi 2n.1 n.no beginning (from: ādi – beginning, origin);
an-ādimant 2n.1 n.that has no beginning (from: ādi – beginning, origin; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
mat-param / param mat-para 1n.1 n.; BV: yasyāhaṁ paro ‘smi tat for whom I am the supreme (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
na av.not;
sat sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 n.being, existing, true, the essence;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
na av.not;
asat a-sant (as – to be) PPr 1n.1 n.untrue, non-existing (from: sant – being, existing, true, the essence);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1n.1it is said;

 

textual variants


anādimat paraṁanādi mat-paraṁ (no beginning, supreme than me);
na sat tan nāsad ucyate → na san nāsat tad ucyate (it is called neither existence nor non-existence);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yathoktena jñānena jñātavyaṃ kiṃ ? ity ākāṅkṣāyām āha—
nanu yamāḥ niyamāś cāmānitvādayaḥ | na tair jñeyaṃ jñāyate | na hy amānitvādi kasyacit vastunaḥ paricchedakaṃ dṛṣṭam | sarvatraiva ca yad-viṣayaṃ jñānaṃ tad eva tasya jñeyasya paricchedakaṃ dṛśyate | na hy anya-viṣayeṇa jñānenānyad upalabhyate, yathā ghaṭa-viṣayeṇa jñānenāgniḥ | naiṣa doṣaḥ | jñāna-nimittatvāj jñānam ucyata iti hy avocāma | jñāna-sahakāri-kāraṇatvāc ca | jñeyaṃ jñātavyaṃ yat tat pravakṣyāmi prakarṣeṇa yathāvat vakṣyāmi | kiṃ-phalaṃ tat ? iti prarocanena śrotur abhimukhīkaraṇāyāha—yaj jñeyaṃ jñātvāmṛtam amṛtatvam aśnute, na punar mriyata ity arthaḥ | anādimat ādir asyāstīti ādimat, nādimad anādimat | kiṃ tat ? paraṃ niratiśayaṃ brahma, jñeyam iti prakṛtam |
atra kecit anādi mat-param iti padaṃ chindanti, bahu-vrīhiṇokte’rthe matupa ānarthakyam aniṣṭaṃ syād iti | artha-viśeṣaṃ ca darśayanti—ahaṃ vāsudevākhyā parā śaktir yasya tan mat-param iti | satyam evam apunar-uktaṃ syāt | arthaś cet saṃbhavati | na tv arthaḥ saṃbhavati, brahmaṇaḥ sarva-viśeṣa-pratiṣedhenaiva vijijñāpayiṣitvān na sat tan nāsad ucyate iti | viśiṣṭa-śaktimattva-pradarśanaṃ viśeṣa-pratiṣedhaś ceti vipratiṣiddham | tasmāt matupo bahu-vrīhiṇā samānārthatve’pi prayogo śloka-pūraṇārthaḥ | amṛtatva-phalaṃ jñeyaṃ mayocyata iti prarocanenābhimukhīkṛtyāha—na sat taj jñeyam ucyate iti nāpy asat tad ucyate ||
nanu mahatā parikara-bandhena kaṇṭha-raveṇodghuṣya jñeyaṃ pravakṣyāmīti, ananurūpam uktaṃ na sat tan nāsad ucyata iti | na, anurūpam evoktam | kathaṃ ? sarvāsu hy upaniṣatsu jñeyaṃ brahma neti neti [bhāvātmauttaṃ 2.3.6] asthūlam anaṇu [bhāvātmauttaṃ 3.8.8] ity ādi-viśeṣa-pratiṣedhenaiva nirdiśyate, nedaṃ tad iti vāco’gocatvāt ||
nanu na tad asti, yad vastv asti-śabdena nocyate | athāsti-śabdena nocyate, nāsti taj jñeyam | vipratiṣiddhaṃ ca—jñeyaṃ tad asti-śabdena nocyate iti ca | na tāvan nāsti, nāsti-buddhy-aviṣayatvāt ||
nanu sarvā buddhayo’sti-nāsti-buddhy-anugatā eva | tatraivaṃ sati jñeyam apy asti-buddhy-anugata-pratyaya-viṣayaṃ vā syāt, nāsti-buddhy-anugata-pratyaya-viṣayaṃ vā syāt | na, atīndriyatvenobhaya-buddhy-anugata-pratyayāviṣayatvāt | yad dhīndriya-gamyaṃ vastu ghaṭādikam, tad asti-buddhy-anugata-pratyaya-viṣayaṃ vā syāt, nāsti-buddhy-anugata-pratyaya-viṣayaṃ vā syāt | idaṃ tu jñeyam atīndriyatvena śabdaika-pramāṇa-gamyatvān na ghaṭādivad ubhaya-buddhy-anugata-pratyaya-viṣayam ity ato na sat tan nāsad ity ucyate ||
yat tūktaṃ—viruddham ucyate, jñeyaṃ tan na sat tan nāsad ucyata iti | na viruddham, anyad eva tad-viditād atho aviditād adhi [kṛtenauttaṃ 1.3] iti śruteḥ | śrutir api viruddhārthā iti cet—yathā yajñāya śālām ārabhya yajñaṃ ko hi tad veda yady amuṣmin loke’sti vā na veti [sthitaittsarv 6.1.1] ity evam iti cet, na | viditāviditābhyām anyatva-śruter avaśya-vijñeyārtha-pratipādana-paratvāt yady amuṣmin ity ādi tu vidhi-śeṣo’rtha-vādaḥ | upapatteś ca sad-asad-ādi-śabdair brahma nocyata iti |
sarvo hi śabdo’rtha-prakāśanāya prayuktaḥ śrūyamāṇaś ca śrotṛbhir jāti-kriyā-guṇa-saṃbandha-dvāreṇa saṃketa-grahaṇa-sa-vyapekṣārthaṃ pratyāyayati | nānyathā, adṛṣṭatvāt | tad yathā—gaur aśva iti vā jātitaḥ, pacati paṭhatīti vā kriyātaḥ, śuklaḥ kṛṣṇa iti vā guṇataḥ, dhanī gomān iti vā saṃbandhataḥ | na tu brahma jātimat, ato na sad-ādi-śabda-vācyam | nāpi guṇavat, yena guṇa-śabdenocyeta, nirguṇatvāt | nāpi kriyā-śabda-vācyaṃ niṣkriyatvān niṣkalaṃ niṣkriyaṃ śāntaṃ [śāstrvetuttaṃ 6.19] iti śruteḥ | na ca saṃbandhī, ekatvāt | advayatvād aviṣayatvād ātmatvāc ca na kenacit, śabdenocyata iti yuktam | yato vāco nivartante [sthitaittuttaṃ 2.9] ity ādi-śrutibhiś ca
 

Rāmānuja


atha etad yo vettīti veditṛtvalakṣaṇenoktasya kṣetrajñasya svarūpaṃ viśodhyate
amānitvādibhiḥ sādhanaiḥ jñeyaṃ prāpyaṃ yat pratyagātmasvarūpaṃ tat pravakṣyāmi, yaj jñātvā janmajarāmaraṇādiprākṛtadharmarahitam amṛtam ātmānaṃ prāpnoti; ādir yasya na vidyate, tad anādi; asya hi pratyagātmana utpattir na vidyate; tata evānto na vidyate / śrutiś ca, „na jāyate mriyate vā vipaścit” iti, matparam ahaṃ paro yasya tan matparam / „itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām, jīvabhūtām” iti hy uktam / bhagavaccharīratayā bhagavaccheṣataikarasaṃ hy ātmasvarūpam; tathā ca śrutiḥ, „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan ātmano ‚ntaro yam atmā na veda yasyātmā śarīraṃ ya ātmānam antaro yamayati” iti, tathā, „sa kāraṇaṃ karaṇādhipādhipo na cāsya kaściñ janitā na cādhipaḥ”, „pradhānakṣetrajñapatir guṇeśaḥ” ityādikā / brahma bṛhattvaguṇayogi, śarīrāder arthāntarabhūtam, svataḥ śarīrādibhiḥ paricchedarahitaṃ kṣetrajñatattvam ityarthaḥ; „sa cānantyāya kalpate” iti hi śrūyate; śarīraparicchinnatvam aṇutvaṃ cāsya karmakṛtam / karmabandhān muktasyānantyam / ātmany api brahmaśabdaḥ prayujyate, „sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahmabhūyāya kalpate / brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham amṛtasyāvyayasya ca”, „brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati / samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu madbhaktiṃ labhate parām // BhGR_13.” iti / na sat tan nāsad ucyate kāryakāraṇarūpāvasthādvayarahitatayā sadasacchabdābhyām ātmasavarūpaṃ nocyate / kāryāvasthāyāṃ hi devādināmarūpabhāktvena sad ity ucyate, tadanarhatā kāraṇāvasthāyām asad ity ucyate / tathā ca śrutiḥ, „asad vā idam agra āsīt / tato vai sad ajāyata”,”tad dhedaṃ tarhy avyākṛtam āsīt tannāmarūpābhyāṃ vyākriyata” ityādikā / kāryakāraṇāvasthādvayānvayas tv ātmanaḥ karmarūpāvidyāveṣṭanakṛtaḥ, na svarūpakṛta iti sadasacchabdābhyām ātmasvarūpaṃ nocyate / yady api „asad vā idam agra āsīt” iti kāraṇāvasthaṃ paraṃ brahmocyate, tathāpi nāmarūpavibhāgānarhasūkṣmacidacidvastuśarīraṃ paraṃ brahma kāraṇāvastham iti kāraṇāvasthāyāṃ kṣetrakṣetrajñasvarūpam api asacchabdavācyam, kṣetrajñasya sāvasthā karmakṛteti pariśuddhasvarūpaṃ na sadasacchabdanirdeśyam
 

Śrīdhara


ebhiḥ sādhanair yaj jñeyaṃ tad āha jñeyam iti ṣaḍbhiḥ | yaj jñeyaṃ tat pravakṣyāmi | śrotur ādara-siddhaye jñāna-phalaṃ darśayati | yad vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñātvāmṛtaṃ mokṣaṃ prāpnoti | kiṃ tat anādimat | ādiman na bhavati iti anādimat | paraṃ niratiśayaṃ brahma | anādi ity etāvataiva bahuvrīhiṇānādimattve siddhe ‚pi punar matupaḥ prayogaś chāndasaḥ | yad vā anādīti mat-param iti ca pada-dvayam | mam viṣṇoḥ paraṃ nirviśeṣaṃ rūpaṃ brahmety arthaḥ | tad evāha na san tan nāsad ucyate | vidhi-mukhena pramāṇasya viṣayaḥ sac-chabdenocyate | niṣedhaysa viṣayas tv asac-chabdenocyate | idaṃ tu tad-ubhaya-vilakṣaṇam | aviṣayatvād ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


ebhiḥ sādhanair jñāna-śabditaiḥ kiṃ jñeyam ity apekṣāyām āha jñeyaṃ yat tad ity ādi ṣaḍbhiḥ | yaj jñeyaṃ mumukṣuṇā tat pravakṣyāmi prakarṣeṇa spaṣṭatayā vakṣyāmi | śrotur abhimukhīkaraṇāya phalena stuvann āha yad vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñeyaṃ jñātvāmṛtam amṛtatvam aśnute saṃsārān mucyata ity arthaḥ | kiṃ tat ? anādimat ādiman na bhavatīty anādimat | paraṃ niratiśayaṃ brahma sarvato ‚navacchinnaṃ paramātma-vastu | atrānādīty etāvataiva bahu-vrīhiṇārtha-lābhe ‚py atiśāyane nitya-yoge vā matupaḥ prayogaḥ | anādīti ca mat-param iti ca padaṃ kecid icchanti | mat saguṇād brahmaṇaḥ paraṃ nirviśeṣa-rūpaṃ brahmety arthaḥ | ahaṃ vāsudevākhyā parā śaktir yasyeti tv apavyākhyānam | nirviśeṣasya brahmaṇaḥ pratipādyatvena tatra śaktimattvasya avaktavyatvāt |
nirviśeṣatvam evāha na sat tan nāsad ucyate | vidhi-mukhena pramāṇasya viṣayaḥ sac-chabdenocyate | niṣedha-mukhena pramāṇasya viṣayas tv asac-chabdena | idaṃ tu tad-ubhaya-vilakṣaṇaṃ nirviśeṣatvāt sva-prakāśa-caitanya-rūpatvāc ca yato vāco nivartante aprāpya manasā saha [TaittU 2.4.1] ity ādi śruteḥ | yasmāt tad brahma na sad-bhāvatvāśrayaḥ | ato nocyate kenāpi śabdena mukhyayā vṛttyā śabda-pravṛtti-hetūnāṃ tatrāsambhavāt | tad yathā gauraś ca iti vā jātitaḥ | pacati paṭhatīti vā kriyātaḥ | śuklaḥ kṛṣṇa iti vā guṇataḥ, dhanī gomān iti vā saṃbandhato ‚rthaṃ pratyāyati śabdaḥ | atra kriyā-guṇa-sambandhebhyo vilakṣaṇaḥ sarvo ‚pi dharmo jāti-rūpa upādhi-rūpo vā jāti-padena saṃgṛhītaḥ | yadṛcchā-śabdo ‚pi ḍittha-ḍapitthādir yaṃ kaṃcid dharmaṃ svātmānaṃ vā pravṛttiṃ nimittīkṛtya pravartata iti so ‚pi jāti-śabdaḥ | evam ākāśa-śabdo ‚pi tārkikāṇāṃ śabdāśrayatvādi-rūpaṃ yaṃ kaṃcid dharmaṃ puraskṛtya pravartate | sva-mate tu pṛthivyādivad ākāśa-vyaktīnāṃ janyānām anekatvād ākāśatvam api jātir eveti so ‚pi jāti-śabdaḥ | ākāśātiriktā ca diṅ nāsty eva | kālaś ca neśvarād atiricyate | atireke vā dik-kāla-śabdāv apy upādhi-viśeṣa-pravṛtti-nimittakāv iti jāti-śabdāv eva | tasmāt pravṛtti-nimitta-cāturvidhyāc caturvidha eva śabdaḥ | tatra na sat tan nāsat iti jāti-niṣedhaḥ kriyā-guṇa-sambandhānām api niṣedhopalakṣaṇārthaḥ | ekam evādvitīyam iti jāti-niṣedhas tasyā aneka-vyakti-vṛtter ekasminn asambhavāt | nirguṇaṃ niṣkriyaṃ śāntam [ŚvetU 6.19] iti guṇa-kriyā-sambandhānāṃ krameṇa niṣedhaḥ | asaṅgo hy ayaṃ puruṣaḥ [BAU 4.3.15] iti ca | athāto ādeśo neti neti [BAU 2.3.6] iti ca sarva-niṣedhaḥ | tasmād brahma na kenacic chabdenocyata iti yuktam | tarhi kathaṃ pravakṣyāmīty uktaṃ kathaṃ vā śāstra-yonitvāt iti sūtram [Vs 1.1.3] | yathā kathaṃcil lakṣaṇayā śabdena pratipādanād ii gṛhāṇa | pratipādana-prakāraś ca āścaryavat paśyati kaścid enam [Gītā 2.28] ity atra vyākhyātaḥ | vistaras tu bhāṣye draṣṭavyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


evaṃ sādhanair jñeyo jīvātmā paramātmā ca | tatra paramātmaiva sarvagato brahma-śabdenocyate | tac ca brahma nirviśeṣaṃ saviśeṣaṃ ca krameṇa jñāni-bhaktayor upāsyam | deha-gato ‚pi caturbhujatvena dhyeyaḥ paramātma-śabdenocyate | tatra prathamaṃ brahmāha jñeyam iti | anādi na vidyate ādir yasya mat-svarūpatvān nityam ity arthaḥ | mat-param aham eva para utkṛṣṭa āśrayo yasya tat | brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham [Gītā 14.27] iti mad-agrimokteḥ | tad eva kim ity apekṣāyām āha | tad brahma na sat nāpy asat, kārya-kāraṇātītam ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


evaṃ jñāna-sādhanāny upadiśya tair jñeyam upadiśati jñeyaṃ yat tad iti | uktaiḥ sādhanair yaj jñeyam upalabhyaṃ jīvātmavastu ca tad ahaṃ prakarṣeṇa subodhatayā vakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā jano ‚mṛtaṃ mokṣam aśnute labhate | tatra jīvātma-vastūpadiśati anādīty-ardhakena | nāsty ādir yasya tat jīvasyādy-utpattir nāsty ato ‚not ‚pi neti nityāsāv ity arthaḥ | evam āha śrutiḥ — na jāyate mriyate vā vipaścit [KaṭhU 1.2.18] ity ādyā | aham eva paraḥ svāmī yasya tat pradhāna-kṣetrajña-patir guṇeśaḥ [ŚvetU 6.16] iti śruteḥ | dāsabhūto harer eva nānyasyaiva kadācana iti smṛteś ca | apahata-pāpmatvādinā brahma bṛhatā guṇāṣṭakena viśiṣṭam | śrutiś caivam āha ya ātmāpahata-pāpmā vijaro vimṛtyur viśoko vijghitso ‚pipāsaḥ satya-saṅkalpaḥ so ‚nveṣṭavyaḥ sa vijijñāsitavyaḥ iti | jīve brahma-śabdas tu vijñānaṃ brahma ced veda [TaittU 2.5.1] ity ādi śruteḥ | sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate [Gītā 14.26] | brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati [Gītā 18.55] iti vakṣyamāṇāc ca | na sad iti tad viśuddhaṃ jīvātma-vastu kārya-kāraṇātmakāvasthā-dvaya-virahāt sac cāsac ca nocyate | kintu paramāṇu-caitanyaṃ guṇāṣṭaka-viśiṣṭam ucyate – vibhakta-nāma-rūpaṃ kāryāvasthaṃ sad-upamṛdita-nāma-rūpaṃ kāraṇāvasthaṃ tv asad ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 13.13

sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṃ tat sarvato ‘kṣi-śiro-mukham
sarvataḥ śrutimal loke sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhati

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syntax


tat [jñeyam] (that to be known) sarvataḥ (from all sides) pāṇi-pādam (that has hands and feet) sarvataḥ (from all sides) akṣi-śiro-mukham (that has eyes, heads and faces) sarvataḥ (from all sides) śrutimat (that has ears) [asti] (it is),
loke (in the world) sarvam (all) āvṛtya (after covering) tiṣṭhati (it stands).

 

grammar

sarvataḥ av.from all sides, everywhere, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
pāṇi-pādam pāṇi-pāda 1n.1 n.; DV / BV: yasya pāṇayaś ca pādāś ca santi tatthat has hands and feet (from: paṇ – to honour, to buy, bo win, pāṇi – hand, market; pad – to fall, to go, to apply to, pāda – foot, part);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
sarvataḥ   av.from all sides, everywhere, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
akṣi-śiro-mukham akṣi-śiro-mukha 1n.1 n.; DV / BV: yasya akṣīṇi ca śirāṁsi ca mukhāni ca santi tatthat has eyes, heads and faces (from: xīkṣ – to see or xaś – to reach, to eat, to enjoy, akṣa = akṣi – an eye; śiras – head; mukha – face);
sarvataḥ av.from all sides, everywhere, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
śrutimat śruti-mant 1n.1 n.that has ears (from: śru – to hear, to listen, śruti – hearing, ears; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
sarvam sarva sn. 2n.1 n.all, whole (sarvam idam – mostly used to mean ‘this world’);
āvṛtya ā-vṛ (to cover) absol.after covering;
tiṣṭhati sthā (to stand) Praes P 1v.1it stands;

 

textual variants


pāṇi-pādaṁ tat pāṇi-pādāṁtaṁ / pāṇi-pādaṁ ca (the end of hands and feet / and that has hands and feet);
‘kṣi-śiro-mukham‘kṣi-śiro-mukhaḥ (that has eyes, heads and faces);

The verse 13.13 is the same as Śvetāśvataropaniṣad 3.16;

 
 



Śāṃkara


sac-chabda-pratyayāviṣayatvād asattvāśaṅkāyāṃ jñeyasya sarva-prāṇi-karaṇopādhi-dvāreṇa tad-astitvaṃ pratipādayan tad-āśaṅkā-nivṛtty-artham āha—
sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṃ sarvataḥ pāṇayaḥ pādāś cāsyeti sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṃ taj jñeyam | sarva-prāṇi-karaṇopādhibhiḥ kṣetrajñasyāstitvaṃ vibhāvyate | kṣetrajñaś ca kṣetropādhita ucyate | kṣetraṃ ca pāṇi-pādādibhir anekadhā bhinnam | kṣetropādhi-bheda-kṛtaṃ viśeṣa-jātaṃ mithyaiva kṣetrajñasya, iti tad-apanayanena jñeyatvam uktaṃ na sat tan nāsad ucyate iti | upādhi-kṛtaṃ mithyā-rūpam apy astitvādhigamāya jñeya-dharmavat parikalpya ucyate sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādam ity ādi | tathā hi saṃpradāya-vidāṃ vacanaṃ—adhyāropāpavādābhyāṃ niṣprapañcaṃ prapañcyate iti | sarvatra sarva-dehāvayavatvena gamyamānāḥ pāṇi-pādādayo jñeya-śakti-sad-bhāva-nimitta-svakāryā iti jñeya-sad-bhāve liṅgāni jñeyasyeti upacārata ucyante | tathā vyākhyeyam anyat | sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṃ taj jñeyam | sarvato’kṣi-śiro-mukhaṃ sarvato’kṣīṇi śirāṃsi mukhāni ca yasya tat sarvato’kṣi-śiro-mukham | sarvataḥ śrutimat | śrutiḥ śravaṇendriyam, tat yasya tat śrutimat | loke prāṇi-nikāye | sarvam āvṛtya saṃvyāpya tiṣṭhati sthitiṃ labhate
 

Rāmānuja


sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṃ tat pariśuddhātmasvarūpaṃ sarvataḥ pāṇipādakāryaśaktam, tathā sarvato ‚kṣiśiromukhaṃ sarvataś śrutimat sarvataś cakṣurādikāryakṛt, „apāṇipādo javano grahītā paśyaty acakṣuḥ sa śṛṇoty akarṇaḥ” iti parasya brahmaṇo ‚pāṇipādasyāpi sarvataḥ pāṇipādādikāryakṛttvaṃ śrūyate / pratyagātmano ‚pi pariśuddhasya tatsāmyāpattyā sarvataḥ pāṇipādādikāryakṛttvaṃ śrutisiddham eva / „tadā vidvān puṇyapāpe vidhūya nirañjanaḥ paramaṃ sāmyam upaiti” iti hi śrūyate / „idaṃ jñānam upāśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ” iti ca vakṣyate / loke sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhati loke yad vastujātaṃ tat sarvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhati, pariśuddhasvarūpaṃ deśādiparicchedarahitatayā sarvagatam ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


nanv evaṃ brahmaṇaḥ sad-asad-vilakṣaṇatve sati — sarvaṃ khalv idaṃ brahma brahmaivedaṃ sarvam ity ādi-śrutibhir virudhyeta ity āśaṅkya parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate svābhāvikī jñāna-bala-kriyā ca ity ādi śruti-prasiddhayācintya-śaktyā sarvātmatāṃ tasya darśayann āha sarvata iti pañcabhiḥ | sarvataḥ sarvatra pāṇayaḥ pādāś ca yasya tat | sarvato ‚kṣīṇi śirāṃsi mukhāni ca yasya tat | sarvataḥ śrutimat śravaṇendriyair yuktaṃ sal-loke sarvam āvṛtya vyāpya tiṣṭhati | sarva-prāṇi-vṛttibhiḥ pāṇy-ādibhir upādhibhiḥ sarva-vyavahārāspadatvena tiṣṭhatīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ nirupādhikasya brahmaṇaḥ sac-chabda-pratyayāviṣayatvād asattvāśaṅkāyāṃ nāsad ity anenāpāstāyām api vistareṇa tad-āśaṅkā-nivṛtty-arthaṃ sarva-prāṇi-karaṇopādhi-dvāreṇa cetana-kṣetrajña-rūpatayā tad-astitvaṃ pratipādayann āha sarvata iti |
sarvataḥ sarveṣu deheṣu pāṇayaḥ pādāś cācetanāḥ sva-sva-vyāpāreṣu pravartanīyā ysays cetanasya kṣetrajṇasya tat sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṃ jñeyaṃ brahma | sarvācetana-pravṛttīnāṃ cetanādhiṣṭhāna-pūrvakatvāt tasmin kṣetrajñe cetane brahmaṇi jñeye sarvācetana-varga-pravṛtti-hetau nāsti nāstitāśaṅkety arthaḥ | evaṃ sarvato ‚kṣīṇi śirāṃsi mukhāni ca yasya pravartanīyāni santi tat sarvato ‚kṣi-śiro-mukhaṃ | evaṃ sarvataḥ śrutayaḥ śravaṇendriyāṇi yasya pravartanīyatvena santa tat sarvataḥ śrutimat | loke sarva-prāṇi-nikāye | ekam eva nityaṃ vibhu ca sarvam acetanavargam āvṛtya sva-sattayā sphūrtyā cādhyāsikena sambandhena vyāpya tiṣṭhati nirvikāram eva sthitiṃ labhate, na tu svādhyastasya jaḍa-prapañcasya doṣeṇa guṇena vāṇu-mātreṇāpi sambadhyata ity arthaḥ | yathā ca sarveṣu deheṣv ekam eva cetanaṃ nityaṃ vibhu ca na pratidehaṃ bhinnaṃ tathā prapañcitaṃ prāk
 

Viśvanātha


nanv evaṃ brahmaṇaḥ sad-asad-vilakṣaṇatve sati — sarvaṃ khalv idaṃ brahma brahmaivedaṃ sarvam ity ādi-śrutir virudhyeta ity āśaṅkya svarūpataḥ kārya-kāraṇātītatve ‚pi śakti-śaktimator abhedāt kārya-kāraṇātmakam api tad ity āha sarvata eva pāṇayaḥ pādāś ca yasya tat | brahmādi-pipīlikāntānāṃ pāṇi-pāda-vṛndaiḥ sarvatra dṛṣṭair eva tad brahmaivāsaṅkhya-pāṇi-pādair yuktm ity arthaḥ | evam eva sarvato ‚kṣīty ādi
 

Baladeva


atha paramātma-vastūpadiśati sarvataḥ pāṇīti | tat paramātmavastu | sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādam ity ādi visphuṭārtham
 
 



BhG 13.14

sarvendriya-guṇābhāsaṃ sarvendriya-vivarjitam
asaktaṃ sarva-bhṛc
caiva nirguṇaṃ guṇa-bhoktṛ ca

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syntax


[tat jñeyam] (that to be known) sarvendriya-guṇābhāsam (which lights the guṇas for all the senses) sarvendriya-vivarjitam (deprived of all the senses) asaktam (unattached) sarva-bhṛt ca eva (and indeed which maintains all) nirguṇam (without the guṇas) guṇa-bhoktṛ ca (and which enjoys the guṇas) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

sarvendriya-guṇābhāsam sarva-indriya-guṇa-ābhāsa 1n.1 n.; yat sarvāṇi indriyāṇi guṇān ca ābhāsayati tatwhich lights all the senses and guṇas / which lights the guṇas for all the senses / which is the semblance of the guṇas in all the senses (from: sarva – all, whole; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; ā-bhās – to appear, to shine, ābhāsa – light, reflection, semblance);
sarvendriya-vivarjitam sarva-indriya-vivarjita 1n.1 n.; [TP]: sarvaiṛ indriyaiṛ vivarjitam itideprived of all the senses (from: sarva – all, whole; ind – to be powerful, indriya – the senses; vi-vṛj – to exclude, to avoid, caus. [PP] vivarjita – excluded, deprived of, without);
asaktam a-sakta (sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace) [PP] 1n.1 n.unattached;
sarva-bhṛt sarva-bhṛt 1n.1 n.; yat sarvam bibharti tatwhich maintains all (from: sarva – all, whole; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, bhṛt – suffix: bearer, holder);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
nirguṇam nir-guṇa 1n.1 n.without the guṇas (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread);
guṇa-bhoktṛ guṇa-bhoktṛ 1n.1 n.; [TP]: guṇānām bhoktṛ itiwhich enjoys the guṇas (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoktṛ – one who eats, enjoys);
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


sarva-bhṛc caiva sarva-taś caiva / sarva-bhṛt tv eva / sarva-hṛc caiva (and indeed from all sides / but indeed he maintains all / and indeed the heart of all);

The first two padas of verse 13.14 are the same as the first two padas of Śvetāśvataropaniṣad 3.17;

 
 



Śāṃkara


upādhibhūta-pāṇi-pādādīndriyādhyāropaṇāj jñeyasya tadvattāśaṅkā mā bhūd ity evam arthaḥ ślokārambhaḥ—
sarvendriya-guṇābhāsaṃ sarvāṇi ca tānīndriyāṇi śrotrādīni buddhīndriya-karmendriyākhyāni, antaḥ-karaṇe ca buddhi-manasī, jñeyopādhitvasya tulyatvāt, sarvendriya-grahaṇena gṛhyante | api ca, antaḥ-karaṇopādhi-dvāreṇaiva śrotrādīnām api upādhitvam ity ato’ntaḥ-karaṇa-bahiṣkaraṇopādhi-bhūtaiḥ sarvendriya-guṇair adhyavasāya-saṃkalpa-śravaṇa-vacanādibhir avabhāsate iti sarvendriya-guṇābhāsaṃ sarvendriya-vyāpārair vyāpṛtam iva taj jñeyam ity arthaḥ | dhyāyatīva lelāyatīva [bhāvātmauttaṃ 4.3.7] iti śruteḥ |
kasmāt punaḥ kāraṇān na vyāpṛtam eveti gṛhyata ity ataḥ āha—sarvendriya-vivarjitam, sarva-karaṇa-rahitam ity arthaḥ | ato na karaṇa-vyāpāraiḥ vyāpṛtaṃ taj jñeyam | yas tv ayaṃ mantraḥ—apāṇi-pādo javano grahītā paśyaty acakṣuḥ sa sṛṇoty akarṇaḥ [śāstrvetuttaṃ 3.19] ity ādiḥ | sa sarvendriyopādhi-guṇānuguṇya-bhajana-śaktimat taj jñeyam ity evaṃ pradarśanārthaḥ, na tu sākṣād eva javanādi-kriyāvattva-pradarśanārthaḥ | andho maṇim avindad [sthitaitteṇa 1.11] ity ādi-mantrārthavat tasya mantrasyārthaḥ | yasmāt sarva-karaṇa-varjitaṃ jñeyam, tasmād asaktaṃ sarva-saṃśleṣavarjitam | yadyapy evam, tathāpi sarva-bhṛc caiva | sad-āspadaṃ hi sarvaṃ sarvatra sad-buddhy-anugamāt | na hi mṛgatṛṣṇikādayo’pi nirāspadā bhavanti | ataḥ sarva-bhṛt sarvaṃ bibhartīti | syād idaṃ cānyaj jñeyasya sattvādhigama-dvāraṃ—nirguṇaṃ sattva-rajas-tamāṃsi guṇās tair varjitaṃ taj jñeyam, tathāpi guṇa-bhoktṛ ca guṇānāṃ sattva-rajas-tamasāṃ śabdādi-dvāreṇa sukha-duḥkha-mohākāra-pariṇatānāṃ bhoktṛ copalabdhṛ ca taj jñeyam ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


sarvendriyaguṇābhāsam sarvendriyaguṇair ābhāso yasya tat sarvendriyābhāsam / indriyaguṇā indriyavṛttayaḥ / indriyavṛttibhir api viṣayān jñatuṃ samartham ityarthaḥ / svabhāvatas sarvendriyavivarjitam vinaivendriyavṛttibhiḥ svata eva sarvaṃ jānātītyarthaḥ / asaktam svabhāvato devādidehasaṅgarahitam, sarvabhṛc caiva devādisarvadehabharaṇasamarthaṃ ca; „sa ekadhā bhavati tridhā bhavati” ityādiśruteḥ / nirguṇam tathā svabhāvatas sattvādiguṇarahitam / guṇabhoktṛ ca sattvādīnāṃ guṇānāṃ bhogasamarthaṃ ca
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ casarvendriyeti | sarveṣāṃ cakṣur-ādīnāṃ guṇeṣu rūpādy-ākārāsu vṛttiṣu tat-tad-ākāreṇa bhāsate iti tathā | sarvendriyāṇi guṇāṃś ca tat-tad-viṣayān ābhāsayatīti vā | sarvaiḥ indriyair vivarjitaṃ ca | tathā ca śrutiḥ — apāṇi-pādo javano grahītā paśyaty acakṣuḥ sa śṛṇoty akarṇaḥ ity ādiḥ | asaktaṃ saṅga-śūnyam | tathāpi sarvaṃ bibhartīti sarvasyādhārabhūtam | tad eva nirguṇaṃ sattvādi-guṇa-rahitaṃ | guṇa-bhoktṛ ca guṇānāṃ sattvādīnāṃ bhoktṛ pālakam
 

Madhusūdana


sarvendriyaguṇābhāsam sarvendriyaguṇair ābhāso yasya tat sarvendriyābhāsam / indriyaguṇā indriyavṛttayaḥ / indriyavṛttibhir api viṣayān jñatuṃ samartham ityarthaḥ / svabhāvatas sarvendriyavivarjitam vinaivendriyavṛttibhiḥ svata eva sarvaṃ jānātītyarthaḥ / asaktam svabhāvato devādidehasaṅgarahitam, sarvabhṛc caiva devādisarvadehabharaṇasamarthaṃ ca; „sa ekadhā bhavati tridhā bhavati” ityādiśruteḥ / nirguṇam tathā svabhāvatas sattvādiguṇarahitam / guṇabhoktṛ ca sattvādīnāṃ guṇānāṃ bhogasamarthaṃ ca
 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ca sarvāṇi indriyāṇi guṇān indriya-viṣayāṃś ca ābhāsayatīti tac cakṣuṣaś cakṣuḥ ity ādi śruteḥ | yad vā sarvendriyair guṇaiḥ śabdādibhiś cābhāsate virājatīti tat | tad api sarvendriya-vivarjitaṃ prākṛtendriyādi-rahitam | tathā ca śrutiḥ – apāṇi-pādo javano grahītā paśyaty acakṣuḥ sa śṛṇoty akarṇaḥ ity ādi | parāsya śaktir bahudhaiva śrūyate svābhāvikī jñāna-bala-kriyā ca iti śruti-prasiddha-svarūpa-śaktyāspadatvād iti bhāvaḥ | asaktaṃ āsakti-śūnyaṃ sarvabhṛt śrī-viṣṇu-svarūpeṇa sarva-pālakam | nirguṇaṃ sattvādi-guṇa-rahitākāram | kiṃ ca guṇa-bhoktṛ triguṇātīta-bhaga-śabda-vācā ṣaḍ-guṇāsvādakam
 

Baladeva


kiṃ ca sarveti sarvair indriyair guṇaiś ca tad-vṛttibhir ābhāsate dīpyata iti tathā sarvair indriyair jīvendriyavat svarūpa-bhinnair vivarjitaṃ santyaktaṃ prākṛtaiḥ karaṇaiḥ śūnyaḥ svarūpānubandhibhis tair viśiṣṭo harir iti svīkāryam | apāṇi-pādo javano grahītā paśyaty acakṣuḥ sa śṛṇoty akarṇaḥ | yad ātmako bhagavāṃs tad-ātmikā vyaktiḥ kim ātmako bhagavān jñānātmaka aiśvaryātmakaḥ śaktyātmakaś ceti buddhimano ‚ṅga-pratyaṅgavattāṃ bhagavato lakṣayāmahe buddhimān mano-bāṇaṅga-pratyaṅgavān iti śruteḥ | sarvabhṛt sarva-tattva-dhārakam apy asaktaṃ saṅkalpenaiva tad-dhāraṇāt tat-sparśa-rahitaṃ nirguṇaṃ sākṣī cetāḥ kevalo nirguṇaś ca iti śruter māyā-guṇa-spṛṣṭam eva sad-guṇa-bhoktṛ-niyamyatayā guṇanubhavi-vikāra-jananīm ajñām ity ārabhya
ekas tu pibate devaḥ
svacchando ‚tra vaśānugām |
dhyāna-kriyābhyāṃ bhagavān
bhuṅkte ‚sau prasabhaṃ vibhuḥ || iti śravaṇāt
 
 


BhG 13.15

bahir antaś ca bhūtānām acaraṃ caram eva ca
sūkṣmatvāt tad avijñeyaṃ dūra-sthaṃ cāntike ca tat

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syntax


tad [jñeyam] (that to be known) bhūtānām (of beings) bahiḥ antaḥ ca [sthitam] (being outside and inside),
acara caram eva ca (non-moving and certainly moving) [asti] (it is),
sūkṣmatvāt (because of being subtle) avijñeyam (unknowable) [asti] (it is),
tat dūra-stham (that which is far away) antike ca (and near) [vartamānam] (that is present).

 

grammar

bahiḥ av.outside;
antaḥ av.inside, within;
ca av.and;
bhūtānām bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 6n.3 m. of beings, of creatures (from: bhūta – been, real, world);
acaram acara 1n.1 n.non-moving [creature] (from: car –to move, to go, cara – moving, living; a-cara – non-moving, not living);
caram cara 1n.1 n.moving [creature] (from: car –to move, to go, cara – moving, living);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
sūkṣmatvāt sūkṣmatva abst. 5n.1 n.because of being subtle (from: sūkṣma – subtle, minute, thin, feeble, opposite to: sthūla);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
avijñeyam a-vijñeya (vi-jñā – to distinguish) PF 1n.1 n.not to be known, unknowable;
dūra-stham dūra-stha 1n.1 m.yad dūre tiṣṭhati tat which is far away (from: dūra – distant, far, great; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
ca av.and;
antike av.close, near (from: anta – the end, limit);
ca av.and;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;

 

textual variants


bahir → havir (oblation);
ca tat → ca yat (and that which);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
bahis tvak-paryantaṃ deham ātmatvenāvidyā-kalpitam apekṣya tam evāvavadhiṃ kṛtvā bahir ucyate | tathā pratyag-ātmānam apekṣya deham evāvadhiṃ kṛtvā antar ucyate | bahir antaś cety ukte madhye’bhāve prāpte, idam ucyate—acaraṃ caram eva ca, yac carācaraṃ dehābhāsam api tad eva jñeyaṃ, yathā rajju-sarpābhāsaḥ |
yady acaraṃ caram eva ca syāt vyavahāra-viṣayaṃ sarvaṃ jñeyam, kim-artham idam iti sarvair na vijñeyaṃ ? ity ucyate—satyaṃ sarvābhāsaṃ tat | tathāpi vyomavat sūkṣmam | ataḥ sūkṣmatvāt svena rūpeṇa taj jñeyam apy avijñeyam aviduṣām | viduṣāṃ tu, ātmaivedaṃ sarvaṃ [bhāvātmauttaṃ 7.25.2] brahmaivedaṃ sarvaṃ [bhāvātmauttaṃ 2.5.1] ity ādi-pramāṇato nityaṃ vijñātam | avijñātatayā dūra-sthaṃ varṣa-sahasra-koṭyāpy aviduṣām aprāpyatvāt | antike ca tat, ātmatvād viduṣām
 

Rāmānuja


pṛthivyādīni bhūtāni parityajyāśarīro bahir vartate; teṣām antaś ca vartate, „jakṣat krīḍan ramamāṇaḥ strībhir vā yānair vā” ityādiśrutisiddhasvacchandavṛttiṣu / acaraṃ caram eva ca svabhāvato ‚caram; caram ca dehitve / sūkṣmatvāt tadavijñeyam evaṃ sarvaśaktiyuktaṃ sarvajñāṃ tad atmatattvam asmin kṣetre vartamānam apy atisūkṣmatvād dehāt pṛthaktvena saṃsāribhir avijñeyam, dūrasthaṃ cāntike ca tad amānitvādyuktaguṇarahitānāṃ viparītaguṇāṇāṃ puṃsāṃ svadehe vartamānam apy atidūrastham, tathā amānitvādiguṇopetānāṃ tad evāntike vartate
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca bahir iti | bhūtānāṃ carācarāṇāṃ svakāryāṇāṃ bahiś cāntaś ca tad eva suvarṇam iva kaṭaka-kuntalādīnām | jala-taraṅgāṇām antar-bahiś ca jalam iva | acaraṃ sthāvaraṃ caraṃ jaṅgamaṃ ca bhūta-jātaṃ tad eva | kāraṇātmatvāt kāryasya | evam api sūkṣmatvād rūpādi-hīnatvād tad avijñeyam idaṃ tad iti spaṣṭaṃ jñānārhaṃ na bhavati | ataevāviduṣāṃ yojana-lakṣāntaritam iva dūrasthaṃ ca | savikārāyāḥ prakṛteḥ paratvāt | viduṣāṃ punaḥ pratyag-ātmatvād antike ca tan nityaṃ sannihitam | tathā ca mantraḥ —
tad ejati tan naijati
tad-dūre tad vāntike |
tad-antarasya sarvasya
tad u sarvasyāsya bāhyataḥ || [Īśopaniṣad 5] iti |
ejati calati naijati na calati | tad u antike iti cchedaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


bhūtānāṃ bhavana-dharmāṇāṃ sarveṣāṃ kāryāṇāṃ kalpitānām akalpitam adhiṣṭhānam ekam eva bahir antaś ca rajjur iva sva-kalpitānāṃ sarpa-dhārādīnāṃ sarvātmanā vyāpakam ity arthaḥ | ata evācaraṃ sthāvaraṃ caraṃ ca jañgamaṃ bhūta-jātaṃ tad evādhiṣṭhānātmakatvāt | kalpitānāṃ na tataḥ kiṃcid vyatiricyata ity arthaḥ | evaṃ sarvātmaktve ‚pi sūkṣmtvād rūpādi-hīnatvāt tad-avijñeyam idam evam iti spaṣṭa-jñānārhaṃ na bhavati | ata evātma-jñāna-sādhana-śūnyānāṃ varṣa-sahasra-koṭyāpy aprāpyatvād dūrasthaṃ ca yojana-lakṣa-koṭy-antaritam iva tat | jñāna-sādhana-sampannānāṃ tu antike ca tad atyavyavahitam evātmatvāt | dūrāt sudūre tad ihāntike paśatsv ihaiva nihitaṃ guhāyām [MuṇḍU 3.1.7] ity ādi śrutibhyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


bhūtānāṃ svakāryāṇāṃ bahiś cāntaś ca yathā dehānām ākāśādikam | acaraṃ sthāvaraṃ caraṃ jaṅgamaṃ ca bhūta-jātaṃ tad eva | kāryasya kāraṇātmakatvāt | evam api rūpādibhinnatvāt tad-avijñeyam idaṃ tad iti spaṣṭaṃ jñānārhaṃ na bhavatīty ata evāviduṣāṃ yojana-koṭy-antaram iva dūrasthaṃ viduṣāṃ punaḥ sva-gṛha-sthitam evāntike ca tat svadeha evāntaryāmitvāt dūrāt sudūre tad ihāntike ca paśyatsv ihaiva nihitaṃ guhāyām [MuṇḍU 3.1.7] ity ādi śrutibhyaḥ
 

Baladeva


bahir iti | bhūtānāṃ cij-jaḍātmakānāṃ tattvānāṃ bahir antaś ca sthitam | antar bahiś ca tat sarvaṃ vyāpya nārāyaṇaḥ sthitaḥ [MNāU 13.5] iti śravaṇāt | acaram acalaṃ caraṃ calaṃ ca āsīno dūraṃ vrajati śayāno yāti sarvataḥ [KaṭhU 1.2.21] iti śruteḥ | sūkṣmatvāt pratyaktvāc cit-sukha-mūrtitvād avijñeyaṃ devatāntaravaj jñātum aśakyam | ato dūrasthaṃ ceti yan manasā na manute na cakṣuṣā paśyati kaścanainam [ŚvetU 4.20] iti śruteḥ | gāndharva-vāsitena śrotreṇa ṣaḍ-jādivad bhakti-bhāvitena karaṇena tu śakyaṃ taj jñātum ity āha antike ca tad iti | manasīvānudraṣṭavyam, kaścid dhīraḥ pratyag-ātmānam aikṣata | bhakti-yoge hi tiṣṭhati [GTU 2.78] ity ādi śravaṇāt | bhaktyā tv ananyayā śakyaḥ [Gītā 11.55] ity ādi smṛteś ca
 
 


BhG 13.16

avibhaktaṃ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktam iva ca sthitam
bhūta-bhartṛ ca taj jñeyaṃ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca

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syntax


tat jñeyam (that to be known) bhūteṣu ca (and in beings) avibhaktam [api] (although being undivided) vibhaktam iva ca (and as if being divided) sthitam (situated).
bhūta-bhartṛ (maintaining beings) grasiṣṇu (swallowing) prabhaviṣṇu ca (and ruling) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

avibhaktam a-vi-bhakta (vi-bhāj – to divide, to separate) [PP] 1n.1 n.being undivided;
ca av.and;
bhūteṣu bhūta (bhū – to be), [PP] 7n.3in all beings;
vibhaktam vi-bhakta (vi-bhāj – to divide, to separate) [PP] 1n.1 n.being divided;
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
ca av.and;
sthitam sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 1n.1 n.being situated;
bhūta-bhartṛ bhūta-bhartṛ 1n.1 n.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ bhartr iti which maintains beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; bhṛ – to hold, bhartṛ – sustainer);
ca av.and;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
jñeyam jñeya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be learnt;
grasiṣṇu grasiṣṇu 1n.1 n.the swallower (from: gras – to eat);
prabhaviṣṇu pra-bhaviṣṇu 1n.1 n.lord, ruling (from: pra-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, prabhava – birth, source);
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


ca bhūteṣu → vibhakteṣu / tu bhūteṣu (in divided / but in beings);
ca sthitamsaṁsthitam (situated);
bhūta-bhartṛ ca bhūta-bhṛn na ca (and which does not maintain beings);
taj jñeyam → vijñeyam / taṁ jñeyam (to be distinguished / that to be known);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
avibhaktaṃ ca pratidehaṃ vyomavat tad ekam | bhūteṣu sarva-prāṇiṣu vibhaktam iva ca sthitaṃ deheṣv eva vibhāvyamānatvāt | bhūta-bhartṛ ca bhūtāni bibharti taj jñeyaṃ bhūta-bhartṛ ca sthiti-kāle | pralaya-kāle grasiṣṇu grasana-śīlam | utpatti-kāle prabhaviṣṇu ca prabhavana-śīlaṃ yathā rajjvādiḥ sarpāder mithyā-kalpitasya
 

Rāmānuja


devamanuṣyādibhūteṣu sarvatra sthitam ātmavastu veditṛtvaikākāratayā avibhaktam / aviduṣāṃ devādyākāreṇa „ayaṃ devo manuṣyaḥ” iti vibhaktam iva ca sthitam / devo ‚ham, manuṣyo ‚ham iti dehasāmānādhikaraṇyenānusandhīyamānam api veditṛtvena dehād arthāntarabhūtaṃ jñātuṃ śakyam iti ādāv uktam eva, „etad yo vetti” iti, idānīṃ prakārāntaraiś ca jñātuṃ śakyam ity āja bhūtabhartṛ ceti / bhūtānāṃ pṛthivyādīnāṃ deharūpeṇa saṃhatānāṃ yad bhartṛ, tad bhartavyebhyo bhūtebhyo ‚rthāntaraṃ jñeyam; arthāntaram iti jñātuṃ śakyam ityarthaḥ / tathā grasiṣṇu annādīnāṃ bhautikānāṃ grasiṣṇu, grasyamānebhyo bhūtebhyo grasitṛtvenārthāntrabhūtam iti jñātuṃ śakyam / prabhaviṣṇu ca prabhavahetuś ca, grastānām annādīnām ākārāntareṇa pariṇatānāṃ prabhahetuḥ, tebhyo ‚rthāntaram iti jñātuṃ śakyam ityarthaḥ; mṛtaśarīre grasanaprabhavādīnām adarśanān na bhūtasaṃghātarūpaṃ kṣetraṃ grasanaprabhavabharaṇahetur iti niścīyate
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca — avibhaktam iti | bhūteṣu sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakeṣu avibhaktaṃ kāraṇātmanābhinnaṃ kāryātmanā vibhaktaṃ bhinnam ivāvasthitaṃ ca samudrāj jātaṃ phenādi samudrād anyan na bhavati | tat-svarūpam evoktaṃ jñeyaṃ bhūtānāṃ bhartṛ ca poṣakaṃ sthiti-kāle | pralaya-kāle ca grasiṣṇu grasana-śīlaṃ sṛṣṭi-kāle ca prabhaviṣṇu nānā-kāryātmanā prabhavana-śīlam
 

Madhusūdana


yad uktam ekam eva sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhatīti tad vivṛṇoti pratideham ātma-bheda-vādināṃ nirāsāya avibhaktam iti | bhūteṣu sarva-prāṇiṣu avibhaktam abhinnam ekam eva tat | na tu pratidehaṃ bhinnaṃ vyomavat sarva-vyāpakatvāt | tathāpi deha-tādātmyena pratīyamānatvāt pratidehaṃ vibhaktam iva ca sthitam | aupādikatvenāpāramārthiko vyomnīva tatra bhedāvabhāsa ity arthaḥ |
nanu bhavatu kṣetrajñaḥ sarva-vyāpaka ekaḥ, brahma tu jagat-kāraṇaṃ tato bhinnam eveti | nety āha bhūta-bhartṛ ca bhūtāni sarvāṇi sthiti-kāle bibhartīti tathā pralaya-kāle grasiṣṇu grasana-śīlam utpatti-kāle prabhaviṣṇu ca prabhavana-śīlaṃ sarvasya | yathā rajjv-ādiḥ sarpāder māyā-kalpitasya | tasmād yaj jagataḥ sthiti-layotpatti-kāraṇaṃ brahma tad eva kṣetrajñaṃ pratideham ekaṃ jñeyaṃ na tato ‚nyad ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


bhūteṣu sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakeṣu avibhaktaṃ kāraṇātmanā abhinnaṃ kāryātmanā vibhaktaṃ bhinnam ivā sthitaṃ | tad eva śrī-nārāyaṇa-svarūpaṃ sat | bhūtānāṃ bhartṛ sthiti-kāle pālakaṃ | pralaya-kāle grasiṣṇu saṃhārakam | sṛṣṭikāle prabhaviṣṇu ca nānā-kāryātmanā prabhavana-śīlam
 

Baladeva


avibhaktam iti | vibhakteṣu mitho bhinneṣu jīveṣv avibhaktam ekaṃ tad brahma vibhaktam iva prati-jīvaṃ bhinnam iva sthitam | ekaṃ santaṃ bahudhā dṛśyamānam iti śruteḥ |
eka eva paro viṣṇuḥ
sarvatrāpi na saṃśayaḥ |
aiśvaryād rūpam ekaṃ ca
sūryavad bahudheyate || iti smṛteś ca |
tac ca bhūta-bhartṛ-sthitau bhūtānāṃ pālakaṃ pralaye teṣāṃ grasiṣṇu kāla-śaktyā saṃhārakaṃ, sarge prabhaviṣṇu pradhāna-jīva-śaktibhyāṃ nānā-kāryātmanā prabhavana-śīlaṃ | śrutiś ca yato vā imāni bhūtāni jāyante yena jātāni jīvanti yat prayanty abhisaṃviśanti tad brahma tad vijijñāsasva [TaittU 3.1.1] iti
 
 


BhG 13.17

jyotiṣām api taj jyotis tamasaḥ param ucyate
jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ jñāna-gamyaṃ hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam

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syntax


tad [jñeyam] (that to be known) jyotiṣām api (even among lights) jyotiḥ [asti] (it is light),
tamasaḥ (than darkness) param (higher) ucyate (it is said),
jñānam (knowledge) jñeyam (to be known) jñāna-gamyam (accessible by knowledge) sarvasya (of all) hṛdi (in the heart) viṣṭhitam (situated).

 

grammar

jyotiṣām jyotiḥ 6n.3 n.among lights, brightness, among stars;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
jyotiḥ jyotiḥ 1n.1 n.light, brightness, fire, eye;
tamasaḥ tamas 5n.1 n.than darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
av.later, next, future (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
jñeyam jñeya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be learnt;
jñāna-gamyam jñāna-gamya 1n.1 n.; [TP]: jñānena gamyam itito be reached by knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; gam – to go, PF gamya – to be gone to, to be reached, attainable);
hṛdi hṛt 7n.1 n.in the heart, in the self;
sarvasya sarva sn. 6n.1 n.of all;
viṣṭhitam vi-ṣṭhita (vi-sthā – to be present) [PP] 1n.1 n.situated;

 

textual variants


taj jyotis taj yonis (that source);
tamasaḥ → tamasā (by the darkness);
jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ jñāna-jñeyaṁ (knowledge to be known);
hṛdi sarvasya → sarvasya hṛdi / hṛdi sarvatra (in the heart of all / in the heart everywhere);
viṣṭhitam → madhya-gam / veṣṭitaṁ / dhiṣṭhitaṁ (which has gone inside / gone / situated);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca, sarvatra vidyamānam api san nopalabhyate cet, jñeyaṃ tamas tarhi ? na | kiṃ tarhi ?—
jyotiṣām ādity-ādīnām api taj jñeyaṃ jyotiḥ | ātma-caitanya-jyotiṣeddhāni hy ādity-ādīni jyotīṃṣi dīpyante, yena sūryas tapati tejaseddhaḥ [sthitaittbhāvr 3.12.9], tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti [śāstrvetuttaṃ 6.14] īty ādi-śrutibhyaḥ | smṛte ca ihaiva—yad āditya-gataṃ tejaḥ [gītā 15.12] ity ādeḥ | tamaso’jñānāt param aspṛṣṭam ucyate | jñānāder duḥsaṃpādana-buddhyā prāptāvasādasyottambhanārtham āha—jñānam amānitvādi | jñeyaṃ jñeyaṃ yat tat pravakṣyāmīty [gītā 13.13] ādinoktam | jñāna-gamyaṃ jñeyam eva jñātaṃ saj jñāna-phalam iti jñāna-gamyam ucyate | jñāyamānaṃ tu jñeyam | tad etat trayam api hṛdi buddhau sarvasya prāṇi-jātasya viṣṭhitaṃ viśeṣeṇa sthitam | tatraiva hi trayaṃ vibhāvyate
 

Rāmānuja


jyotiśām dīpādityamaṇiprabhṛtīnām api tad eva jyotiḥ prakāśakam, dīpādityādīnām apy ātmaprabhārūpaṃ / jñānam eva prakāśakam / dīpādayas tu viṣayendriyasannikarṣavirodhisaṃtamasanirasanamātraṃ kurvate / tāvan mātreṇa teṣāṃ prakāśakatvam / tamasaḥ param ucyate / tamaśśabdaḥ sūkṣmāvasthaprakṛtivacanaḥ / prakṛteḥ param ucyata ityarthaḥ / ato jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ jñānaikākāram iti jñeyam / tac ca jñānagamyam amānitvādibhir jñānasādhanair uktaiḥ prāpyam ityarthaḥ / hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam sarvasya manuṣyādeḥ hṛdi viśeṣaṇāvasthitam sannihitam
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca jyotiṣām apīti | jyotiṣāṃ sūryādīnām api jyotiḥ prakāśakaṃ tat | yena sūryas tapati tejasendhaḥ |
na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto ‚yam agniḥ |
tad eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti || [KaṭhU 2.5.15] ity ādi-śruteḥ |
ataeva tamaso ‚jñānāt paraṃ tenāsaṃsṛṣṭam ucyate | āditya-varṇaṃ tamsasaḥ parastāt ity ādi-śruteḥ | jñānaṃ ca tad eva buddhi-vṛttau abhivyaktam | tad eva rūpādy-ākāreṇa jñeyaṃ ca jñāna-gamyaṃ ca | amānitvādi-lakṣaṇena pūrvokta-jñāna-sādhanena prāpyam ity arthaḥ | jñāna-gamyaṃ viśinaṣṭi sarvasya prāṇimātrasya hṛdi viṣṭhitaṃ viśeṣeṇāpracyuta-svarūpeṇa niyantṛtayā sthitam | dhiṣṭhitam iti pāṭhe adhiṣṭāya sthitim ity arthaḥ |
 

Madhusūdana


nanu sarvatra vidyamānam api tan nopalabhyate cet tarhi jaḍam eva syāt, na syāt svayaṃjyotiṣo ‚pi tasya rūpādi-hīnatvenendriyādy-agrāhyatvopapatter ity āha jyotiṣām iti | taj jñeyaṃ brahma jyotiṣām avabhāsakānām ādityādīnāṃ buddhy-ādīnāṃ ca bāhyānām āntarāṇām api jyotir avabhāsakaṃ caityanya-jyotiṣo jaḍa-jyotir-avabhāsakatvopapatteḥ | yena sūryas tapati tejasendhaḥ | tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti [KaṭhU 2.5.15] ity ādi-śruteś ca | vakṣyati ca yad āditya-gataṃ tejaḥ [Gītā 15.8] ity ādi |
svayaṃ jaḍatvābhāve ‚pi jaḍa-saṃsṛṣṭaṃ syād iti nety āha tamaso jaḍa-vargāt param avidyā-tat-kāryābhyām apāramārthikābhyām asaṃspṛṣṭaṃ pāramārthikaṃ tad brahma sad-asatoḥ sambandhāyogāt | ucyate akṣarāt parataḥ paraḥ ity ādi-śrutibhir brahma-vādibhiś ca | tad uktam –
niḥsaṅgasya sa-saṅgena kūṭasthasya vikāriṇā |
ātmano ‚nātmanā yogo vāstavo nopapadyate ||
āditya-varṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt iti śruteś ca | āditya-varṇam iti sva-bhāne prakāśāntarānapekṣaṃ sarvasya prakāśakam ity arthaḥ | yasmāt tat svayaṃ jyotir jaḍāsaṃspṛṣṭam ata eva taj jñānaṃ pramāṇa-janya-ceto-vṛtty-abhivyakta-saṃvid-rūpam | ata eva tad eva jñeyaṃ jātum arham ajñātatvāj jaḍasyājñātatvābhāvena jñātum anarhatvāt | kathaṃ tarhi sarvair na jñāyate tatrāha jñāna-gamyaṃ pūrvoktenāmānitvādinā tattva-jñānārtha-darśanāntena sādhana-kalāpena jñāna-hetutayā jñāna-śabditena gamyaṃ prāpyaṃ na tu tad vinety arthaḥ |
nanu sādhanena gamyaṃ cet tat kiṃ deśāntara-vyavahitam ? nety āha hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitaṃ sarvasya prāṇi-jātasya hṛdi buddhau viṣṭhitaṃ sarvatra sāmānyena sthitam api viśeṣa-rūpeṇa tatra sthitam abhivyaktaṃ jīva-rūpeṇāntaryāmi-rūpeṇa ca | sauraṃ teja ivādarśa-sūrya-kāntādau | avyavahitam eva vastuto bhrāntyā vyavahitam iva sarva-bhrama-kāraṇājñāna-nivṛttyā prāpyata ivety arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


jyotiṣāṃ candrādityānām api taj jyotiḥ prakāśakaṃ | yena sūryas tapati tejasendhaḥ |
na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto ‚yam agniḥ |
tad eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti || [KaṭhU 2.5.15] ity ādi-śruteḥ |
ata eva tamaso ‚jñānāt paraṃ tenāsaṃsṛṣṭam ucyate | āditya-varṇaṃ tamsasaḥ parastāt ity ādi-śruteḥ | jñānaṃ tad eva buddhi-vṛttau abhivyaktaṃ sat jñānam ucyate | tad eva rūpādy-ākāreṇa pariṇataṃ jñeyaṃ ca | tad eva jñāna-gamyaṃ pūrvoktenāmānitvādi-jñāna-sādhanena prāpyam ity arthaḥ | tad eva paramātma-svarūpaṃ sat sarvasya prāṇimātrasya hṛdi dhiṣṭhitaṃ niyantṛtayādhbiṣṭhāya sthitam ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


jyotiṣāṃ sūrydīnām api tad brahma jyotiḥ prakāśakaṃ |
na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto ‚yam agniḥ |
tad eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti || [KaṭhU 2.5.15]
ity ādi-śrutes tad brahma | tad brahma tamasaḥ prakṛteḥ paraṃ tenāspṛṣṭam ucyate āditya-varṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt [ŚvetU 3.8] ity śrutyā | jñānaṃ cid-eka-rasam ucyate vijñānam ānanda-ghanaṃ brahma [GTU 2.79?] iti śrutyā | jñānaṃ mumukṣoḥ śaraṇatvena jñātum arham ucyate taṃ ha devam ātma-buddhi-prakāśaṃ mumukṣur vai śaraṇam ahaṃ prapadye [GTU 1.25] iti śrutyā | jñāna-gamyam ucyate tam eva viditvātimṛtyum eti [ŚvetU 3.8] iti śrutyā | sarvasya prāṇi-mātrasya hṛdi dhiṣṭhitaṃ niyantṛtayādhiṣṭhāya sthitam ity ucyate antaḥ-praviṣṭaḥ śāstā janānām [TaittĀ 3.11.10] iti śrutyā | na ca sarvataḥ pāṇīty ādi pañcakaṃ jīva-paratayaiva neyaṃ tat-prakaraṇatvādi-vācyaṃ jīvavad īśvarasyāpi kṣetrajñatvena prakṛtatvāt | sarvataḥ pāṇīty ādi-sārdhakasya brahmaivopakramya śvetāśvataraiḥ paṭhitvāt prakaraṇa-śāvalyasyopaniṣatsu vīkṣaṇāc ca
 
 


BhG 13.18

iti kṣetraṃ tathā jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ coktaṃ samāsataḥ
mad-bhakta etad vijñāya mad-bhāvāyopapadyate

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syntax


iti (thus) kṣetram (field) tathā jñānam (as knowledge) jñeyam ca (and that to be known) samāsataḥ (in summary) uktam (said) [asti] (it is).
mad-bhaktaḥ (my devotee) etat (this) vijñāya (after knowing)
mad-bhāvāya (to my nature) upapadyate (he approaches).

 

grammar

iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
kṣetram kṣetra 1n.1 n.field (from: kṣi – to possess);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
jñeyam jñeya (jñā – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 n.to be known, to be learnt;
ca av.and;
uktam ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.spoken, called;
samāsataḥ av.in summary (from: sam-ās – to sit together, to join, samāsa – compound; indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
mad-bhaktaḥ mad-bhakta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mama bhakta itimy devotee (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, [PP] bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving);
etat etat sn. 2n.1 n.this;
vijñāya vi-jñā (to distinguish, to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
mad-bhāvāya mad-bhāva 4n.1 m.for my nature (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
upapadyate upa-pad (to approach, to exist, to be suitable, to attain) Praes. Ā 1v.1he attains, he approaches;

 

textual variants

iti → etat (this);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yathoktārthopasaṃhārārtho’yaṃ śloka ārabhyate—
ity evaṃ kṣetraṃ mahā-bhūtādi-dhṛty-antaṃ, tathā jñānam amānitvādi tattva-jñānārtha-darśana-paryantaṃ, jñeyaṃ ca jñeyaṃ yat tat ity ādi tamasaḥ param ucyate ity evam antam uktaṃ samāsataḥ saṃkṣepataḥ | etāvān sarvo hi vedārtho gītārthaś copasaṃhṛtyoktaḥ | asmin samyag-darśane ko’dhikriyate ? ity ucyate—mad-bhakto mayīśvare sarvajñe parama-gurau vāsudeve samarpita-sarvātma-bhāvo yat paśyati śṛṇoti spṛśati vā sarvam eva bhagavān vāsudevaḥ ity evaṃ-grahāviṣṭa-buddhir mad-bhaktaḥ sa etad yathoktaṃ samyag darśanaṃ vijñāya, mad-bhāvāya mama bhāvo mad-bhāvaḥ paramātma-bhāvas tasmai mad-bhāvāya upapadyate, mokṣaṃ gacchati
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ „mahābhūtāny ahaṅkāraḥ” ityādinā „saṃghātaś cetanādhṛtir” ityantena kṣetratattvaṃ samāsenoktam / „amānitvam” ityādinā „tattvajñānārthacintanam” ityantena jñātavyasyātmatattvasya jñānasādhanam uktam / „anādi matparam” ityādinā „hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam” ityantena jñeyasya kṣetrajñasya yāthātmyaṃ ca saṃkṣepeṇoktam / madbhaktaḥ etat kṣetrayāthātmyaṃ, kṣetrād viviktātmasvarūpaprāptyupāyayāthātmyaṃ kṣetrajñayāthātmyaṃ ca vijñāya, madbhāvāyopapadyate / mama yo bhāvaḥ svabhāvaḥ, asaṃsāritvam asaṃsāritvaprāptaye upapanno bhavatītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


uktaṃ kṣetrādikam adhikāri-phala-sahitam upasaṃharati itīti | ity enaṃ kṣetraṃ mahā-bhūtādi-dhṛty-antam | tathā jñānaṃ cāmānitvādi-tattva-jñānārtha-darśanāntam | jñeyaṃ cānādimat paraṃ brahmety ādi viṣṭhitam ity antam | vasiṣṭhādibhir vistareṇoktaṃ sarvam api mayā saṅkṣepeṇoktam | etac ca katham | pūrvādhyāyokta-lakṣaṇo mad-bhakto vijñāya mad-bhāvāya brahmatvāyopapadyate yogyo bhavati
 

Madhusūdana


uktaṃ kṣetrādikam adhikāriṇaṃ phalaṃ ca vadann upasaṃharati itīti | iti anena pūrvoktena prakāreṇa kṣetraṃ mahā-bhūtādi-dhṛty-antaṃ, tathā jñānam amānitvādi tattva-jñānārtha-darśana-paryantaṃ, jñeyaṃ cānādimat paraṃ brahma viṣṭhitam ity antaṃ śrutibhyaḥ smṛtibhyaś cākṛṣya trayam api manda-buddhy-anugrahāya mayā saṃkṣepenoktam | etāvān eva hi sarvo vedārtho gītārthaś ca | asmiṃś ca pūrvādhyāyokta-lakṣaṇo mad-bhakta evādhikārīty āha — mad-bhakto mayi bhagavati vāsudeve parama-gurau samarpita-sarvātma-bhāvo mad-eka-śaraṇaḥ sa etad yathoktaṃ kṣetraṃ jñānaṃ ca jñeyaṃ ca vijñāya vivekena viditvā mad-bhāvāya sarvānartha-śūnya-paramānanda-bhāvāya mokṣāyopapadyate mokṣaṃ prāptuṃ yogyo bhavati |
yasya deve parā bhaktiḥ yathā deve tathā gurau |
tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ prakāśante mahātmanaḥ || [ŚvetU 6.23] iti śruteḥ |
tasmāt sarvadā mad-eka-śaraṇaḥ sann ātma-jñāna-sādhanāny eva parama-puruṣārtha-lipsur anuvartate tuccha-viṣaya-bhoga-spṛhāṃ hitvety abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


uktaṃ kṣetrādikam adhikāri-phala-sahitam upasaṃharati itīti | kṣetraṃ mahā-bhūtādi dhṛty-antam | jñānam amānitvādi-tattva-jñānārtha-darśanāntam | jñeyaṃ jñāna-gamyaṃ ca anādīty ādi dhiṣṭhitam ity antam | ekam eva tattvaṃ brahma bhagavat-paramātma-śabda-vācyaṃ ca saṅkṣepeṇoktam | mad-bhakto bhaktimaj jñānī mad-bhāvāya mat-sāyujyāya | yad vā mad-bhakto mamaikāntiko dāsa etad vijñāya mat-prabhor etāvad aiśvaryam iti jñātvā mayi bhāvāya premṇa upapadyata upapanno bhavati
 

Baladeva


uktaṃ kṣetrādikaṃ taj-jñāna-phala-sahitam upasaṃharati iti kṣetram iti | mahā-bhūtāni ity ādinā cetanā dhṛtir ity antena kṣetra-svarūpam uktam | amānitvam ity ādinā tattva-jñānārtha-darśanam ity antena jñeyasya kṣetra-dvayasya jñānaṃ tat-sādhanam uktam | anādi mat-param ity ādinā hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam ity antena jñeyaṃ kṣetrajña-dvayaṃ coktaṃ mayā | etat trayaṃ vijñāya mitho vivekenāvagatya mad-bhāvāya mat-premṇe mat-svabhāvāya vāsaṃsāritvāya kalpate yogye bhavati mad-bhaktaḥ
 
 


BhG 13.19

prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva viddhy anādī ubhāv api
vikārāṃś ca guṇāṃś caiva viddhi prakṛti-saṃbhavān

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syntax


[tvam] (you) ubhau api anādī (although both [have] no beginning) prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ ca eva (nature and certainly human) viddhi (you must know),
[tvam] ca (and you) prakṛti-sambhavān (born from nature) vikārān guṇān ca eva (transformations and certainly guṇas) viddhi (you must know).

 

grammar

prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
puruṣam puruṣa 2n.1 m.person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
anādī an-ādi 2n.2 m. [two have] no beginning (from: ādi – beginning);
ubhau ubha sn. 2n.2 m.both;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
vikārān vikāra 2n.3 m.changes, transformations (from: vi-kṛ to transform);
ca av.and;
guṇān guṇa 2n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
prakṛti-saṁbhavān prakṛti-saṁbhava 2n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ sambhavas prakṛter astīti tān whose generation is from prakṛti (from: pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause; sam-bhū – to come into being, to be together, saṁbhava – production);

 

textual variants


ubhāv → hy ubhāv (indeed both);
vikārāṁś → vikārāś (transformations);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tatra saptame īśvarasya dve prakṛtī upanyaste parāpare kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇe | etad-yonīni bhūtāni [gītā 7.7] iti coktam | kṣetra-kṣetrajña-prakṛti-dvaya-yonitvaṃ kathaṃ bhūtānām ity ayam artho’dhunocyate—
prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva īśvarasya prakṛtī | tau prakṛti-puruṣau ubhāv apy anādi viddhi, na vidyate ādir yayos tau anādī | nityeśvaratvād īśvarasya tat-prakṛtyor api yuktaṃ nityatvena bhavitum | prakṛti-dvayavattvam eva hīśvarasyeśvaratvam | yābhyāṃ prakṛtibhyām īśvaro jagad-utpatti-sthiti-pralaya-hetus te dve’nādī satyau saṃsārasya kāraṇam ||
nādī anādī iti tat-puruṣa-samāsaṃ kecit varṇayanti | tena hi kileśvarasya kāraṇatvaṃ sidhyati | yadi punaḥ prakṛti-puruṣāv eva nityau syātāṃ tat-kṛtam eva jagat, neśvarasya jagataḥ kartṛtvam | tad asat | prāk prakṛti-puruṣayor utpatter īśitavyābhāvād īśvarasyānīśvaratva-prasaṅgāt, saṃsārasya nirnimittatve’nirmokṣa-prasaṅgāt śāstrānarthakya-prasaṅgād bandha-mokṣābhāva-prasaṅgāc ca | nityatve punar īśvarasya prakṛtyoḥ sarvam etad upapannaṃ bhavet | kathaṃ ? vikārāṃś ca guṇāṃś caiva | vakṣyamāṇān vikārān buddhy-ādi-dehendriyāntān guṇāṃś ca sukha-duḥkha-moha-pratyayākāra-pariṇatān viddhi jānīhi prakṛti-saṃbhavān | prakṛtir īśvarasya vikāra-kāraṇa-śaktis triguṇātmikā māyā | sā saṃbhavo yeṣāṃ vikārāṇāṃ guṇānāṃ ca tān vikārān guṇāṃś ca viddhi prakṛti-saṃbhavān prakṛti-pariṇāmān
 

Rāmānuja


athātyantaviviktasvabhāvayoḥ prakṛtyātmanoḥ saṃsargasyānāditvaṃ saṃsṛṣṭayor dvayoḥ kāryabhedaḥ saṃsargahetuś cocyate
prakṛtipuruṣau ubhau anyonyasaṃsṛṣṭau anādī iti viddhi; bandhahetubhūtān vikārān icchādveṣādīn, amānitvādikāṃś ca guṇām mokṣahetubhūtān prakṛtisaṃbhavān viddhi / puruṣeṇa saṃsṛṣṭeyam anādikālapravṛttā kṣetrākārapariṇātā prakṛtiḥ svavikārair icchādveṣādibhiḥ puruṣasya bandhuhetur bhavati; saivāmānitvādibhiḥ svavikāraiḥ puruṣasyāpavargahetur bhavatītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ tat kṣetraṃ yac ca yādṛk cety etāvat prapañcitam | idānīṃ tu yad vikāri yataś ca yat sa ca yo yat-prabhāvaś cety etat pūrvaṃ pratijñātam eva prakṛti-puruṣayoḥ saṃsāra-hetukatva-kathanena prapañcayati prakṛtim iti pañcabhiḥ | tatra prakṛti-puruṣayor ādimatve tayor api prakṛty-antareṇa bhāvyam ity anavasthāpattiḥ syāt | atas tāv ubhāv anādī viddhi | anāder īśvarasya śaktitvāt prakṛter anāditvam | puruṣe ‚pi tad-aṃśatvād anādir eva | atra ca parameśvarasya tac-chaktīnām anāditvaṃ nityatvaṃ ca śrīmac-chaṅkara-bhagavad-bhāṣya-kṛdbhir atiprabandhenopapāditam iti grantha-bāhulyān nāsmābhiḥ pratanyate | vikārāṃś ca dehendriyādīn guṇāṃś ca guṇa-pariṇāmān sukha-duḥkha-mohādīn prakṛteḥ sambhūtān viddhi
 

Madhusūdana


tad anena granthena tat kṣetraṃ yac ca yādṛk ca ity etad vyākhyātam | idānīṃ yad-vikāri yataś ca yat sa ca yo yat-prabhāvaś ca ity etāvad vyākhyātavyam | tatra prakṛti-puruṣayoḥ saṃsāra-hetutva-kathanena yad-vikāri yataś ca yad iti prakṛtim ity ādi dvābhyāṃ prapañcyate | sa ca yo yat prabhāvaś ca iti tu puruṣa ity ādi dvyābhyām iti vivekaḥ | tatra saptama īśvarasya dve prakṛtī parāpare kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇe upanyasya etad-yonīni bhūtāni [Gītā 7.7] ity uktam | tatrāparā prakṛtiḥ kṣetra-lakṣaṇā parā tu jīva-lakṣaṇeti tayor anāditvam uktvā tad-ubhaya-yonitvaṃ bhūtānām ucyate prakṛtim iti |
prakṛtir māyākhyā triguṇātmikā pārameśvarī śaktiḥ kṣetra-lakṣaṇā yā prāg aparā prakṛtir ity uktā | yā tu parā prakṛtir jīvākhyā prāg uktā sa iha puruṣa ity ukta iti na pūrvāpara-virodhaḥ | prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ cobhāv api anādī eva viddhi | na vidyate ādiḥ kāraṇaṃ yayos tau | tathā prakṛter anāditvaṃ sarva-jagat-kāraṇatvāt | tasyā api kāraṇa-sāpekṣatve ‚navasthā-prasaṅgāt | puruṣasyānāditvaṃ tad-dharmādharma-prayuktatvāt kṛtsnasya jagataḥ jātasya harṣa-śoka-bhaya-sampratipatteḥ | anyathā kṛta-hānya-kṛtābhyāgama-prasaṅgāt | yataḥ prakṛtir anādir atas tasyā bhūta-yonitvam uktaṃ prāg upapadyata ity āha vikārāṃś ca ṣoḍaśa pañca mahā-bhūtāny ekādaśendriyāṇi ca guṇāṃś ca sattva-rajas-tamo-rūpān sukha-duḥkha-mohān prakṛti-saṃbhavān eva prakṛti-kāraṇakān eva viddhi jānīhi
 

Viśvanātha


paramātmānam uktvā kṣetra-jña-śabda-vācyaṃ jīvātmānaṃ vaktuṃ kutas tasya māyā-saṃsleṣaḥ, kadā tad-ārambho ‚bhūd ity apekṣāyām āha prakṛtiṃ māyāṃ puruṣaṃ jīvaṃ cobhāv apy anādī na vidyate ādi kāraṇaṃ yayos tathābhūtau viddhi anāder īśvarasya mama śaktitvāt |
bhūmir āpo ‚nalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano buddhir eva ca |
ahaṅkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā ||
apareyam itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām |
jīva-bhūtāṃ mahābāho yayedaṃ dhāryate jagat || [Gītā 7.4-5]
iti mad-ukter māyā-jīvayor api mac-chaktitvena anāditvāt tayoḥ saṃśleṣo ‚pi anādir iti bhāvaḥ | tatra mithaḥ saṃśliṣṭayor api tayor vastutaḥ pārthakyam asti eva ity āha vikārāṃś ca dehendriyādīn guṇāṃś ca guṇa-pariṇāmān sukha-duḥkha-śoka-mohādīn prakṛti-sambhūtān prakṛty-udbhūtān viddhīti kṣetrākāra-pariṇatāyāḥ prakṛteḥ sakāśād bhinnam eva jīvaṃ viddhīti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


evaṃ mitho vivikta-svabhāvayor anādyoḥ prakṛti-jīvayoḥ saṃsargasyānādi-kālikatvaṃ saṃsṛṣṭayos tayoḥ kārya-bhedas tat-saṃsargasyānādi-kālikasya hetuś ca nirūpyate prakṛtim ity ādibhiḥ | apir avadhṛtau | mithaḥ sampṛktau prakṛti-puruṣāv ubhāv anādyeva viddhi madīya-śaktitvān nityāv eva jānīhi | tayor mac-chaktitvaṃ tu puraivoktaṃ bhūmir āpaḥ ity ādinā | anādi-saṃsṛṣṭayor api tayoḥ svarūpa-bhedo ‚stīty āśayenāh vikārān dehendriyādīn | guṇāṃś sukha-duḥkhāni prakṛti-sambhavān prākṛtān na tu jaivān viddhīti kṣetrātmanā pariṇatāyāḥ prakṛter anyo jīva iti darśitam
 
 


BhG 13.20

kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate
puruṣaḥ sukha-duḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve hetur ucyate

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kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve (in the state of being cause, effect and the doer) prakṛtiḥ (nature) hetuḥ ucyate (it is called the reason).
puruṣaḥ (a person) sukha-duḥkhānāṁ (of pleasure and distress) bhoktṛtve (in enjoying) hetuḥ ucyate (he is called the reason).

 

grammar

kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtva abst. 7n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: kāryasya ca karaṇānām ca kartṛtva itiin being the doer of cause and effect (from: kṛ to do, kārya – to be done, work, duty, especially religious one; karaṇa – deed, direct cause, instrument, helper, kāraṇa – cause, motive, principle, the means; kṛ – to do kartṛ – a doer);
or DV: kāryatve ca kāraṇatve ca kartṛtve cetiin effect, in cause and in being the cause;
hetuḥ hetu 1n.1 m.cause, motive, reason;
prakṛtiḥ prakṛti 1n.1 f.nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;
puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
sukha-duḥkhānāṁ sukha-duḥkha 6n.3 m.; DV: sukhānāṁ ca duḥkhānāṁ cetiof pleasure and distress (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not;
or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā);
bhoktṛtve bhoktṛtva abst. 7n.1 n.in the state of being the enjoyer (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy, bhoktṛ – one who eats, enjoys);
hetuḥ hetu 1n.1 m.cause, motive, reason;
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve → kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtve (in effect, in direct cause and in being the cause);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ke punas te vikārāḥ guṇāś ca prakṛti-saṃbhavāḥ ? ity āha —
kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtve—kāryaṃ śarīraṃ karaṇāni tat-sthāni trayodaśa | dehasyārambhakāṇi bhūtāni pañca viṣayāś ca prakṛti-saṃbhavāḥ vikārāḥ pūrvoktā iha kārya-grahaṇena gṛhyante | guṇāś ca prakṛti-saṃbhavāḥ sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakāḥ karaṇāśrayatvāt karaṇa-grahaṇena gṛhyante | teṣāṃ kārya-karaṇānāṃ kartṛtvam utpādakatvaṃ yat tat kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtvaṃ tasmin kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtve hetuḥ kāraṇam ārambhakatvena prakṛtir ucyate | evaṃ kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtvena saṃsārasya kāraṇaṃ prakṛtiḥ |
kārya-kāraṇa-kartṛtve ity asminn api pāṭhe, kāryaṃ yat yasya pariṇāmas tat tasya kāryaṃ vikāro vikāri kāraṇaṃ tayor vikāra-vikāriṇoḥ kārya-kāraṇayoḥ kartṛtve iti | athavā, ṣoḍāśa vikārāḥ kāryaṃ sapta prakṛti-vikṛtayaḥ kāraṇaṃ tāny eva kārya-kāraṇāny ucyante teṣāṃ kartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate, ārambhakatvenaiva |
puruṣaś ca saṃsārasya kāraṇaṃ yathā syāt tad ucyate—puruṣo jīvaḥ kṣetrajño bhoktā iti paryāyaḥ, sukha-duḥkhānāṃ bhogyānāṃ bhoktṛtve upalabdhṛtve hetur ucyate | kathaṃ punar anena kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtvena sukha-duḥkha-bhoktṛtvena ca prakṛti-puruṣayoḥ saṃsāra-kāraṇatvam ucyate ? ity atrocyate—kārya-karaṇa-sukha-duḥkha-rūpeṇa hetu-phalātmanā prakṛteḥ pariṇāmābhāve, puruṣasya ca cetanasyāsati tad-upalabdhṛtve, kutaḥ saṃsāraḥ syāt ? yadā punaḥ kārya-karaṇa-sukha-duḥkha-svarūpeṇa hetu-phalātmanā pariṇatayā prakṛtyā bhogyayā puruṣasya tad-viparītasya bhoktṛtvenāvidyā-rūpaḥ saṃyogaḥ syāt, tadā saṃsāraḥ syād iti | ato yat prakṛti-puruṣayoḥ kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtvena sukha-duḥkha-bhoktṛtvena ca saṃsāra-kāraṇatvam uktam, tad yuktam | kaḥ punar ayaṃ saṃsāro nāma ? sukha-duḥkha-saṃbhogaḥ saṃsāraḥ | puruṣasya ca sukha-duḥkhānāṃ saṃbhoktṛtvaṃ saṃsāritvam iti
 

Rāmānuja


kāryaṃ śarīram; kāraṇāni jñānakarmātmakāni samanaskānīndriyāṇi / teṣāṃ kriyākāritve puruṣādhiṣṭhitā prakṛtir eva hetuḥ; puruṣādhiṣṭhitakṣetrākārapariṇataprakṛtyāśrayāḥ bhogasādhanabhūtāḥ kriyā ityarthaḥ / puruṣasyādhiṣṭhātṛtvam eva; tadapekṣayā, „kartā śāstrārthavattvāt” ityādikam uktam; śarīrādhiṣṭhānaprayatnahetutvam eva hi puruṣasya kartṛtvam / prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭaḥ puruṣaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve hetuḥ, sukhaduḥkhānubhavāśraya ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


vikārāṇāṃ prakṛti-sambhavatvaṃ darśayan puruṣasya saṃsāra-hetutvaṃ darśayati kāryeti | kāryaṃ śarīram | kāraṇāni sukha-duḥkha-sādhanānīndriyāṇi | teṣāṃ kartṛtve tad-ākāra-pariṇāme prakṛtir hetur ucyate kapilādibhiḥ | puruṣo jīvas tu tat-kṛta-sukha-duḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve hetur ucyate | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ yadyapi acetanāyāḥ prakṛteḥ svataḥ-kartṛtvaṃ na sambhavati tathā puruṣasyāpy avikāriṇo bhoktṛtvaṃ na sambhavati | tathāpi kartṛtvaṃ nāma kriyā-nirvartakatvam | tac cācetanasyāpi cetanādṛṣṭa-vaśāt caitanyādhiṣṭhitatvāt sambhavati yathā vahner ūrdhva-jvalanaṃ vayos tiryag gamanaṃ vatsādṛṣṭa-vaśāt gostanya-payasaḥ kṣaraṇam ity ādi | ataḥ puruṣa-sannidhānāt prakṛteḥ kartṛtvam ucyate bhoktṛtvaṃ ca sukha-duḥkha-saṃvedanaṃ, tac ca cetana-dharma eveti prakṛti-sannidhānāt puruṣasya bhoktṛtvam ucyate iti
 

Madhusūdana


vikārāṇāṃ prakṛti-sambhavattvaṃ vivecayan puruṣasya saṃsāra-hetutvaṃ darśayati kāryeti | kāryaṃ śarīraṃ karaṇānīndriyāṇi tat-sthāni trayodaśa dehārambhakāṇi bhūtāni viṣayāś ceha kārya-grahaṇena gṛhyante | guṇāś ca sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakāḥ karaṇāśrayatvāt karaṇa-grahaṇena gṛhyante | teṣāṃ kārya-karaṇānāṃ kartṛtve tad-ākāra-pariṇāme hetuḥ kāraṇam prakṛtir ucyate maharṣibhiḥ | kārya-karaṇeti dīrgha-pāṭhe ‚pi sa evārthaḥ | evaṃ prakṛteḥ saṃsāra-kāraṇatvaṃ vyākhyāya puruṣasyāpi yādṛśaṃ tat tad āha puruṣo kṣetrajñaḥ parā prakṛtir iti prāg vyākhyātaḥ | sa sukha-duḥkhānāṃ sukha-duḥkha-mohānāṃ bhogyānāṃ sarveṣām api bhoktṛtve vṛtty-uparaktopalambhe hetur ucyate
 

Viśvanātha


tasya māyā-saṃśleṣaṃ darśayati | kāryaṃ śarīram | kāraṇāni sukha-duḥkha-sādhanānīndriyāṇi | kartāra indriyādhiṣṭhātāro devās tatra tathādhyāsena puruṣa-saṃsargāt kāryādi-rūpeṇa pariṇatā syād avidyākhyayā sva-vṛttyā tad-adhyāsa-pradā ca syād ity arthaḥ | tat-kṛta-sukha-duḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve puruṣo jīva eva hetuḥ | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ yadyapi kāryatva-kāraṇatva-kartṛtva-bhoktṛtvāni prakṛti-dharmā eva syus tad api kāryatvādiṣu jaḍāṃśa-prādhānyāt, sukha-duḥkha-saṃvedana-rūpe bhoge tu caitanyāṃśa-prādhānyāt | prādhānyena vyapadeśā bhavantīti nyāyāt kāryatvādiṣu prakṛtir hetuḥ | bhoktṛtve puruṣo hetur ity ucyate iti
 

Baladeva


atha saṃsṛṣṭayos tayoḥ kārya-bhedam āha kāryeti śarīraṃ kāryaṃ jñāna-karma-sādhakatvād indriyāṇi kāraṇāni teṣāṃ kartṛtve tat-tad-ākāra-sva-pariṇāme prakṛtir hetuḥ | puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi ity agrimāt sva-saṃsargeṇa sacetanāṃ prakṛtiṃ puruṣo ‚dhitiṣṭhati | tad-adhiṣṭhitā tu sā tat-karmāṇu-guṇyena pariṇamamānā tat-tad-dehādīnāṃ sraṣṭrīti prakṛtyārpitānāṃ sukhādīnāṃ bhoktṛtve puruṣo hetus teṣāṃ bhoge sa eva kartey arthaḥ | prakṛty-adhiṣṭhātṛtvaṃ sukhādi-bhoktṛtvaṃ ca puruṣasya kāryam | tac ca śarīrādi-kartṛtvaṃ tu tad-adhiṣṭhātāyāḥ prakṛter iti puruṣasyaiva kartṛtvaṃ mukhyam | evam āha sūtrakāraḥ kartā śāstrārthavattvāt ity ādibhiḥ | pareśasya harer adhiṣṭhātṛtvaṃ tu sarvatrāvarjanīyam ity uktaṃ vakṣyate ca
 
 


BhG 13.21

puruṣaḥ prakṛti-stho hi bhuṅkte prakṛti-jān guṇān
kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgo sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu

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syntax


puruṣaḥ hi (indeed a person) prakṛti-sthaḥ (who stays in nature) prakṛti-jān guṇān (guṇas born fom nature) bhuṅkte (he eats).
asya [puruṣasya] (of this person) guṇa-saṅgaḥ (attachment to the guṇas) sad-asad-yoni-janmasu (of the births in good and evil wombs) kāraṇam [ucyate] (it is said a cause).

 

grammar

puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
prakṛti-sthaḥ prakṛti-stha 1n.1 m.; yaḥ prakṛtau tiṣṭhati saḥwho stays in nature (from: pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
bhuṅkte bhuj (to eat, to enjoy) Praes. Ā 1v.1he eats, he enjoys;
prakṛti-jān prakṛti-ja 2n.3 m.; prakṛteḥ jātān itiborn from nature (from: pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
guṇān guṇa 2n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
kāraṇam kāraṇa 1n.1 n.cause, motive, principle, the means (from: kṛ – to do, karaṇa – deed, direct cause, instrument, helper);
guṇa-saṅgaḥ guṇa-saṅga 1n.1 m.; [TP]: guṇaiḥ saṅga itiattachment to the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment);
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
sad-asad-yoni-janmasu sad-asad-yoni-janman 7n.3 m.; [TP]: yāni janmāni satīṣu [devādi-]yoniṣv asatīṣu [tiryagādi-]yoniṣu santi teṣu in such births, which are from the wombs of the good [beginning from divinitites] and from the wombs of the evil [beginning from animals] (from: as – to be, sant – being, existing, true, the essence; a-sant – untrue, non-existing; yoni – womb, source, origin; jan – to be born, janman – birth);

 

textual variants


hi → ‘pi (although);
puruṣaḥ prakṛti-stho hi puruṣaḥ sukha-duḥkho hi (a person indeed has pleasure and distress);
guṇa-saṅgo sya → guṇa-saṁgasya (of attachment to the guṇas);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yat puruṣasya sukha-duḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtvaṃ saṃsāritvam ity uktaṃ tasya tat kiṃ-nimittam ity ucyate—
puruṣo bhoktā prakṛti-sthaḥ | prakṛtāv avidyā-lakṣaṇāyāṃ kārya-karaṇa-rūpeṇa pariṇatāyāṃ sthitaḥ prakṛti-sthaḥ | prakṛtim ātmatvena gataḥ ity etat | hi yasmāt | tasmād bhuṅkte upalabhata ity arthaḥ | prakṛtijān prakṛtito jātān sukha-duḥkha-mohākārābhivyaktān guṇān sukhī, duḥkhī, mūḍhaḥ, paṇḍito’ham ity evam | satyām apy avidyāyāṃ sukha-duḥkha-moheṣu guṇeṣu bhujyamāneṣu yaḥ saṅga ātma-bhāvaḥ saṃsārasya sa pradhānaṃ kāraṇaṃ yasya puruṣasya janmanaḥ | sa yathā-kāmo bhavati tat kratur bhavati [bhāvātmauttaṃ 4.4.5] ity ādi śruteḥ | tad etad āha—kāraṇaṃ hetur guṇa-saṅgo guṇeṣu saṅgo’sya puruṣasya bhoktuḥ sad-asad-yoni-janmasu | satyaś cāsatyaś ca yonayaḥ sad-asad-yonayas tāsu sad-asad-yonuṣu janmāni sad-asad-yoni-janmāni, teṣu sad-asad-yoni-janmaṣu viṣaya-bhūteṣu kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgaḥ | athavā, sad-asad-yoni-janmasu asya saṃsārasya kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅga iti saṃsāra-pada-madhyāhāryam | sad-yonayo devādi-yonayaḥ | asad-yonayaḥ paśvādi-yonayaḥ | sāmarthyāt sad-asad-yonayaḥ manuṣya-yonayo’py aviruddhāḥ draṣṭāvyāḥ ||
etad uktaṃ bhavati—prakṛti-sthatvākhyāvidyā guṇeṣu ca saṅgaḥ kāmaḥ saṃsārasya kāraṇam iti | tac ca parivarjanāya ucyate | asya ca nivṛtti-kāraṇaṃ jñāna-vairāgye sa-saṃnyāse gītā-śāstre prasiddham | tac ca jñānaṃ purastād upanyastaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-viṣayaṃ yaj jñātvāmṛtam aśnute [gītā 12.13] iti | uktaṃ cānyāpohenātad-dharmādhyāropeṇa ca
 

Rāmānuja


evam anyonyasaṃsṛṣṭayoḥ prakṛtipuruṣayoḥ kāryabheda uktaḥ; puruṣasya svatas svānubhavaikasukhasyāpi vaiṣayikasukhaduḥkhopabhogahetum āha
guṇaśabdaḥ svakāryeṣv aupacārikaḥ / svatas svānubhavaikasukhaḥ puruṣaḥ prakṛtisthaḥ prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭaḥ, prakṛtijān guṇān prakṛtisaṃsargopādhikān sattvādiguṇakāryabhūtān sukhaduḥkhādīn, bhuṅkte anubhavati / prakṛtisaṃsargahetum āha
pūrvapūrvaprakṛtipariṇāmarūpadevamanuṣyādiyoniviśeṣeṣu sthito ‚yaṃ puruṣas tattadyoniprayuktasattvādiguṇamayeṣu sukhaduḥkhādiṣu saktaḥ tatsādhanabhūteṣu puṇyapāpakarmasu pravartate; tatas tatpuṇyapāpaphalānubhavāya sadasadyoniṣu sādhvasādhuṣu yoniṣu jāyate; tataś ca karmārabhate; tato jāyate; yāvad amānitvādikān ātmaprāptisādhanabhūtān guṇān sevate, tāvad eva saṃsarati / tad idam uktaṃ kāraṇaṃ guṇasaṅgo ‚sya sadasadyonijanmasu iti
 

Śrīdhara


tathāpy avikāriṇo janma-rahitasya ca bhoktṛtvaṃ katham iti | ata āha puruṣa iti | hi yasmāt | prakṛti-sthas tat-kārye dehe tādātmyena sthitaḥ puruṣaḥ | atas taj-janitān sukha-duḥkhādīn bhuṅkte | asya ca puruṣasya satīṣu devādi-yoniṣu asatīṣu tiryag-ādi-yoniṣu yāni janmāni teṣu guṇa-saṅgo guṇaiḥ śubhāśubha-karma-kāribhir indriyaiḥ saṅgaḥ kāraṇam ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


yat puruṣasya sukha-duḥkha-bhoktṛtvaṃ tādātmyenopagataḥ prakṛti-stho hy eva puruṣo bhuṅkte upalabhate prakṛti-jān guṇān | ataḥ prakṛti-ja-guṇopalambha-hetuṣu sad-asad-yoni-janmasu sad-yonayo devādyās teṣu hi sāttvikam iṣataṃ phalaṃ bhujyate | asad-yonayaḥ paśv-ādyās teṣu hi tāmasam aniṣṭaṃ phalaṃ bhujyate | atas tan nāsya puruṣasya guṇa-saṅgaḥ sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇātmaka-prakṛti-tādātmyābhimāna eva kāraṇam | na tv asaṅgasya tasya svataḥ saṃsāra ity arthaḥ | athavā guṇa-saṅgo guṇeṣu śabdādiṣu sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakeṣu saṅgo ‚bhilāṣaḥ kāma iti yāvat | sa evāsya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu kāraṇam sa yathā-kāmo bhavati tat kratur bhavati yat kratur bhavati tat karma kurute yat karma kurute tad abhisampadyate [BAU 4.4.5] iti śruteḥ | asminn api pakṣe mūla-kāraṇatvena prakṛti-tādātmyābhimāno draṣṭavyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kintu tatra anādy-avidyā-kṛtenādhyāsena eva karṭrva-bhoktṛtvādikaṃ tadīyam api dharmaṃ svīyaṃ manyate | tata evāsya saṃsāra ity āha puruṣa iti | prakṛtisthaḥ prakṛti-kārya-dehe tādātmyena hi sthitaḥ | prakṛtijān antaḥkaraṇa-dharmān śoka-moha-sukha-duḥkhādīn guṇān svīyān eva abhimanyamāno bhuṅkte | tatra kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgaḥ | guṇamaya-deheṣu asyāsaṅgasyāpy ātmanaḥ saṅgo ‚vidyā-kalpitaḥ | kva bhuṅkte ity apekṣāyām āha satīṣu devādi-yoniṣu asatīṣu tiryag-ādi-yoniṣu śubhāśubha-karma-kṛtāsu yāni janmāni teṣu
 

Baladeva


prakṛty-adhiṣṭhāne sikhādibhoge ca puruṣasyaiva kartṛtvam ity etat sphuṭayati tasya prakṛti-saṃsarge hetuṃ ca darśayati puruṣa iti | cit-sukhaika-raso ‚pi puruṣo ‚nādikarma-vāsanayā prakṛtisthas tām adhiṣṭhita-tat-kṛta-dehendriyaḥ prāna-viśiṣṭaḥ sann eva tat-kṛtān guṇān sukhādīn bhuṅkte ‚nubhavati kvety āha sad iti | satīṣu deva-mānavādiṣv asatīṣu paśu-pakṣy-ādiṣu ca sādhv-asādhu-racitāsu yoniṣu yāni janmādīni teṣv iti tatra tatra puruṣasyaiva kartṛtvam |
tat-saṃsarge hetum āha kāraṇam iti | guṇo ‚saṅgo ‚nādi-guṇa-maya-visaya-spṛhā | ayam arthaḥ anādir jīvaḥ karma-rūpāṇādivāsanāraktaḥ | sa ca bhoktṛtvād bhogyān viṣayān spṛhayaṃs tad-arpita-kāmanādi-sannihitāṃ prakṛtim āśrayiṣyati yāvat sat-prasaṅgāt tat-tad-vāsanā kṣīyate | tat-kṣaye tu parātma-dhāma-sukhāni bhuṅkte so ‚śnute sarvān kāmān saha brahmaṇā vipaścitā ity ādi śrutibhya iti | yat tu prakṛter ity ādeḥ kārya-kāraṇety ādeḥ prakṛtyaiva cety āder nānyaṃ guṇebhyaḥ ity ādeś cāpātatārtha-grāhibhiḥ sāṅkhyaiḥ prakṛter eva kartṛtvam uktaṃ, tat kila rabhasābhidhānam eva loṣṭra-kāṣṭhavad acetanāyās tasyās tattva-sambhāvāt | upādānāparokṣa-cikīrṣākṛtimattvaṃ khalu kartṛtvaṃ, tac ca cetanasyaiveti śrutir āha – vijñānaṃ yajñaṃ tanute karmāṇi tanute ‚pi ca | eṣa hi draṣṭā spraṣṭā śrotā rasayitā ghrātā mantā boddhā kartā nijñānātmā puruṣaḥ ity ādikam |
yac ca puruṣa-sannidhānāc caitanyādhyāsāt tasyās tattvam ity āhus tan na | yat sannidhyadhasta-caitanyāt tasyāḥ kartṛtvaṃ tat tasyaiva sannihitasyeti suvacatvāt | na khalu tapāyaso dagdhṛtvam ayo-hetukam api tu vahni-hetukam eva dṛṣṭam | na ca calati jalaṃ phalati tarur itivaj jaḍāyās tasyās tattva-siddhir jalādiṣv antaryāmy-adhiṣṭhitatveneṣṭāsiddher vidhāyaka-śruti-vyākopāc caited evam | na hi jaḍa-prakṛtim uddiśya svargādi-phalakaṃ jyotiṣṭomādi-mokṣa-phalakaṃ dhyānaṃ ca smṛtir vidhatte ‚pi tu cetanam eva bhoktāram uddiśyeti puruṣasyaiva kartṛtvam | tac ca prakṛter iti yad uktaṃ tat tu tad-vṛtti-prācuryād eva yathā kareṇa bibhrati puruṣe karo bibhartīti vyapadeśas tathā prakṛtyā kurvati puruṣe prakṛtiḥ karotīti sa bhaved ity eke, prākṛtair dehādibhir yuktasyaiva puruṣasya yajña-yuddhādi-karma-kartṛtvaṃ, na tu tair viyuktasya śuddhasyety ataḥ prakṛtes tad ity apare
 
 


BhG 13.22

upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ
paramātmeti cāpy ukto dehe ‘smin puruṣaḥ paraḥ

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syntax


asmin dehe (in this body) puruṣaḥ paraḥ (supreme person) upadraṣṭā (observer) anumantā (permitter) bhartā (sustainer) bhoktā (enjoyer) maheśvaraḥ (great lord) paramātmā ca api iti (and also the supreme self) uktaḥ (called) [asti] (he is).

 

grammar

upadraṣṭā upa-draṣṭṛ 1n.1 m.the observer (from: upa-dṛś – to perceive);
anumantā anu-mantṛ 1n.1 m.permitter (from: anu-man – to approve, to permit);
ca av.and;
bhartā bhartṛ 1n.1 m.sustainer (from: bhṛ – to hold);
bhoktā bhoktṛ 1n.1 m.one who eats, enjoys (from: bhuj – to eat, to enjoy);
maheśvaraḥ mahā-īśvara 1n.1 m.; [TP]: mahānta īśvara iti great lord (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
paramātmā parama-ātman 1n.1 m.the supreme self (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest; ātman – self;
or param ātmanthe ancient self;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
uktaḥ ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 m.he is said, called;
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear);
asmin idam sn. 7n.1 m.in this;
puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
paraḥ para 1n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;

 

textual variants


upadraṣṭāupadeṣṭā (teacher, advisor);
bhartā → kartā / bhaktā (a doer / divider);
paraḥ → param (later);
 
 



Śāṃkara

tasyaiva punaḥ sākṣān nirdeśaḥ kriyate—
upadraṣṭā samīpa-sthaḥ san draṣṭā svayam avyāpṛtaḥ | yathā ṛtvig-yajamāneṣu yajña-karma-vyāpṛteṣu taṭastho’nyo’vyāpṛto yajña-vidyā-kuśalaḥ ṛtvig-yajamāna-vyāpāra-guṇa-doṣāṇām īkṣitā, tadvac ca kārya-karaṇa-vyāpāreṣu sa-vyāpārāṇāṃ sāmīpyena draṣṭā upadraṣṭā | athavā, deha-cakṣur-mano-buddhy-ātmāno draṣṭāraḥ | teṣāṃ bāhyo draṣṭā dehaḥ | tata ārabhyāntaratamaś ca pratyak samīpe ātmā draṣṭā, yataḥ paro’ntaratamo nāsti draṣṭā | so’tiśaya-sāmīpyena draṣṭṛtvād upadraṣṭā syāt | yajñopadraṣṭṛavad vā sarva-viṣayī-karaṇād upadraṣṭā | anumantā ca | anumodanam anumananaṃ kurvatsu tat-kriyāsu paritoṣas tat-kartānumantā ca | athavā, anumantā kārya-karaṇa-pravṛttiṣu svayam apravṛtto’pi pravṛtta iva tad-anukūlo vibhāvyate, tenānumantā | athavā, pravṛttān sva-vyāpāreṣu tat-sākṣi-bhūtaḥ kadācid api na nivārayatīty anumantā |
bhartā | bharaṇaṃ nāma dehendriya-mano-buddhīnāṃ saṃhatānāṃ caitanyātma-pārārthyena nimitta-bhūtena caitanyābhāsānāṃ yat svarūpa-dhāraṇam, tac caitanyātma-kṛtam eveti bhartā ātmety ucyate | bhoktā | agny-uṣṇavan nitya-caitanya-svarūpeṇa buddheḥ sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakāḥ pratyayāḥ sarva-viṣaya-viṣayāś caitanyātma-grastā iva jāyamānā vibhaktā vibhāvyante iti bhoktā ātmocyate | maheśvaraḥ | sarvātmatvāt svatantratvāc ca mahān īśvaraś ceti maheśvaraḥ | paramātmā | dehādīnāṃ buddhy-antānāṃ pratyag-ātmatvena kalpitānām avidyayā parama upadraṣṭṛtvādi-lakṣaṇa ātmeti paramātmā | so’ntaḥ paramātmā ity anena śabdena cāpy uktaḥ kathitaḥ śrutau | kvāsau ? asmin dehe puruṣaḥ paro’vyaktāt | uttamaḥ puruṣas tv anyaḥ paramātmety udāhṛtaḥ [gītā 13.3] iti yo vakṣyamāṇaḥ kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi [gītā 13.2] iti upanyasto vyākhyāyopasaṃhṛtaś ca
 

Rāmānuja


asmin dehe ‚vasthito ‚yaṃ puruṣo dehapravṛttyanuguṇasaṅkalpādirūpeṇa dehasyopadraṣṭā anumantā ca bhavati / tathā dehasya bhartā ca bhavati; tathā dehapravṛttijanitasukhaduḥkhayor bhoktā ca bhavati / evaṃ dehaniyamanena, dehabharaṇena, dehaśeṣitvena ca dehendriyamanāṃsi prati maheśvaro bhavati / tathā ca vakṣyate, „śarīraṃ yad avāpnoti yac cāpy utkrāmatīśvaraḥ / gṛhītvaitāni saṃyāti vāyur gandhān ivāśayāt // BhGR_13.” iti / asmin dehe dehendriyamanāṃsi prati paramātmeti cāpy uktaḥ / dehe manasi ca ātmaśabdo ‚nantaram eva prayujyate, „dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecid ātmānam ātmanā” iti; apiśabdān maheśvara ity apy ukta iti gamyate; puruṣaḥ paraḥ „anādi matparam” ityādinokto ‚paricchinnajñānaśaktir ayaṃ puruṣo ‚nādiprakṛtisaṃbandhakṛtaguṇasaṅgād etad dehamātramaheśvaro dehamātraparamātmā ca bhavati
 

Śrīdhara


tad anena prakāreṇa prakṛty-avivekād eva puruṣasya saṃsāraḥ | na tu svarūpataḥ | ity āśayena tasya svarūpam āha upadraṣṭeti | asmin prakṛti-kārye dehe vartamāno ‚pi puruṣaḥ paro bhinna eva | na tad-guṇair yujyata ity arthaḥ | tatra hetavaḥ yasmād upadraṣṭā pṛthag-bhūta eva samīpe sthitvā draṣṭā sākṣīty arthaḥ | tathā anumantā anumoditaiva sannidhi-mātreṇānugrāhakaḥ | sākṣī cetāḥ kevalo nirguṇaś ca [GTU 2.96, Puruṣa-bodhinī] ity ādi śruteḥ | tathā aiśvaryeṇa rūpeṇa bhartā vidhāyaka iti coktaḥ | bhoktā pālaka iti ca | mahāṃś cāsau īśvaraś ca sa brahmādīnām api patir iti ca paramātmā vāntaryāmīti coktaḥ śrutyā | tathā ca śrutiḥ eṣa sarveśvara evsa bhūtādhipatir loka-pālaḥ ity ādi
 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ prakṛti-mithyā-tādātmyāt puruṣasya saṃsāro na svarūpeṇety uktam | kīdṛśaṃ punas tasya svarūpaṃ yatra na sambhavati saṃsāraḥ ? ity ākāṅkṣāyāṃ tasya svarūpaṃ sākṣān nirdiśann āha upadraṣṭeti | asmin prakṛti-pariṇāme dehe jīva-rūpeṇa vartamāno ‚pi puruṣaḥ paraḥ prakṛti-guṇāsaṃsṛṣṭaḥ paramārthato ‚saṃsārī svena rūpeṇety artahḥ | yata upadraṣṭā yatha ṛtvig-yajamāneṣu yajña-karma-vyāpṛteṣu tat-samīpastho ‚nyaḥ svayam avyāpṛto yajña-vidyā-kuśalatvād ṛtvig-yajamāna-vyāpāra-guṇa-doṣāṇām īkṣitā, tadvat kārya-karaṇa-vyāpāreṣu svayam avyāpṛto vilakṣaṇas teṣāṃ kārya-karaṇānāṃ sa-vyāparāṇāṃ samīpastho draṣṭā na tu kartā puruṣaḥ | sa yat tatra kiṃcit paśyaty ananvāg atas tena bhavaty asaṅgo hy ayaṃ puruṣaḥ [BAU 4.3.15] iti śruteḥ |
athavā, deha-cakṣur-mano-buddhy-ātmāno draṣṭṛṣu madhye bāhyān dehādīn apekṣyātyavyavahito draṣṭātmā puruṣa upadraṣṭā | upa-śabdasya sāmīpyārthatvāt tasya cāvyavadhāna-rūpasya pratyag-ātmany eva paryavasānāt |
anumantā ca kārya-karaṇa-pravṛttiṣu svayam apravṛtto ‚pi pravṛtta iva saṃnidhi-mātreṇa tad-anukūlatvād anumantā | athavā, sva-vyāpāreṣu pravṛttān dehendriyādīn na nivārayati kadācid api tat-sākṣi-bhūtaḥ puruṣa ity anumantā | sākṣī cetā [GTU 2.96, Puruṣa-bodhinī] iti śruteḥ | bhartā
bhartā dehendriya-mano-buddhīnāṃ saṃhatānāṃ caitanyābhāsa-viśiṣṭānāṃ sva-sattayā sphuraṇena ca dhārayitā poṣayitā ca | bhoktā buddheḥ sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakān pratyayān svarūpa-caitanyena prakāśayatīti nirvikāra evopalabdhā | maheśvaraḥ sarvātmatvāt svatantratvāc ca mahān īśvaraś ceti maheśvaraḥ | paramātmā dehādi-buddhy-antānāṃ avidyayātmatvena kalpitānām paramaḥ prakṛṣṭa upadraṣṭṛtvādi-pūrvokta-viśeṣaṇa-viśiṣṭa ātmā paramātmā | ity anena śabdenāpi uktaḥ kathitaḥ śrutau | ca-kārād upadraṣṭety-ādi-śabdair api sa eva puruṣaḥ paraḥ | uttamaḥ puruṣas tv anyaḥ paramātmety udāhṛtaḥ [Gītā 15.17] ity agre vakṣyate
 

Viśvanātha


jīvātmānam uktvā paramātmānam āha upadraṣṭeti | yadyapi anādi mat-paraṃ brahma ity ādinā hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam ity anena ca sāmānyataḥ paśeṣataś ca paramātmā prokta eva, tad api tasya jīvātma-sāhityenāpi pṛthag eva spaṣṭatayā dehasthatva-jñāpanārtham iyam uktir jñeyā | asmin dehe paro ‚nyaḥ puruṣo yo maheśvarḥ sa paramātmeti cāpy uktaḥ | paramātmeti ca nāmnāpy ukto bhavatīty arthaḥ | tatra parama-śabda ekātmavāda-pakṣe svāṃśa iti dyotanārtho jīvasya upa samīpe pṛthak-sthita eva draṣṭā sākṣī | anumantānumodana-kartā sannidhi-mātreṇānugrāhakaḥ | sākṣī cetāḥ kevalo nirguṇaś ca [GTU 2.96, Puruṣa-bodhinī] iti śruteḥ | tathā bhartā dhārako bhoktā pālakaḥ |
 

Baladeva


dehe sukhādibhokṭrayāvasthitaṃ jīvam uktvā niyantṛtayā tatrāvasthitam īśvaram āha upadraṣṭeti | asmin dehe paro jīvād anyaḥ puruṣo ‚sti yo maheśvaraḥ paramātmeti proktaḥ | upadraṣṭā sannidhau pṛthak-sthita eva sākṣī | anumantānumati-dātā tad-anumatiṃ vinā jīvaḥ kiñcid api kartuṃ na kṣama ity arthaḥ | bhartā dhārakaḥ | bhoktā pālakaḥ | sarvataḥ pāṇi ity ādibhir uktasyāpīśasya jīvena saha sthitiṃ vaktuṃ punar uktiḥ
 
 


BhG 13.23

ya evaṃ vetti puruṣaṃ prakṛtiṃ ca guṇaiḥ saha
sarvathā vartamāno ‘pi na sa bhūyo ‘bhijāyate

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) evam (thus) puruṣam (person) guṇaiḥ saha prakṛtim ca (and nature along with the guṇas) vetti (he knows),
sarvathā (by all means) saḥ vartamānaḥ (he who is moving) bhūyaḥ (again) na abhijāyate (he is not born).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
evam av.thus;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
puruṣam puruṣa 2n.1 m.person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
prakṛtim prakṛti 2n.1 f. nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
ca av.and;
guṇaiḥ guṇa 3n.3 m. by qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
saha av. along with (postposition, requires instrumental);
sarvathā av.in every way, by all means, entirely (from: sarva – all, whole);
vartamānaḥ vartamāna (vṛt – to move, to happen, to act) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] moving, [while] existing;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
na av.not;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
abhijāyate abhi-jan (to be born, to produce) Praes. Ā 1v.1he arises, he is born;

 

textual variants


evaṁ → enaṁ (this);
sarvathā → sa yathā (he as);
‘bhijāyate → hi jāyate (indeed he is born);
sa bhūyo bhijāyatesa punar nābhijāyate (he is not born again);

The third pada of verse 13.23 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 6.31;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tam etaṃ yathokta-lakṣaṇam ātmānaṃ—
ya evaṃ yathokta-prakāreṇa vetti puruṣaṃ sākṣād ātma-bhāvena “ayam aham asmi” iti prakṛtiṃ ca yathoktām avidyā-lakṣaṇāṃ guṇaiḥ sva-vikāraiḥ saha nivartitām abhāvam āpāditāṃ vidyayā, sarvathā sarva-prakāreṇa vartamāno’pi sa bhūyaḥ punaḥ patite’smin vidvac-charīre dehāntarāya nābhijāyate notpadyate, dehāntaraṃ na gṛhṇātīty arthaḥ | api-śabdāt kim u vaktavyaṃ ? sva-vṛtta-stho na jāyate ity abhiprāyaḥ ||
nanu, yady api jñānotpatty-anantaraṃ punar-janmābhāva uktaḥ, tathāpi prāg jñānotpatteḥ kṛtānāṃ karmaṇām uttara-kāla-bhāvināṃ ca yāni cātikrāntāneka-janma-kṛtāni teṣāṃ ca phalam adattvā nāśo na yukta iti | syus trīṇi janmāni kṛta-vipraṇāśo hi na yukta iti, yathā phale pravṛttānām ārabdha-janmanāṃ karmaṇām | na ca karmaṇāṃ viśeṣo’vagamyate | tasmāt tri-prakārāṇy api karmāṇi trīṇi janmāny ārabheran | saṃhatāni vā sarvāṇy ekaṃ janmārabheran | anyathā kṛta-vināśe sati sarvatrānāśvāsa-prasaṅgaḥ, śāstrānarthakyaṃ ca syāt | ity ataḥ idam ayuktam uktaṃ na sa bhūyo’bhijāyate iti | na | kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi [mātruṇḍuttaṃ 2.2.8], brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati [mātruṇḍuttaṃ 3.2.9], tasya tāvad eva ciraṃ [candrhāuttaṃ 6.14.2], iṣīkā-tūlavat sarvāṇi karmāṇi pradūyante [candrhāuttaṃ 5.24.3] ity ādi-śruti-śatebhya ukto viduṣaḥ sarva-karma-dāhaḥ |
ihāpi cokto yathaidhāṃsi [gītā 4.37] ity ādinā sarva-karma-dāhaḥ | vakṣyati copapatteś ca | avidyā-kāma-kleśa-bīja-nimittāni hi karmāṇi janmāntarāṅkuram ārabhante | ihāpi ca sāhaṃkārābhisaṃdhīni karmāṇi phalārambhakāṇi, netarāṇīti tatra tatra bhagavatoktam |
bījāny agny-upadagdhāni na rohanti yathā punaḥ |
jñāna-dagdhais tathā kleśair nātmā saṃpadyate punaḥ [mātrbh 3.200.10] iti ca |
astu tāvaj jñānotpatty-uttara-kāla-kṛtānāṃ karmaṇāṃ jñānena dāhaḥ, jñāna-saha-bhāvitvāt | na tv iha janmani jñānotpatteḥ prāk kṛtānāṃ karmaṇām atīta-janma-kṛtānāṃ ca dāho yuktaḥ | na | sarva-karmāṇīti viśeṣaṇāt | jñānottara-kāla-bhāvinām eva sarva-karmaṇām iti cet, na | saṃkoce kāraṇānupapatteḥ | yat tūktaṃ yathā vartamāna-janmārambhakāṇi karmāṇi na kṣīyante phala-dānāya pravṛttāny eva saty api jñāne, tathānārabdha-phalānām api karmaṇāṃ kṣayo na yukta iti, tad asat | kathaṃ ? teṣāṃ mukteṣuvat pravṛtta-phalatvāt | yathā pūrvaṃ lakṣya-vedhāya mukta iṣuḥ dhanuṣo lakṣya-vedhottara-kālam api ārabdha-vega-kṣayāt patanenaiva nivartate, evaṃ śarīrārambhakaṃ karma śarīra-sthiti-prayojane nivṛtte’pi, ā saṃskāra-vega-kṣayāt pūrvavat vartata eva | yathā sa eva iṣuḥ pravṛtti-nimittānārabdha-vegas tv amukto dhanuṣi prayukto’pi upasaṃhriyate, tathānārabdha-phalāni karmāṇi svāśraya-sthāny eva jñānena nirbījī-kriyanta iti | patite’smin vidvac-charīre na sa bhūyo’bhijāyate iti yuktam evoktam iti siddham
 

Rāmānuja


enam uktasvabhāvaṃ puruṣam, uktasvabhāvāṃ ca prakṛtiṃ vakṣyamāṇasvabhāvayuktaiḥ sattvādibhir guṇaiḥ saha, yo vetti yathāvad vivekena jānāti, sa sarvathā devamanuṣyādideheṣv atimātrakliṣṭaprakāreṇa vartamāno ‚pi, na bhūyo ‚bhijāyate na bhūyaḥ prakṛtyā saṃsargam arhati, aparicchinnajñānalakaṣaṇam apahatapāpmānam ātmānaṃ taddehāvasānasamaye prāpnotītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


evaṃ prakṛti-puruṣa-viveka-jñāninaṃ stauti ya evam iti | evam upadraṣṭṛtvādi-rūpeṇa puruṣaṃ yo vetti prakṛtiṃ ca guṇaiḥ saha sukha-duḥkhādi-pariṇāmaiḥ sahitāṃ yo vetti sa puruṣaḥ sarvathā vidhim atilaṅghyeha vartamāno ‚pi punar nābhijāyate | mucyate evety arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ sa ca yo yat prabhāvaś ca [Gītā 13.4] iti vyākhyātam idānīṃ yaj jñātvāmṛtam aśnute ity uktam upasaṃharati ya evam iti | ya evam uktena prakāreṇa vetti puruṣam ayam aham asmīti sākṣātkaroti prakṛtiṃ cāvidyāṃ guṇaiḥ sva-vikāraiḥ saha mithyā-bhūtām ātma-vidyayā bādhitāṃ vetti nivṛtte mamājñāna-tāt-kārye iti, sa sarvathā prārabdha-karma-vaśād indravad vidhim atikramya vartamāno ‚pi bhūyo na jāyate patite ‚smin vidvac-charīre punar deha-grahaṇaṃ na karoti | avidyāyāṃ vidyayā nāśitāyāṃ tat-kāryāsaṃbhavasya bahudhoktatvāt tad-adhigama uttara-pūrvārdhayor aśleṣa-vināśau tad-vyapadeśāt [Vs 4.1.13] iti nyāyāt | api-śabdād vidhim anatikramya vartamānaḥ sva-vṛttastho bhūyo na jāyata iti kim u vaktavyam ity abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


etaj-jñāna-phalam āha ya iti | puruṣaṃ paramātmānaṃ prakṛtiṃ māyā-śaktiṃ | ca-kārāj jīva-śaktiṃ ca | sarvathā vartamāno ‚pi laya-vikṣepādi-parābhūto ‚pi
 

Baladeva


etaj-jñāna-phalam āha ya iti | evaṃ mad-ukta-vidhayā mitho viviktatayā yaḥ puruṣaṃ maheśvara-prakṛtiṃ ca jīvaṃ ca vetti ! sarvathā vyavahāra-samparkeṇa vartamāno ‚pi bhūyo nābhijāyate dehānte vimucyata ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 13.24

dhyānenātmani paśyanti ke-cid ātmānam ātmanā
anye sāṃkhyena yogena karma-yogena cāpare

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syntax


kecit (some persons) dhyānena (by contemplating) ātmani (in the self) ātmanā (with the self) ātmānam (self) paśyanti (they see),
anye (others) sāṅkhyena yogena (by the yoga of sāṅkhya) [ātmānam paśyanti] (they see the self),
apare ca (and still others) karma-yogena (by the yoga of activity) [ātmānam paśyanti] (they see the self).

 

grammar

dhyānena dhyāna 3n.1 n.by contemplating (dhyai – to think);
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
paśyanti dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.3they see;
ke-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.3 m.some persons (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
ātmanā ātman 3n.1 m.with the self;
anye anya sn. 1n.3 m.others;
sāṁkhyena sāṁkhya 3n.1 n.by saṁkhya (from: sam-khyā – to count, sāmkhya – relating to number, rational, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
yogena yoga 3n.1 m.by yoga, by yoking, by application, by means (from:yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage);
karma-yogena karma-yoga 3n.1 m.; [TP]: karmaṇo yogenetiby yoga of activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
ca av.and;
apare a-para 1n.3 m.others, those later, different;

 

textual variants


dhyānenātmanijñānenātmani (by knowledge in the own self);
anye sāṁkhyena yogena → anyena sāṁkhya-yogena / anye tu sāṁkhya-yogena (by others by yoga of sāṁkhya / but others by yoga of sāṁkhya);
 
 



Śāṃkara


atrātma-darśane upāya-vikalpā ime dhyānādaya ucyante—
dhyānena | dhyānaṃ nāma śabdādibhyo viṣayebhyaḥ śrotrādīni karaṇāni manasy upasaṃhṛtya, manaś ca pratyak-cetanayitari, ekāgratayā yac cintanaṃ tad dhyānam | tathā, dhyāyatīva bakaḥ, dhyāyatīva pṛthivī, dhyāyantīva parvatāḥ [candrhāuttaṃ 7.6.1] iti upamopādānāt | taila-dhārāvat saṃtato’vicchinna-pratyayo dhyānam | tena dhyānena ātmani buddhau paśyanty ātmānaṃ pratyak-cetanam ātmanā svenaiva pratyak-cetanena dhyāna-saṃskṛtenāntaḥ-karaṇena kecid yoginaḥ | anye sāṃkhyena yogena | sāṃkhyaṃ nāma ime sattva-rajas-tamāṃsi guṇā mayā dṛśyā ahaṃ tebhyo’nyas tad-vyāpāra-sākṣi-bhūto nityo guṇa-vilakṣaṇa ātmeti cintanam eṣa sāṃkhyo yogaḥ | tena paśyanti ātmānam ātmanety anuvartate | karma-yogena | karmaiva yogaḥ | īśvarārpaṇa-buddhyānuṣṭhīyamānaṃ ghaṭana-rūpaṃ yogārthatvād yoga ucyate guṇataḥ | tena sattva-śuddhi-jñānotpatti-dvāreṇa cāpare
 

Rāmānuja


kecin niṣpannayogāḥ ātmani śarīre ‚vasthitam ātmānam ātmanā manasā dhyānena yogena paśyanti / anye ca aniṣpannayogāḥ, sāṃkhyena yogena jñānayogena yogayogyaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā ātmānaṃ paśyanti / apare jñānayogānadhikāriṇaḥ, tadadhikāriṇaś ca sukaropāyasaktāḥ, vyapadeśyāś ca karmayogenāntargatajñānena manaso yogayogyatām āpādya ātmānaṃ paśyanti
 

Śrīdhara


evambhūta-viviktātma-jñāna-sādhana-vikalpān āha dhyāneneti dvābhyām | dhyānenātmākārapratyayāvṛttyā | ātmani deha eva ātmanā manasā evam ātmānaṃ kecit paśyanti | anye tu sāṅkhyena prakṛti-puruṣa-vailakṣaṇyālocanena yogenāṣṭāṅgena | apare ca karma-yogena | paśyantīti sarvatrānuṣaṅgaḥ | eteṣāṃ ca dhyānādīnāṃ yathā-yogyaṃ krama-samuccaye saty api tat-tan-niṣṭhā-bhedābhiprāyeṇa vikalpoktiḥ
 

Madhusūdana


atrātma-darśane sādhana-vikalpā ime kathyante dhyāneneti | iha hi caturvidhā janāḥ, kecid uttamāḥ kecin madhyamāḥ kecin mandāḥ kecin mandatarā iti | tatrottamānām ātma-jñāna-sādhanam āha | dhyānena vijātīya-pratyayānantaritena sajātīya-pratyaya-pravāheṇa śravaṇa-manana-phala-bhūtenātma-cintanena nididhyāsana-śabdenoditenātmani buddhau paśyanti sākṣātkurvanti ātmānaṃ pratyak-cetanam ātmanā dhyāna-saṃskṛtenāntaḥ-karaṇena kecid uttamā yoginaḥ |
madhyamānām ātma-jñāna-sādhanam āha — anye madhyamāḥ sāṃkhyena yogena nididhyāsana-pūrva-bhāvinā śravaṇa-manana-rūpeṇa nityānitya-vivekādi-pūrvakeṇeme guṇa-traya-pariṇāmā anātmanaḥ sarve mithyā-bhūtās tat-sākṣi-bhūto nityo vibhur nirvikāraḥ satyaḥ samasta-jaḍa-sambandha-śūnya ātmāham ity evaṃ vedānta-vākya-vicāra-janyena cintanena paśyanti ātmānam ātmaniti vartate | dhyānenotpatti-dvāreṇety arthaḥ |
mandānām jñāna-sādhanam āha — karma-yogeneśvarārpaṇa-buddhyā kriyamāṇena phalābhisandhi-rahitena tat-tad-varṇāśramocitena veda-vihitena karma-kalāpena cāpare mandāḥ paśyanti ātmānam ātmaniti vartate | sattva-śuddhyā śravaṇa-manana-dhyānotpatti-dvāreṇety arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


atra sādhana-vikalpam āha dhyāneti dvābhyām | kecid bhaktā dhyānena bhagavac-cintanenaiva | bhaktyā mām abhijānāti [Gītā 18.55] ity agrimokter ātmani mansy ātmanā svayam eva na tv anyena kenāpy upakārekeṇety arthaḥ | anye jñāninaḥ sāṅkhyam ātmānātma-vivekas tena | apare yogino yogenāṣṭāṅgena karma-yogena niṣkāma-karmaṇā ca | atra sāṅkhyāṣṭāṅga-yoga-niṣkāma-karma-yogāḥ paramātma-darśane parasparayaiva hetavo na tu sākṣād dhetavas teṣāṃ sāttvikatvāt paramātmanas tu guṇātītatvāt | kiṃ ca jñānaṃ ca mayi sannyaset [BhP 11.19.1] iti bhagavad-ukter jñānādi-sannyāsānantaram eva bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ [BhP 11.14.11] ity ukter jñānaṃ vimucya tayā bhaktyaiva paśyanti
 

Baladeva


maheśvarasya prāptau sādhana-vikalpān āha dhyāneneti dvābhyām | kecid viśuddha-cittā ātmani manasi sthitam ātmānaṃ maheśvaraṃ māṃ dhyānenopasarjanī-bhūta-jñānena paśyanti sākṣāt kurvanty ātmanā svayam eva, na tv anyenopakārakeṇa | anye sāṅkhyenopasarjanī-bhūta-dhyānena jñānena paśyanti | anya-yogenopasarjanī-bhūta-jñānenāṣṭāṅgena paśyanti | apare tu karma-yogenāntargata-dhyāna-jñānena niṣkāmeṇa karmaṇā
 
 


BhG 13.25

anye tv evam ajānantaḥ śrutvānyebhya upāsate
te ‘pi cātitaranty eva mṛtyuṃ śruti-parāyaṇāḥ

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syntax


anye tu (but others) evam (thus) ajānantaḥ (ignorant) anyebhyaḥ (from others) śrutvā (after hearing) upāsate (they worship).
te api (they also) śruti-parāyaṇāḥ (dedicated to hearing) mṛtyum (death) atitaranti (they cross).

 

grammar

anye anya sn. 1n.3 m.others;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
evam av.thus;
ajānantaḥ a-jānant (jña – to know, to understand) PPr 1n.3 m.not knowing, the ignorant;
śrutvā śru (to hear, to listen) absol.after hearing;
anyebhyaḥ anya sn. 5n.3 m.from others;
upāsate upa-ās (to worship, to attend upon) Praes. Ā 1v.3they worship, they attend
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
atitaranti ati-tṝ (to cross over) Praes. P 1v.3they cross;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
mṛtyum mṛtyu 2n.1 m.death (from: mṛ – to die);
śruti-parāyaṇāḥ śruti-parāyaṇa 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ śrutiḥ parāyaṇam asti tewhose final refuge is hearing (from: śru – to hear, to listen, śruti – hearing, ears; para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme; ayana – a path; parāyaṇa – supreme path, the final goal; in compounds: fully dedicated to);

 

textual variants


tv evam → caivam / tv idam (and thus / but this [not knowing]);
ajānantaḥ → ajāyantaḥ (who are not born);
eva → evaṁ (thus);
 
 



Śāṃkara


anye tv eṣu vikalpeṣu anyatamenāpy evaṃ yathoktam ātmānam ajānanto’nyebhyaḥ ācāryebhyaḥ śrutvā “idam eva cintayata” ity uktā upāsate śraddadhānāḥ santaś cintayanti | te’pi cātitaranty eva atikrāmanty eva mṛtyuṃ mṛtyu-yuktaṃ saṃsāram ity etat | śruti-parāyaṇāḥ śrutiḥ śravaṇaṃ param ayanaṃ gamanaṃ mokṣa-mārga-pravṛttau paraṃ sādhanaṃ yeṣāṃ te śruti-parāyaṇāḥ | kevala-paropadeśa-pramāṇāḥ svayaṃ viveka-rahitā ity abhiprāyaḥ | kim u vaktavyaṃ pramāṇaṃ prati svatantrā vivekino mṛtyum atitarantīty abhiprāyaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


anye tu karmayogādiṣu ātmāvalokanasādhaneṣv anadhikṛtāḥ anyebhyaḥ tattvadarśibhyo jñānibhyaḥ śrutvā karmayogādibhir ātmānam upāsate; te ‚py ātmadarśanena mṛtyum atitaranti / ye śrutiparāyaṇāḥ śravaṇamātraniṣṭhāḥ, ete ca śravaṇaniṣṭhāḥ pūtapāpāḥ krameṇa karmayogādikam ārabhyātitaranty eva mṛtyum / apiśabdāc ca pūrvabhedo ‚vagamyate
 

Śrīdhara


ati-mandādhikāriṇāṃ nistāropāyam āha anya iti | anye tu sāṅkhya-yogādi-mārgeṇa evambhūtam upadraṣṭṛtvādi-lakṣaṇam ātmānam sākṣātkartum ajānanto ‚nyebhya ācāryebhya upadeśataḥ śrutvā upāsante dhyāyanti | te ‚pi ca śraddhayopadeśa-śravaṇa-parāyaṇāḥ santo mṛtyuṃ saṃsāraṃ śanair atitaranty eva
 

Madhusūdana


mandatarāṇāṃ jñāna-sādhanam āha anya iti | anye tu mandatarāḥ | tu-śabdaḥ pūrva-ślokokta-trividhādhikāri-vailakṣaṇya-dyotanārthaḥ | eṣūpāyeṣv anyatareṇāpy evaṃ yathoktam ātmānam ajānanto ‚nyebhyaḥ kāruṇikebhya ācāryebhyaḥ śrutvā „idam eva cintayata” ity uktā upāsate śraddadhānāḥ santaś cintayanti | te ‚pi cātitaranty eva mṛtyum saṃsāram śruti-parāyaṇāḥ svayaṃ vicārāsamarthā api śraddadhānatayā gurūpadeśa-śravaṇa-mātra-parāyaṇāḥ | te ‚pīty api-śabdādye svayaṃ vicāra-samarthās te mṛtyum atitarantīti kim u vaktavyam ity abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


anye itas tataḥ kathā-śrotāraḥ
 

Baladeva


anye tv evam īdṛśānupāyān ajānantaḥ śruti-parāyaṇās tat-tat-kathā-śravaṇādi-niṣṭhāḥ sāmpratikā anyebhyas tad-vaktṛbhyas tān upāyān śrutvā taṃ maheśvaram upāsate | te ‚pi cāt ta-saṅginaś ca krameṇa tān upalabhyānuṣṭhāya ca mṛtyum atitaranty eveti tat-kathā-śruti-mahimātiśayo darśitaḥ
 
 


BhG 13.26

yāvat saṃjāyate kiṃ-cit sattvaṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamam
kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-saṃyogāt tad viddhi bharata-rṣabha

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syntax


he bharatarṣabha (O best of the Bharatas!),
yāvat (as much) kiṁ-cit sthāvara-jaṅgamam sattvam (whatever stationary and movable being) saṁjāyate (it is born together),
tat (that) kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-saṁyogāt (from the combination of the field and the knower of the field) [bhavati iti] (it is produced) viddhi (you must know).

 

grammar

yāvat av.as long as, as great;
saṁjāyate sam-jan (to be born together) Praes. Ā 1v.1 it is born together;
kiṁ-cit kim-cit sn. 1n.1 n.whatever (from: kim – what?; -cit – indefinitive particle);
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
sthāvara-jaṅgamam sthāvara-jaṅgama 1n.1 n.; DV: sthāvaraṁ ca jaṅgamaṁ cetistationary and movable (from: sthā – to stay, to exist; ava – down; or from: vṛ – to choose, to like, vara – chosen, the best, most excellent, avara – below, inferior, mean, unimportant; sthāvara – standing still, stable, stationary, opposite to: jaṅgama; gam – to go, jaṅgama – movable, living);
kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-saṁyogāt kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-saṁyoga 5n.1 n.; DV / [TP]: kṣetrasya ca kṣetrajñasya ca saṁyogāt itifrom the combination of the field and the knower of the field (from: kṣi – to possess, kṣetra – field; jñā – to know, to understand, -jña – suffix: one who knows; sam-yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, saṁyoga – connection, union);
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
bharata-rṣabha bharata-rṣabha 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇām ṛṣabhetiO best of the Bharatas (from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, maintained, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; ṛṣabha – bull, the best of any kind);

 

textual variants


saṁjāyate → saṁbhavati / saṁbhavate (it becomes);
yāvat saṁjāyate kiṁ-cit → yāvat kiṁ-cit saṁbhavati (as much whatever is produced);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi [gītā 13.3] iti kṣetrajñeśvarakatva-viṣayaṃ jñānaṃ mokṣa-sādhanaṃ, yaj jñātvāmṛtam aśnute [gītā 13.13] ity uktam | tat kasmāt hetoḥ ? iti tad-dhetu-pradarśanārthaṃ śloka ārabhyate—
yāvat yat kiṃcit saṃjāyate samutpadyate sattvaṃ vastu | kim aviśeṣeṇa ? nety āha—sthāvara-jaṅgamaṃ sthāvaraṃ jaṅgamaṃ ca kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogāt taj jāyate ity evaṃ viddhi jānīhi bharatarṣabha |
kaḥ punar ayaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajñayoḥ saṃyogo’bhipretaḥ ? na tāvat rajjveva ghaṭasyāvayava-saṃśleṣa-dvārakaḥ saṃbandha-viśeṣaḥ saṃyogaḥ kṣetreṇa kṣetrajñasya saṃbhavati, ākāśavat niravayavatvāt | nāpi samavāya-lakṣaṇas tantu-paṭayor iva kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor itaretara-kārya-kāraṇa-bhāvānabhyupagamāt | ity ucyate—kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor viṣaya-viṣayiṇor bhinna-svabhāvayor itaretara-tad-dharmādhyāsa-lakṣaṇaḥ saṃyogaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-svarūpa-vivekā-bhāva-nibandhanaḥ, rajju-śuktikādīnāṃ tad-viveka-jñānābhāvād adhyāropita-sarpa-rajatādi-saṃyogavat | so’yam adhyāsa-svarūpaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogo mithyā-jñāna-lakṣaṇaḥ | yathā-śāstraṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-lakṣaṇa-bheda-parijñāna-pūrvakaṃ prāk darśita-rūpāt kṣetrān muñjād iveṣīkāṃ yathokta-lakṣaṇaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ pravibhajya na sat tan nāsad ucyate [gītā 13.13] ity anena nirasta-sarvopādhi-viśeṣaṃ jñeyaṃ brahma-svarūpeṇa yaḥ paśyati, kṣetraṃ ca māyā-nirmita-hasti-svapna-dṛṣṭa-vastuvad gandharva-nagarādivad asad eva sad ivāvabhāsate | ity evaṃ niścita-vijñāno yaḥ, tasya yathokta-samyag-darśana-virodhād apagacchati mithyā-jñānam | tasya janma-hetor apagamād ya evaṃ vetti puruṣaṃ prakṛtiṃ ca guṇaiḥ saha [gītā 13.25] ity anena vidvān bhūyo nābhijāyate iti yad uktam, tad upapannam uktam
 

Rāmānuja


atha prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭasyātmano vivekānusandhānaprakāraṃ vaktuṃ sarvaṃ sthāvaraṃ jaṅgamaṃ ca sattvaṃ cidacitsaṃsargajam ity āha
yāvat sthāvarajaṅgamātmanā sattvaṃ jāyate, tāvat kṣetrakṣetrajñayor itaretarasaṃyogād eva jāyate saṃyuktam eva jāyate, na tv itaretaraviyuktam ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


atha karma-yogasya tṛtīya-caturtha-pañcameṣu prapañcitatvād dhyāna-yogasya ca ṣaṣṭhāṣṭhamayoḥ prapañcitatvād dhyānādeś ca sāṅkhya-viviktātma-viṣayatvāt sāṅkhyam eva prapañcayann āha yāvad ity ādi yāvad adhyāyāntam | yāvat kiñcit vastu-mātraṃ sattvam utpadyate tat sarvaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor yogād aviveka-kṛta-tādātmyādhyāsād bhavatīti jānīhi
 

Madhusūdana


saṃsārasyāvidyakatvād vidyayā mokṣa upapadyata ity etasyārthasyāvadhāraṇāya saṃsāra-tan-nivartaka-jñānayoḥ prapañcaḥ kriyate yāvad adhyāya-samāpti | tatra kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgo ‚sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasv [Gītā 13.21] ity etat prāg uktaṃ vivṛṇoti yāvad iti | yāvat kim api sattvaṃ vastu saṃjāyate sthāvaraṃ jaṅgamaṃ vā tat sarvaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogād avidyā-tat-kāryātmakaṃ jaḍam anirvacanīyaṃ sad-asattvaṃ dṛśya-jātaṃ kṣetraṃ tad-vilakṣaṇaṃ tad-bhāsakaṃ sva-prakāśa-paramārtha-sac-caitanyam asaṅgodāsīnaṃ nirdharmakam advitīyaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ tayoḥ saṃyogo māyā-vaśā itaretarāviveka-nimitto mithyā-tādātmyādhyāsaḥ satyānṛta-mithunīkaraṇātmakaḥ | tasmād eva saṃjāyate tat sarvaṃ kārya-jātam iti viddhi he bharatarṣabha | ataḥ svarūpājñāna-nibandhanaḥ saṃsāraḥ svarūpa-jñānād vinaṃṣṭum arhati svapnādivad ity abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


uktam evārthaṃ prapañcayati yāvad adhyāya-samāpti | yāvad iti yat-pramāṇakaṃ nikṛṣṭam utkṛṣṭaṃ vā | sattvaṃ prāṇi-mātram
 

Baladeva


athānādi-saṃyuktayoḥ prakṛti-jīvayor yogānusandhānāya tayoḥ saṃyogena sṛṣṭiṃ tāvad āha yāvad iti | sthāvara-jaṅgamaṃ kiñcit sattvaṃ prāṇi-jātaṃ yāvad yat-pramāṇakam utkṛṣṭam apakṛṣṭaṃ ca sañjāyate tat kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogād viddhi | kṣetreṇa prakṛtyā saha kṣetrajñayoḥ sambandhāj jānīhīty arthaḥ | īśvaraḥ prakṛti-jīvau niyamayan pravartayati, tau tu mithaḥ sambadhnīta | tato dehotpatti-dvārā prāṇi-sṛṣṭir ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 13.27

samaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhantaṃ parameśvaram
vinaśyatsv avinaśyantaṃ yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) sarveṣu bhūteṣu (in all beings) samam (who is the same) tiṣṭhantam (who is staying) vinaśyatsu (among those perishing) avinaśyantam (imperishable) parameśvaram (the supreme lord) paśyati (he sees),
saḥ (he) paśyati (he sees).

 

grammar

samam sama 2n.1 m.the same, equal, equivalent;
or av.similarly, equally;
sarveṣu sarva sn. 7n.3 m.in all;
bhūteṣu bhūta (bhū – to be) [PP] 7n.3 m.in beings;
tiṣṭhantam tiṣṭhant (sthā – to stand, pozostawać) PPr 2n.1 m.who is staying, [while] staying;
parameśvaram parama-īśvara 2n.1 m. the supreme lord (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest; xīś – to own, to reign, īśa / īśvara – ruler, lord);
vinaśyatsu vi-naśyant (vi-naś – to destroy, to vanish, to be lost) PPr 7n.3 m.in those perishing;
avinaśyantam a-vi-naśyant (vi-naś – to destroy, to vanish, to be lost) PPr 2n.1 m.imperishable;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;

 

textual variants


samaṃsamāṃ;

The fourth pada of verse 13.27 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 5.5;

 
 



Śāṃkara


na sa bhūyo’bhijāyate [gītā 13.24] iti samyag darśana-phalam avidyādi-saṃsāra-bīja-nivṛtti-dvāreṇa janmābhāva uktaḥ | janma-kāraṇaṃ cāvidyā-nimittakaḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyoga uktaḥ | atas tasyāḥ avidyāyā nivartakaṃ samyag-darśanam uktam api punaḥ śabdāntareṇocyate—
samaṃ nirviśeṣaṃ tiṣṭhantaṃ sthitiṃ kurvantam | kva ? sarveṣu samasteṣu bhūteṣu brahmādi-sthāvarānteṣu prāṇiṣu | kaṃ ? parameśvaraṃ dehendriya-mano-buddhy-avyaktātmano’pekṣya parameśvaraḥ, taṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu samaṃ tiṣṭhantam | tāni viśinaṣṭi vinaśyatsv iti | taṃ ca parameśvaram avinaśyantam iti, bhūtānāṃ parameśvarasya cātyanta-vailakṣaṇya-pradarśanārtham | kathaṃ ? sarveṣāṃ hi bhāva-vikārāṇāṃ jani-lakṣaṇo bhāva-vikāro mūlam | janmottara-kāla-bhāvino’nye sarve bhāva-vikārā vināśāntāḥ | vināśāt paro na kaścid asti bhāva-vikāraḥ, bhāvābhāvāt | sati hi dharmiṇi dharmā bhavanti | ato’ntya-bhāva-vikārābhāvānuvādena pūrva-bhāvinaḥ sarve bhāva-vikārāḥ pratiṣiddhā bhavanti saha kāryaiḥ | tasmāt sarva-bhūtaiḥ vailakṣaṇyam atyantam eva parameśvarasya siddham, nirviśeṣatvam ekatvaṃ ca | ya evaṃ yathoktaṃ parameśvaraṃ paśyati, sa paśyati |
nanu sarvo’pi lokaḥ paśyati, kiṃ viśeṣaṇeneti | satyaṃ paśyati | kiṃ tu viparītaṃ paśyati | ato viśinaṣṭi—sa eva paśyatīti | yathā timira-dṛṣṭir anekaṃ candraṃ paśyati, tam apekṣya eka-candra-darśī viśiṣyate—sa eva paśyatīti | tathaivehāpy ekam avibhaktaṃ yathoktam ātmānaṃ yaḥ paśyati, sa vibhaktān ekātma-viparīta-darśibhyo viśiṣyate—sa eva paśyatīti | itare paśyanto’pi na paśyanti | viparīta-darśitvāt aneka-candra-darśivad ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


evam itaretarayukteṣu sarveṣu bhūteṣu devādiviṣamākārād viyuktaṃ tatra tatra tattaddehendriyamanāṃsi prati parameśvaratvena sthitam ātmānaṃ jñātṛtvena samānākāraṃ teṣu dehādiṣu vinaśyatsu vināśānarhasvabhāvenāvinaśyantaṃ yaḥ paśyati, sa paśyati sa ātmānaṃ yathāvad avasthitaṃ paśyati / yas tu devādiviṣamākāreṇātmānam api viṣamākāraṃ janmavināśādiyuktaṃ ca paśyati, sa nityam eva saṃsaratītyabhiprāyaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


aviveka-kṛtaṃ saṃsārodbhavam uktvā tan-nivṛttaye vivktātma-viṣayaṃ samyag-darśanam āha samam iti | sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakeṣu bhūteṣu nirviśeṣaṃ sad-rūpeṇa samaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ tiṣṭhantaṃ paramātmānaṃ yaḥ paśyati ataeva teṣu vinaśyatsv api avinaśyantaṃ yaḥ paśyati sa eva samyak paśyati
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ saṃsāram avidyātmakam uktvā tan nivartaka-vidyā-kathanāya ya evaṃ vetti puruṣam iti prāg uktaṃ vivṛṇoti samam iti | sarveṣu bhūteṣu bhavana-dharmakeṣu sthāvara-jaṅgamātmakeṣu prāṇiṣu aneka-vidha-janmādi-pariṇāma-śīlatayā guṇa-pradhāna-bhāvāpattyā ca viṣameṣu ataeva cañcaleṣu pratikṣaṇa-pariṇāmino hi bhāvā nāpariṇamya kṣaṇam api sthātum īśate | ata eva paraspara-bādhya-bādhaka-bhāvāpanneṣu evam api vinaśyatsu dṛṣṭa-naṣṭa-svabhāveṣu māyā-gandharva-nagarādi-prāyeṣu samaṃ sarvatraika-rūpaṃ pratideham ekaṃ janmādi-pariṇāma-śūnyatayā ca tiṣṭhantam apariṇamamānaṃ parameśvaraṃ sarva-jaḍa-varga-sattā-sphūrti-pradatvena bādhya-bādhaka-bhāva-śūnyaṃ sarvadopānāskanditam avinaśyantaṃ dṛṣṭa-naṣṭa-prāya-sarva-dvaita-bādhe ‚py abādhitam | evaṃ sarva-prakāreṇa jaḍa-prapañca-vilakṣaṇam ātmānaṃ vivekena yaḥ śāstra-cakṣuṣā paśyati sa eva paśyaty ātmānaṃ jāgrad-bodhena svapna-bhramaṃ bādhamāna iva |
ajñas tu svapna-darśīva bhrāntyā viparītaṃ paśyan na paśyaty eva | adarśanātmakatvād bhramasya | na hi rajjuṃ sarpatayā paśyan paśyatīti vyapadiśyate | rajjv-adarśanātmakatvāt sarpa-darśanasya | evam-bhūtāny ānuparakta-śuddhātma-darśanāt tad-darśarnātmikāyā avidyāyā nivṛttis tatas tat-kārya-saṃsāra-nivṛttir ity abhiprāyaḥ | atrātmānam iti viśeṣya-lābho viśeṣaṇa-maryādayā | parameśvaram ity eva vā viśeṣya-padam | viṣamatva-cañcalatva-bādhya-bādhaka-rūpatva-lakṣaṇaṃ jaḍa-gataṃ vaidharmyaṃ samatva-tiṣṭhattva-parameśvaratva-rūpātma-viśeṣaṇa-vaśād arthāt prāptam anyat kaṇṭhoktam iti vivekaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


paramātmānaṃ tv evaṃ jānīyād ity āha samam iti | vinaśyatsv api deheṣu yaḥ paśyati, sa eva jñānīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha prakṛtau tat-saṃyukteṣu ca jīveṣu sthitam apīśvaraṃ tebhyo viviktaṃ paśyed ity āha samam iti | yas tv atattvavit prasaṅgī sarveṣu sthāvara-jaṅgama-dehavatsu bhūteṣu jīveṣu samam ekarasaṃ yathā syāt tathā tiṣṭhantaṃ parameśvaraṃ vinaśyatsu tat-tad-deha-vimardena vināśaṃ gacchatsu teṣv avinaśyantaṃ tad-vaikṣaṇaṃ paśyati sa eva paśyati tad-yāthātmya-darśī bhavati | tathā ca vaividhya-vināśa-dharmibhyaḥ prakṛti-saṃyogibhyo jīvebhya aikarasyāvināśa-dharmā pareśo vivikta iti
 
 


BhG 13.28

samaṃ paśyan hi sarvatra samavasthitam īśvaram
na hinasty ātmanātmānaṃ tato yāti parāṃ gatim

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syntax


sarvatra hi (indeed everywhere) samam samavasthitam īśvaraṁ (the same lord who is firmly situated) paśyan (who is seeing)
ātmanā (by the self) ātmānam (own self) na hinasti (he does not harm).
tataḥ (then) [saḥ] (he) parām gati (to the supreme goal) yāti (he goes).

 

grammar

samam sama 2n.1 m.the same, equal, equivalent;
or av.similarly, equally;
paśyan paśyant (dṛś – to see) PPr 1n.1 m.[while] seeing;
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
sarvatra av.everywhere, in every case (from: sarva – all; indeclinable locative with an ending –tra);
samavasthitam sam-ava-sthita (sam-ava-sthā – to be present) [PP] 2n.1 m.being firmly situated;
īśvaram īśvara 2n.1 m.ruler, lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign);
na av.not;
hinasti hiṁs (to injure, to harm, to kill) Praes. P 1v.1he harms;
ātmanā ātman 3n.1 m.with the self;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
yāti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
gatim gati 2n.1 f.moving, way, passage, means, refuge, goal (from: gam – to go);

 

textual variants


yāti → yāṃti (they go);

The fourth pada of verse 13.28 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 6.45;

 
 



Śāṃkara


yathoktasya samyag-darśanasya phala-vacanena stutiḥ kartavyā iti śloka ārabhyate—
samaṃ paśyann upalabhamāno hi yasmāt sarvatra sarva-bhūteṣu samavasthitaṃ tulyatayāvasthitam īśvaram atītānantara-ślokokta-lakṣaṇam ity arthaḥ | samaṃ paśyan kiṃ ? na hinasti hiṃsāṃ na karoti ātmanā svenaiva svam ātmānam | tat-tad-ahiṃsanād yāti parāṃ prakṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ mokṣākhyām ||
nanu naiva kaścit prāṇī svayaṃ svam ātmānaṃ hinasti | katham ucyate’prāptaṃ na hinastīti ? yathā na pṛthivyāṃ nāntarikṣe na divy agniś cetavyaḥ [sthitaittsarv 5.2.7.1] ity ādi | naiṣa doṣaḥ, ajñānām ātma-tiraskaraṇopapatteḥ | sarvo hy ajño’tyanta-prasiddhaṃ sākṣād aparokṣād ātmānaṃ tiraskṛtyānātmānam ātmatvena parigṛhya, tam api dharmādharmau kṛtvopāttam ātmānaṃ hatvānyam ātmānam upādatte navaṃ, taṃ caivaṃ hatvānyam | evaṃ tam api hatvānyam ity evam upāttam upāttam ātmānaṃ hantīty ātmahā sarvo’jñaḥ | yas tu paramārthātmāsāv api sarvadāvidyayā hata iva vidyamāna-phalābhāvād iti sarve ātma-hana evāvidvāṃsaḥ | yas tv itaro yathoktātma-darśī, sa ubhayathāpi ātmanātmānaṃ na hinasti na hanti | tato yāti parāṃ gatiṃ yathoktaṃ phalaṃ tasya bhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


sarvatra devādiśarīreṣu tattaccheṣitvenādhāratayā viyantṛtayā ca sthitam īśvaram ātmānaṃ devādiviṣamākāraviyuktaṃ jñānaikākāratayā samaṃ paśyan ātmanā manasā, svam ātmānaṃ na hinasti rakṣati, saṃsārān mocayati / tataḥ tasmāj jñātṛtayā sarvatra samānākāradarśanāt parāṃ gatiṃ yāti; gamyata iti gatiḥ; paraṃ gantavyaṃ yathāvad avasthitam ātmānaṃ prāpnoti; devādyākārayuktatayā sarvatra viṣamam ātmānaṃ paśyan ātmānaṃ hinasti bhavajaladhimadhye prakṣipati
 

Śrīdhara


kuta iti | ata āha samam iti | sarvatra bhūtamātre samaṃ samyag apracyuta-svarūpeṇāvasthitaṃ paramātmānaṃ paśyan | hi yasmād ātmanā svenaivātmānaṃ na hinasti | avidyayā sac-cid-ānanda-rūpam ātmānaṃ tiraskṛtya na vināśayati | tataś ca parāṃ gatiṃ mokṣaṃ prāpnoti | yat tv evaṃ na paśyati sa hi dehātma-darśī dehena sahātmānaṃ hinasti | tathā ca śrutiḥ –
asūryā nāma te lokā andhena tamasāvṛtāḥ |
tāṃs te pretyābhigacchanti ye ke cātma-hano janāḥ || [ĪśaU 3] iti
 

Madhusūdana


tad etad ātma-darśanaṃ phalena stauti rucy-utpattaye samam iti | samavasthitaṃ janmādi-vināśānta-bhāva-vikāra-śūnyatayā samyaktayāvasthita-vināśitva-lābhaḥ | anyat prāg vyākhyātam | evaṃ pūrvokta-viśeṣaṇam ātmānaṃ paśyann ayam aham asmīti śāstra-dṛṣṭyā sākṣātkurvan na hinasty ātmanātmānam | sarvo hy ajñaḥ paramārtha-santam ekam akartr-abhoktṛ-paramānanda-rūpam ātmānam avidyayā sati bhāty api vastuni nāsti na bhātīti pratīti-janana-samarthayā svayam eva tiraskurvann asantam iva karotīti hinasty eva tam | tathāvidyayātmatvena paritgṛhītaṃ dehendriya-saṃghātam ātmānaṃ purātanaṃ hatvā navam ādatte karma-vaśād iti hinasty eva tam | ata ubhayathāpy ātmahaiva sarvo ‚py ajñaḥ | yam adhikṛtyeyaṃ śakuntalā-vacana-rūpā smṛtiḥ –
kiṃ tena na kṛtaṃ pāpaṃ coreṇātmāpahāriṇā |
yo ‚nyathā santam ātmānam anyathā pratipadyate || iti |
śrutiś ca –
asūryā nāma te lokā andhena tamasāvṛtāḥ |
tāṃs te pretyābhigacchanti ye ke cātma-hano janāḥ || [ĪśaU 3] iti
asūryā asurasya sva-bhūtā āsuryā saṃpadā bhogyā ity arthaḥ | ātma-hana ity anātmany ātmābhimānina ity arthaḥ | ato ya ātmajñaḥ so ‚nātmany ātmābhimānaṃ śuddhātma-darśanena bādhate | ataḥ svarūpa-lābhāc ca hinasty ātmanātmānaṃ tato yāti parāṃ gatim | tata ātma-hananābhāvād avidyā-tat-kārya-nivṛtti-lakṣaṇāṃ muktim adhigacchatīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


ātmanā manasā kupatha-gāminā ātmānaṃ jīvaṃ na hinasti nādhaḥ-pātayati
 

Baladeva


athokta-viṣayā tebhyo viviktam īśvaraṃ paśyan tad-darśana-mahimnā ca prakṛti-vikārebhyaḥ sva-vivekaṃ ca labhata ity āśayenāha samaṃ paśyan hīti | sarvatra bhūteṣu samaṃ yathā bhavaty evaṃ samyag-apracyuta-svarūpa-guṇatayāvasthitam īśvaraṃ paśyann ātmānaṃ svam ātmanā prakṛti-vikāra-viveka-grāhiṇā viṣaya-rasa-gṛdhnunā manasā na hinasti nādhaḥpātayati, sa tad-rasa-viraktena tena parām utkṛṣṭāṃ gatiṃ tad-vikārebhyaḥ svaiveka-khyātiṃ yāti
 
 


BhG 13.29

prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni sarvaśaḥ
yaḥ paśyati tathātmānam akartāraṃ sa paśyati

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) prakṛtyā eva (just by the nature) karmāṇi (activities) sarvaśaḥ (in every respect) kriyamāṇāni (which are being done),
tathā ca (and also) ātmānam akartāram (the non-active self) paśyati (he sees),
saḥ (he) paśyati (he sees).

 

grammar

prakṛtyā prakṛti 3n.1 f.by nature, primary substance, original cause (from: pra-kṛ – to produce);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
karmāṇi karman 1n.3 n.activities (from: kṛ – to do);
kriyamāṇāni kriyamāṇa (kṛ to do) pass. PPr 1n.3 n.which are being done;
sarvaśaḥ av.completely, entirely, altogether, on all sides (from: sarva – all, whole);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
ātmānam ātman 2n.1 m.self;
akartāram a-kartṛ 2n.1 m.non-doer, non-active (from: kṛ – to do);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
paśyati dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;

 

textual variants


ca → hi (indeed);
tathātmānam → sadātmānam / tadātmānam (always the self / then the self);

The first and second pada of verse 13.29 are almost the same as the first and second pada of verse BhG 3.27;

 
 



Śāṃkara


sarva-bhūta-stham īśvaraṃ samaṃ paśyan na hinasty ātmanātmānaṃ [gītā 13.28] ity uktam | tad anupapannaṃ sva-guṇa-karma-vailakṣaṇya-bheda-bhinneṣv ātmasu, ity etad āśaṅkyāha—
prakṛtyā prakṛtir bhagavato māyā triguṇātmikā | māyāṃ tu prakṛtiṃ vidyād [śāstrvetuttaṃ 4.10] iti mantra-varṇāt | tayā prakṛtyaiva ca nānyena mahad-ādi-kārya-kāraṇākāra-pariṇatayā karmāṇi vāṅ-manaḥ-kāyārabhyāṇi kriyamāṇāni nirvartyamānāni sarvaśaḥ sarva-prakārair yaḥ paśyaty upalabhate, tathātmānaṃ kṣetrajñam akartāraṃ sarvopādhi-vivarjitaṃ sa paśyati, sa paramārtha-darśīty abhiprāyaḥ | nirguṇasyākartur nirviśeṣasyākāśasyeva bhede pramāṇānupapattir ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


sarvāṇi karmāṇi, „kāryakāraṇakartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate” iti pūrvoktarītyā prakṛtyā kriyamāṇānīti yaḥ paśyati, tathā ātmānaṃ jñānākāraṃ akartāraṃ ca yaḥ paśyati, tasya prakṛtisaṃyogas tadadhiṣṭhānaṃ tajjanyasukhaduḥkhānubhavaś ca karmarūpājñānakṛtānīti ca yaḥ paśyati, sa ātmānaṃ yathāvad avasthitaṃ paśyati
 

Śrīdhara


nanu śubhāśubha-karma-kartṛtvena vaiṣamye dṛśyamāne katham ātmanaḥ samatvam ity āśaṅkyāha prakṛtyaiveti | prakṛtyaiva dehendriyākāreṇa pariṇatayā | sarvaśaḥ prakāraiḥ | kriyamāṇāni karmāṇi yaḥ paśyati | tathātmānaṃ cākartāraṃ dehābhimānenaiva ātmanaḥ kartṛtvaṃ na svataḥ | ity evaṃ yaḥ paśyati sa eva samyak paśyati | nānya ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


nanu śubhāśubha-karma-kartāraḥ pratidehaṃ bhinnā ātmano viṣamāś ca tat-tad-vicitra-phala-bhoktṛtveneti kathaṃ sarva-bhūta-stham ekam ātmānaṃ samaṃ paśyan na hinasty ātmanātmānam ity uktam ata āha prakṛtyaiveti | karmāṇi vāṅ-manaḥ-kāyārabhyāṇi sarvaśaḥ sarvaiḥ prakāraiḥ prakṛtyaiva dehendriya-saṅghātākāra-pariṇatayā sarva-vikāra-kāraṇa-bhūtayā triguṇātmikayā bhagavan-māyayaiva kriyamāṇāni na tu puruṣeṇa sarva-vikāra-śūnyena yo vivekī paśyati, evaṃ kṣetreṇa kriyamāṇeṣv api karmasu ātmānaṃ kṣetrajñam akartāraṃ sarvopādhi-vivarjitam asaṅgam ekaṃ sarvatra samaṃ yaḥ paśyati, tathā-śabdaḥ paśyatīti-kriyā-karṣaṇārthaḥ, sa paśyati sa paramārtha-darśīti pūrvavat | sa-vikārasya kṣetrasya tat-tad-vicitra-karma-kartṛtvena prati-dehaṃ bhede ‚pi vaiṣamye ‚pi na nirviśeṣasyākartur ākāśasyeva na bhede pramāṇaṃ kiṃcid ātmana ity upapāditaṃ prāk
 

Viśvanātha


prakṛtyaiva dehendriyādyākāreṇa pariṇatayā sarvaśaḥ sarvāṇy ātmānaṃ jīvaṃ dehābhimānenaiva ātmanaḥ kartṛtvam, na tu svataḥ | ity evaṃ yaḥ paśyatīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


prakṛteḥ sva-vivekaṃ kathaṃ yātīty apekṣāyāṃ tatra prakāram āha – prakṛtyaiveti dvābhyām | yaḥ sarvāṇi karmāṇi prakṛtyaiva cān mad-adhiṣṭhitayeśvara-preritayā kriyamāṇāni paśyati, tathātmānaṃ teṣāṃ karmaṇām akartāraṃ paśyati, sa eva paśyati sva-yāthāṭmya-darśī bhavati | ayam arthaḥ na khalu vijñānānanda-svabhāvo ‚haṃ yuddha-yajñādīni duḥkha-mayāni karmāṇi karomi, kintv anādibhogavāsanenāvivekinā mayādhiṣṭhitā mad-bhoga-siddhaye mad-dehādi-dvārā tāni karotīti tad-dhetukatvāt saiva tat-kartṛīti karam-kāriṇyāḥ prakṛtes tad-akartā śuddho jīvo viviktaḥ | śuddhasyāpi kartṛtvaṃ tu paśyatīty anena vyaktam iti
 
 


BhG 13.30

yadā bhūta-pṛthag-bhāvam eka-stham anupaśyati
tata eva ca vistāraṃ brahma saṃpadyate tadā

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yadā (when) [saḥ] (he) bhūta-pṛthag-bhāvam (the separate existence of beings) eka-stham (which is situated in one place) anupaśyati (he sees),
tataḥ eva ca (and indeed then) [bhūtānām] (of beings) vistāram (extension) [anupaśyati] (he sees),
tadā (then) brahma (Brahman) sampadyate (he attains).

 

grammar

yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
bhūta-pṛthag-bhāvam bhūta-pṛthag-bhāva 2n.1 m.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ pṛthaktvaṁ bhāvam itithe separate existence of beings (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; pṛth – to extend, pṛthak – separately, one by one; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
eka-stham eka-stha 2n.1 m.; ya ekasmin sthāne tiṣthati tamwhich is situated in one place (from: eka – one; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
anupaśyati anu-dṛś (to see po kolei) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
vistāram vistāra 2n.1 m.spreading, extension, width (from: vi-stṛ – to spread out, to expand; vistara – extensive, full);
brahma brahman 2n.1 m.Brahman (from: bṛh – to increase);
saṁpadyate sam-pad (to attain) Praes. Ā 1v.1he attains;
tadā av.at that time, then;

 

textual variants


yadāyathā (as);
eka-sthameka-tvam (sameness);
tadā → sadā (always);
 
 



Śāṃkara


punar api tad eva samyag darśanaṃ śabdāntareṇa prapañcayati—
yadā yasmin kāle bhūta-pṛthag-bhāvaṃ bhūtānāṃ pṛthag-bhāvaṃ pṛthaktvam ekasminn ātmani sthitam eka-stham anupaśyati śāstrācāryopadeśam anu ātmānaṃ pratyakṣatvena paśyaty ātmaivedaṃ sarvaṃ [candrhāuttaṃ 7.25.2] iti | tata eva ca tasmād eva ca vistāram utpattiṃ vikāsam ātmataḥ prāṇa ātmata āśā ātmataḥ smara ātmata ākāśa ātmatas teja ātmata āpa ātmata āvirbhāva-tirobhāvāv ātmato’nnaṃ [candrhāuttaṃ 7.26.1] ity evam ādi-prakārair vistāraṃ yadā paśyati brahma saṃpadyate bhavati tadā tasmin kāla ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


prakṛtipuruṣatattvadvayātmakeṣu devādiṣu sarveṣu bhūteṣu satsu teṣāṃ devatvamanuṣyatvahrasvatvadīrghatvādipṛthagbhāvam ekastham ekatattvastham prakṛtisthaṃ yadā paśyati, nātmastham, tata eva prakṛtita evottarottaraputrapautrādibhedavistāraṃ ca yadā paśyati, tadaiva brahmasaṃpadyate anavacchinnaṃ jñānaikākāram ātmānaṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ tu bhūtānām api prakṛtis tāvan-mātratvenābhedād bhūta-bheda-kṛtam apy ātmano bhedam apaśyan brahmatvam upaitīty āha yadeti | yadā bhūtānāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānāṃ pṛthag-bhāvaṃ bhedaṃ pṛthaktvam ekastham ekasyām eveśra-śakti-rūpāyāṃ prakṛtau pralaye sthitam anupaśyati ālocayati | ataeva tasyā eva prakṛteḥ sakāśād bhūtānāṃ vistāraṃ sṛṣṭi-samaye ‚nupaśyati | tadā prakṛti-tāvan-mātratvena bhūtānām apy abhedaṃ paśyan paripūrṇaṃ brahma sampadyate | brahmaiva bhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tad evam āpātataḥ kṣetra-bheda-darśanam anabhyanujñāya kṣetra-bheda-darśanam apākṛtam idānīṃ tu kṣetra-bheda-darśanam api māyikatvenāpākaroti yadeti | yadā yasmin kāle bhūtānāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānāṃ sarveṣām api jaḍa-vargāṇāṃ pṛthag-bhāvaṃ pṛthaktvam paraspara-bhinnatvam eka-stham ekasminn evātmani sad-rūpe sthitaṃ kalpitaṃ kalpitasyādhiṣṭhānād anatirekāt sad-rūpātma-svarūpād anatiriktam anupaśyati śāstrācāryopadeśam anu svayam ālocayati ātmaivedaṃ sarvam [ChāU 7.25.2] iti | evam api māyāv-vaśāt tata ekasmād ātmana eva vistāraṃ bhūtānāṃ pṛthag-bhāvaṃ ca svapna-māyāvad anupaśyati brahma saṃpadyate tadā sajātīya-vijātīya-bheda-darśanābhāvād brahmaiva sarvānartha-śūnyaṃ bhavati tasmin kāle |
yasmin sarvāṇi bhūtāni ātmaivābhūd vijānataḥ |
tatra ko mohaḥ kaḥ śoka ekatvam anupaśyataḥ || [ĪśaU 7] iti śruteḥ |
prakṛtyaiva cety atrātma-bhedo nirākṛtaḥ | yadā bhūta-pṛthag-bhāvam ity atra tv anātma-bhedo ‚pīti viśeṣaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


yadā bhūtānāṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamānāṃ pṛthag-bhāvaṃ tat-tad-ākāra-gataṃ pārthakyam ekastham ekasyāṃ prakṛtāv eva sthitaṃ pralaya-kāle anupaśyaty ālocayati | tataḥ prakṛteḥ sakāśād eva bhūtānāṃ vistāraṃ sṛṣṭi-samaye ‚nupaśyati tadā brahma sampadyate brahmaiva bhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


yadeti | ayaṃ jīvo yadā bhūtānāṃ deva-mānavādīnāṃ pṛthag-bhāvaṃ tat-tad-ākāra-gataṃ devatva-mānavatva-dīrghatva-hrasvatvādi-rūpa-pārthakyam ekasthaṃ prakṛti-gatam eva pralaye ‚nupaśyati tataḥ prakṛtita eva sarge teṣāṃ devatvādīnāṃ vistāraṃ ca paśyati, na tv ātmasthaṃ tat pṛthag-bhāvaṃ na cāṭmanas tad-vistāraṃ ca paśyati | sva-prakṛti-viviktātma-darśī | tadā tad brahma sampadyate tad-viviktam abhivyaktāpahata-pāpmatvādi-bṛhad-guṇāṣṭakam svam anubhavatīty arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 13.31

anāditvān nirguṇatvāt paramātmāyam avyayaḥ
śarīra-stho ‘pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate

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he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī!),
anāditvāt (because of having no beginning) nirguṇatvāt (because of being wihout the guṇas) ayam avyayaḥ paramātmā (ta nieprzemijająca the supreme self) śarīra-sthaḥ api (although situated in the body) na karoti (he does not do),
[saḥ] (he) na lipyate (he is not stained).

 

grammar

anāditvāt an-ādi-tva abst. 5n.1 m.because of having no beginning (from: ādi – beginning, origin);
nirguṇatvāt nir-guṇa-tva abst. 5n.1 m.because of not being a guṇa (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread);
paramātmā parama-ātman 1n.1 m.the supreme self (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest; ātman – self;
or param ātmanthe ancient self;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
avyayaḥ a-vyaya 1n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
śarīra-sthaḥ śarīra-stha 1n.1 m.; yaḥ śarīre tiṣṭhati saḥwhich is situated in the body (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body; sthā – to stand, -stha – suffix: being in);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
na av.not;
karoti kṛ (to do) Praes. P 1v.1he does;
na av.not;
lipyate lip (to smear, to anoint, to stain, to stick) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is stained, he is smeared;

 

textual variants


anāditvānanaṁtatvān (because of being unlimited);
nirguṇatvātnirmalatvāt (because of not geting impure);
paramātmāyam → paramātmānam (supreme self);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ekasyātmānaḥ sarva-dehātmatve tad-doṣa-saṃbandhe prāpte, idam ucyate—
anāditvāt | anāder bhāvo’nāditvam, ādiḥ kāraṇam, tad yasya nāsti tad anādi | yad dhy ādimat tat svenātmanā vyeti | ayaṃ tv anāditvān niravayava iti kṛtvā na vyeti | tathā nirguṇatvāt | saguṇo hi guṇa-vyayāt vyeti | ayaṃ tu nirguṇatvāc ca na vyeti | iti paramātmāyam avyayaḥ | nāsya vyayo vidyata ity avyayaḥ | yata evam ataḥ śarīra-stho’pi, śarīreṣu ātmana upalabdhir bhavatīti śarīra-stha ucyate | tathāpi na karoti | tad-akaraṇād eva tat-phalena na lipyate | yo hi kartā, sa karma-phalena lipyate | ayaṃ tv akartā, ato na phalena lipyate ity arthaḥ |
kaḥ punar deheṣu karoti lipyate ca ? yadi tāvat anyaḥ paramātmano dehī karoti lipyate ca, tataḥ idam anupapannam uktaṃ kṣetrajñeśvaraikatvaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi [gītā 13.2] ity ādi | atha nāsti īśvarād anyo dehī | kaḥ karoti lipyate ca ? iti vācyam | paro vā nāstīti sarvathā durvijñeyaṃ durvācyaṃ ceti bhagavat-proktam aupaniṣadaṃ darśanaṃ parityaktaṃ vaiśeṣikaiḥ sāṃkhyārhata-bauddhaiś ca | tatrāyaṃ parihāro bhagavatā svenaiva uktaḥ svabhāvas tu pravartate [gītā 5.14] iti | avidyā-mātra-svabhāvo hi karoti lipyate iti vyavahāro bhavati, na tu paramārthata ekasmin paramātmani tad asti | ata evaitasmin paramārtha-sāṃkhya-darśane sthitānāṃ jñāna-niṣṭhānāṃ paramahaṃsa-parivrājakānāṃ tiraskṛtāvidyā-vyavahārāṇāṃ karmādhikāro nāstīti tatra tatra darśitaṃ bhagavatā
 

Rāmānuja


ayaṃ paramātmā dehān niṣkṛṣya svasvabhāvena nirūpitaḥ, śarīrastho ‚pi anāditvād anārabhyatvād avyayaḥ vyayarahitaḥ, nirguṇatvāt sattvādiguṇarahitatvān na karoti, na lipyate dehasvabhāvair na lipyate
 

Śrīdhara


tathāpi parameśvarasya saṃsārāvasthāyāṃ deha-sambandha-nimittaiḥ karmabhis tat-phalaiś ca sukha-duḥkhādibhir vaiṣamyaṃ duṣpariharam iti kutaḥ sama-darśanaṃ | tatrāha anāditvād iti | yad utpattimat tad eva hi vyeti vināśam eti | yac ca guṇavad vastu tasya hi guṇa-nāśe vyayo bhavati | ayaṃ tu paramātmā anādi nirguṇaś ca | ato ‚vyayo ‚vikārīty arthaḥ | tasmāt śarīre sthito ‚pi na kiñcit karoti | na ca karma-phalair lipyate
 

Madhusūdana


ātmanaḥ svato ‚kartṛtve ‚pi śarīra-sambandhopādhikaṃ kartṛtvaṃ syād ity āśaṅkām apanudan yaḥ paśyati tathātmānam akartāraṃ sa paśyatīty etad vivṛṇoti anādirvād iti | ayam aparokṣaḥ paramātmā parameśvarābhinnaḥ pratyag-ātmāvyayo na vyetīty avyayaḥ sarva-vikāra-śūnya ity arthaḥ | tatra vyayo dvedhā dharmi-svarūpasyaivotpattimattayā vā dharmi-svarūpasyānutpādyatve ‚pi dharmāṇām evotpatty-ādimattayā vā | tatrādyam apākaroti anāditvād iti | ādiḥ prāg asattvāvasthā | sā ca nāsti sarvadā sata ātmanaḥ | atas tasya kāraṇābhāvāj janmābhāvaḥ | na hy anāder janma sambhavati | tad-abhāve ca tad-uttara-bhāvino bhāva-vikārā na sambhavanty eva | ato na svarūpeṇa vyetīty arthaḥ |
dvitīyaṃ nirākaroti nirguṇatvād iti | nirdharmakatvād ity arthaḥ | na hi dharmiṇam avikṛtya kaścid dharma upaity apaiti vā dharma-dharmiṇos tādātmyād ayaṃ tu nirdharmako ‚to na dharma-dvārāpi vyetīty arthaḥ | avināśī vā are ‚yam ātmānucchitti-dharmā [BAU 4.5.14] iti śruteḥ | yasmād eṣa jāyate ‚sti vardhate vipariṇamate ‚pakṣīyate vinaśyatīty evaṃ ṣaḍ-bhāva-vikāra-śūnya ādhyāsikena sambandhena śarīra-stho ‚pi tasmin kurvaty ayam ātmā na karoti | yathādhyāsikena sambandhena jala-sthaḥ savitā tasmiṃś calaty api na calaty eva tadvat | yato na lipyate na tv ayam akartṛtvād ity arthaḥ | icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkham ity ādīnāṃ kṣetra-dharmatva-kathanāt | prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇānīti māyā-kāryatva-vyapadeśāc ca | ataeva paramārtha-darśināṃ sarva-karmādhikāra-nivṛttir iti prāg-vyākhyātam | etenātmano nirdharmakatva-kathanāt svagata-bhedo ‚pi nirastaḥ | prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi [Gītā 13.29] ity atra sajātīya-bhedo nivāritaḥ | yadā bhūta-pṛthag-bhāvam [Gītā 13.30] ity atra vijātīya-bhedaḥ | anāditvān nirguṇatvād [Gītā 13.31] ity atra svagato bheda ity advitīyaṃ brahmaivātmeti siddham
 

Viśvanātha


nanu kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgo ‚sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu ity uktam | tatra deha-gatatvena tulyatve ‚pi jīvātmaiva guṇa-liptaḥ saṃsarati na tu paramātmeti | kuta ity ata āha anāditvād iti | na vidyate ādiḥ kāraṇaṃ yataḥ sa anādiḥ | yathā pañcamy-anta-padārthenānuttama-śabdena paramottama ucyate tathaiva anādi-śabdena parama-kāraṇam ucyate | tataś cānāditvāt parama-kāraṇatvāt nirguṇatvān nirgatā guṇaḥ sṛṣṭyādayo yatas tasya bhāvas tattvaṃ tasmāc ca jīvātmano vilakṣaṇo ‚yaṃ paramātmā | avyayaḥ sarvadaiva sarvathaiva svīya-jñānānandādi-vyaya-rahitaḥ | śarīra-stho ‚pi tad-dharmāgrahaṇāt na karoti jīvavat na kartā, na bhoktā bhavati, na ca lipyate śarīra-guṇa-liptaś ca na bhavati
 

Baladeva


nanu pareśam ātmānaṃ ca viviktaṃ paśyati kṛtārtho bhavatīty uktir ayuktā etebhya eva bhūtebhyaḥ samutthāya tāny evānu vinaśyati na prety asaṃjñāsti iti jīvasya dehena sahotpatti-vināśa-śravaṇād iti cet tatrāha anāditvād iti | ayam ātmā jīvaḥ śarīrastho ‚py anāditvāt param-avyayo ‚vyayatva-pradhāna-dharmatvād vināśa-śūnyo nirguṇatvād viśuddha-jñānānandatvān na yuddha-yajñādi-karma karoti | ataḥ śarīrendriya-svabhāvenotpatti-vināśa-lakṣaṇena na lipyate | śruty-arthas tv aupacārikatayā neyaḥ
 
 


BhG 13.32

yathā sarva-gataṃ saukṣmyād ākāśaṃ nopalipyate
sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate

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yathā (as) sarva-gatam ākāśam (the space situated everywhere) saukṣmyāt (because of being subtle) na upalipyate (it is not smeared),
tathā (so) sarvatra (everywhere) dehe (in the body) avasthitaḥ (situated) ātmā (self) na upalipyate (he is not smeared).

 

grammar

yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
sarva-gatam sarva-gata 1n.1 n.; [TP]: sarvatra gatam itisituated everywhere (from: sarva – all, whole; gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone);
saukṣmyāt saukṣmya 5n.1 m.because of being subtle, tiny (from: sūkṣma – tiny, small, subtle);
ākāśam ākāśa 1n.1 n.space, ether, sky;
na av.not;
upalipyate upa-lip (to smear, to anoint, to stain, to stick) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is stained, it is smeared;
sarvatra av.everywhere, in every case (from: sarva – all; indeclinable locative with an ending –tra);
avasthitaḥ avasthita (ava-sthā – to be present) [PP] 1n.1 m.which is situated;
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
ātmā ātman 1n.1 m.self;
na av.not;
upalipyate upa-lip (to smear, to anoint, to stain, to stick) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is stained, he is smeared;

 

textual variants


dehe → dehī (the embodied);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kim iva na karoti na lipyate ity atra dṛṣṭāntam āha—
yathā sarva-gataṃ vyāpy api sat saukṣmyāt sūkṣma-bhāvād ākāśaṃ khaṃ nopalipyate na saṃbadhyate, sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate
 

Rāmānuja


yady api nirguṇatvān na karoti, nityasaṃyukto dehasvabhāvaiḥ kathaṃ na lipyata ity atrāha
yathā ākāśaṃ sarvagatam api sarvair vastubhis saṃyuktam api saukṣmyāt sarvavastusvabhāvair na lipyate, tathā ātmā atisaukṣmyāt sarvatra devamanuṣyādau dehe ‚vasthito ‚pi tattaddehasvabhāvair na lipy
 

Śrīdhara


tatra hetuṃ sa-dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | yathā sarva-gataṃ paṅkādiṣv api sthitam ākāśaṃ saukṣmyād asaṅgatvāt paṅkādibhir nopalipyate tathā sarvatra uttame madhyame adhame vā dehe ‚vasthito ‚pi ātmā nopalipyate
 

Madhusūdana


śarīra-stho ‚pi tat-karmaṇā na lipyate svayam asaṅgatvād ity atra dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | saukṣmyād asaṅga-svabhāvatvād ākāśaṃ sarva-gatam api nopalipyate paṅkādibhir yatheti dṛṣṭāntārthaḥ | spaṣṭam itarat
 

Viśvanātha


atha dṛṣṭāntam āha yathā sarvatra paṅkādiṣv api sthitam apy ākāśaṃ saukṣmyād asaṅgatvāt paṅkādibhir na lipyate, tathaiva paramātmā daihikair guṇair doṣaiś ca na yujyata ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


nanu śarīre sthitas tad-dharmaiḥ kuto na lipyate ity atrāha yatheti | yathā sarvatra paṅkādau gataṃ praviṣṭam apy ākāśaṃ saukṣmyāt tat-tad-dharmair na lipyate, tathātmā jīvaḥ sarvatra deva-mānavādāv uccāvace dehe sthito ‚pi tad-dharmair na lipyate saukṣmyād eva
 
 


BhG 13.33

yathā prakāśayaty ekaḥ kṛtsnaṃ lokam imaṃ raviḥ
kṣetraṃ kṣetrī tathā kṛtsnaṃ prakāśayati bhārata

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he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
yathā (as) ekaḥ raviḥ (one Sun) imam kṛtsnam lokam (this whole world) prakāśayati (it illuminates),
tathā (so) kṣetrī (the owner of the field) kṛtsnam kṣetram (whole field) prakāśayati (he illuminates).

 

grammar

yathā av.as (correlative of: tathā);
prakāśayati pra-kāś (to become visible, to shine) Praes. caus. 1v.1it makes visible, it illuminates;
ekaḥ eka sn. 1n.1 m.one, who is alone;
kṛtsnam kṛtsna 2n.1 m.whole;
lokam loka 2n.1 m. world;
imam idam sn. 2n.1 m.this;
raviḥ ravi 1n.1 m.Sun (from: ru – to break or ru – to roar);
kṣetram kṣetra 2n.1 n.field (from: kṣi – to possess);
kṣetrī kṣetrin 1n.1 m.owner of the field (from: kṣi – to possess, kṣetra – field; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
kṛtsnam kṛtsna 2n.1 n.whole;
prakāśayati pra-kāś (to become visible, to shine) Praes. caus. 1v.1he makes visible, he illuminates;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


ekaḥ → ekaṃ (one [world]);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
yathā prakāśayaty avabhāsayati ekaḥ kṛtsnaṃ lokam imaṃ raviḥ savitā ādityaḥ, tathā tadvat mahā-bhūtādi-dhṛty-antaṃ kṣetram ekaḥ san prakāśayati | kaḥ ? kṣetrī paramātmā ity arthaḥ | ravi-dṛṣṭanto’tra ātmana ubhayārtho’pi bhavati | ravivat sarva-kṣetreṣv eka evātmā, alepakaś ceti
 

Rāmānuja


yathaika ādityaḥ svayā prabhayā kṛtsnam imaṃ lokaṃ prakāśayati, tathā kṣetram api kṣetrī, „mamedaṃ kṣetram īdṛśam” iti kṛtsnam bahirantaś cāpādatalamastakaṃ svakīyena jñānena prakāśayati / ataḥ prakāśyāl lokāt prakāśakādityavad veditṛtvena vedyabhūtād asmāt kṣetrād atyantavilakṣaṇo ‚yam uktalakṣaṇa ātmetyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


asaṅgatvāl lepo nāstīty ākāśa-dṛṣṭāntena darśitam | prakāśakatvāc ca prakāśya-dharmair na yujyata iti ravi-dṛṣṭāntenāha yathā prakāśayatīti | spaṣṭo ‚rthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


na kevalam asaṅga-svabhāvād ātmā nopalipyate prakāśakatvād api parkāśya-dharmair na lipyate iti sa-dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | yathā ravir eka eva kṛtsnaṃ sarvam imaṃ lokaṃ dehendriya-saṃghātaṃ rūpavad vastu-mātram iti yāvat prakāśayati na ca prakāśya-dharmair lipyate na vā prakāśya-bhedād bhidyate tathā kṣetrī kṣetrajña eka eva kṛtsnaṃ kṣetraṃ prakāśayati | he bhārata ! ataeva na prakāśya-dharmair lipyate na vā prakāśya-bhedād bhidyata ity arthaḥ |
sūryo yathā sarva-lokasya cakṣuḥ
na lipyate cākṣuṣair bāhya-doṣaiḥ |
ekas tathā sarva-bhūtāntarātmā
na lipyate loka-duḥkhena bāhyaḥ || iti [KaṭhU 2.2.11] śruteḥ
 

Viśvanātha


prakāśakatvāt prakāśya-dharmair na yujyata iti sa-dṛṣṭāntam āha yatheti | ravir yathā prakāśakaḥ prakāśya-dharmair na yujyate, tathā kṣetrī paramātmā |
sūryo yathā sarva-lokasya cakṣur
na lipyate cākṣuṣair bāhya-doṣaiḥ |
ekas tathā sarva-bhūtāntarātmā
na lipyate śoka-duḥkhena bāhyaḥ || iti [KaṭhU 2.2.11] śruteḥ
 

Baladeva


deha-dharmeṇālipta evātmā sva-dharmeṇa dehaṃ puṣṇātīty āha yatheti | yathaiko ravir imaṃ kṛtsnaṃ lokaṃ prakāśayati prabhayā tathaikaḥ kṣetrī jīvaḥ kṛtsnam āpāda-mastakam idaṃ kṣetraṃ dehaṃ prakāśayati cetayati cetanayety evam āha guṇād vā lokavad [Vs 2.3.26] iti
 
 


BhG 13.34

kṣetra-kṣetra-jñayor evam antaraṃ jñāna-cakṣuṣā
bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣaṃ ca ye vidur yānti te param

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evam (thus) kṣetra-kṣetra-jñayoḥ (of the field and the knower of the field) antaram (difference) bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣam ca (and liberation of beings from the nature) jñāna-cakṣuṣā (with the eyes of knowledge) ye (those who) viduḥ (they know),
te (they) param (to the supreme) yānti (they go).
 

grammar

kṣetra-kṣetra-jñayoḥ kṣetra-kṣetra-jña 6n.2 n.; DV: kṣetrasya ca kṣetrajñasya cetiof the field and the knower of the field (from: kṣi – to possess, kṣetra – field; jñā – to know, to understand, -jña – suffix: one who knows);
evam av.thus;
antaram antara 1n.1 n.inside, different;
jñāna-cakṣuṣā jñāna-cakṣuḥ 3n.1 n.; [TP]: jñānasya cakṣuṣetiwith the eye of knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; cakṣ – to see, to look at, cakṣuḥ – sight, look, eye);
bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣam bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣa 2n.1 m.; [TP]: bhūtānāṁ prakṛteḥ mokṣam itiliberation of beings from the nature (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world; pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause; muc – to liberate, mokṣa – liberation, deliverance, casting away);
ca av.and;
ye yat sn. 1n.3 m.those who;
viduḥ vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.3they got to know;
yānti (to go, to attain) Praes. P 1v.3they go, they attain;
te tat sn. 1n.3 m.they;
param para 1n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
av.later, next, future (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);

 
 



Śāṃkara


samastādhyāyārthopasaṃhārārtho’yaṃ ślokaḥ—
kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor yathā-vyākhyātayor evaṃ yathā-pradarśita-prakāreṇāntaram itaretara-vailakṣaṇya-viśeṣaṃ jñāna-cakṣuṣā śāstrācārya-prasādopadeśa-janitam ātma-pratyayikaṃ jñānaṃ cakṣuḥ, tena jñāna-cakṣuṣā, bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣaṃ ca, bhūtānāṃ prakṛtir avidyā-lakṣaṇāvyaktākhyā, tasyā bhūta-prakṛter mokṣaṇam abhāva-gamanaṃ ca ye vidur vijānanti, yānti gacchanti te paraṃ paramātma-tattvaṃ brahma, na punar deham ādadate ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


evam uktena prakāreṇa kṣetrakṣetrajñayor antaraṃ viśeṣaṃ vivekaviṣayajñānākhyena cakṣuṣā ye viduḥ, bhūtaprakṛtimokṣaṃ ca, te paraṃ yānti nirmuktabandham ātmānaṃ prāpnuvanti / mokṣyate ‚neneti mokṣaḥ, amānitvādikaṃ mokṣasādhanam ityarthaḥ; kṣetrakṣetrajñayor vivekaviṣayeṇoktena jñānena tayor vivekaṃ viditvā bhūtākārapariṇataprakṛtimokṣopāyam amānitvādikaṃ cāgamya ya ācaranti, te nirmuktabandhāḥ svena rūpeṇāvasthitam anavacchinnajñānalakṣaṇam ātmānaṃ prāpnuvantītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


adhyāyārtham upasaṃharati kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor iti | evam ukta-prakāreṇa kṣetra-ksetrajñayor antaraṃ bhedaṃ viveka-jñāna-lakṣaṇena cakṣuṣā ye viduḥ tathā xexam uktā bhūtānāṃ prakṛtis tasyāḥ sakāśān mokṣaṃ mokṣopāyaṃ dhyānādikaṃ ca ye viduḥ te paraṃ padaṃ yānti
 

Madhusūdana


idānīm adhyāyārthaṃ saphalam upasaṃharati kṣetreti | kṣetra-kṣetrajñayor prāg-vyākhyātayor evam uktena prakāreṇāntaram paraspara-vailakṣaṇyaṃ jāḍya-caitanya-vikāritva-nirvikāritvādi-rūpaṃ jñāna-cakṣuṣā śāstrācāryopadeśa-janitātma-jñāna-rūpeṇa cakṣuṣā ye vidur bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣaṃ ca bhūtānāṃ sarveṣāṃ prakṛtir avidyā māyākhyā tasyāḥ paramārthātma-vidyayā mokṣam abhāva-gamanaṃ ca ye vidur jānanti yānti te paraṃ paramārthātma-vastu-svarūpaṃ kaivalyaṃ, na punar dehaṃ ādadata ity arthaḥ | tad evam amānitvādi-sādhana-niṣṭhasya kṣetra-kṣetrajña-viveka-vijñānavataḥ sarvānartha-nivṛttyā parama-puruṣārtha-siddhir iti siddham
 

Viśvanātha


adhyāyam upasaṃharati kṣetreṇa saha kṣetrajñayor jīvātma-paramātmanor antaraṃ bhedaṃ tathā bhūtānāṃ prāṇināṃ prakṛteḥ sakāśān mokṣaṃ mokṣopāyaṃ dhyānādikaṃ ca ye vidus te paraṃ padaṃ yānti
 

Baladeva


adhyāyārtham upasaṃharan taj-jñāna-phalam āha kṣetreti | kṣetreṇa sahitayoḥ kṣetrajñayor jīveśayor evaṃ mad-ukti-vidhayāntaraṃ bhedaṃ jñāna-cakṣuṣā vaidharmya-viṣayaka-prajñā-netreṇa ye vidus tathābhūtānāṃ prakṛteḥ sakāśān mokṣaṃ ca tat-sādhanam amānitvādikaṃ ye vidus te prakṛteḥ paraṃ sarvotkṛṣṭaṃ para-vyomākhyaṃ mat-padaṃ yāntīti
 
 


BhG 13.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi pañca-triṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation


Thus [ends] the thirty-fifth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

warianty tekstu


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-vibhāga-yogo / kṣetra-nirdeśo / kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-darśano / prakṛti-puruṣa-viveka-yogo / prakṛti-puruṣa-kṣetra-kṣetra-jñādi-varṇanaṃ / kṣetra-prakṛti-yogo / kṣetra-nirdeśa-yogo / kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-nirdeśo / kṣetrābhideśano / kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-vibhāgo / kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-yogo nāma trayodaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the thirteenth chapter entitled: The Yoga of Division of the Field and the Knower of the Field / Description of the Field / Showing the Field and the Knower of the Field / The Yoga of Considering the Nature and Person / The Description of the Nature, Person, the Field, the Knower of the Field and the Others / The Yoga of the Field and Nature / The Yoga of Description of the Field/ Description of the Field and the Knower of the Field / Discussion on the Field / Divisions of the Field and the Knower of the Field / The Yoga of the Field and the Knower of the Field.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


viviktau yena tattvena miśrau prakṛti-puruṣau |
taṃ vande paramānandaṃ nanda-nandanam īśvaram ||
iti śrī-śrīdhara-svāmi-kṛtāyāṃ bhagavad-gītā-ṭīkāyāṃ subodhinyāṃ
prakṛti-puruṣa-viveka-yogo nāma trayodaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ ||
 

Madhusūdana


iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām kṣetra-kṣetrajña-viveko nāma trayodaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


dvayoḥ kṣetrajñayor madhye jīvātmā kṣetra-dharma-bhāk |
badhyate mucyate jñānād ity adhyāyārtha īritaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
trayodaśo ‚yaṃ gītāsu saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||
 

Baladeva


īveśau deha-madhyasthau tatrādyo deha-dharma-yuk |
badhyate mucyate bodhād iti jñānaṃ trayodaśāt ||