atha caturdaśo ‘dhyāyaḥ – guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yogaḥ

Now the fourteenth chapter: “The Yoga of Division into Three Guṇas”


Rāmānuja


trayodaśe prakṛtipuruṣayor anyānyasaṃsṛṣṭayoḥ svarūpayāthātmayaṃ vijñāya amānitvādibhiḥ bhagavadbhaktyanugṛhītair bandhān mucyata ity uktam / tatra bandhahetuḥ pūrvapūrvasattvādiguṇamayasukhādisaṅga iti cābhihitam, „kāraṇaṃ guṇasaṅgo ‚sya sadasadyonijanmasu” iti / athedānīṃ guṇānāṃ bandhahetutāprakāraḥ, guṇanivartanaprakāraś cocyate
 

Śrīdhara


puṃ-prakṛtyoḥ svatantratvaṃ vārayan guṇa-saṅgataḥ |
prāhuḥ saṃsāra-vaicitryaṃ vistareṇa caturdaśe ||
 

Viśvanātha


guṇāḥ syur bandhakās te tu phalair jñeyāś caturdaśe |
guṇātyaye ciha-tatir hetur bhaktiś ca varṇitā ||
 

Baladeva


guṇāḥ syur bandhakās te tu pariceyāḥ phalais trayaḥ |
mad-bhaktyā tan-nivṛttiḥ syād iti proktaṃ caturdaśe ||
 
 

BhG 14.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
paraṃ bhūyaḥ pravakṣyāmi jñānānāṃ jñānam uttamam
yaj jñātvā munayaḥ sarve parāṃ siddhim ito gatāḥ

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
jñānānām uttamam (the best of knowledge) param jñānam (supreme knowledge) bhūyaḥ (again) pravakṣyāmi (I will declare).
yat [jñānam] (that knowledge which) jñātvā (after knowing)
sarve munayaḥ (all sages) itaḥ (from now) parām siddhim (supreme perfection) gatāḥ (who reached) [santi] (they are).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
param para 2n.1 n.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
pravakṣyāmi pra-vac (to declare, to speak) Fut. P 3v.1I will declare;
jñānānām jñāna 6n.3 n.of knowledges (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n. knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
uttamam uttama 2n.1 n.uppermost, highest, most elevated (superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
jñātvā jñā (to know, to understand) absol.after understanding;
munayaḥ muni 1n.3 m.sages, saints, seers (from: man – to think, to imagine);
sarve sarva sn. 1n.3 m.all;
parām para 2n.1 f.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
siddhim siddhi 2n.1 f.accomplishment, fulfilment, perfection, success (from: sidh – to succeed, to become perfect);
itaḥ av.from this, from now (from: idam – to; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
gatāḥ gata (gam – to go) [PP] 1n.3 m.those gone;

 

textual variants

ito gatāḥ → upāgatāḥ / udāgatāḥ / ato gatāḥ (who have achieved / who have reached / who have gone from here);
 
 



Śāṃkara


sarvam utpadyamānaṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogād utpadyata ity uktam | tat kathamiti, tat-pradarśanārthaṃ paraṃ bhūya ity ādir adhyāya ārabhyate | athavā, īśvara-paratantrayoḥ kṣetra-kṣetrajñayoḥ jagat-kāraṇatvaṃ na tu sāṃkhyānām iva svatantrayor ity evam artham | prakṛti-sthatvaṃ guṇeṣu ca saṅgaḥ saṃsāra-kāraṇam ity uktam | kasmin guṇe kathaṃ saṅgaḥ ? ke vā guṇāḥ ? kathaṃ vā te badhnantīti ? guṇebhyaś ca mokṣaṇaṃ kathaṃ syāt ? muktasya ca lakṣaṇaṃ vaktavyam, ity evam arthaṃ ca bhagavān uvāca—
paraṃ jñānam iti vyavahitena saṃbandhaḥ | bhūyaḥ punaḥ pūrveṣu sarveṣv adhyāyeṣu asakṛd uktam api pravakṣyāmi | tac ca paraṃ para-vastu-viṣayatvāt | kiṃ tat ? jñānaṃ sarveṣāṃ jñānānām uttamam, uttama-phalatvāt | jñānānām iti nāmānitvādīnām | kiṃ tarhi ? yajñādi-jñeya-vastu-viṣayāṇām iti | tāni na mokṣāya, idaṃ tu mokṣāyeti parottama-śabdābhyāṃ stauti śrotṛ-buddhi-rucy-utpādanārtham | yaj jñātvā yaj jñānaṃ jñātvā prāpya munayaḥ saṃnyāsino manana-śīlāḥ sarve parāṃ siddhiṃ mokṣākhyām ito’smāt deha-bandhanāt ūrdhvaṃ gatāḥ prāptāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


param pūrvoktād anyat prakṛtipuruṣāntargatam eva sattvādiguṇaviṣayaṃ jñānaṃ bhūyaḥ pravakṣyāmi / tac ca jñānaṃ sarveṣāṃ prakṛtipuruṣaviṣayajñānānām uttamam / yaj jñānaṃ jñātvā sarve munayas tan mananaśīlāḥ itaḥ saṃsārabandhāt parāṃ siddhiṃ gatāḥ parāṃ pariśuddhātmasvarūpaprāptirūpāṃ siddhim avāptāḥ
 

Śrīdhara


yāvat sañjāyate kiñcit sattvaṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamam | kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogāt tad viddhi bharatarṣabha || ity uktam | sa ca kṣetra-kṣetrajñayoḥ saṃyogo nirīśvara-sāṅkhyānām iva na svātantryeṇa | kintu īśvarecchayiveti kathana-pūrvakaṃ kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgo ‚sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu ity anenoktaṃ sattvādi-guṇīkṛtaṃ saṃsāra-vaicitryaṃ prapañcayiṣyan evambhūtaṃ vakṣyamānam arthaṃ stauti bhagavān paraṃ bhūya iti dvābhyām | paraṃ paramātma-niṣṭham | jñāyate aneneti jñānam upadeśaḥ | taj jñānaṃ bhūyo ‚pi tubhyaṃ prakarṣeṇa vakṣyāmi | kathambhūtam | jñānānāṃ tapaḥ-karmādi-viṣayāṇāṃ madhya uttamam | mokṣa-hetutvāt | tad evāha yaj jñātvā munayo manana-śīlāḥ sarve | ito deha-bandhanāt | parāṃ siddhiṃ mokṣam | gatāḥ prāptāḥ
 

Madhusūdana


pūrvādhyāye – yāvat saṃjāyate kiṃcit sattvaṃ sthāvara-jaṅgamam | kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogāt tad viddhi [Gītā 13.26] ity uktaṃ tatra nirīśvara-sāṅkhyam atinirākaraṇena kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogasyeśvarādhīnatvaṃ vaktavyam | evaṃ kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgo ‚sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu ity uktaṃ tatra kasmin guṇa kathaṃ saṅgaḥ ke vā guṇāḥ kathaṃ vā te badhnantīti vaktavyam | tathā bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣaṃ ca ye vidur yānti te param ity uktaṃ tatra bhūta-prakṛti-śabditebhyo guṇebhyaḥ kathaṃ mokṣaṇaṃ syān muktasya ca kiṃ lakṣaṇam iti vaktavyaṃ, tad etat sarvaṃ vistareṇa vaktuṃ caturdaśo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | tatra vakṣyamāṇam arthaṃ dvābhyāṃ stuvan śrotṝṇāṃ rucy-utpattaye śrī-bhagavān uvāca param iti | jñāyate ‚nena jñānaṃ paramātma-jñāna-sādhanaṃ paraṃ śreṣṭhaṃ para-vastu-viṣayatvāt | kīdṛśaṃ tat ? jñānānāṃ jñāna-sādhanānāṃ bahiraṅgāṇāṃ yajñādīnāṃ madhya uttamam uttama-phalatvāt | na tvam ānitvādīnāṃ teṣām antaraṅgatvenottama-phalatvāt | param ity anenotkṛṣṭa-viṣayatvam uktam | uttamam ity anena tūtkṛṣṭa-phalatvam iti bhedaḥ | īdṛśaṃ jñānam ahaṃ pravakṣyāmi bhūyaḥ punaḥ pūrveṣv adhyāyeṣv asakṛd uktam api yaj jñānaṃ jñātvānuṣṭhāya munayo manana-śīlāḥ saṃnyāsinaḥ sarve parāṃ siddhiṃ mokṣākhyām ito deha-bandhanād gatāḥ prāptāḥ
 

Viśvanātha


pūrvādhyāye kāraṇaṃ guṇa-saṅgo ‚sya sad-asad-yoni-janmasu ity uktam | tatra ke guṇāḥ, kīdṛśo guṇa-saṅgaḥ, kasya guṇasya saṅgāt kiṃ phalaṃ syāt, guṇa-yuktasya kiṃvā lakṣaṇam | kathaṃ vā guṇebhyo mocanam ity apekṣāyāṃ vakṣyamānam arthaṃ stuvāno vaktuṃ pratijānīte param iti | jñāyate æneneti jñānam upadeśaḥ param atyuttamam
 

Baladeva


pūrvādhyāye mithaḥ-sampṛktānāṃ prakṛti-jīveśvarāṇāṃ svarūpāṇi vivicya jānann amānitvādi-dharmair viśiṣṭaḥB prakṛti-bandhād vimucyate bandha-hetuś ca guṇa-saṅga ity uktam | tatra ke guṇāḥ, kasmin guṇe kathaṃ saṅgaḥ, kasya guṇasya saṅgāt kiṃ phalaṃ, guṇa-saṅginaḥ kiṃvā lakṣaṇaṃ kathaṃ vā guṇebhyo muktiḥ ity apekṣāyāṃ vakṣyamāṇam artham ātma-rucy-utpattaye bhagavān stauti param iti dvābhyām |
paraṃ pūrvoktād anyaṃ prakṛti-jīvāntargatam eva guṇa-viṣayakaṃ jñānaṃ bhūyo vakṣyāmi yaj-jñānānāṃ prakṛti-jīva-viṣayakāṇām uttamaṃ śreṣṭhaṃ navanītavad uddhṛtatvāt | yaj jñātvopalabhya sarve munayas tan-manana-śīlā ito loke param ātma-yāthātmyopalabdhi-lakṣaṇāṃ siddhiṃ gatāḥ | yad vā jñāyate ‚neneti jñānam upadeśam, tac ca prāg uktam api bhūyaḥ punar vidhāntareṇa vakṣyāmi | tac ca jñānānāṃ tapaḥ-prabhṛtīnāṃ jñāna-sādhanānāṃ madhye param uttamam atyuttamaṃ tad-antaraṅga-sādhanatvāt | yaj jñātvā sarve munaya ito lokāt parāṃ mokṣa-lakṣaṇāṃ siddhiṃ gatāḥ
 
 


BhG 14.2

idaṃ jñānam upāśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ
sarge ‘pi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca

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syntax


idam jñānam (this knowledge) upāśritya (after taking shelter of)
mama (my) sādharmyam (the same nature) āgatāḥ (who have attained)
sarge api (even when there is creation) na upajāyante (they are not born),
pralaye ca (and when there is dissolution) na vyathanti (they are not perturbed).

 

grammar

idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n. knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
upāśritya upa-ā-śri (to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) absol.after taking shelter – of whom? – requires accusative);
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
sādharmyam sādharmya 2n.1 m.the same nature; lawful, pious (from: sa – together with, in common, short form of: saha or sama; dhṛ – to hold, dharma – the law; sa-dharma – the same nature, similar, equal);
āgatāḥ āgata (ā-gam – to come) [PP] 1n.3 m.who have come, who have attained;
sarge sarga 7n.1 m.when there is creation (from: sṛj – to let go, to emit);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
na av.not;
upajāyante upa-jan (to be born, to arise) Praes. Ā 1v.3they are born;
pralaye pralaya 7n.1 m.when there is anninhilation, dissolution (from: pra- – to dissolve, to vanish);
na av.not;
vyathanti vyath (to tremble, to waver, to be agitated, to be afraid) Praes. caus. P 1v.3they are perturbed;
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


upāśritya → apāśritya / āśritya (after taking refuge / after taking shelter);
āgatāḥāsthitāḥ (situated);
sargesvarge (in heaven);
nopajāyantenopi jāyante / na prajāyante / na jāyaṁte (even they are not born / they are not born / they are not born);
na → ca (and);
vyathanti ca → vyayaṁti ca / vyathaṁti te / viśaṁti ca / kathaṁti ca (and they vanish / they suffer / and they enter / and they speak);
 
 



Śāṃkara


asyāś ca siddhair aikāntikatvaṃ darśayati—
idaṃ jñānaṃ yathoktam upāśritya, jñāna-sādhanam anuṣṭhāya ity etat, mama parameśvarasya sādharmyaṃ mat-svarūpatām āgatāḥ prāptā ity arthaḥ | na tu samāna-dharmatā sādharmyam, kṣetrajñeśvarayor bhedānabhyupagamād gītā-śāstre | phala-vādaś cāyaṃ stuty-artham ucyate | sarge’pi sṛṣṭi-kāle’pi nopajāyante | notpadyante | pralaye brahmaṇo’pi vināśa-kāle na vyathanti ca vyathāṃ nāpadyante, na cyavantīty arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


punar api taj jñānaṃ phalena viśinaṣṭi
idam vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñānam upaśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ matsāmyaṃ prāptāḥ, sarge ‚pi nopajāyante na sṛjikarmatāṃ bhajante; pralaye na vyathanti ca na ca saṃhṛtikarmatām
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca idam iti | idaṃ vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñānam upāśrityedaṃ jñāna-sādhanam anuṣṭhāya mama sādharmyaṃ mad-rūpatvaṃ prāptāḥ santaḥ sarge ‚pi brahmādiṣu utpādyamāneṣv api notpadyante | tathā pralaye ‚pi na vyathanti | pralaye duḥkhaṃ nānubhavanti | punar nāvartanta ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tasyāḥ siddhair aikāntikatvaṃ darśayati idaṃ iti | idaṃ yathoktam jñānaṃ jñāna-sādhanam upāśrityānuṣṭhāya mama parameśvarasya sādharmyaṃ mad-rūpatām atyantābhedenāgatāḥ prāptāḥ santaḥ sarge ‚pi hiraṇyagarbhādiṣūtpadyamāneṣv api nopajāyante | pralaye brahmaṇo ‚pi vināśa-kāle na vyathanti ca vyathante na ca līyanta ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sādharmyaṃ sārūpya-lakṣaṇāṃ muktiṃ | na vyathanti na vyathante
 

Baladeva


idam iti | gurūpāsanayedaṃ vakṣyamāṇaṃ jñānam upāśritya prāpya janāḥ sarveśasya mama nityāvirbhūta-guṇāṣṭakasya sādharmyaṃ sādhanāvirbhāvitena tad-aṣṭakena sāmyam āgatāḥ santaḥ sarge nopajāyante sṛji-karmatāṃ nāpnuvanti pralaye na vyathante mṛti-karmatāṃ ca na yāntīti janma-mṛtyubhyāṃ rahitā muktā bhavantīti mokṣe jīva-bahutvam uktam | tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṃ padaṃ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ ity ādi-śrutibhyaś caitad avagatam
 
 


BhG 14.3

mama yonir mahad brahma tasmin garbhaṃ dadhāmy aham
saṃbhavaḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ tato bhavati bhārata

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
mahat brahma (great Brahman) mama yoniḥ (my womb) [asti] (it is),
tasmin [brahmaṇi] (in this Brahman) aham (I) garbham (emryo) dadhāmi (I place),
tataḥ [garbhāt] (from that embryo) sarva-bhūtānām (of all beings) sambhavaḥ (production) bhavati (there is).

 

grammar

mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
yoniḥ yoni 1n.1 f.womb, source, origin;
mahat mahant 1n.1 n.great (mah – to magnify);
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
tasmin tat sn. 7n.1 n.in this;
garbham garbha 1n.1 n.embryo, womb, interior (from: grah – to take or gṝ – to invoke, to emit);
dadhāmi dhā (to hold, to put) Praes. P 3v.1I place;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
saṁbhavaḥ saṁbhava 1n.1 m.production (from: sam-bhū – to come into being, to be together);
sarva-bhūtānām sarva-bhūta 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ bhūtānām itiof all beings (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1there is;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


dadhāmi → dadāmi (I give);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyoga īdṛśo bhūta-kāraṇam ity āha—
mama sva-bhūtā madīyā māyā triguṇātmikā prakṛtir yoniḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ kāraṇam | sarva-kāryebhyo mahattvāt kāraṇatvād bṛṃhaṇāc ca [bharaṇāc ca] sva-vikārāṇāṃ mahad brahma iti yonir eva viśiṣyate | tasmin mahati brahmaṇi yonau garbhaṃ hiraṇyagarbhasya janmano bījaṃ sarva-bhūta-janma-kāraṇaṃ bījaṃ dadhāmi nikṣipāmi kṣetra-kṣetrajña-prakṛti-dvaya-śaktimān īśvaro’ham, avidyā-kāma-karmopādhi-svarūpānuvidhāyinaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ kṣetreṇa saṃyojayāmīty arthaḥ | saṃbhava utpattiḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ hiraṇyagarbhotpatti-dvāreṇa tatas tasmād gabrhādhānād bhavati | he bhārata
 

Rāmānuja


atha prākṛtānāṃ guṇānāṃ bandhahetutāprakāraṃ vaktuṃ sarvasya bhūtajātasya prakṛtipuruṣasaṃsargajatvaṃ „yāvat saṃjāyate kiñcit” ity anenoktaṃ bhagavatā svenaiva kṛtam ity āha
kṛtsnasya jagato yonibhūtaṃ mama mahadbrahma yat, tasmin garbhaṃ dadhāmy aham; „bhūmir āpo ‚nalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano buddhir eva ca / ahaṅkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā // apareyam” iti nirdiṣṭā acetanaprakṛtiḥ mahadahaṅkārādivikārāṇāṃ kāraṇatayā mahadbrahmety ucyate / śrutāv api kvacit prakṛtir api brahmeti nirdiśyate, „yas sarvajñas sarvavid yasya jñānamayaṃ tapaḥ / tasmād etad brahma nāma rūpam annaṃ ca jāyate” iti; „itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām / jīvabhūtām” iti cetanapuñjarūpā yā parā prakṛtir nirdiṣṭā, seha sakalaprāṇibījatayā garbhaśabdenocyate / tasmin acetane yonibhūte mahati brahmaṇi cetanapuñjarūpaṃ garbhaṃ dadhāmi; acetanaprakṛtyā bhogakṣetrabhūtayā bhoktṛvargapuñjabhūtāṃ cetanaprakṛtiṃ saṃyojayāmītyarthaḥ / tataḥ tasmāt prakṛtidvayasaṃyogān matsaṃkalpakṛtāt sarvabhūtānāṃ brahmādistambaparyantānāṃ saṃbhavo bhavati
 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ praśaṃsayā śrotāram abhimukhīkṛtyedaṃ parameśvarādhīnayoḥ prakṛti-puruṣayoḥ sarva-bhūtotpattiṃ prati hetutvaṃ na tu svatantrayor itīmaṃ vivakṣitam arthaṃ kathayati mameti | deśataḥ kālataś cāparicchinnatvān mahat | bṛṃhitatvāt svakāryāṇāṃ vṛddhi-hetutvād vā brahma | prakṛtir ity arthaḥ | tan mahad brahma mama parameśvarasya yonir garbhādhāna-sthānam | tasminn ahaṃ garbhaṃ jagad-vistāra-hetuṃ cid-ābhāsaṃ dadhāmi nikṣipāmi | pralaye mayi līnaṃ santam avidyā-kāma-karmānuśaya-vantaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ sṛṣṭi-samaye bhoga-yogyena kṣetreṇa saṃyojayāmīty arthaḥ | tato garbhādhānāt sarva-bhūtānāṃ brahmādīnāṃ sambhava utpattir bhavati
 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ praśaṃśayā śrotāram abhimukhīkṛtya parameśvarādhīnayoḥ prakṛti-puruṣayoḥ sarva-bhūtotpattiṃ prati hetutvaṃ na tu sāṅkhya-siddhāntavat svatantrayor itīmaṃ vivakṣitam artham āha mama yonir iti dvābhyām |
sarva-kāryāpekṣayādhikatvāt kāraṇaṃ mahat | sarva-kāryāṇāṃ vṛddhi-hetutva-rūpād bṛṃhaṇatvād brahma | avyākṛtaṃ prakṛtis triguṇātmkikā māyā mahad brahma | tac ca mameśvarasya yonir garbhādhāna-sthānaṃ tasmin mahati brahmaṇi yonau garbhaṃ sarva-bhūta-janma-kāraṇam ahaṃ bahu syāṃ prajāyeya itīkṣaṇa-rūpaṃ saṃkalpaṃ dadhāmi dhārayāmi tat-saṅkalpa-viṣayīkaromīty arthaḥ | yathā hi | kaścit pitā putram anuśayinaṃ vrīhy-ādy-āhāra-rūpeṇa svasmin līnaṃ śarīreṇa yojayituṃ yonau retaḥ-seka-pūrvakaṃ garbham ādhatte | tasmāc ca garbhādhānāt sa putraḥ śarīreṇa yujyate | tad arthaṃ ca madhye kalalādy-avasthā bhavanti | tathā pralaye mayi līnam avidiyā-kāma-karmānuśayavantaṃ kṣetrajñaṃ sṛṣṭi-samaye bhogyena kṣetreṇa kārya-kāraī̀ea-saṃghātena yojayituṃ cid-ābhāsaākhya-retaḥ-seka-pūrvakaṃ māyā-vṛtti-rūpaṃ garbham aham ādadhāmi | tad-arthaṃ hiraṇyagarbhādīnāṃ bhavati he bhārata na tv īśvara-kṛta-garbhādhānaṃ vinety arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


atha anādy-avidyā-kṛtasya guṇa-saṅgasya bandha-hetutā-prakāraṃ vaktuṃ kṣetra-kṣetrajñayoḥ sambhava-prakāram āha mama parameśvarasya yonir garbhādhāna-sthānaṃ mahad brahma deśa-kālānavacchinnatvāt mahat, bṛṃhaṇāt kārya-rūpeṇa vṛddher hetor brahma prakṛtir ity arthaḥ | śrutāv api kvacit prakṛtir brahmeti nirdiśyate | tasminn ahaṃ garbhaṃ dadhāmy ādadhāmi | itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parāṃ jīva-bhūtām ity anena cetana-puñja-rūpā yā jīva-prakṛtis taṭastha-śakti-rūpā nirdiṣṭā sā sakala-prāṇi-jīvatayā garbha-śabdenocyate | tato mat-kṛtāt garbhādhānāt sarva-bhūtānāṃ brahmādīnāṃ sambhava utpattiḥ
 

Baladeva


tad evaṃ vaktavyārtha-stutyā tasmin ruciṃ śrotur utpādya bhūmir āpaḥ ity ādi-dvayārthānusārāt yāvat sañjāyate kiñcit ity ādau prakṛti-jīva-saṃyogaṃ pareśa-hetukam abhimatam iha sphuṭayati mameti | mahat sarvasya prapañcasya kāraṇaṃ brahmābhivyakta-sattvādi-guṇakaṃ pradhānaṃ mama sarveśvarsyāṇḍa-koṭi-sraṣṭur yonir garbha-dhāraṇa-sthānaṃ bhavati | pradhāne brahma-śabdaś ca tasmād etad brahma nāma-rūpam annaṃ ca jāyate | iti śruteḥ | tasmin mahati brahmaṇi yoni-bhūte garbhaṃ paramāṇu-caitanya-rāśim ahaṃ dadhāmy arpayāmi bhūmir āpaḥ ity ādinā yā jaḍā prakṛtir uktā | seha mahad brahmety ucyate | itas tv anyām ity ādinā yā cetanā prakṛtir uktā seha sarva-prāṇi-bījatvād garbha-śabdeneti bhoga-kṣetra-bhūtayā jaḍayā prakṛtyā saha cetana-bhoktṛ-vargaṃ saṃyojayāmīty arthaḥ | tato mahad-dhetukāt prakṛti-dvaya-saṃyogād garbhādhānād vā sarva-bhūtānāṃ brahmādi-stambāntānāṃ sambhavo janir bhavati
 
 


BhG 14.4

sarva-yoniṣu kaunteya mūrtayaḥ saṃbhavanti yāḥ
tāsāṃ brahma mahad yonir ahaṃ bīja-pradaḥ pitā

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī),
sarva-yoniṣu (in all wombs) yāḥ mūrtayaḥ (which forms) sambhavanti (they take birth),
mahat brahma (great Brahman) tāsām [mūrtīnāṁ] (of those forms) yoniḥ (womb) [asti] (it is),
aham (I) bīja-pradaḥ pitā [asmi] (I am the seed-giving father).

 

grammar

sarva-yoniṣu sarva-yoni 7n.3 f.; sarvāsu yoniṣv iti in all wombs (from: sarva – all, whole; yoni – womb, source, origin, family, race);
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
mūrtayaḥ mūrti 1n.3 f.forms, shapes;
saṁbhavanti sam-bhū (to come into being, to be together) Praes. P 1v.3they take birth;
yāḥ yat sn. 1n.3 f.those which;
tāsām tat sn. 6n.3 f.of those;
brahma brahman 1n.1 n.spirit, the Vedas (from: bṛh – to increase);
mahat mahant 1n.1 n.great (mah – to magnify);
yoniḥ yoni 1n.1 f.womb, source, origin;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
bīja-pradaḥ bīja-prada 1n.1 m.; yo bījaṁ pradadāti saḥwho gives the semen (from: bīja – seed, semen, source; pra- – to give, pra-da – suffix meaning giver);
pitā pitṛ 1n.1 m.father;

 

textual variants

tāsāṃ brahma mahad yonir → tāsāṃ yonir mahad brahma (their womb is the great Brahman);
 
 



Śāṃkara


deva-pitṛ-manuṣya-paśu-mṛgādi-sarva-yoniṣu kaunteya, mūrtayo deha-saṃsthāna-lakṣaṇā mūrcchitāṅgāvayavā mūrtayaḥ saṃbhavanti yāḥ, tāsāṃ mūrtīnāṃ brahma mahat sarvāvasthaṃ yoniḥ kāraṇam aham īśvaro bīja-prado garbhādhānasya kartā pitā
 

Rāmānuja


kāryāvastho ‚pi cidacitprakṛtisaṃsargo mayaiva kṛta ity āha
sarvāsu devagandharvayakṣarākṣasamanuṣyapaśumṛgapakṣisarīsṛpādiṣu yoniṣu tattanmūrtayo yāḥ saṃbhavanti jāyante, tāsāṃ brahma mahad yoniḥ kāraṇam; mayā saṃyojitacetanavargā mahadādiviśeṣāntāvasthā prakṛtiḥ kāraṇam ityarthaḥ / ahaṃ bījapradaḥ pitā tatra tatra ca tattatkarmānuguṇyena cetanavargasya saṃyojakaś cāham ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


na kevalaṃ sṛṣṭy-upakrama eva mad-adhiṣṭhānenābhyāṃ prakṛti-puruṣābhyām ayaṃ bhūtotpatti-prakāraḥ | api tu sarvadaivety āha sarveti | sarvāsu yoniṣu manuṣyādyāsu yā mūrtayaḥ sthāvara-jaṅgamātmikā utpadyante tāsāṃ mūrtīnāṃ mahad brahma prakṛtir yonir mātṛ-sthānīyā | ahaṃ ca bīja-pradaḥ pitā garbhādhāna-kartā pitā
 

Madhusūdana


nanu kathaṃ sarva-bhūtānāṃ tataḥ sambhavo devādi-deha-viśeṣāṇāṃ kāraṇāntara-sambhavād ity āśaṅkyāha sarva-yoniṣv iti | deva-pitṛ-manuṣya-paśu-mṛgādi-sarva-yoniṣu yā mūrtayo jarāyujāṇḍodbhijjādi-bhedena vilakṣaṇā vividha-saṃsthānās tanavaḥ saṃbhavanti he kaunteya! tāsāṃ mūrtīnāṃ tat-tat-kāraṇa-bhāvāpannaṃ mahad brahmaiva yonir mātṛ-sthānīyā | ahaṃ parameśvaro bīja-prado garbhādhānasya kartā pitā | tena mahato brahmaṇa evāvasthā-viśeṣāḥ kāraṇāntarāṇīti yuktam uktaṃ sambhavaḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ tato bhavati [Gītā 14.3] iti
 

Viśvanātha


na kevalaṃ sṛṣṭy-utpatti-samaya eva sarva-bhūtānāṃ prakṛtir mātā ahaṃ pitā api tu sarvadaivety āha sarvāsu yoniṣu devādyāsu stamba-paryantāsu yā mūrtayo jaṅgama-sthāvarātmikā utpadyante tāsāṃ mūrtīnāṃ mahad brahma prakṛtiḥ | yonir utpatti-sthānaṃ mātā | ahaṃ bīja-pradaḥ garbhādhāna-kartā pitā
 

Baladeva


sarveti | he kaunteya sarva-yoniṣu devādi-sthāvarāntāsu yoniṣu yā mūrtayas tanavaḥ sambhavanti tāsāṃ mahad brahma pradhānaṃ yonir utpatti-hetur mātety arthaḥ | jīva-pradas tat-karmānuguṇyena paramāṇu-caitanya-rāśi-saṃyojakaḥ pareśo ‚haṃ pitā bhavāmi
 
 


BhG 14.5

sattvaṃ rajas tama iti guṇāḥ prakṛti-saṃbhavāḥ
nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinam avyayam

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he mahā-bāho (O mighty-armed one!),
sattvam (sattva) rajas (rajas) tamas iti (tamas)
prakṛti-sambhavāḥ (born of nature) guṇāḥ (guṇas),
[te] (they) dehe (in the body) avyayam dehinam (imperishable embodied one) nibadhnanti (they bind).

 

grammar

sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
rajas rajas 1n.1 n. coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
tamas tamas 1n.1 n.darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
guṇāḥ guṇa 1n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
prakṛti-saṁbhavāḥ prakṛti-saṁbhava 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ sambhavas prakṛter astīti te those born of nature (from: pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause; sam-bhū – to come into being, to be together, saṁbhava – production);
nibadhnanti ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. P 1v.3they bind;
mahābāho mahā-bāhu 8n.1 m.; BV: yasya bāhū mahāntau staḥ saḥO you who have mighty arms (from: mah – to magnify, mahant – great; baṁh – to grow, to increase, bāhu – the arm);
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear);
dehinam dehin 2n.1 m.the embodied one (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 m.unchangeable, imperishable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);

 
 



Śāṃkara


ke guṇāḥ ? kathaṃ badhnanti ? ity ucyate—
sattvaṃ rajas tama ity evaṃ-nāmāno guṇā iti pāribhāṣikaḥ śabdaḥ | na rūpādivad dravyāśritā guṇāḥ | na ca guṇa-guṇinor anyatvam atra vivakṣitam | tasmād guṇā iva nitya-para-tantrāḥ kṣetrajñaṃ praty avidyātmakatvāt kṣetrajñaṃ nibadhnantīva tam āspadīkṛtyātmānaṃ pratilabhanta iti nibadhnantīty ucyate | te ca prakṛti-saṃbhavā bhagavan-māyā-saṃbhavā nibadhnantīva | he mahābāho | mahāntau samarthatarāv ājānu-pralambau bāhū yasya saḥ mahābāhuḥ he mahābāho | dehe śarīre dehinaṃ dehavantam avyayam, avyayatvaṃ coktam anāditvād [gītā 13.32] ity ādi ślokena | nanu dehī na lipyate [gītā 13.32] ity uktam | tat katham iha nibadhnantīty anyathocyate ? parihṛtam asmābhir iva-śabdena nibadhnantīveti
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ sargādau prācīnakarmavaśād acitsaṃsargeṇa devādiyoniṣu jātānāṃ punaḥ punar devādibhāvena janmahetum āha
sattvarajastamāṃsi trayo guṇāḥ prakṛteḥ svarūpānubandhinaḥ svabhāvaviśeṣāḥ prakāśādikāryaikanirūpaṇīyāḥ prakṛtyavasthāyām anudbhūtāḥ tadvikāreṣu mahadādiṣu udbhūtāḥ mahadādiviśeṣāntair ārabdhadevamanuṣyādidehasaṃbandhinam enaṃ dehinam, avyayam svato guṇasaṃbandhānarhaṃ dehe vartamānaṃ nibadhnanti, dehe vartamānatvopādhinā nibadhnantītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ parameśvarādhīnābhyāṃ prakṛti-puruṣābhyāṃ sarva-bhūtotpattiṃ nirūpyedānīṃ prakṛti-saṃyogena puruṣasya saṃsāraṃ prapañcayati | sattvam ity ādi caturdaśabhiḥ | sattvaṃ rajas tama ity evaṃ saṃjñakās trayo guṇāḥ prakṛti-sambhavāḥ | prakṛteḥ sambhava udbhavo yeṣāṃ te tathoktāḥ | gūna-sāmyaṃ prakṛtiḥ | tasyāḥ sakāśāt pṛthaktveābhivyaktāḥ santaḥ prakṛti-kārye dehe tādātmyena sthitaṃ dehinaṃ cid-aṃśaṃ vastuto ‚vyayaṃ nirvikāram eva santaṃ nibadhnanti sva-kāryaiḥ sukha-duḥkha-mohādibhiḥ saṃyojayantīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tad evaṃ nirīśvara-sāṅkhya-nirākaraṇena kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogasyeśvarādhīnatvam uktam | idānīṃ kasmin guṇe saṅgaḥ ? ke vā guṇāḥ ? kathaṃ vā te badhnanti ? ity ucyate sattvam ity ādinānyam ity ataḥ prāk caturdaśabhiḥ | sattvaṃ rajas tama ity evaṃ-nāmāno guṇā nitya-paratantrāḥ puruṣaṃ prati sarveṣām acetanānāṃ cetanārthatvāt | na tu vaiśeṣikāṇāṃ rūpādivad dravyāśritāḥ | na ca guṇa-guṇinor anyatvam atra vivakṣitam guṇa-trayātmakatvāt prakṛteḥ | tarhi kathaṃ prakṛti-sambhavāḥ ? ity ucyate – trayāṇāṃ guṇānāṃ sāmyāvasthā prakṛtir māyā bhagavats tasyāḥ sakāśāt parasparāṅgāṅgi-bhāvena vaiṣamyeṇa pariṇatāḥ prakṛti-sambhavā ity ucyante | te ca dehe prakṛti-kārye śarīrendriya-saṃghāte dehinaṃ deha-tādātmyādhyāsāpannaṃ jīvaṃ paramārthataḥ sarva-vikāra-śūnyatvenāvyayaṃ nibadhnanti nirvikāram eva santaṃ sva-vikāravattayopadarśayantīva bhrāntyā jala-pātrāṇīva divi sthitam ādityaṃ pratibimbādhyāsena sva-kampādimattayā | yathā ca pāramarthiko bandho nāsti tathā vyākhyātaṃ prāk – śarīrastho ‚pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate [Gītā 13.32] iti
 

Viśvanātha


tad eva prakṛti-puruṣābhyāṃ sarva-bhūtotpattiṃ nirūpeydānīṃ ke guṇā ucyante | teṣu saṅgāt jīvasya kīdṛśo bandha ity apekṣāyām āha sattvam iti | dehe prakṛti-kārye tādātmyena sthitaṃ dehinaṃ jīvaṃ vastuto ‚vyayaṃ nirvikāram asaṅginam apy anādy-avidyayā kṛtād guṇa-saṅgād eva hetor guṇā nibadhnanti
 

Baladeva


atha ke guṇāḥ kathaṃ teṣu puruṣasya saṅgaḥ kathaṃ vā te taṃ nibadhnanti ity āha sattvam iti caturbhiḥ | sattvādi-saṃjñakās trayo guṇāḥ prakṛti-sambhavāḥ prakṛter abhivyaktās te sva-kārye dehe sthitaṃ puruṣam avyayaṃ vastuto nirvikāram api nibadhnanty aviveka-gṛhītaiḥ sukha-duḥkha-mohaiḥ svadharmais taṃ yojayantīti
 
 


BhG 14.6

tatra sattvaṃ nirmalatvāt prakāśakam anāmayam
sukha-saṅgena badhnāti jñāna-saṅgena cānagha

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he anagha (O sinless one!),
tatra [guṇeṣu madhye] (there among the guṇas) sattvam (sattva) nirmalatvāt (because of lack of impurities) prakāśakam (illuminating) anāmayam (free form disease) [asti] (it is).
[tat] (that) sukha-saṅgena (by attachment to happiness) jñāna-saṅgena ca (and by attachment to knowledge) [dehinam] (the embodied one) badhnāti (it binds).

 

grammar

tatra av.there (from: tat; indeclinable locative with an ending -tra);
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
nirmalatvāt nir-mala-tva 5n.1 abst. n.because of lack of impurities (from: niḥ out of, away from, without; mala – impurity, dirt, filth);
prakāśakam prakāśaka 1n.1 n.manifesting, shining, illuminating (from: pra-kāś – to become visible, to shine);
anāmayam an-āmaya 1n.1 n.free form disease, faultless (āmaya – sickness);
sukha-saṅgena sukha-saṅga 3n.1 m.; [TP]: sukhena saṅgenetiby attachment to happiness (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth; or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment);
badhnāti bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. P 1v.1it binds;
jñāna-saṅgena jñāna-saṅga 3n.1 m.; [TP]: jñānena saṅgenetiby attachment to knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment);
ca av.and;
anagha an-agha 8n.1 m.O sinless one (from: agha – evil, sin, suffering);

 

textual variants


nirmalatvāt → nirmamatvāt (because of freedom from ‘my’-notion);
sukha-saṅgena badhnāti → sukha-duḥkhena badhnāti / sukha-saṅge nibadhnāti / (it binds with happiness and distress / it binds in attachment to happiness);
jñāna-saṅgena → jñāna-saṁghena / jñāna-saṁkhena (by contact with knowledge);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tatra sattvādīnāṃ sattvasyaiva tāval lakṣaṇam ucyate—
nirmalatvāt sphaṭika-maṇir iva prakāśakam anāmayaṃ nirupadravaṃ sattvaṃ tan nibadhnāti | kathaṃ ? sukha-saṅgena sukhy aham iti viṣaya-bhūtasya sukhasya viṣayiṇy ātmani saṃśleṣāpādanaṃ mṛṣaiva sukhe sañjanam iti | saiṣāvidyā | na hi viṣaya-dharmo viṣayiṇo bhavati | icchādi ca dhṛty-antaṃ kṣetrasyaiva viṣayasya dharmaḥ ity uktaṃ bhagavatā | ato’vidyayaiva svakīya-dharma-bhūtayā viṣaya-viṣayy-aviveka-lakṣaṇayāsvātma-bhūte sukhe saṃjayatīva, āsaktam iva karoti, asaṅgaṃ saktam iva karoti, asukhinaṃ sukhinam iva | tathā jñāna-saṅgena ca, jñānam iti sukha-sāhacaryāt kṣetrasyaiva viṣayasyāntaḥ-karaṇasya dharmaḥ, nātmanaḥ | ātma-dharmatve saṅgānupapatteḥ, bandhānupapatteś ca | sukha iva jñānādau saṅgo mantavyaḥ | he anagha avyasana
 

Rāmānuja


sattvarajastamasām ākāraṃ bandhanaprakāraṃ cāha
tatra sattvarajastamas tu sattvasya svarūpam īdṛśam nirmalatvāt prakāśakam; prakāśasukhāvaraṇasvabhāvarahitatā nirmalatvam; prakāśasukhajananaikāntasvabhāvatayā prakāśasukhahetubhūtam ityarthaḥ / prakāśaḥ vastuyāthātmyāvabodhaḥ / anāmayam āmayākhyaṃ kāryaṃ na vidyata ity anāmayam; arogatāhetur ityarthaḥ / eṣa sattvākhyo guṇo dehinam enaṃ sukhasaṅgena jñānasaṅgena ca badhnāti puruṣasya sukhasaṅgaṃ jñānasaṅgaṃ ca janayatītyarthaḥ/ jñānasukhayos saṅge hi jāte tatsādhaneṣu laukikavaidikeṣu pravartate; tataś ca tatphalānubhavasādhanabhūtāsu yoniṣu jāyata iti sattvaṃ sukhajñānasaṅgadvāreṇa puruṣaṃ badhnāti / jñānasukhajananaṃ punar api tayos saṅgajananaṃ ca sattvam ity uktaṃ bhavati
 

Śrīdhara


tatra sattvasya bandhakatva-prakāraṃ cāha tatreti | tatra teṣāṃ guṇānāṃ madhye sattvaṃ nirmalatvāt svacchatvāt sphaṭika-maṇir iva prakāśakaṃ bhāsvaram anāmayaṃ ca nirupadravam | śāntam ity arthaḥ | ataḥ śāntatvāt sva-kāryeṇa sukhena yaḥ saṅgas tena badhnāti | prakāśakatvāc ca svakāryeṇa jñānena yaḥ saṅgas tena ca badhnāti | he anagha niṣpāpa, ahaṃ sukhī jñānī ceti manodharmāṃs tad-abhimānini kṣetrajñe saṃyojayatīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tatra ko guṇaḥ kena saṅgena badhnāti ? ity ucyate tatreti | tatra teṣu guṇeṣu madhye sattvaṃ prakāśakam caitanyasya tamo-guṇa-kṛtāvaraṇa-tirodhāyakaṃ
nirmalatvāt svacchatvāc cid-bimba-grahaṇa-yogyatvād iti yāvat | na kevalaṃ caitanyābhivyañjakaṃ kintu anāmayaṃ | āmayo duḥkhaṃ tad-virodhi sukhasyāpi vyañjakam ity arthaḥ | tad badhnāti sukha-saṅgena ca dehinaṃ ! he anagha avyasana ! sarvatra sambodhanānām abhiprāyaḥ prāg uktaḥ smartavyaḥ | atra sukha-jñāna-śabdābhyām antaḥ-karaṇa-pariṇāmau tad-vyañjakāv ucyete | icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ saṃghātaś cetanā dhṛtiḥ [Gītā 13.7] iti sukha-cetanayor apīcchādivat kṣetra-dharmatvena pāṭhāt | tatrāntaḥ-karaṇa-dharmasya sukhasya jñānasya cātmany adhyāsaḥ saṅgo ‚haṃ jāna iti ca | na hi viṣaya-dharmo viṣayiṇo bhavati | tasmād avidyā-mātram etad iti śataśa uktaṃ prāk
 

Viśvanātha


tatra sattvasya lakṣaṇaṃ bandhakatva-prakāraṃ cāha tatreti | anāmayaṃ nirupadravaṃ śāntam ity arthaḥ | | śāntatvāt svakāryeṇa sukhena yaḥ saṅgaḥ prakāśakatvāt svakāryeṇa jñānena ca yaḥ saṅgaḥ ahaṃ sukhī jñānī cety upādhi-dharmayor avidyayaiva jīvasyābhimānas tena taṃ badhnāti | he anagheti tvaṃ tu ahaṃ sukhī ahaṃ jñānīty abhimāna-lakṣaṇam aghaṃ mā svīkur iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha sattvādīnāṃ trayāṇāṃ lakṣaṇāni bandhakatva-prakārāṃś cāha tatreti tribhiḥ | tatra teṣu triṣu madhye prakāśakaṃ jñāna-vyañjakam anāmayam arogaṃ duḥkha-virodhi-sukha-vyañjakam iti yāvat | kutaḥ | nirmalatvāt svacchatvāt | tathā ca prakāśa-sukha-kāraṇaṃ sattvam iti | tac ca sattvaṃ sva-kārye jñāne sukhe ca yaḥ saṃyogo jñāny ahaṃ sukhy aham ity abhimānas tena puruṣaṃ nibadhnāti | jñānaṃ cedaṃ laukika-vastu -yāthātmya-viṣayaṃ sukhaṃ ca dehendriya-prasada-rūpaṃ bodhyam | tatra tatra saṅge sati tad-upāyeṣu karmasu pravṛttis tat-phalānubhavopāyeṣu deheṣūtpattiḥ | punaś ca tatra tatra saṅga iti na sattvād vimuktiḥ
 
 


BhG 14.7

rajo rāgātmakaṃ viddhi tṛṣṇā-saṅga-samudbhavam
tan nibadhnāti kaunteya karma-saṅgena dehinam

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syntax


he kaunteya (O son of Kuntī),
[tvam] (you) rajaḥ rāgātmakam (rajas of the nature of passion) tṛṣṇā-saṅga-samudbhavam (which is born from attachment and desire) viddhi (you must know).
tat [rajas] (that rajas) dehinam (the embodied one) karma-saṅgena (by attachment to activity) nibadhnāti (it binds).

 

grammar

rajaḥ rajas 2n.1 n. coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
rāgātmakam rāga-ātmaka 2n.1 n.of the nature of passion (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rāga – colour, passion, affection, love, beauty; ātmaka – in compounds: being of this nature);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
tṛṣṇā-saṅga-samudbhavam tṛṣṇā-saṅga-samudbhava 2n.1 n.; DV / BV: yasya tṛṣṇāyāḥ saṅgāt ca samudbhavo ‘sti tat which is born from attachment and desire (from: tṛṣ – to be thirsty, tṛṣṇā – thirst, desire; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment; sam-ud-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, samudbhava – springing from, production);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
nibadhnāti ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. P 1v.1it binds;
kaunteya kaunteya 8n.1 m.O son of Kuntī (from: kunti – the people of Kunti, kuntī – Kuntī, mother of the sons of Pāṇḍu);
karma-saṅgena karma-saṅga 3n.1 m.; [TP]: karmena saṅgenetiby attachment to activity (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment);
dehinam dehin 2n.1 m.the embodied one (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);

 

textual variants


tṛṣṇā-saṅga-samudbhavam → tṛṣṇā-saṅga-samudbhavā;
dehinam → dehinām (of the embodied ones);
 
 



Śāṃkara


rajaḥ rāgātmakaṃ rajanād rāgo gairikād iva drāg ātmakaṃ viddhi jānīhi | tṛṣṇāsaṅga-samudbhavaṃ tṛṣṇā aprāptābhilāṣaḥ | āsaṅgaḥ prāpte viṣaye manasaḥ prīti-lakṣaṇaḥ saṃśleṣaḥ | tṛṣṇāsaṅgayoḥ samudbhavaṃ tṛṣṇāsaṅga-samudbhavam | tan nibadhnāti tad rajo nibadhnāti kaunteya karma-saṅgena, dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārtheṣu karmasu sañjanaṃ tat-paratā karma-saṅgas tena nibadhnāti rajo dehinam
 

Rāmānuja


rajo rāgātmakam rāgahetubhūtam / rāgaḥ yoṣitpuruṣayor anyānyaspṛhā / tṛṇāsaṅgasamudbhavam tṛṣṇāsaṅgayor udbhavasthānam tṛṣṇāsaṅgahetubhūtam ityarthaḥ / tṛṣṇā śabdādisarvaviṣayaspṛhā; saṅgaḥ putramitrādiṣu saṃbandhiṣu saṃśleṣaspṛhā / tad rajaḥ dehinaṃ karmasu kriyāsu spṛhājananadvāreṇa nibadhnāti; kriyāsu hi spṛhayā yāḥ kriyā ārabhate dehī, tāś ca puṇyapāparūpā iti tatphalānubhavasādhanabhūtāsu yoniṣu janmahetavo bhavanti / ataḥ karmasaṅgadvāreṇa rajo dehinaṃ nibadhnāti / tad evaṃ rajo rāgatṛṣṇāsaṅgahetuḥ karmasaṅgahetuś cety uktaṃ bhavati
 

Śrīdhara


rajaso lakṣaṇaṃ bandhakatvaṃ cāha raja iti | rajaḥ-saṃjñakaṃ guṇaṃ rāgātmakam anurañjana-rūpaṃ viddhi | ataeva tṛṣṇāsaṅga-samudbhavam | tṛṣṇāprāpter ‚rthe ‚bhilāṣaḥ | sagagaḥ prāPte ‚rthe prītir viśeṣeṇāsaktiḥ | tayos tṛṣṇāsaṅgayoḥ samudbhavo yasmāt tad-rajo dehinaṃ dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārtheṣu karmasu saṅgenāsaktyā nitarāṃ badhnāti | tṛṣṇāsaṅgābhyāṃ hi karmasu āsaktir bhavatīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


rajyate viṣayeṣu puruṣo ‚neneti rāgaḥ kāmo gardhaḥ sa evātmā svarūpaṃ yasya dharma-dharmitṇos tādātmyāt tad rāgātmakaṃ rajo viddhi | ata evāprāptābhilāṣas tṛṣṇā | prāptasyopasthite ‚pi vināśe saṃrakṣaṇābhilāṣa āsaṅgas tayos tṛṣṇāsaṅgayoḥ sambhavo yasmāt tad rajo nibadhnāti | he kaunteya ! karma-saṅgena karmasu dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārtheṣu aham ikdaṃ karomy etat phalaṃ bhokṣya ity abhiniveśa-viśeṣeṇa dehinaṃ vastuto ‚kartāram eva kartṛtvābhimāninaṃ rajasaḥ pravṛtti-hetutvāt
 

Viśvanātha


rajo-guṇaṃ rāgātmakam anurañjana-rūpaṃ viddhi | tṛṣṇā aprāpte ‚rthe abhilāṣaḥ | saṅgaḥ prāpte ‚rthe āsaktiḥ | tayoḥ samudbhavo yasmāt tad rajaḥ dehinaṃ dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārtheṣu karmasu saṅgenāsaktyā badhnāti tṛṣṇā-saṅgābhyāṃ karmasv āsaktir bhavati
 

Baladeva


raja iti rāgaḥ strī-puruṣayor mitho ‚bhilāsas tad-ātmakaṃ rajo-vṛddhi-hetu-kāryayos tādātmyāt | tac ca tṛṣṇādi-samudbhavaṃ śabdādi-viṣayābhilāṣas tṛṣṇā | putra-mitrādi-saṃyogo ‚bhilāṣaḥ saṅgas tayoḥ sambhavo yasmāt tat | tathā ca rāga-tṛṣṇāsaṅga-kāraṇaṃ rajaḥ iti | tad rajaḥ strī-viṣaya-putrādi-prāpakeṣu karmasu saṅgenābhilāṣeṇa dehinaṃ puruṣaṃ nibadhnāti | stry-ādi-spṛhayā karmāṇi karoti | tāni tat-phalānubhavopāya-bhūtān stry-ādīn prāpayanti | punar apy evam iti rajaso na vimuktiḥ
 
 


BhG 14.8

tamas tv ajñāna-jaṃ viddhi mohanaṃ sarva-dehinām
pramādālasya-nidrābhis tan nibadhnāti bhārata

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
[tvam] (you) ajñāna-jam tamaḥ tu (tamas born from ignorance) sarva-dehinām (of all the embodied ones) mohanam (bewildering) viddhi (you must know).
tat [tamas] (that tamas) pramādālasya-nidrābhiḥ (by madness, laziness and sleepiness) [dehinam] (the embodied one) nibadhnāti (it binds).

 

grammar

tamaḥ tamas 2n.1 n.darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
ajñāna-jam ajñāna-ja 2n.1 n.born from ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand, a-jñāna – ignorance; jan – to be born, ja – suffix: born);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
mohanam mohana 2n.1 m.bewildering, perplexing (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied; moha – bewilderment, confusion);
sarva-dehinām sarva-dehin 6n.3 m.; sarvāṇāṁ dehinām itiof all the embodied ones (from: sarva – all, whole; dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);
pramādālasya-nidrābhiḥ pramāda-ālasya-nidrā 3n.3 f.; DV: pramadena ca ālasyena ca nidrayā cetiby madness, laziness and sleepiness (from: pra-mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude, pramāda madness; las – to shine, to glitter, to play, alasa – inactive, without energy, lazy, ālasya – inactivity, laziness, idleness; ni-√xdrā – to fall asleep, ni-drā – sleep, sloth);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
nibadhnāti ni-bandh (to bind, to fetter) Praes. P 1v.1it binds;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


tamas → tatas (therefore);
mohanaṁ → mohinaṁ (bewildered);
 
 



Śāṃkara


tamas tṛtīyo guṇo’jñāna-jam ajñānāj jātam ajñāna-jaṃ viddhi | mohanaṃ moha-karam aviveka-karaṃ sarva-dehināṃ sarveṣāṃ dehavatām | pramādālasya-nidrābhiḥ pramādaś cālasyaṃ ca nidrā ca pramādālasya-nidrās tābhiḥ pramādālasya-nidrābhis tat tamo nibadhnāti bhārata
 

Rāmānuja


jñānād anyad iha ajñānam abhipretam / jñānaṃ vastuyathātmyāvabodhaḥ; tasmād anyat tadviparyayajñānam / tamas tu vastuyāthātmyaviaparītaviṣayajñānajam / mohanaṃ sarvadehinām / moho viparyayajñānam; viparyayajñānahetur ityarthaḥ / tat tamaḥ pramādālasyanidrāhetutayā taddvāreṇa dehinaṃ nibadhnāti / pramādaḥ kartavyāt karmaṇo ‚nyatra pravṛttihetubhūtam anavadhānam / ālasyam karmasv anārambhasvabhāvaḥ; stabdhateti yāvat / puruṣasyendriyapravartanaśrāntyā sarvendriyapravartanoparatir nidrā; tatra bāhyendriyapravartanoparamaḥ svapnaḥ; manaso ‚py uparatiḥ suṣuptiḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tamaso lakṣaṇaṃ bandhakatvaṃ cāha tama iti | tamas tv ajñānāj jātam āvaraṇa-śakti-pradhānāt prakṛty-aṃśād udbhutaṃ viddhīty arthaḥ | ataḥ sarveṣāṃ dehināṃ mohanaṃ bhrānti-janakam | ataeva pramādenālasyena nidrayā ca tat tamo dehinaṃ nibadhnāti | tatra pramādo ‚navadhānam | ālasyam anudyamaḥ | nidrā cittasyāvasādāl layaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tu-śabdaḥ sattva-rajopekṣayā viśeṣa-dyotanārthaḥ | ajñānād āvaraṇa-śakti-rūpād udbhūtam ajñāna-jaṃ tamo viddhi | ataḥ sarveṣāṃ dehināṃ mohanam aviveka-rūpatvena bhrānti-janakam | pramādenālasyena nidrayā ca tat tamo nibadhnāti | dehinam ity anuṣajyate | he bhārata | pramādo vastu-vivekāsāmarthyaṃ sattva-kārya-prakāśa-virodhī | ālasyaṃ pravṛtty-asāmarthyaṃ rajaḥ-kārya-pravṛtti-virodhi | ubhaya-virodhinī tamo-guṇālambanā vṛttir nidreti vivekaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


ajñānam ajñānāt svīya-phalāt jātaṃ pratītam anumitaṃ bhavatīty ajñānajam ajñāna-janakam ity arthaḥ | mohanaṃ bhrānti-janakam | pramādo ‚navadhānam | ālasyam anudyamaḥ | nidrā cittasyāvasādāl layaḥ
 

Baladeva


tamas tv iti | tu-śabdaḥ pūrva-dvitīyād viśeṣa-dyotakaḥ | vastu-yāthātmyāvagamo jñānaṃ tad-virodhy-āvarakatā-pradhānaṃ prakṛty-aṃśo ‚jñānam | tasmāj jātaṃ tamo ætaḥ sarva-dehināṃ mohanaṃ viparyaya-jñāna-janakam | tathā ca vastu-yāthātmya-jñānāvarakaṃ viparyaya-jñāna-janakaṃ tamaḥ iti | tat tamaḥ pramādādibhiḥ svakāryaiḥ puruṣaṃ nibadhnāti | tatra pramādo ‚navadhānam akārye karmaṇi pravṛtti-rūpaṃ sattva-kārya-prakāśa-virodhī | ālasyam anudyamaḥ, rajaḥ-kārya-pravṛtti-virodhi | tad-ubhaya-virodhinī tu nidrā cittasyāvasādātmeti
 
 


BhG 14.9

sattvaṃ sukhe sañjayati rajaḥ karmaṇi bhārata
jñānam āvṛtya tu tamaḥ pramāde sañjayaty uta

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
sattvam (sattva) [dehinam] (of the embodied one) sukhe (to happiness) sañjayati (it causes attachment),
rajaḥ (rajas) karmaṇi (to activity) [sañjayati] (it causes attachment),
tamaḥ tu (but tamas) jñānam (knowledge) āvṛtya (after covering) pramāde uta (also to madness) sañjayati (it causes attachment).

 

grammar

sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
sukhe sukha 7n.1 n.in pleasure, in comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
sañjayati xsañj (to attach, to stick, to embrace) Praes. caus. 1v.1it causes attachment to (requires locative);
rajaḥ rajas 1n.1 n. coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
karmaṇi karman 7n.1 n.in activity (from: kṛ – to do);
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
jñānam jñāna 2n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
āvṛtya ā-vṛ (to cover) absol.after covering;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
tamaḥ tamas 1n.1 n.darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
pramāde pramāda 7n.1 n.in madness (from: pra-mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude);
sañjayaty xsañj (to attach, to stick, to embrace) Praes. caus. 1v.1it causes attachment to (requires locative);
uta av.and, also, even, or (for the sake of emphasis, especially at the end of a line);

 

textual variants


karmaṇikarmāṇi (activities);
tu tamaḥ → tu tamam / tu mataḥ / manujam (but darkness / but considered / person);
 
 



Śāṃkara


punar guṇānāṃ vyāpāraḥ saṃkṣepata ucyate—
sattvaṃ sukhe saṃjayati saṃśleṣayati, rajaḥ karmaṇi he bhārata saṃjayatīty anuvartate | jñānaṃ sattva-kṛtaṃ vivekam āvṛtya ācchādya tu tamaḥ svena āvaraṇātmanā pramāde saṃjayaty uta | pramādo nāma prāpta-kartavyākaraṇam
 

Rāmānuja


sattvādīnāṃ bandhadvārabhūteṣu pradhānāny āha
sattvaṃ sukhasaṅgapradhānam; rajaḥ karmasaṅgapradhānam; tamas tu vastuyāthātmyajñānam āvṛtya viparītajñānahetutayā kartavyaviparītapravṛttisaṅgapradhānam
 

Śrīdhara


sattvādīnām evaṃ sva-sva-kārya-karaṇe sāmarthyātiśayam āha sattvam iti | sattvaṃ sukhe sañjayati saṃśleṣayati | duḥkha-śokādi-kāraṇe sabhāpi sukhābhimukham eva dehinaṃ karotiīty arthaḥ | evaṃ sukhādi-kāraṇe saty api rajaḥ karmaṇy eva sañjayati | tamas tu mahat-saṅgena utpādyamānam api jñānam āvṛtyaācchādya pramāde sañjayati | mahadbhir upadiśyamānasyārthasyānavadhāne yojayati utāpi | ālasyādāv api saṃyojayatīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


no commentary up to the verse BhG 14.10
 

Viśvanātha


uktam evārthaṃ saṅkṣepeṇa punar darśayati | sattvaṃ kartṛ sukhe svīya-phale āsaktaṃ jīvaṃ sañjayati vaśīkaroti nibadhnātīty arthaḥ | rajaḥ kartṛ karmāṇi āsaktaṃ jīvaṃ badhnāti | tamaḥ kartṛ pramāde ‚bhirataṃ taṃ jñānam āvṛtya ajñānam utpādyety arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


guṇāḥ svāny advayotkṛṣṭāḥ santaḥ svakārye tanvantīty āha sattvam iti dvābhyām | sattvam utkṛṣṭaṃ sat sva-kārye sukhe puruṣaṃ sañjayaty āsaktaṃ karoti | rajo utkṛṣṭaṃ sat karmāṇi taṃ sañjayati | tama utkṛṣṭaṃ sat pramāde taṃ sañjayati jñānam āvṛtyācchādyājñānam utpādyety arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 14.10

rajas tamaś cābhibhūya sattvaṃ bhavati bhārata
rajaḥ sattvam tamaś caiva tamaḥ sattvaṃ rajas tathā

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
sattvam (sattva) rajaḥ tamaḥ ca (rajas and tamas) abhibhūya (after overcoming) bhavati (it stays),
rajaḥ (rajas) sattvam tamaḥ ca eva (indeed sattva and tamas) [abhibhūya] (after overcoming) [bhavati] (it stays),
tathā (similarly) tamaḥ (tamas) sattvaṁ rajaḥ ca (sattva and rajas) [abhibhūya] (after overcoming) bhavati (it stays).

 

grammar

rajaḥ rajas 2n.1 n. coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
tamaḥ tamas 2n.1 n.darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
ca av.and;
abhibhūya abhi-bhū (to overcome, to predominate) absol.after overcoming;
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1it  becomes;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;
rajaḥ rajas 1n.1 n. coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 2n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
tamaḥ tamas 2n.1 n.darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
ca av.and;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
tamaḥ tamas 1n.1 n.darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 2n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
rajaḥ rajas 2n.1 n. coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;

 

textual variants


cābhibhūyacāpi bhūya (and it just becomes);
sattvaṁ bhavati bhāratasattvaṁ bhārata vardhate / sattvaṁ vartate bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata, sattva increases / O descendant of Bhārata, sattva is active);
tamaś → damaś (taming, sense-control);
 
 



Śāṃkara


uktaṃ kāryaṃ kadā kurvanti guṇāḥ ? ity ucyate—
rajas tamaś ca ubhāv apy abhibhūya sattvaṃ bhavati udbhavati vardhate yadā, tadā labdhātmakaṃ sattvaṃ sva-kāryaṃ jñāna-sukhādy ārabhate | he bhārata ! tathā rajo-guṇaḥ sattvaṃ tamaś caiva ubhāv apy abhibhūya vardhate yadā, tadā karma tṛṣṇādi sva-kāryam ārabhate | tama-ākhyo guṇaḥ sattvaṃ rajaś ca ubhāv apy abhibhūya tathaiva vardhate yadā, tadā jñānāvaraṇādi sva-kāryam ārabhate
 

Rāmānuja


dehākārapariṇatāyāḥ prakṛteḥ svarūpānubandhinaḥ sattvādayo guṇāḥ; te ca svarūpānubandhitvena sarvadā sarve vartante iti parasparaviruddhaṃ kāryaṃ kathaṃ janayantīty atra āha
yady api sattvādyas trayaḥ prakṛtisaṃsṛṣṭātmasvarūpānubandhinaḥ, tathāpi prācīnakarmavaśād dehāpy āyanabhūtāhāravaiṣamyāc ca sattvādayaḥ parasparasamudbhavābhibhavarūpeṇa vartante / rajastamasī kadācid abhibhūya sattvam udriktaṃ vartate; tathā tamassattve abhibhūya rajaḥ kadācit; kadācic ca rajassattve abhibhūya tamaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tatra hetum āha raja iti | rajas-tamaś ceti guṇa-dvayam abhibhūya tiraskṛtya sattvaṃ bhavati | adṛṣṭa-vaśād udbhavati | tataḥ svakārye sukha-jñānādau sañjayatīty arthaḥ | evaṃ rajo ‚pi sattvaṃ tamaś ceti guṇa-dvayam abhibhūyodbhavati | tataḥ svakārye tṛṣṇākarmādau sañjayati | evaṃ tamo ‚pi sattvaṃ rajaś cobhāv api guṇāv abhibhūyodbhavati | tataś ca sva-kārye pramādālasyādau sañjayatīty arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


uktaṃ kāryaṃ kadā kurvanti guṇāḥ ? ity ucyate raja iti | rajas tamaś ca yugapad ubhāv api guṇāv abhibhūya sattvaṃ bhavati udbhavati vardhate yadā, tadā sva-kāryaṃ prāg-uktam asādhāraṇyena karotīti śeṣaḥ | evaṃ rajo ‚pi sattvaṃ tamaś ceti guṇa-dvayam abhibhūyodbhavati yadā, tadā sva-kāryam prāg-uktaṃ karoti | tathā tadvad eva tamo ‚pi sattvaṃ rajaś cety ubhāv api guṇāv abhibhūyodbhavati yadā, tadā sva-kāryam prāg-uktaṃ karotīty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


uktaṃ sva-sva-kāryaṃ sukhādikaṃ prati guṇāḥ kathaṃ prabhavantīty apekṣāyām āha rajas tamaś ceti guṇa-dvayam abhibhūya tiraskṛtya sattvaṃ bhavati adṛṣṭa-vaśād udbhavati | evaṃ rajo ‚pi sattvaṃ tamaś ceti guṇa-dvayābhibhūya tādṛśādṛṣṭa-vaśād udbhavati | tamo ‚pi sattvaṃ rajaś cobhāv api guṇāv abhibhūyodbhavati
 

Baladeva


sameṣu triṣu katham akasmād ekasyotkarṣa iti cet prācīna-tādṛśa-karmodayāt tādṛśāhārāc ca svabhavatīti bhavavān āha raja iti | sattvaṃ kartṛ rajas tamaś cābhibhūyo tiraskṛtyotkṛṣṭaṃ bhavati | rajaḥ kartṛ sattvaṃ tamaś cābhibhūyotkṛṣṭaṃ bhavati | tamaḥ kartṛ sattvaṃ rajaś cābhibhūyotkṛṣṭaṃ bhavati | yadotkṛṣṭaṃ bhavati, tadā pūrvoktam asādhāraṇaṃ kāryaṃ karotīti śeṣaḥ
 
 


BhG 14.11

sarva-dvāreṣu dehe ‘smin prakāśa upajāyate
jñānaṃ yadā tadā vidyād vivṛddhaṃ sattvam ity uta

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syntax


yadā (when) asmin dehe (in this body) sarva-dvāreṣu (in all the gates) prakāśaḥ (clearness) jñānam (knowledge) upajāyate (it arises),
tadā (then) sattva (sattva) vivṛddham iti uta (indeed is grown) vidyāt (he should know).

 

grammar

sarva-dvāreṣu sarva-dvāra 2n.3 n.; sarveṣu [indriyāṇāṁ] dvāreṣv iti in all the gates [of the senses] (from: sarva – all, whole; dvṛ – to obstruct, to cover, dvāra – gate, entrance, passage);
dehe deha 7n.1 m.in the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
asmin idam sn. 7n.1 m.in this;
prakāśaḥ prakāśa 1n.1 m.light, clearness (from: pra-kāś – to become visible, to shine, n. prakāśa – illuminated, light);
upajāyate upa-jan (to be born, to arise) Praes. Ā 1v.1it arises;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
tadā av.at that time, then;
vidyāt vid (to know, to understand) Pot. P 1v.1he should know;
vivṛddham vi-vṛddha (vṛdh – to grow) [PP] 1n.1 m.grown, powerful, great;
sattvam sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 1n.1 n.being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
uta av.and, also, even, or (for the sake of emphasis, especially at the end of a line);

 

textual variants


prakāśa → prakāśam / prakāśe (clear [knowledge] / in the light);
vidyād vidyā / viṁdyād (knowledge / he may find);
sattvam ity uta → sattvam ātmanaḥ / satyam ity uta (own sattva / even the truth);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yadā yo guṇa udbhūto bhavati, tadā tasya kiṃ liṅgaṃ ? ity ucyate—
sarva-dvāreṣu, ātmana upalabdhi-dvārāṇi śrotrādīni sarvāṇi karaṇāni, teṣu sarva-dvāreṣu antaḥ-karaṇasya buddher vṛttiḥ prakāśo dehe’smin upajāyate | tad eva jñānam | yadaivaṃ prakāśo jñānākhya upajāyate, tadā jñāna-prakāśena liṅgena vidyād vivṛddham udbhūtaṃ sattvam ity utāpi
 

Rāmānuja


tac ca kāryopalabhyaivāvagacched ity āha
sarveṣu cakṣurādiṣu jñānadvāreṣu yadā vastuyāthātmyaprakāśe jñānam upajāyate, tadā tasmin dehe sattvaṃ pravṛddham iti vidyāt
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ sattvādīnāṃ vivṛddhānāṃ liṅgāny āha sarva-dvāreṣv iti tribhiḥ | asminn ātmano bhogāyatane dehe sarveṣv api dvāreṣu śrotrādiṣu yadā śabdādi-jñānātmakaḥ prakāśa upajāyate utpadyate tadānena prakāśaliṅgena sattvaṃ vivṛddhaṃ vidyāj jānīyāt | uta śabdāt sukhādi-liṅgenāpi jānīyād ity uktam
 

Madhusūdana


idānīm udbhūtānāṃ teṣāṃ liṅgāny āha tribhiḥ sarva-dvāreṣv iti | asminn ātmano bhogāyatane dehe sarveṣv api dvāreṣūpalabdhi-sādhaneṣu śrotrādi-karaṇeṣu yadā prakāśo buddhi-pariṇāma-viśeṣo viṣayākāraḥ sva-viṣayāvaraṇa-virodhī dīpavat, tad eva jñānaṃ śabdādi-viṣaya upajāyate tadānena śabdādi-viṣaya-jñānākhya-prakāśena liṅgena prakāśātmakaṃ sattvaṃ vivṛddham udbhūtam iti vidyāj jānīyāt | utāpi sukhādi-liṅgenāpi jānīyād ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


vardhamāno guṇa eva svāpekṣayā kṣīṇāv itarau guṇāv abhivaatīty uktam | atas teṣāṃ vṛddhi-liṅgāny āha sarveti tribhiḥ | sarva-dvāreṣu śrotrādiṣu yadā prakāśaḥ syāt | kīdṛśaḥ | jñānaṃ vaidika-śabdādi-yathārtha-jñānātmakaṃ tadā tādṛśa-jñāna-liṅgenaiva sattvaṃ vivṛddham iti jānīyāt | ut-śabdād ātmottha-sukhāṭtmakaḥ prakāśaś ca yadeti
 

Baladeva


utkṛṣṭānāṃ sattvādīnāṃ liṅgāny āha sarveti tribhiḥ | yadā sarveṣu jñāna-dvāreṣu śrotrādiṣu śabdādi-yāthātmya-prakāśa-rūpṃ jñānam upajāyate | tadā tādṛśa-jñāna-liṅgenāsmin dehe sattvaṃ vivṛddhaṃ vidyāt | utety apy arthe | sukha-liṅgenāpi tad vidyād ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 14.12

lobhaḥ pravṛttir ārambhaḥ karmaṇām aśamaḥ spṛhā
rajasy etāni jāyante vivṛddhe bharata-rṣabha

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he bharata-rṣabha (O best of the Bharatas!),
lobhaḥ (greed) pravṛttiḥ (activity) karmaṇām ārambhaḥ (beginning of actions) aśamaḥ (restlessness) spṛhā [iti] (longing).
etāni (they) rajasi vivṛddhe (when rajas is grown) jāyante (they are generated).
 

grammar

lobhaḥ lobha 1n.1 m.greed, covetousness (from: lubh – to be greedy);
pravṛttiḥ pravṛtti 1n.1 f.activity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);
ārambhaḥ ārambha 1n.1 m.beginning, undertaking (from: ā-rabh – to reach, to undertake, to begin);
karmaṇām karman 6n.3 n.of activities (from: kṛ – to do);
aśamaḥ a-śama 1n.1 m.restlessness (from: śam – to calm, to put to an end, to destroy);
spṛhā spṛhā 1n.1 f. eager desire, longing for, envy (from: spṛh – to desire to obtain, to long for);
rajasi rajas 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when rajas, coloured, dust, passion (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
etāni etat sn. 1n.3 n.te;
jāyante jan (to be born, to arise) Praes. Ā 1v.3they are generated;
vivṛddhe vi-vṛddha (vṛdh – to grow) [PP] 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when it is grown, when it is powerful;
bharata-rṣabha bharata-rṣabha 8n.1 m.; [TP]: bharatāṇām ṛṣabha itiO best of the Bharatas (from: bhṛ – to hold or bharata – king Bharata, maintained, actor, in plural – the descendants of Bharata; ṛṣabha – bull, the best of any kind);

 

textual variants


lobhaḥ pravṛttirlobha-pravṛttir (greed and activity);
karmaṇām aśamaḥ spṛhākarmaṇo manasaḥ spṛhā / karmaṇām aśamaś ca tṛṭ? (actions, longing of the mind / [beginning of] activities, restlessness and ?);
vivṛddhepravṛddhe (when it is grown);
bharata-rṣabha → kuru-naṁdana (O delight of the Kurus);
 
 



Śāṃkara


rajasa udbhūtasyedaṃ cihnaṃ—
lobhaḥ para-dravyāditsā | pravṛttiḥ pravartanam | sāmānya-ceṣṭā ārambhaḥ | kasya ? karmaṇām | aśamo’nupaśamaḥ harṣa-rāgādi-pravṛttiḥ | spṛhā sarva-sāmānya-vastu-viṣayā tṛṣṇā | rajasi guṇe vivṛddha etāni liṅgāni jāyante | he bharatarṣabha
 

Rāmānuja


lobhaḥ svakīyadravyasyātyāgaśīlatā; pravṛttiḥ prayojanam anuddiśyāpi calanasvabhāvātā; ārambhaḥ karmaṇām phalasādhanabhūtānāṃ karmaṇām ārambhaḥ; aśamaḥ indriyānuratiḥ; spṛhā viṣayecchā / etāni rajasi pravṛddhe jāyante / yadā lobhādayo vartante, tadā rajaḥ pravṛddham iti vidyād ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca lobha iti | lobho dhanādy-āgame jāyamāne ‚pi punaḥ punar vardhamāno ‚bhilāṣaḥ | pravṛttir nityaṃ kurvad-rūpatā | karmaṇām ārambho mahā-gṛhādi-nirmāṇodyamaḥ | aśama idaṃ kṛtvā idaṃ kariṣyāmi ity ādi saṅkalpa-vikalpānuparamaḥ | spṛhā uccāvaceṣu dṛṣṭa-mātreṣu vastuṣu itas tato jighṛkṣā | rajasi vivṛddhe saty etāni liṅgāni jāyante | etais tamaso vivṛddhir jāānīyād ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


mahati dhanāgame jāyamāne ‚py anukṣaṇaṃ vardhamānas tad-abhilāṣo lobhaḥ sva-viṣaya-prāpsya-nivartya icchā-viśeṣa iti yāvat | pravṛttir nirantaraṃ prayata-mānasā | ārambhaḥ karmaṇāṃ bahu-vitta-vyayāyāsa-karāṇāṃ kāmya-niṣiddha-laukika-mahā-gṛhādi-viṣayāṇāṃ vyāpārāṇām udyamaḥ | aśama idaṃ kṛtvedaṃ kariṣyāmīti saṅkalpa-pravāhānuparamaḥ | spṛhoccāvaceṣu para-dhaneṣu dṛṣṭa-mātreṣu yena kenāpy upāyenopāditsā | rajasi rāgātmake vivṛddha etāni rāgātmakāni liṅgāni jāyante | he bharatarṣabha ! etair liṅgair vivṛddhaṃ rajo jānīyād ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


pravṛttir nānā prayatna-paratā karmaṇām ārambho gṛhādi-nirmāṇodyamaḥ | aśamo viṣaya-bhogānuparatiḥ
 

Baladeva


lobhaḥ sva-dravyātyāga-paratā | pravṛttis tad-vṛddhi-yatnaa-paratā | karmaṇāṃ gṛha-nirmāṇādīnām ārambhaḥ | aśamo viṣaya-bhogād indriyāṇām anuparatiḥ | spṛhā viṣaya-lipsā | etair liṅgai rajo vivṛddhaṃ vidyāt
 
 


BhG 14.13

aprakāśo ‘pravṛttiś ca pramādo moha eva ca
tamasy etāni jāyante vivṛddhe kuru-nandana

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syntax


he kuru-nandana (O delight of the Kurus!),
aprakāśaḥ (lack of clearness) apravṛttiḥ (inactivity) pramādaḥ (madness) mohaḥ eva ca [iti] (and indeed bewilderment).
etāni (they) tamasi vivṛddhe (when tamas is grown) jāyante (they are generated).

 

grammar

aprakāśaḥ a-prakāśa 1n.1 m.lack of light, lack of clearness (from: pra-kāś – to become visible, to shine, n. prakāśa – illuminated, light);
apravṛttiḥ a-pravṛtti 1n.1 f.inactivity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);
ca av.and;
pramādaḥ pramāda 1n.1 m. madness (from: pra-mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude);
mohaḥ moha 1n.1 m.bewilderment, confusion (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
tamasi tamas 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
etāni etat sn. 1n.3 n.te;
jāyante jan (to be born, to arise) Praes. Ā 1v.3they are generated;
vivṛddhe vi-vṛddha (vṛdh – to grow) [PP] 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when it is grown, when it is powerful;
kuru-nandana kuru-nandana 8n.1 m.; [TP]: kurūṇāṁ nandanetiO delight of the Kurus (from: from: kuru – Kuru, the Kurus – the descendants of Kuru; nand – to delight, nandana – delight, gladness);

 

textual variants


aprakāśo pravṛttiś ca aprakāśo pravidyaś ca / aprakāśaṁ pravṛttiś ca (lack of clearness and lack of understanding / lack of clearness and activity);
moha → moham (bewilderment);
jāyantejāyaṁti (they are generated);
vivṛddhepravṛddhe (when it is grown);
kuru-naṁdana bharata-rṣabha (O best of the Bharatas);
 
 



Śāṃkara


aprakāśo’vivekaḥ | atyantam apravṛttiś ca pravṛtty-abhāvas tat-kāryaṃ pramādo moha eva ca | aviveko mūḍhatā ity arthaḥ | tamasi guṇe vivṛddha etāni liṅgāni jāyante he kuru-nandana !
 

Rāmānuja


aprakāśaḥ jñānānudayaḥ; apravṛttiś ca stabdhatā; pramādaḥ akāryapravṛttiphalam anavadhānam; mohaḥ viparītajñānam / etāni tamasi pravṛddhe jāyante / etais tamaḥ pravṛddham iti vidyāt
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca aprakāśa iti | aprakāśo viveka-bhraṃśaḥ | apravṛttir anudyamaḥ | pramādaḥ kartavyārthānusandhāna-rāhityam | moho mithyābhiniveśaḥ | tamasi vivṛddhe saty etāni liṅgāni jāyante | etais tamaso vivṛddhiṃ jānīyād ity arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


aprakāśaḥ saty apy upadeśādau bodha-kāraṇe sarvathā bodhāyogyatvam | apravṛttiś ca saty apy agnihotraṃ juhuyād ity ādau pravṛtti-kāraṇaṃ janita-bodhe ‚pi śāstre sarvathā tat-pravṛtty-ayogyatvam | pramādas tat-kāla-kartavyatvena prāptasya arthasyānusandhānābhāvaḥ | moha eva ca moho nidrā viparyayo vā | cau samuccaye | eva-kāro vyabhicāra-vāraṇārthaḥ | tamasy eva vivṛddha etāni liṅgāni jāyante he kuru-nandana ! ata etair liṅgair avayabhicāribhir vivṛddhaṃ tamo jānīyād ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


aprakāśo vivekābhāvaḥ | śāstrāvihita-śabdādi-grahaṇam | apravṛttiḥ prayatna-mātra-rāhityam | pramādaḥ kaṇṭhādi-dhṛte ‚pi vastuni nāstīti pratyayaḥ | moho mithyābhiniveśaḥ
 

Baladeva


aprakāśo jñānābhāvaḥ | śāstrāvihita-viṣaya-graha-rūpo ‚pravṛttiḥ kriyā-vimukhatā | pramādaḥ karādisthe ‚py arthe nāstīti pratyayo moho mithyābhiniveśaḥ | etair liṅgais tamo vivṛdhaṃ vidyāt
 
 


BhG 14.14

yadā sattve pravṛddhe tu pralayaṃ yāti deha-bhṛt
tadottama-vidāṃ lokān amalān pratipadyate

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syntax


yadā tu (but if) sattve pravṛddhe (when sattva is grown) deha-bhṛt (who holds a body) pralayam (to death) yāti (he goes),
tadā (then) [saḥ] (he) uttama-vidām (of those who know the supreme) amalān lokān (spotless worlds) pratipadyate (he attains).

 

grammar

yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
sattve sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when sattva, being, essence, wisdom, spirit;
pravṛddhe pra-vṛddha (vṛdh – to grow) [PP] 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when it is grown, when it is powerful;
tu av.but, then, or, and;
pralayam pralaya 2n.1 m.annihilation, dissolution, end, death (from: pra- – to dissolve, to vanish);
yāti (to go) Praes. P 1v.1he goes, he attains;
deha-bhṛt deha-bhṛt 1n.1 m.; yo dehaṁ bibharti saḥ – who holds a body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; bhṛ – to bear, to carry, to hold, bhṛt – suffix: bearer, holder);
tadā av.at that time, then;
uttama-vidām uttama-vit 6n.3 m.; ye uttamaṁ viduḥ teof those who know the supreme (from: ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
lokān loka 2n.3 m.worlds;
amalān a-mala 2n.3 m. spotless, pure (from: mala – impurity, dirt, filth);
pratipadyate prati-pad (to enter, to attain) Praes. 1v.1he attains;

 

textual variants


pravṛddhevivṛddhe / pravṛtte (whe it is grown / when it works);
yāti → yāṁti (they go);
tadottama-vidāṁ lokān tadottama-vidāṁl lokān / tatrottama-vidāṁ lokān / tatottama-vidāṁ lokān (then the worlds of those who know the supreme / there the worlds of those who know the supreme / O dear, the worlds of those who know the supreme);
amalān → namalān / nirmalān / acalān (not filthy / without impurities / motionless);
 
 



Śāṃkara


maraṇa-dvāreṇāpi yat phalaṃ prāpyate, tad api saṅga-rāga-hetukaṃ sarvaṃ gauṇam eveti darśayan āha—
yadā sattve pravṛddha udbhūte tu pralayaṃ maraṇaṃ yāti pratipadyate deha-bhṛd ātmā, tadottama-vidāṃ mahad-ādi-tattva-vidām ity etat | lokān amalān mala-rahitān pratipadyate prāpnotīty etat
 

Rāmānuja


yadā sattvaṃ pravṛddhaṃ tadā, sattve pravṛddhe dehabhṛt pralayaṃ maraṇaṃ yāti cet, uttamavidām uttamatattvavidām ātmayāthātmyavidām lokān samūhān amalān malarahitān ajñānarahitān, pratipadyate prāpnoti / sattve pravṛddhe tu mṛtaḥ ātmavidāṃ kuleṣu janitvā ātmayāthātmyajñānasādhaneṣu puṇyakarmasv adhikarotīty uktaṃ bhavati
 

Śrīdhara


maraṇa-samaya eva vivṛddhānāṃ sattvādīnāṃ phala-viśeṣam āha yadeti dvābhyām | sattva pravṛddhe sati yadā jīvo mṛtyuṃ prāpnoti tadā uttamān hiraṇyagarbhādīn vidanti upāsata ity uttama-vidaḥ teṣāṃ ye amalāḥ prakāśamayā lokāḥ sukhopabhoga-sthāna-viśeṣās tān pratipadyate prāpnoti
 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ maraṇa-samaye vivṛddhānāṃ sattvādīnāṃ phala-viśeṣam āha yadeti dvābhyām | sattve pravṛddhe sati yadā pralayaṃ mṛtyuṃ yāti prāpnoti deha-bhṛd dehābhimānī jīvaḥ, tadottamā ye hiraṇyagarbhādayas tad-vidāṃ tad-upāsakānāṃ lokān deva-sukhopabhoga-sthāna-viśeṣān amalān rajas-tamo-mala-rahitān pratipadyate prāpnoti
 

Viśvanātha


pralayaṃ yāti mṛtyuṃ prāpnoti | tadā uttamaṃ vindanti labhanta ity uttama-vido hiraṇya-garbhādy-upāsakās teṣāṃ lokān amalān sukha-pradān
 

Baladeva


mṛti-kāle vivṛddhānāṃ guṇānāṃ phala-viśeṣān āha yad eti dvābhyām | sattve pravṛddhe sati yadā deha-bhṛj jīvaḥ pralayaṃ yāti mriyate, tadottama-vidāṃ hiraṇya-garbhādy-upāsakānāṃ lokān divya-bhogopetān pratipadyate labhate | amalān rajas-tamo-mala-hīnān
 
 


BhG 14.15

rajasi pralayaṃ gatvā karma-saṅgiṣu jāyate
tathā pralīnas tamasi mūḍha-yoniṣu jāyate

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syntax


rajasi [pravṛddhe] (when rajas is grown) pralayam (to death) gatvā (after going)
karma-saṅgiṣu (among those attached to activity) jāyate (he is born).
tathā (similarly) tamasi [pravṛddhe] (when tamas is grown) pralīnaḥ (who is dying) mūḍha-yoniṣu (among bewildered spiecies) jāyate (he is born).

 

grammar

rajasi rajas 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when rajas, coloured, dust, passion (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
pralayam pralaya 2n.1 m.annihilation, dissolution, end, death (from: pra- – to dissolve, to vanish);
gatvā gam (to go) absol.after going;
karma-saṅgiṣu karma-saṅgin 7n.3 m.; [TP]: karmaṇi saṅgiṣv itiamong those attached to activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment, saṅgin – attached);
jāyate jan (to be born, to produce) Praes. Ā 1v.1he is born;
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
pralīnaḥ pralīna (pra- – to dissolve, to vanish) [PP] 1n.1 m.who has died, dissolved;
tamasi tamas 7n.1 n. loc.abs.when darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
mūḍha-yoniṣu mūḍha-yoni 7n.3 f.; [TP]: mūḍhānāṁ yoniṣv itiamong bewildered spiecies (from: vi-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, [PP] vimūḍha – bewildered; yoni – womb, source, origin, family, race);
jāyate jan (to be born, to produce) Praes. Ā 1v.1he is born;

 

textual variants


karma-saṅgiṣu jāyatejāyate karma-saṁgiṣu / karma-saṁgīṣu jāyate / karma-saṁgeṣu jāyate / karma-saṁdhiṣu jāyate (he is born among those attached to activity / he is born in groups of those attached to activity / he is born in connection to activity);
tathā pralīnas tamasi tadā tamasi līne tu / tathā tamasi līnas tu / tathā pralīne tamasi (but then when he dies in tamas / similarly he dies in tamas / similarly when he dies in tamas);
mūḍha-yoniṣu → mūḍhā yoniṣu;
 
 



Śāṃkara


rajasi guṇe vivṛddhe pralayaṃ maraṇaṃ gatvā prāpya karma-saṅgiṣu karmāsakti-yukteṣu manuṣyeṣu jāyate | tathā tadvad eva pralīno mṛtas tamasi vivṛddhe mūḍha-yoniṣu paśv-ādi-yoniṣu jāyate
 

Rāmānuja


rajasi pravṛddhe maraṇaṃ prāpya phalārthaṃ karma kurvatāṃ kuleṣu jāyate; tatra janitvā svargādiphalasādhanakarmasv adhikarotītyarthaḥ /
tathā tamasi pravṛddhe mṛtā mūḍhayoniṣu śvasūkarādiyoniṣu jāyate / sakalapuruṣārthārambhānarho jāyata ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca rajasīti | rajasi pravṛddhe sati mṛtyuṃ prāpya karmāsakteṣu manuṣyeṣu jāyate | tathā tamasi pravṛddhe sati pralīno mṛto mūḍha-yoniṣu jāyate
 

Madhusūdana


rajasi pravṛddhe sati pralayaṃ mṛtyuṃ gatvā prāpya karma-saṅgiṣu śruti-smṛti-vihita-pratiṣiddha-karma-phalādhikāriṣu manuṣyeṣu jāyate | tathā tadvad eva tamasi pravṛddhe pralīno mṛto mūḍha-yoniṣu paśv-ādiṣu jāyate
 

Viśvanātha


karma-saṅgiṣu karmāsakta-manuṣyeṣu
 

Baladeva


rajasi pravṛddhe pralayṃ maraṇaṃ gatvā janaḥ karma-saṅgiṣu kāmya-karmāsakteṣu nṛṣu madhye jāyate | tathā tamasi pravṛddhe pralīno mṛto jano mūḍha-yoniṣu paśv-ādiṣu
 
 


BhG 14.16

karmaṇaḥ sukṛtasyāhuḥ sāttvikaṃ nirmalaṃ phalam
rajasas tu phalaṃ duḥkham ajñānaṃ tamasaḥ phalam

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syntax


sukṛtasya (of a well-done) karmaṇaḥ (of activity) sāttvikam (related to sattva) nirmalam phalam (the fruit deprived of impurities) [asti] (it is),
rajasaḥ tu (but of rajasic) [karmaṇaḥ] (activity) duḥkham phalam (distress as fruit) [asti] (it is),
tamasaḥ (of tamasic) [karmaṇaḥ] (activity) ajñānam phalam (ignorance as fruit) [asti] (it is),
[te] (they) āhuḥ (they declared).

 

grammar

karmaṇaḥ karman 6n.1 n. of activity (from: kṛ – to do);
sukṛtasya sukṛta 6n.1 n.of a well done, of a merit, of a benefit (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous);
āhuḥ ah (to speak – inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū) [Perf.] P 1v.3they spoke, they declared;
sāttvikam sāttvika 1n.1 n. related to sattva (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas);
nirmalam nir-mala 1n.1 n. lack of impurity (from: niḥ out of, away from, without; mala – impurity, dirt, filth);
phalam phala 1n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);
rajasaḥ rajas 6n.1 n. of rajas, coloured, dust, passion (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
phalam phala 1n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);
duḥkham duḥkha 1n.1 n.distress (from: dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; kha – cavity, hole, nave; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: duḥ-sthā; opposite to: sukha – joy, happiness);
ajñānam a-jñāna 1n.1 n. ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
tamasaḥ tamas 6n.1 n.of tamas, darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
phalam phala 1n.1 n.fruit, result (from: phal – to ripen);

 

textual variants


karmaṇaḥkarmaṇā (by activity);
sāttvikaṁ and nirmalaṁ interchange the position;
phalaṁ duḥkham → paraṁ duḥkham (supreme distress);
 
 



Śāṃkara


atīta-ślokārthasyaiva saṃkṣepa ucyate—
karmaṇaḥ sukṛtasya sāttvikasya ity arthaḥ, āhuḥ śiṣṭaḥ sāttvikam eva nirmalaṃ phalam iti | rajasas tu phalaṃ duḥkhaṃ rājasasya karmaṇa ity arthaḥ, karmādhikārāt phalam api duḥkham eva, kāraṇānurūpyāt, rājasam eva | tathā ajñānaṃ tamasas tāmasasya karmaṇo’dharmasya pūrvavat
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ sattvapravṛddhau maraṇam upagamyātmavidāṃ kule jātenānuṣṭhitasya sukṛtasya phalābhisandhirahitasya madārādhanarūpasya karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ punar api tato ‚dhikasattvajanitaṃ nirmalaṃ duḥkhagandharahitaṃ bhavatīty āhuḥ sattvaguṇapariṇāmavidaḥ / antyakālapravṛddhasya rajasas tu phalaṃ phalasādhanakarmasaṅgikulajanmaphalābhisandhipūrvakakarmārambhatatphalānubhavapunarjanmarajovṛddhiphalābhisandhipūrvaka karmārambhaparamparārūpaṃ sāṃsārikaduḥkhaprāyam evety āhuḥ tadguṇayāthātmyavidaḥ / ajñānaṃ tamasaḥ phalam evam antyakālapravṛddhasya tamasaḥ phalam ajñānaparamparārūpam
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ sattvādīnāṃ svānurūpa karma-dvāreṇa vicitra-phala-hetutvam āha karmaṇa iti | sukṛtasya sāttvikasya karmaṇaḥ sāttvikaṃ sattva-pradhānaṃ nirmalaṃ prakāśa-bahulaṃ sukhaṃ phalam āhuḥ kapilādayaḥ | rajasa iti rājasasya karmaṇa ity arthaḥ | karma-phala-kathanasya prakṛtatvāt | tasya duḥkhaṃ phalam āhuḥ | tamasa iti tāmasasya karmaṇa ity arthaḥ | tasyājñānaṃ mūḍhatvaṃ phalam āhuḥ | sāttvikādi-karma-lakṣaṇaṃ ca niyataṃ saṅga-rahitam ity ādinā aṣṭādaśe ‚dhyāye vakṣyati
 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ svānurūpa-karma-dvārā sattvādīnāṃ vicitra-phalatāṃ saṃkṣipyāha karmaṇa iti | sukṛtasya sāttvikasya karmaṇo dharmasya sāttvikaṃ sattvena nirvṛttaṃ nirmalaṃ rajas-tamo-malāmiśritaṃ sukhaṃ phalam āhuḥ paramarṣayau | rajaso rājasasya tu karmaṇaḥ pāpa-miśrasya puṇyasya phalaṃ rājasaṃ duḥkhaṃ duḥkha-bahulam alpaṃ sukhaṃ kāraṇānurūpyāt kāryasya | ajñānam aviveka-prāyaṃ duḥkhaṃ tāmasaṃ tamasas tāmasasya karmaṇo ‚dharmasya phalam | āhur ity anuṣajyate | sāttvikādi-karma-lakṣaṇaṃ ca niyataṃ saṅga-rahitam ity ādināṣṭādaśe vakṣyati | atra rajas-tamaḥ-śabdau tat-kārye prayuktau kārya-kāraṇayor abhedopacārāt gobhiḥ śrīṇīta matsaram ity atra yathā go-śabdas tat-prabhave payasi, yathā vā dhānyam asi dhinuhi devān ity atra dhānya-śabdas tat-prabhave taṇḍule | tatra payas taṇḍulayor ivātrāpi karmaṇaḥ prakṛtatvāt
 

Viśvanātha


sukṛtasya sāttvikasya karmaṇaḥ sāttvikam eva nirmalaṃ nirupadravam | ajñānam acetanatā
 

Baladeva


atha guṇānāṃ svānurūpakarmadvārā vicitra-phala-hjetutvam āha karmaṇa iti | sukṛtasya sāttvikasya karmaṇo nirmalaṃ phalam āhur guṇa-svabhāva-vido munayo mala-duḥkha-moha-rūpa-rajas-tamaḥ-phala-lakṣaṇān nirgataṃ sukham ity arthaḥ | tac ca sāttvikaṃ sattvena nirvṛttam | rajaso rājasasya karmaṇaḥ phalaṃ duḥkhaṃ kāryasya kāraṇānurūpyād duḥkha-pracuraṃ kiñcit sukham ity arthaḥ | tamas tāmasasya karmaṇo hiṃsādeḥ phalam ajñāna-caitanya-prāyaṃ duḥkham evety arthaḥ | tatra rajas-tamah-śabdābhyāṃ rājasa-tāmasa-karmaṇī lakṣye gobhiḥ prīṇita-matsaram ity atra yathā go-śabdena go-payo lakṣyate | sāttvikādi-karmaṇāṃ lakṣaṇāny aṣṭādaśe vakṣyante niyataṃ saṅga-rahitam ity ādibhiḥ
 
 


BhG 14.17

sattvāt saṃjāyate jñānaṃ rajaso lobha eva ca
pramāda-mohau tamaso bhavato
jñānam eva ca

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syntax


sattvāt (from sattva) jñānam (knowledge) sañjāyate (it is generated),
rajasaḥ (from rajas) lobha eva ca (certainly greed) [sañjāyate] (it is generated),
tamasaḥ (from tamas) ajñānam (ignorance) pramāda-mohau eva ca (and just madness and bewilderment) bhavataḥ (they become).

 

grammar

sattvāt sattva (as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence) abst. 5n.1 n.from being, from essence, from sattva;
saṁjāyate sam-jan (to be born together) Praes. Ā 1v.1it is generated;
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n. knowledge, wisdom (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
rajasaḥ rajas 5n.1 n. from rajas; coloured, dust, passion (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted);
lobhaḥ lobha 1n.1 m.greed, covetousness (from: lubh – to be greedy);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
pramāda-mohau pramāda-moha 1n.2 m.; DV: pramādaś ca mohaś cetimadness and bewilderment (from: pra-mad – to enjoy, to delight, to delude, pramāda madness, zabawa; muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, moha – perplexity, loss of consciousness, bewilderment, error);
tamasaḥ tamas 5n.1 n.from darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop);
bhavataḥ bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.2they become;
ajñānam a-jñāna 1n.1 n. ignorance (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;

 

textual variants


lobha → moha (bewilderment);
tamaso bhavato → jāyetāṁ tamaso / jāyete tamaso / tamasau jāyete / tapaso jāyete (z tamas niechaj rodzą się / z tamas rodzą się / tamasowe powstają / z żaru powstają);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca, guṇebhyo bhavati—
sattvāl labdhātmakāt saṃjāyate samutpadyate jñānam, rajaso lobha eva ca, pramāda-mohau ca ubhau tamaso bhavataḥ, ajñānam eva ca bhavati
 

Rāmānuja


tad adhikasattvādijanitaṃ nirmalādiphalaṃ kim ity atrāha
evaṃ paramparayā jātād adhikasattvād ātmayāthātmyāparokṣyarūpaṃ jñānaṃ jāyate / tathā pravṛddhād rajasaḥ svargādiphalalobho jāyate / tathā pravṛddhāc ca tamasaḥ pramādaḥ anavadhānanimittā asatkarmaṇi pravṛttiḥ; tataś ca mohaḥ viparītajñānam; tataś cādhikataraṃ tamaḥ; tataś cājñānam jñānābhāvaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tatraiva hetum āha sattvād iti | sattvāj jñānaṃ sañjāyate | ataḥ sāttvikasya karmaṇaḥ prakāśa-bahulaṃ sukhaṃ phalaṃ bhavati | rajaso lobho jāyate | tasya ca duḥkha-hetutvāt tat-pūrvakasya karmaṇo duḥkhaṃ phalaṃ bhavati | tamasas tu pramāda-mohājñānāni bhavanti | tatas tāmasasya karmaṇo ‚jñāna-prāpakaṃ phalaṃ bhavatīti yuktam evety arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


etādṛśa-phala-vaicitrye pūrvoktam eva hetum āha sattvād iti | sarva-karaṇa-dvārakaṃ prakāśa-rūpaṃ jñānaṃ sattvāt saṃjāyate | atas tad-anurūpaṃ sāttvikasya karmaṇaḥ prakāśa-bahulaṃ sukhaṃ phalaṃ bhavati | rajaso lobho viṣaya-koṭi-prāptyāpi nivartayitum aśakyo ‚bhilāṣa-viśeṣo jāyate | tasya ca nirantaram upacīyamānasya pūrayitum aśakyasya sarvadā duḥkha-hetutvāt tat-pūrvakasya rājasasya karmaṇo duḥkhaṃ phalaṃ bhavati | evaṃ pramāda-mohau tamasaḥ sakāśād bhavato jāyete | ajñānam eva ca bhavati | eva-kāraḥ prakāśa-pravṛtti-vyāvṛtty-arthaḥ | atas tāmasasya karmaṇas tāmasam ajñānādi-prāyam eva phalaṃ bhavatīti yuktam evety arthaḥ | atra cājñānam aprakāśaḥ | pramādo mohaś cāprakāśo ‚pravṛttiś cety atra vyākhyātau
 

Viśvanātha


no commentary up to the verse BhG 14.18
 

Baladeva


īdṛk-phala-vaicitrye prāg uktam eva hetum āha sattvād iti | sattvāt prakāśa-lakṣaṇaṃ jñānaṃ jāyate | ataḥ sāttvikasya karmaṇaḥ prakāśa-pracuraṃ sukhaṃ phalam | rajaso lobhas tṛṣṇā-viśeṣo yo viṣayakoṭibhir apy abhisevitair duṣpūras tasya ca duḥkha-hetutvāt tat-pūrvakasya karmaṇo duḥkha-pracuraṃ kiñcit sukhaṃ phalam | tamasas tu pramādādīni bhavanty atas tat-pūrvakasya karmaṇo ‚caitanya-pracuraṃ duḥkham eva phalam
 
 


BhG 14.18

ūrdhvaṃ gacchanti sattva-sthā madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasāḥ
jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-sthā adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ

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syntax


sattva-sthāḥ (situated in sattva) ūrdhvam (upward) gacchanti (they go),
rājasāḥ (rajasic) madhye (in the middle) tiṣṭhanti (they stay),
jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-sthāḥ (those situated in the lowest guṇa) tāmasāḥ (tamasic) adhaḥ (downward) gacchanti (they go).

 

grammar

ūrdhvam av.upward (from: vṛdh – to grow, ūrdhva – upper, high);
gacchanti gam (to go) Praes. P 1v.3 they go;
sattva-sthāḥ sattva-stha 1n.3 m.; ye sattve tiṣṭhanti tethose situated in sattva (from: as – to be, PPr sant – being, existing, true, the essence, abst. sattva – being, essence, wisdom, spirit, one of the three guṇas; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
madhye madhya 7n.1 n.in the middle, inside;
tiṣṭhanti sthā (to stand) Praes. P 1v.3they stay;
rājasāḥ rājasa 1n.3 m. related to rajas, rajasic (from: rañj – to be dyed, be excited, be delighted, rajas coloured, dust, passion, one of the three guṇas);
jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-sthāḥ jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-stha 1n.3 m.; ye jaghanyasya guṇasya vṛttau tiṣṭhanti tethose situated in the lowest guṇa (from: jaghana – buttocks, loins, jaghanya – lowest, worst, latest; grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; vṛt – to move, to happen, to act, [PP] vṛtta – set in motion; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
adhaḥ av.downward;
gacchanti gam (to go) Praes. P 1v.3 they go;
tāmasāḥ tāmasa 1n.3 m. related to tamas, tamasic (from: tam – to choke, to faint, to perish, to stop; tamas – darkness, gloom, dullness, passivity, one of the three guṇas);

 

textual variants


sattva-sthā → sattvena (by sattva);
jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-sthā → jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthā (those situated in the lowest guṇa);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
ūrdhvaṃ gacchanti devalokādiṣūtpadyante sattva-sthāḥ sattva-guṇa-vṛtta-sthāḥ | madhye tiṣṭhanti manuṣyeṣūtpadyante rājasāḥ | jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-sthā jaghanyaś cāsau guṇaś ca jaghanya-guṇas tamaḥ, tasya vṛttaṃ nidrālasyādi, tasmin sthitāḥ jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-sthāḥ mūḍhāḥ adho gacchanti paśv-ādiṣūtpadyante tāmasāḥ
 

Rāmānuja


evam uktena prakāreṇa sattvasthā ūrdhvaṃ gacchanti krameṇa saṃsārabandhān mokṣaṃ gacchanti / rajasaḥ svargādiphalalobhakaratvād rājasāḥ phalasādhanabhutaṃ karmānuṣṭhāya tatphalam anubhūya punar api janitvā tad eva karmānutiṣṭhantīti madhye tiṣṭhanti / punarāvṛttirūpatayā duḥkhaprāyam eva tat / tāmasās tu jaghanyaguṇavṛttisthā uttarottaranikṛṣṭatamoguṇavṛttiṣu sthitā adho gacchanti antyatvam, tatas tiryaktvam, tataḥ krimikīṭādijanma, sthāvaratvam, tato ‚pi gulmalatātvam, tataś ca śilākāṣṭhaloṣṭatṛṇāditvaṃ gacchantītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ sattvādi-vṛtti-śīlānāṃ phala-bhedam āha ūrdhvam iti | sattva-sthāḥ sattva-vṛtti-pradhānāḥ | ūrdhvaṃ gacchanti sattvotkarṣa-tāratamyād uttarottaraṇataguṇānandān manuṣya-gandharva-pitṛdevādi-lokān satya-loka-paryantān prāpnuvantīty arthaḥ | rājasās tu tṛṣṇādy-ākulā madhye tiṣṭhanti | manuṣya-loka eva utpadyante | jaghanyo nikṛṣṭas tamo-guṇaḥ | tasya vṛttiḥ pramāda-mohādiḥ | atra sthitā adhogacchanti | tamaso vṛtti-tāratamyāt tāmisrādiṣu nirayeṣu utpadyante
 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ sattvādi-vṛtta-sthānāṃ prāg-uktam eva phalam ūrdhva-madhyādho-bhāvenāha ūrdhvam iti | atra tṛtīye guṇe vṛtta-śabda-yogād ādyayor api vṛttam eva vivakṣitam | tena sattvasthāḥ sattva-vṛtte śāstrīye jñāne karmaṇi ca niratā ūrdhvaṃ satya-loka-paryantaṃ deva-lokaṃ gacchanti te deveṣūtpadyante jñāna-karma-tāratamyena | tathā madhye manuṣya-loke puṇya-pāpa-miśre tiṣṭhanti na tūrdhvaṃ gacchanty adho vā manuṣyeṣūtpadyante rājasā rajo-guṇa-vṛtte lobhādi-pūrvake rājase karmaṇi niratāḥ | jaghanya-guṇa-vṛttasthā jaghanyasya guṇa-dvayāpekṣayā paścād-bhāvino nikṛṣṭasya tamaso guṇasya vṛtte nidrālasyādau sthitā adho gacchanti paścādiṣūtpadyante | kadācij jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-sthāḥ sāttvikā rājasāś ca bhavanty ata āha tāmasāḥ sarvadā tamaḥ-pradhānāḥ | itareṣāṃ kadācit tad-vṛtta-sthatve ‚pi na tat-pradhānateti bhāvaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sattva-sthāḥ sattv-tāratamyenordhvaṃ satya-loka-paryantam | madhye manusya-loka eva | jaghanyaś cāsau guṇaś ceti tasya vṛttiḥ pramādālasyādis tatra sthitā adho gacchanti narakaṃ yānti
 

Baladeva


atha sattvādi-vṛtti-niṣṭhānāṃ tāny eva phalāny ūrdhva-madhyādho-bhāvenāha ūrdhvam iti | tamasi vṛtti-śabdād itarayoś ca vṛttir vivakṣitā | sattvasthāḥ sattva-vṛtti-niṣṭhāḥ sattva-tāratamyenordhvaṃ satyaloka-paryantaṃ gacchanti | rājasā rajo-vṛtti-niṣṭhā madhye puṇya-pāpa-miśrite manuṣya-loke tiṣṭhanti | manuṣyā eva bhavanti rajas-tāratamyena | jaghanyaḥ sattva-rajo ‚pekṣayā nikṛṣṭo yo guṇas tamaḥ-saṃjñas tad-vṛttau pramādādau sthitās tv adho gacchanti tamas-tāratamyena paśu-pakṣi-sthāvarādi-yoniṃ labhante | tāmasā ity uktis teṣāṃ sarvadā tamasi sthitiṃ vyanakti
 
 


BhG 14.19

nānyaṃ guṇebhyaḥ kartāraṃ yadā draṣṭānupaśyati
guṇebhyaś ca paraṃ vetti mad-bhāvaṃ so dhigacchati

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syntax


yadā (if) draṣṭā (observer) guṇebhyaḥ (than the guṇas) anyam kartāram (other doer) na anupaśyati (he does not see),
guṇebhyaḥ ca (and than the guṇas) param (higher) vetti (he knows),
tadā (then) saḥ (he) mad-bhāvam (my nature) adhigacchati (he obtains).

 

grammar

na av.not;
anyam anya sn. 2n.1 m.other;
guṇebhyaḥ guṇa 5n.3 m.than qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
kartāram kartṛ 2n.1 m.doer (from: kṛ – to do);
yadā av.when (correlative of: tadā – at that time, then);
draṣṭā draṣṭṛ 1n.1 m. observer (from: dṛś – to see);
anupaśyati anu-dṛś (to see po kolei) Praes. P 1v.1he sees;
guṇebhyaḥ guṇa 5n.3 m. than qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
ca av.and;
param para 2n.1 m.beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme;
vetti vid (to know, to understand) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
mad-bhāvam mad-bhāva 2n.1 m.my nature (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
adhigacchati adhi-gam (to cross over, to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


draṣṭā → dṛṣṭvā (after seeing);
-nupaśyati → na paśyati (he does not see);
so ‘dhigacchatiso ‘pi gacchati (he just goes);
 
 



Śāṃkara


puruṣasya prakṛti-sthatva-rūpeṇa mithyā-jñānena yuktasya bhogyeṣu guṇeṣu sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakeṣu sukhī duḥkhī mūḍho’ham asmīty evaṃ-rūpo yaḥ saṅgas tat-kāraṇaṃ puruṣasya sad-asad-yoni-janma-prāpti-lakṣaṇasya saṃsārasyeti samāsena pūrvādhyāye yad uktam, tad iha sattvaṃ rajas tama iti guṇāḥ prakṛti-saṃbhavā ity ārabhya guṇa-svarūpam, guṇa-vṛttam, sva-vṛttena ca guṇānāṃ bandhakatvam, guṇa-vṛtta-nibaddhasya ca purūṣasya yā gatiḥ, ity etat sarvaṃ mithyā-jñāna-mūlaṃ bandha-kāraṇaṃ vistareṇoktvā, adhunā samyag-darśanān mokṣo vaktavya ity ata āha bhagavān—

nānyaṃ kārya-karaṇa-viṣayākāra-pariṇatebhyo guṇebhyaḥ kartāram anyaṃ yadā draṣṭā vidvān san nānupaśyati, guṇā eva sarvāvasthāḥ sarva-karmaṇāṃ kartāra ity evaṃ paśyati, guṇebhyaś ca paraṃ guṇa-vyāpāra-sākṣi-bhūtaṃ vetti, mad-bhāvaṃ mama bhāvaṃ sa draṣṭādhigacchati

 

Rāmānuja


āhāraviśeṣaiḥ phalābhisandhirahitasukṛtaviśeṣaiś ca paramparayā pravardhitasattvānāṃ guṇātyayadvāreṇa ūrdhvagamanaprakāram āha

evaṃ sāttvikāhārasevayā phalābhisandhirahitabhagavadārādhanarūpakarmānuṣṭhānaiś ca rajastamasī sarvātmanābhibhūya utkṛṣṭasattvaniṣṭho yadāyaṃ guṇebhyo ‚nyaṃ kartāraṃ nānupaśyati guṇā eva svānuguṇapravṛttiṣu kartāra iti paśyati; guṇebhyaś ca paraṃ vetti kartṛbhyo guṇebhyaś ca param anyam ātmānam akartāraṃ vetti sa madbhāvam adhigacchati mama yo bhāvas tam adhigacchati / etad uktaṃ bhavati „ātmanaḥ svataḥ pariśuddhasvabhāvasya pūrvapūrvakarmamūlaguṇasaṅganimittaṃ vividhakarmasu kartṛtvam; ātmā svatas tv akartā aparicchinnajñānaikākāraḥ” ity evam ātmānaṃ yadā paśyati, tadā madbhāvam adhigacchatīti

 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ prakṛti-guṇa-saṅga-kṛtaṃ saṃsāra-prapañcam uktvā idānīṃ tad-vivekato mokṣaṃ darśayati nānyam iti | yadā tu draṣṭā vivekī bhūtvā buddhyādyākāra-pariṇatebhyo guṇebhyo ‚nyaṃ kartāraṃ nānupaśyati | api tu guṇa eva karmāṇi kurvantīti paśyati | guṇebhyaś ca paraṃ vyatiriktaṃ tat-sākṣiṇam ātmānaṃ vetti | sa tu mad-bhāvaṃ brahmatvam adhigacchati prāpnoti
 

Madhusūdana


asminn adhyāye vaktavyatvena prastutam artha-trayam | tatra kṣetra-kṣetrajña-saṃyogasyeśvarādhīnatvaṃ ke vā guṇāḥ kathaṃ vā te badhnantīty artha-dvayam uktam | adhunā tu guṇebhyaḥ kathaṃ mokṣaṇaṃ muktasya ca kiṃ lakṣaṇam iti vaktavyam avaśiṣyate | tatra mithyā-jñānātmakatvād guṇānāṃ samyag-jñānāt tebhyo mokṣaṇam ity āha nānyam iti | guṇebhyaḥ kārya-kāraṇa-viṣayākāra-pariṇatebhyo ‚nyaṃ kartāraṃ yadā draṣṭā vicāra-kuśalaḥ sann anupaśyati vicāram anu na paśyati guṇā evāntaḥ-karaṇa-bahiṣkaraṇa-śarīra-viṣaya-bhāvāpannāḥ sarva-karmaṇāṃ kartāra iti paśyati | guṇebhyaś ca tat-tad-avasthā-viśeṣeṇa pariṇatebhyaḥ paraṃ guṇa-tat-kāryāsaṃspṛṣṭaṃ tad-bhāsakam ādityam iva jala-tat-kampādy-asaṃspṛṣṭaṃ nirvikāraṃ sarva-sākṣiṇaṃ sarvatra samaṃ kṣetrajñam ekaṃ vetti | mad-bhāvaṃ mad-rūpatāṃ sa draṣṭādhigacchati
 

Viśvanātha


guṇa-kṛtaṃ saṃsāraṃ darśayitvā guṇātītaṃ mokṣaṃ darśayati nānyam iti dvābhyām | guṇebhyaḥ kartṛ-karaṇ-viṣayākāreṇa pariṇatebhyo ‚nyaṃ kartāraṃ draṣṭā jīvo yadā nānupaśyati, kintu guṇā eva sadaiva kartāra ity evam anupaśyati anubhavatīty arthaḥ | guṇebhyaḥ paraṃ vyatirikam evātmānaṃ vetti tadā sa draṣṭā mad-bhāvaṃ mayi sāyujyam adhigacchati prāpnoti | tatra tādṛśa-jñānānantaram api mayi parāṃ bhaktiṃ kṛtvaiva ity upānta-ślokārtha-dṛṣṭyā jñeyam
 

Baladeva


evaṃ guṇa-vivekāt saṃsāram uktvā tad-vivekān mokṣam āha nānyam iti dvābhyām | draṣṭā tattva-yāthātmya-darśī jīvo yadā dehendriyātmanā pariṇatebhyo guṇebhyo ‚nyaṃ kartāraṃ nānupaśyati guṇān kartĪn paśyaty ātmānaṃ guṇebhyaḥ parama-kartāraṃ vetti | tadā sa mad-bhāvam adhigacchati | ayam āśayaḥ — na khalu vijñānānando viśuddho jīvo yuddha-yajñādi-duḥkhamaya-karmaṇāṃ kartā, kintu guṇamaya-dehendriyavān eva saṃstatheti guṇa-hetukatvād guṇa-niṣṭhaṃ tat-karma-kartṛtvaṃ na tu viśuddhātma-niṣṭham iti yadānupaśyati, tadā mad-bhāvam asaṃsāritvaṃ mat-para-bhaktiṃ vā | labhata iti purāpy etad abhāṣi | iha guṇa-hetukaṃ kartṛtvaṃ śuddhasya niṣiddhaṃ, na tu śuddha-niṣṭham iti | tasya draṣṭā ity ādinoktam
 
 


BhG 14.20

guṇān etān atītya trīn dehī deha-samudbhavān
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhair vimukto ‘mṛtam aśnute

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syntax


dehī (the embodied one) etān trīn (these three) deha-samudbhavān guṇān (guṇas from which the body is made) atītya (after surpassing),
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhaiḥ (from the miseries of birth, death and old age) vimuktaḥ (liberated) amṛtam (immortality) aśnute (he obtains).

 

grammar

guṇān guṇa 2n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
etān etat sn. 2n.3 m.te;
atītya ati-i (to pass over) absol.after surpassing;
trīn tri 2n.3 m. three;
dehī dehin 1n.1 m.the embodied one (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; dehin = dehavant = dehābhimānin – who possesses a body, thinking about oneself as a body);
deha-samudbhavān deha-samudbhava 2n.3 m.; BV: yebhyo dehasya samudbhavo ‘sti tān from which there is generation of the body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body; sam-ud-bhū – to spring up from, to produce, samudbhava – springing from, production);
janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhaiḥ janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkha 3n.3 n.; DV / [TP]: janmasya ca mṛtyoḥ ca jarāyāś ca duḥkhair iti from the miseries of birth, death and old age (from: jan – to be born, janman – birth; mṛ – to die, mṛtyu – death; jṝ to grow old, to decay, jarā – old age; kha – cavity, hole, nave; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth);
vimuktaḥ vimukta (vi-muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.1 m.liberated;
amṛtam a-mṛta 2n.1 n.not dead, nectar, immortality (from: mṛ – to die; [PP] mṛta – dead);
aśnute (to reach, to eat, to enjoy) Praes. Ā 1v.1he obtains;

 

textual variants


dehī → dehe (in the body);
vimukto ‘mṛtamvimukto ‘mṛtyum (liberated [he obtains] immortality);

The third pada of verse 14.20 is similar to the third pada of verse BhG 13.8;

 
 



Śāṃkara


katham adhigacchati ? ity ucyate—
guṇān etān yathoktān atītya jīvann evātikramya māyopādhi-bhūtān trīn dehī deha-samudbhavān dehotpatti-bīja-bhūtān janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhair janma ca mṛtyuś ca jarā ca duḥkhāni ca janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhāni tair jīvann eva vimuktaḥ san vidvān amṛtam aśnute | evaṃ mad-bhāvam adhigacchatīty arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


kartṛbhyo guṇebhyo ‚nyam akartāram ātmānaṃ paśyan bhagavadbhāvam adhigacchatīty uktam; sa bhagavadbhāvaḥ kīdṛśa ity ata āha
ayaṃ dehī dehasamudbhavān dehākārapariṇataprakṛtisamudbhavān etān sattvādīn trīn guṇān atītya tebhyo ‚nyaṃ jñānaikākāram ātmānaṃ paśyan janmamṛtyujarāduhkhair vimuktaḥ amṛtam ātmānam anubhavati / eṣa madbhāva ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tataś ca guṇa-kṛta-sarvānartha-nivṛttyā kṛtārtho bhavatīty āha guṇān iti | dehādyākāraḥ samudbhavaḥ pariṇāmo yeṣāṃ te deha-samudbhavāḥ | tān etāṃ trīn api guṇān atītyātikramya tat-kṛtair janmādibhir vimuktaḥ sann amṛtam aśnute paramānandaṃ prāpnoti
 

Madhusūdana


katham adhigacchatīty ucyate – guṇān iti | guṇān etān māyātmakās trīn sattva-rajas-tamo-nāmno deha-samudbhavān dehotpatti-bīja-bhūtān atītya jīvann eva tattva-jñānena bādhitvā janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkhair janmanā mṛtyunā jarayā duḥkhaiś cādhyātmikādibhir māyā-mayair vimukto jīvann eva tat-sambandha-śūnyaḥ san vidvān amṛtaṃ mokṣam aśnute prāpnoti
 

Viśvanātha


tataś ca so ‚pi guṇātīta evocyata ity āha guṇān iti
 

Baladeva


mad-bhāva-padenoktam arthaṃ sphuṭayati guṇān iti | dehī deha-madhya-stho ‚pi jīvo guṇa-puruṣa-viveka-balenaitān deha-samudbhavān dehotpādaāṃs trīn guṇān atītyollaṅghya janmādibhir vimukto ‚mṛtam ātmānam aśnute ‚nubhavati | so ‚yam asaṃsāritva-lakṣaṇo mad-bhāvo mat-para-bhakti-pātratā-lakṣaṇo vā | evaṃ vakṣyati brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā ity ādi
 
 


BhG 14.21

arjuna uvāca
kair liṅgais trīn guṇān etān atīto bhavati prabho
kim ācāraḥ kathaṃ caitāṃs trīn guṇān ativartate

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syntax


arjunaḥ (Arjuna) uvāca (he spoke):
he prabho (O powerful!),
kaiḥ liṅgaiḥ (by what symptoms?) etān trīn guṇān (these three guṇas) atītaḥ (who has surpassed) bhavati (he is),
kim (what?) ācāraḥ (conduct),
katham ca (and how?, in what manner?) [saḥ] (he) etān trīn guṇān (these three guṇas) ativartate (he surpasses).

 

grammar

arjunaḥ arjuna 1n.1 m.white, clear, Arjuna;
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
kaiḥ kim sn. 3n.3 n.by what;
liṅgaiḥ liṅga 3n.3 n.by marks, by symptoms, by qualities (from: liṅg – to paint, to variegate);
trīn tri 2n.3 m. three;
guṇān guṇa 2n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
etān etat sn. 2n.3 m.these;
atītaḥ atīta (ati-i – to cross over) [PP] 1n.1 m.who has surpassed;
bhavati bhū (to be) Praes. P 1v.1he is;
prabho pra-bhu 8n.1 m.O perfect, O powerful, O master (from: pra- – prefix: in front, much; bhū – to be);
kim av. what? how? why? from where? (from: kim – what?);
ācāraḥ ācāra 1n.1 m. custom, good conduct (from: ā-car – to come near to);
katham av.how?, in what manner?
ca av.and;
etān etat sn. 2n.3 m.these;
trīn tri 2n.3 m. three;
guṇān guṇa 2n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
ativartate ati-vṛt (to cross over) Praes. Ā 1v.1he surpasses;

 

textual variants


trīn guṇān etān → tri-guṇān etān (these three guṇas);
 
 



Śāṃkara


jīvann eva guṇān atītyāmṛtam aśnute iti praśna-bījaṃ pratilabhyārjuna uvāca—
kair liṅgaiś cihnais trīn etān vyākhyātān guṇān atīto’tikrānto bhavati prabho, kim-ācāraḥ ? ko’sya ācāra iti kim-ācāraḥ | kathaṃ kena ca prakāreṇa etān trīn guṇān ativartate’tītya vartate
 

Rāmānuja


atha guṇātītasya svarūpasūcanācāraprakāraṃ guṇātyayahetuṃ ca pṛcchan arjuna uvāca
sattvādīn trīn guṇān etān atītaḥ kair liṅgaiḥ kair lakṣaṇaiḥ upalakṣito bhavati? kim ācāraḥ kenācāreṇa yukto ‚sau? asya svarūpāvagatiliṅgabhūtācāraḥ kīdṛśa ityarthaḥ / kathaṃ caitān kenopāyena sattvādīṃs trīn guṇān ativartate?
 

Śrīdhara


guṇān etān atītyāmṛtam aśnuta ity etat śrutvā guṇātītasya lakṣaṇam ācāraṃ guṇātyayopāyaṃ ca samyag bubhutsur arjuna uvāca kair iti | he prabho kair liṅgaiḥ kīdṛśair ātma-vyutpannaiś cihnair guṇātīto dehī bhavatīti lakṣaṇa-praśnaḥ | ka ācāro ‚syeti kim-ācāraḥ | kathaṃ vartata ity arthaḥ | kathaṃ ca kenopāyena etāṃs trīn api guṇān atītya vartate | tat kathayety arthaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


guṇān etān atītya jīvann evāmṛtam aśnuta ity etac chrutvā guṇātītasya lakṣaṇam cācāraṃ ca guṇātyayopāyaṃ ca samyag bubhutsur arjuna uvāca kair iti | etān guṇān atīto yaḥ sa kair liṅgair viśiṣṭo bhavati | yair liṅgaiḥ sa jñātuṃ śakyas tāni me brūhīty ekaḥ praśnaḥ | prabhutvād bhṛtya-duḥkhaṃ bhagavataiva nivāraṇīyam iti sūcayan sambodhayati prabho iti | ka ācāro ‚syeti kim-ācāraḥ | kiṃ yatheṣṭa-ceṣṭaḥ kiṃ vā niyantrita iti dvitīyaḥ praśnaḥ | kathaṃ vā kena ca prakāreṇaitāṃs trīn guṇān ativartate ‚tikrāmatīti guṇātītatvopāyaḥ ka iti tṛtīyaḥ praśnaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā ity ādinā dvitīyādhyāye pṛṣṭam apy arthaṃ punas tato ‚pi viśeṣa-bubhūtsayā pṛcchati kair liṅgaiḥ ity ekaḥ praśnaḥ | kaiś cihnais triguṇātītaḥ sa jñeya ity arthaḥ | kim ācāra iti dvitīyaḥ | kathaṃ caitān iti tṛtīyaḥ | guṇātītatva-prāpteḥ kiṃ sādhanam ity arthaḥ | sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā ity ādau sthita-prajño guṇātītaḥ kathaṃ syād iti tadānīṃ na pṛṣṭam idānīṃ tu pṛṣṭam iti viśeṣaḥ
 

Baladeva


guṇātītasya lakṣaṇam ācāraṃ ca guṇātyaya-sādhanaṃ cārjunaḥ pṛcchati kair ity ardhakena | prathamaḥ praśnaḥ kaiś cihnair guṇātīto jñātuṃ śakya ity arthaḥ | kim ācāra iti dvitīyaḥ sa kiṃ yatheṣṭācāro niyatācāro vety arthaḥ | kathaṃ caitān iti tṛtīyaḥ kena sādhanena guṇān atyetīty arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 14.22

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
prakāśaṃ ca pravṛttiṃ ca moham eva ca pāṇḍava
na dveṣṭi saṃpravṛttāni na nivṛttāni kāṅkṣati

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
he pāṇḍava (O son of Pāṇḍu!),
[yaḥ] (he who) prakāśam ca (and enlightment) pravṛttim ca (and activity) moham eva ca (and even bewilderment) [etāni] sampravṛttāni (when they occur) na dveṣṭi (he does not hate),
[yaḥ] (he who) [etāni] nivṛttāni (when they stop) na kāṅkṣati (he does not desire),

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
prakāśam prakāśa 2n.1 m.light, manifested, illuminated, enlightment (from: pra-kāś – to become visible, to shine);
ca av.and;
pravṛttim pravṛtti 2n.1 f.activity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);
ca av.and;
moham moha 2n.1 m.bewilderment, confusion (from: muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
pāṇḍava pāṇḍava 8n.1 m.O son of Pāṇḍu (from: pāṇḍu – white, pale);
na av.not;
dveṣṭi dviṣ (to hate) Praes. P 1v.1he hates;
saṁpravṛttāni sam-pra-vṛtta (sam-pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass) [PP] 2n.3 n.when they occur;
na av.not;
nivṛttāni ni-vṛtta (ni-vṛt – to stop, to turn back) [PP] 2n.3 n.when they stop;
kāṅkṣati kāṅkṣ (to desire, to expect) Praes. P 1v.1he desires;

 

textual variants


moham → moha (bewilderment);
saṁpravṛttānisaṁnivṛttāni (zaheldch);
na nivṛttāni nivṛttāni na (when they stop [he] does not [hate]);
 
 



Śāṃkara


guṇātītasya lakṣaṇaṃ guṇātītatvopāyaṃ cārjunena pṛṣṭo’smin śloke praśna-dvayārthaṃ prativacanaṃ bhagavān uvāca | yat tāvat kair liṅgair yukto guṇātīto bhavatīti tat śṛṇu—

prakāśaṃ ca sattvakāryaṃ pravṛttiṃ ca rajaḥkāryaṃ moham eva ca tamaḥkāryam ity etāni na dveṣṭi saṃpravṛttāni samyagviṣayabhāvena udbhūtāni—mama tāmasaḥ pratyayo jātaḥ, tenāhaṃ mūḍhaḥ | tathā rājasī pravṛttir mama utpannā duḥkhātmikā, tenāhaṃ rajasā pravartitaḥ pracalitaḥ svarūpāt | kaṣṭaṃ mama vartate yo’yaṃ matsvarūpāvasthānāt bhraṃśaḥ | tathā sāttviko guṇaḥ prakāśātmā māṃ vivekitvam āpādayan sukhe ca sajayan badhnātīti tāni dveṣṭy asamyag-darśitvena | tat evaṃ guṇātīto na dveṣṭi saṃpravṛttāni | yathā ca sāttvikādipuruṣaḥ sattvādikāryāṇi ātmānaṃ prati prakāśya nivṛttāni kāṅkṣati, na tathā guṇātīto nivṛttāni kāṅkṣatīty arthaḥ | etat na parapratyakṣaṃ liṅgam | kiṃ tarhi ? svātmapratyakṣatvāt ātmārtham eva etat lakṣaṇam | na hi svātmaviṣayaṃ dveṣamākāṅkṣāṃ vā paraḥ paśyati

 

Rāmānuja


ātmavyatirikteṣu vastvaniṣṭeṣu saṃpravṛttāni sattvarajastamasāṃ kāryāṇi prakāśapravṛttimohākhyāni yo na dveṣṭi, tathā ātmavyatirikteṣv iṣṭeṣu vastuṣu tāny eva nivṛttāni na kāṅkṣati
 

Śrīdhara


sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā [Gītā 2.54] ity ādinā dvitīye ‚dhyāye pṛṣṭam api dattottaram api punar viśeṣa-bubhūtsayā pṛcchatīti jñātvā prakārāntareṇa tasya lakṣaṇādikaṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca prakāśaṃ cety ādi ṣaḍbhiḥ | tatraikena lakṣaṇam āha prakāśam iti | prakāśaṃ ca sarva-dvāreṣu dehe ‚sminn iti pūrvoktaṃ sattva-kāryam | pravṛttiṃ ca rajaḥ-kāryam | mohaṃ ca tamaḥ-kāryam | upalakṣaṇam etat sattvādīnām | sarvāṇy api yathāyathaṃ sampravṛttāni svataḥ-prāptāni santi duḥkha-buddhyā yo na dveṣṭi | nivṛttāni ca santi sukha-buddhyā yo na kāṅkṣati, guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate iti caturthenānvayaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā [Gītā 2.54] ity ādinā pṛṣṭam api prajahāti yadā kāmān [Gītā 2.55] ity ādinā dattottaram api punaḥ prakārāntareṇa bubhūtsamānaḥ pṛcchatīty avadhāya prakārāntareṇa tasya lakṣaṇādikaṃ śrī-bhagavān uvāca prakāśaṃ cety ādi pañcabhiḥ ślokaiḥ | yas tāvat kair liṅgair yukto guṇātīto bhavatīti praśnas tasyottaraṃ śṛṇu | prakāśaṃ ca sarva-kāryaṃ | pravṛttiṃ ca rajaḥ-kāryam | mohaṃ ca tamaḥ-kāryam | upalakṣaṇam etat | sarvāṇy api guṇa-kāryāṇi yathāyathaṃ sampravṛttāni sva-sāmagrī-vaśād udbhūtāni santi duḥkha-rūpāṇy api duḥkha-buddhyā yo na dveṣṭi | tathā vināśa-sāmagrī-vaśān nivṛttāni tāni sukha-rūpāṇy api santi sukha-buddhyā yo na kāṅkṣati na kāmayate svapnavan mithyātva-niścayāt | etādṛśa-dveṣa-rāga-śūnyo yaḥ sa guṇātīta ucyata iti caturtha-śloka-gatenānvayaḥ | idaṃ ca svātma-pratyakṣaṃ lakṣaṇaṃ svārtham eva na parārtham | na hi svāśritau dveṣa-tad-abhāvau rāga-tad-abhāvau ca paraḥ pratyetum arhati
 

Viśvanātha


tatra kair liṅgair guṇātīto bhavatīti prathama-praśnasyottaram āha prakāśaṃ ca sarva-dvāreṣu dehe ‚smin prakāśa upajāyate iti sattva-kāryam | pravṛttiṃ ca rajaḥ-kāryam | mohaṃ ca tamaḥ-kāryam | upalakṣaṇam etat sattvādīnām | sarvāṇy api yathāyathaṃ sampravṛttāni svataḥ-prāptāni duḥkha-buddhyā yo na dveṣṭi | guṇa-kāryāṇy etāni nivṛttāni ca sukha-buddhyā yo na kāṅkṣati, sa guṇātīta ucyate iti caturthenānvayaḥ | sampravṛttānīti klīb-antam ārṣam
 

Baladeva


yadyapi sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā ity ādinā pṛṣṭam idaṃ prajahāti yadā kāmān ity ādinottaritaṃ ca, tathāpi viśeṣa-jijñāsayā pṛcchatīti vidhāntareṇa tasya lakṣāṇādīny āha bhagavān prakāśaṃ cety ādi pañcabhiḥ | tatraikena lakṣaṇaṃ sva-saṃvedyam āha prakāśaṃ sattva-kāryaṃ pravṛttiṃ rajaḥ-kāryaṃ mohaṃ tamaḥ-kāryaṃ etāni trīṇi sampravṛttāny utpādaka-sāmagrī-vaśāt prāptāni duḥkha-rūpāṇy api duḥkha-buddhyā yo na dveṣṭi, vināśaka-sāmagrī-vaśān nivṛttāni vinaṣṭāni tāni sukha-rūpāny api sukha-buddhyā yo nākāṅkṣati, etādṛśa-dveṣa-rāga-śūnyo guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate iti caturthenānvayaḥ | svagatau dveṣa-tad-abhāvau rāga-tad-abhāvau ca paro na veditum arhatīti sva-saṃvedyam idaṃ lakṣaṇam
 
 


BhG 14.23

udāsīnavad āsīno guṇair yo na vicālyate
guṇā vartanta ity eva yo vatiṣṭhati neṅgate

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syntax


yaḥ (he who) udāsīna-vat (as if neutral) āsīnaḥ (situated) guṇaiḥ (by guṇas) na vicālyate (he is not moved),
guṇāḥ eva (the guṇas only) vartante iti (they act)
yaḥ (he who) avatiṣṭhati (stays),
na iṅgate (he does not flicker),

 

grammar

udāsīnavat av.as if neutral (from: ud-ās – to sit away, udāsīna – indifferent, neutral; -vat – suffix: as, like);
āsīnaḥ āsīna 1n.1 m.being seated, being present (from: ās – to sit, to exist);
guṇaiḥ guṇa 3n.3 m. by qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
na av.not;
vicālyate vi-cal (to move, to shake) Praes. pass. 1v.1he is moved;
guṇāḥ guṇa 1n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
vartante vṛt (to move, to happen, to act) Praes. Ā 1v.3they act;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
avatiṣṭhati ava-sthā (to reach down, to stay) Praes P 1v.1he stays;
na av.not;
iṅgate iṅg (to flicker) Praes. Ā 1v.1he flickers;

 

textual variants


ity eva ity evaṁ (it is thus);
yo ‘vatiṣṭhatiyo jñas tiṣṭhati / no ‘nutiṣṭhati / yo ‘nutiṣṭhati (he, knowing, stays / our he stays / he who stays);

The first pada of verse 14.23 is similar to the third pada of verse BhG 9.9;

 
 



Śāṃkara


atha idānīṃ guṇātītaḥ kim-ācāraḥ ? iti praśnasya prativacanam āha—

udāsīnavad yathā udāsīno na kasyacit pakṣaṃ bhajate, tathāyaṃ guṇātītatvopāya-mārge’vasthita āsīna ātmavid guṇair yaḥ saṃnyāsī na vicālyate viveka-darśanāvasthātaḥ | tad etat sphuṭīkaroti—guṇāḥ kārya-karaṇa-viṣayākāra-pariṇatā anyonyasmin vartante iti yo’vatiṣṭhati | chando-bhaṅga-bhayāt parasmaipada-prayogaḥ | yo’nutiṣṭhatīti vā pāṭhāntaram | neṅgate na calati, svarūpāvastha eva bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


udāsīnavad āsīnaḥ guṇavyatiriktātmāvalokanatṛptyā anyatrodāsīnavad āsīnaḥ, guṇair dveṣākāṅkṣādvāreṇe yo na vicālyate guṇāḥ sveṣu kāryeṣu prakāśādiṣu vartanta ity anusandhāya yas tūṣṇīm avatiṣṭhate / neṅgate na guṇakāryānuguṇaṃ ceṣṭate
 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ sva-saṃvedyaṃ guṇātītasya lakṣaṇam uktvā para-saṃvedyaṃ tasya lakṣaṇaṃ vaktuṃ dvitīya-praśnasya kim ācāra ity asyottaram āha udāsīnavad iti tribhiḥ | udāsīnavat sākṣitayāsīnaḥ sthitaḥ san guṇair guṇa-kāryaiḥ sukha-duḥkhādibhir na yo vicālyate svarūpān na pracyavate api tu guṇā eva svakāryeṣu vartante | etair mama sambandha eva nāstīti viveka-jñānena yas tuṣṇīm avatiṣṭhati | parasmaipadam ārṣam | neṅgate na calati
 

Madhusūdana


no commentary up to the verse BhG 14.24
 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 14.25
 

Baladeva


atha para-saṃvedya-lakṣaṇaṃ vaktuṃ kim ācāraḥ iti dvitīya-praśnasyottaram āha udāsīneti tribhiḥ | udāsīno madhyastho yathā vivādinoḥ pakṣagrahaiḥ sva-mādhyasthyān na vicālyate, tayā sukha-duḥkhādi-bhāvena parṇatair guṇair yo nātmāvasthitair vicālyate, kintu guṇāḥ sva-kāryeṣu prakāśādiṣu vartante | mama tair na sambandha iti niścitya tūṣṇīm avatiṣṭhate | neṅgate guṇa-kāryānurūpeṇa na ceṣṭate | guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate iti tṛtīyenānvayaḥ
 
 


BhG 14.24

sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ svasthaḥ sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ
tulya-priyāpriyo dhīras tulya-nindātma-saṃstutiḥ

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syntax


sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ (for whom pleasure and distress are the same) svasthaḥ (self-sufficient) sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ (for whom earth, stone and gold are the same) tulya-priyāpriyaḥ (for whom pleasing and displeasing are equal) dhīraḥ (wise) tulya-nindātma-saṁstutiḥ (for whom blame and own praise are equal),

 

grammar

sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ sama-duḥkha-sukha 1n.1 m.; BV: yasya duḥkhaṁ ca sukhaṁ ca same staḥ saḥfor whom pleasure and distress are the same (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving not smooth; or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā);
svasthaḥ sva-stha 1n.1 m.; svasmin sthita iti self-abiding, self-sufficient, independent, healthy (from: sva – own; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ sama-loṣṭa-aśma-kāñcana 1n.1 m.; DV / BV: yasya loṣṭaṁ ca aśmaṁ ca kāñcanaṁ ca samāni santi saḥfor whom earth, stone and gold are the same (from: sama – the same, equal, equivalent; – to cut, zbierać, loṣṭa – a lump of earth; aśma – stone; kāñcana – gold, wealth);
tulya-priyāpriyaḥ tulya-priya-apriya 1n.1 m.; DV / BV: yasya priyaṁ cāpriyaṁ ca tulye staḥ saḥ for whom pleasing and displeasing are equal (from: tul – to lift, to weigh, to measure, tulā – weight, tulya – equal, the same, similar; prī – to please, priya – liked, dear, pleasant; a-priya – not liked, unpleasant);
dhīraḥ dhīra 1n.1 m.steady, calm, sober, wise (from: dhṛ – to hold or dhā to put);
tulya-nindātma-saṁstutiḥ tulya-nindā-ātma-saṁstuti 1n.1 m.; BV / DV: yasya nindā cātmanaḥ saṁstutiś ca tulye staḥ saḥfor whom blame and own praise are equal (from: tul – to lift, to weigh, to measure, tulā – weight, tulya – equal, the same, similar; nind – to criticize, nindā – blame, reproach; ātman – self, own; sam-xstu – to praise, to sing, saṁ-stuti – praise, prayer, hymn);

 

textual variants


sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ svasthaḥ sama-duḥkha-sukha-svapnaḥ / sama-duḥkha-sukha-svasthaḥ (for whom pleasure, distress and sleep are the same / for whom pleasure, distress and health are the same);

The second pada of verse 14.24 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 6.8;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ same duḥkha-sukhe yasya saḥ sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ, svasthaḥ sve ātmani sthitaḥ prasannaḥ sama-loṣṭāśma-kāñcanaḥ loṣṭaṃ cāśmā ca kāñcanaṃ ca loṣṭāśmakāñcanāni samāni yasya saḥ samaloṣṭāśmakāñcanaḥ, tulyapriyāpriyaḥ priyaṃ cāpriyaṃ ca priyāpriye tulye same yasya so’yaṃ tulyapriyāpriyaḥ, dhīro dhīmān, tulyanindātmasaṃstutiḥ nindā ca ātmasaṃstuti ca nindātmasaṃstutī, tulye nindātmasaṃstutī yasya yateḥ sa tulyanindātmasaṃstutiḥ
 

Rāmānuja


commentary under the verse BhG 14.25
 

Śrīdhara


api ca sameti | same sukha-duḥkhe yasya | yataḥ svasthaḥ svarūpa eva sthitaḥ | ataeva samāni loṣṭāśma-kājcanāni yasya | tulye piryāpriye sukha-duḥkha-hetu-bhūte yasya | dhīro dhīmān | tulyo nindā cātmanaḥ saṃstutiś ca yasya
 

Madhusūdana


same duḥkha-sukhe dveṣa-rāga-śūnyatayānātma-dharmatayānṛtatayā ca yasya sa sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ | kasmād evaṃ yasmāt svasthaḥ svasminn ātmany eva sthito dvaita-darśana-śūnyatvāt | ata eva samāni heyopādeya-bhāva-rahitāni loṣṭāśma-kāñcanāni yasya sa tathā | loṣṭaḥ pāṃsu-piṇḍaḥ | ata eva tulye priyāpriye sukha-duḥkha-sādhane yasya hita-sādhanatva-buddhi-viṣayatvābhāvenopekṣaṇīyatvāt | dhīro dhīmān dhṛtimān vā | ata eva tulye | nindātma-saṃstutī doṣa-kīrtana-guṇa-kīrtane yasya sa guṇātīta ucyata iti dvitīya-gatenānvayaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


commentary under the verse BhG 14.25
 

Baladeva


kiṃ ca sameti | yato ‚yaṃ svasthaḥ svarūpa-niṣṭho ‚taeva sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥṅ same anātma-dharmatvāt tulye sukha-duḥkhe yasya saḥ | samāny anupādeyatayā tulyāni losṭrādīni yasya saḥ | loṣṭra-mṛt-piṇḍa-tulye priyāpriye sukha-duḥkha-sādhane vastunī yasya saḥ | dhīraḥ prakṛti-puruṣa-viveka-kuśalaḥ | tulye nindātma-saṃstutī yasya saḥ | tat-prayojakayor doṣa-guṇayor ātma-gatatvābhāvād ity arthaḥ | ya īdṛśo guṇatītaḥ sa ucyata iti dvitīyenānvayaḥ
 
 


BhG 14.25

mānāvamānayos tulyas tulyo mitrāri-pakṣayoḥ
sarvārambha-parityāgī guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate

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syntax


yaḥ (which) mānāpamānayoḥ tulyaḥ (the same in honour and dishonour) mitrāri-pakṣayoḥ tulyaḥ (towards the sides of friends and enemies) sarvārambha-parityāgī (who abandons all undertakings) saḥ guṇātītaḥ (who has surpassed the guṇas) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

mānāvamānayoḥ māna-avamāna 7n.2 m.; DV: māne ca avamāne cetiin honour and dishonour (from: man – to think, māna – respect, honour, pride; ava-man – to despise, avamāna – disrespect, dishonour);
tulyaḥ tulya 1n.1 m.equal, the same, similar (from: tul – to lift, to weigh, to measure, tulā – weight);
tulyaḥ tulya 1n.1 m.equal, the same, similar (from: tul – to lift, to weigh, to measure, tulā – weight);
mitrāri-pakṣayoḥ mitra-ari-pakṣa 7n.2 m.; DV / [TP]: mitrāṇāṁ pakṣe ca arīṇām pakṣe cetitowards the sides of friends and enemies (from: mitra – friend, companion; to give, to surrender, a-ri – hostile; pakṣ – to take, to take side, pakṣa – wing, feather, side, party);
sarvārambha-parityāgī sarva-ārambha-parityāgin 1n.1 m.; [TP]: sarveṣām ārambhāṇām parityāgīti who abandons all undertakings (from: sarva – all, whole; ā-rabh – to reach, to undertake, to begin, ā-rambha – beginning, undertaking; pari-tyaj – to abandon, to give up, tyāga – leaving, abandonment; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
guṇātītaḥ guṇa-atīta 1n.1 m.; [TP]: guṇān atita itiwho has surpassed the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; ati-i – to cross over, atīta – who has surpassed);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


mānāvamānayos mānāpamānayos (in honour and dishonour);
sarvārambha-parityāgī → sarvāraṁbha-phala-tyāgī / sarvārambha-parityāge (in all undertakings abanding who abandons the fruit / in abandoning all undertakings);

The third pada of verse 14.25 is the same as the third pada of verse BhG 12.16;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
mānāpamānayos tulyaḥ samo nirvikāraḥ | tulyo mitrāri-pakṣayoḥ | yadyapy udāsīnā bhavanti kecit svābhiprāyeṇa, tathāpi parābhiprāyeṇa mitrāri-pakṣayor iva bhavantīti tulyo mitrāri-pakṣayor ity āha | sarvārambha-parityāgī | dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthāni karmāṇy ārabhyanta ity ārambhāḥ | sarvān ārambhān parityaktuṃ śīlam asyeti sarvārambha-parityāgī | deha-dhāraṇa-mātra-nimitta-vyatirekeṇa sarva-karma-parityāgīty arthaḥ | guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate
 

Rāmānuja


samaduḥkhasukhaḥ sukhaduḥkhayos samacittaḥ, svasthaḥ svasmin sthitaḥ / svātmaikapriyatvena tadvyatiriktaputrādijanmamaraṇādisukhaduḥkhayos samacitta ityarthaḥ / tata eva samaloṣṭāśmakāñcanaḥ / tata eva tulyapriyāpriyaḥ tulyapriyāpriyaviṣayaḥ / dhīraḥ prakṛtyātmavivekakuśalaḥ / tata eva tulyanindātmasaṃstutiḥ ātmani manuṣyādyabhimānakṛtaguṇāguṇanimittastutinindayoḥ svāsaṃbandhānusandhānena tulyacittaḥ / tatprayuktamānāvamānayoḥ tatprayuktamitrāripakṣayor api svasaṃbandhābhāvād eva tulyacittaḥ / tathā dehitvaprayuktasarvārambhaparityāgī / ya evaṃbhūtaḥ, sa guṇātīta ucyate
 

Śrīdhara


api ca māneti | māne ‚pamāne ca tulyaḥ | mitra-pakṣe ‚ripakṣe ca tulyaḥ | sarvān dṛṣṭādṛṣṭārthān ārambhān udyamān parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya saḥ | evambhūtācāra-yukto guṇātīta ucyate
 

Madhusūdana


mānaḥ sat-kāra ādarāpara-paryāyaḥ | apamānas tiraskāro ‚nādarāpara-paryāyaḥ | tayos tulyo harṣa-viṣāda-śūnyaḥ | nindā-stutī śabda-rūpe mānāpamānau tu śabdam antareṇāpi kāya-mano-vyāpāra-viśeṣāv iti bhedaḥ | atra pa-kāra-va-kārayoḥ pāṭha-vikalpe ‚py arthaḥ sa eva | tulyo mitrāri-pakṣayoḥ | mitra-pakṣasyevāri-pakṣasyāpi dveṣāviṣayaḥ svayaṃ tayor anugraha-nigraha-śūnya iti vā | sarvārambha-parityāgī | ārabhyanta ity ārambhāḥ karmāṇi tān sarvān parityaktuṃ śīlaṃ yasya sa tathā | deha-yātrā-mātra-vyatirekeṇa sarva-karma-parityāgīty arthaḥ | udāsīnavad āsīna ity ādy-ukta-prakārācāro guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate | yad uktam upekṣakatvādi tad-vidyodayāt pūrvaṃ yatna-sādhyaṃ vidyādhikāriṇā sādhanatvenānuṣṭheyam utpannāyāṃ tu vidyāyāṃ jīvan-muktasya guṇātītasyoktaṃ dharma-jātam ayatna-siddhaṃ lakṣaṇatvena tiṣṭhaty arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kim ācāraḥ iti dvitīya-praśnasyottaram āha udāsīnavad iti tribhiḥ | guṇa-kāryaiḥ sukha-duḥkhādibhir yo na vicālyate svarūpāvasthān na cyavate, api tu guṇa eva sva-sva-kāryeṣu vartanta ity eveti ebhir mama sambandha eva nāstīti viveka-jñānena yas tūṣṇīm avatiṣṭhati parasmaipadam ārṣam | neṅgate na kvāpi daihika-kṛtye yatate | guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate iti guṇātītasya etāni cihnāni etān ācārāṃś ca dṛṣṭvaiva guṇātīto vaktavyo na tu guṇātītatvopapatti-vāvadūko guṇātīto vaktavya iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


māneti sphuṭārthaḥ | nindāstutī vāg-vyāpāreṇa sādhye | mānāpamānau tu kāyamanovyāpāreṇāpi syātām iti bhedaḥ | sarveti deha-yātrā-mātrād anyat sarva-karma grāhyam | ya īdṛśo guṇātītaḥ undāsīnavat ity ādy uktā yasyācārḥ parair api saṃvedyāḥ sa guṇātīto bodhyo na tu tad-upapatti-vāvadūka iti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 14.26

māṃ ca yo ‘vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate
sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate

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yaḥ (he who) mām (me) avyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena (with undeviating yoga of devotion) sevate (he serves),
saḥ (he) etān guṇān (these guṇas) samatītya (after surpassing)
brahma-bhūyāya (for the state of Brahman) kalpate (he is eligible).

 

grammar

mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
ca av.and;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
avyabhicāreṇa a-vyabhicāra 3n.1 m.with undeviating, constant (from: vi-abhi-√car – to act in an unfriendly way, to offend, vyabhicāra – going astray, deviating);
bhakti-yogena bhakti-yoga 3n.1 m.; [TP]: bhaktyā yogenetiwith the yoga of devotion (from: bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhakta – distributed, divided, loved; worshipper, devotee, loving; bhakti – devotion, love, fondness; yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
sevate sev (to serve) Praes. Ā 1v.1he serves;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
guṇān guṇa 2n.3 m.qualities, virtues, threads (from: grah – to take);
samatītya sam-ati-i (to cross over) absol.after surpassing;
etān etat sn. 2n.3 m.these;
brahma-bhūyāya brahma-bhūya 4n.1 ṁ.x; [TP]: brahmaṇo bhūyāyetifor the state of Brahman (from: bṛh – to increase, brahman – spirit, the Vedas; bhū – to be, bhūya – being);
kalpate kḷp (to be fit for, to correspond, to be able) Praes. Ā 1v.1he is eligible;

 

textual variants


sevatesevyate (he is served);
samatītyaitānsamatītyainān / samatītyetān / samatītyaitā (after surpassing these / after surpassing those gone / after surpassing, they);
kalpatekalpyate (he is eligible);

The fourth pada of verse 14.26 is the same as the fourth pada of verse BhG 18.53;

 
 



Śāṃkara


udāsīnavad ity ādi guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate ity etad-antam uktaṃ yāvat yatna-sādhyaṃ tāvat saṃnyāsino’nuṣṭheyaṃ guṇātītatva-sādhanaṃ mumukṣoḥ | sthirī-bhūtaṃ tu sva-saṃvedyaṃ sad guṇātītasya yater lakṣaṇaṃ bhavatīti | adhunā kathaṃ ca trīnguṇān ativartate ? ity asya praśnasya prativacanam āha—

māṃ ca īśvaraṃ nārāyaṇaṃ sarva-bhūta-hṛdayāśritaṃ yo yatiḥ karmī vā avyabhicāreṇa na kadācid yo vyabhicarati bhakti-yogena bhajanaṃ bhaktiḥ saiva yogas tena bhakti-yogena sevate, sa guṇān samatītya etān yathoktān | brahma-bhūyāya | bhavanaṃ bhūyaḥ, brahma-bhūyāya brahma-bhavanāya mokṣāya kalpate samartho bhavatīty arthaḥ

 

Rāmānuja


athaivaṃrūpaguṇātyaye pradhānahetum āha
„nānyaṃ guṇebhyaḥ kartāram” ityādinoktena prakṛtyātmavivekānusandhānamātreṇa na guṇātyayaḥ saṃpatsyate; tasyānādikālapravṛttiviparītavāsanābādhyatvasaṃbhavāt / mām satyasaṅkalpaṃ paramakāruṇikam āśritavātsalyajaladhim, avyabhicārena aikāntyaviśiṣṭena bhaktiyogena ca yaḥ sevate, sa etān sattvādīn guṇān duratyayān atītya brahmabhūyāya brahmatvāya kalpate; brahmabhāvayogyo bhavati / yathāvasthitam ātmānam amṛtam avyayaṃ prāpnotītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


kathaṃ caitān trīn guṇān ativartate iti | asya praśnasyottaram āha māṃ ceti | ca-śabdo ‚vadhāraṇārthaḥ | mām eva parameśvaram avyabhicāreṇa ekāntena bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate sa etān guṇān samatītya samyag atikramya brahma-bhūyāya brahma-bhāvāya mokṣāya kalpate samartho bhavati
 

Madhusūdana


adhunā katham etān guṇān ativartata iti tṛtīya-praśnasya prativacanam āha māṃ ceti | cas tv-arthaḥ | mām eveśvaraṃ nārāyaṇaṃ sarva-bhūtāntaryāmiṇaṃ māyayā kṣetrajñatām āgataṃ paramānanda-ghanaṃ bhagavantaṃ vāsudevam avyabhicāreṇa parama-prema-lakṣaṇena bhakti-yogena dvādaśādhyāyoktena yaḥ sevate sadā cintayati sa mad-bhakta etān prāg-uktān guṇān samatītya samyag-atikramyādvaita-darśanena bādhitvā brahma-bhūyāya brahma-bhavanāya mokṣāya kalpate samartho bhavati | sarvadā bhagavac-cintanam eva guṇātītatvopāya ity arthaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


kathaṃ caitān trīn guṇān ativartate iti tṛtīyapraśnasyottaram āha māṃ ceti | ca evārthe | mām eva śyāmasundarākāraṃ parameśvaraṃ bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate sa eva brahma-bhūyāya brahmatvāya brahmānubhavāya yāvat bhaktyāham ekayā grāhyaḥ iti mad-vākye ekayeti viśeṣaṇopanyāsāt mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṃ taranti te ity atrāpi eva-kāra-prayogāt bhaktyā vinā prakārāntareṇa brahmānubhavo na bhavatīti niścayāt | bhakti-yogena kīdṛśena | avyabhicāreṇa karma-jñānādy-amiśreṇa niṣkāma-karmaṇo nyāsa-śravaṇāt | jñānaṃ ca mayi sannyaset iti jñānināṃ carama-daśāyāṃ jñānasyāpi nyāsa-śravaṇāt | bhakti-yogasya tu kvāpi nyāsāśravaṇāt bhakti-yoga eva so ‚vyabhicāraḥ | tena karma-yogam iva jñāna-yogam api parityājya yady avyabhicāreṇa kevalenaiva bhaktiyogena sevate, tarhi jñānī api guṇātīto bhavati, nānyathā | ananya-bhaktas tu nirguṇo mad-apāśrayaḥ ity ekādaśokter guṇātīto bhavaty eva | atra idaṃ tattvaṃ VEṛṣE ity atrāsaṅginaḥ karmiṇo jñānino vā sāttvikatvenaiva sādhakatvāvagates tat-sāhacaryāt nirguṇo mad-apāśrayaḥ iti bhaktaḥ sādhaka evāvagamyate | tataś ca jñānī jñāna-siddhaḥ sann eva sāttvikatvaṃ parityajya guṇātīto bhavati | bhaktas tu sādhaka-daśām ārabhyaiva guṇātīto bhavatīty artho labhyate | atra ca-kāro ‚vadhāraṇārthaḥ iti svāmi-caraṇāḥ | mām eveśvaraṃ nārāyaṇam avyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena dvādaśādyāyoktena yaḥ sevata iti madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāś ca vyācakṣate
 

Baladeva


kathaṃ caitāṃs trīn guṇān ativartata iti tṛtīya-praśnasyottaram āha māṃ ceti | co ‚vadhāraṇe | nānyaṃ guṇebhyaḥ karāram ity ādy-uktyā yo guṇa-puruṣa-viveka-khyātim avāpa tayaiva tasyā guṇātyayo na saṃsidhyati, kintu tadvān api yo māṃ kṛṣṇam eva māyā-guṇāspṛṣṭaṃ māyā-niyantāraṃ nāyāyaṇādi-rūpeṇa bahudhāvirbhūtaṃ cid-ānanda-ghanaṃ sārvajñy-ādi-guṇa-ratnālayam avyabhicāreṇaikāntikena bhakti-yogena sevate śrayati sa etān duratyayān api guṇān atītyākramya brahma-bhūyāya kalpate guṇāṣṭa-viśiṣṭatvāya[*ENDNOTE] nija-dharmāya yogyo bhavati | taṃ dharmaṃ labhata ity arthaḥ | jīve brahma-śabdas tūkta eva prk, tathā ca bhakti-śiraskayaiva tad-viveka-khyātyā jīvasya svarūpa-lābho, na tu kevalayā tayety uktam | yat tu brahma-bhūyāya ity anena mad-rūpatāṃ sa yātīti pārtha-sārathinopadiṣṭam iti vyācaṣṭe | tan-niravadhānam eva tenaivedaṃ jñānam ity ādinā mokṣe ‚pi | svarūpa-bhedasyābhihitatvāt nirañjanaḥ paramaṃ sāmyam upaiti ity ādi śrutiṣv api tatra tasya dṛṣṭatvād aṇutva-vibhutvādi-nitya-dharma-kṛtatvena nityatvāc ca tad-bhedasya tasmād guṇāṣṭaka-viśiṣṭatvam eva brahaiva san brahmāpy eti iti śrutyau tu brahma-sadṛśaḥ san bramāpy eti prāpnotīty arthaḥ | evaupamye ‚vadhāraṇe iti viśva-prakāśāt | vavā yathā tathaivevaṃ sāmye ity amara-koṣāc ca | anyathā brahma-bhāvottaro brahmāpyayo na saṅgaccheta
 
 


BhG 14.27

brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham amṛtasyāvyayasya ca
śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca

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syntax


aham hi (indeed I) brahmaṇaḥ (of Brahman) avyayasya ca amṛtasya (and of the unchangeable immortality) śāśvatasya ca dharmasya (and of the eternal law) aikāntikasya ca sukhasya (and of the exclusive happiness) pratiṣṭhā [asmi] (I am the basis).

 

grammar

brahmaṇaḥ brahman 6n.1 n.of the spirit, of the Veda (from: bṛh – to increase);
hi av.because, just, indeed, surely;
pratiṣṭhā pratiṣṭhā 1n.1 f.base, foundation, position (from: prati-sthā – to stand firmly);
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
amṛtasya a-mṛta 6n.1 n.of not dead, of eternal, of immortality (from: mṛ – to die; [PP] mṛta – dead);
avyayasya a-vyaya 6n.1 n.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
ca av.and;
śāśvatasya śāśvata 6n.1 m.of the eternal, of the permanent;
ca av.and;
dharmasya dharma 6n.1 m.of the law (from: dhṛ – to hold);
sukhasya sukha 6n.1 n.of pleasure, of comfort (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness, literally: good hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth;
or from: su-sthā; opposite to: duḥkha – pain, difficulty);
aikāntikasya / ekāntikasya ekāntika 6n.1 n.of the exclusive, of the devoted to one object (from: eka – one; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death);
ca av.and;

 
 



Śāṃkara


kuta etad ? ity ucyate—

brahmaṇaḥ paramātmano hi yasmāt pratiṣṭhāhaṃ pratitiṣṭhaty asmin iti pratiṣṭhāhaṃ pratyag-ātmā | kīdṛśasya brahmaṇaḥ ? amṛtasya avināśinaḥ | avyayasya avikāriṇaḥ | śāśvatasya ca nityasya dharmasya dharma-jñānasya jñāna-yoga-dharma-prāpyasya sukhasya ānanda-rūpasya aikāntikasya avyabhicāriṇo’mṛtādi-svabhāvasya paramānanda-rūpasya paramātmanaḥ pratyag-ātmā pratiṣṭhā |
samyag-jñānena paramātmatayā niścīyate | tad etad brahma-bhūyāya kalpata ity uktam | yayā ceśvara-śaktyā bhaktānugrahādi-prayojanāya brahma pratiṣṭhate pravartate, sā śaktir brahmaivāham | śakti-śaktimator ananyatvād ity abhiprāyaḥ | athavā, brahma-śabda-vācyatvāt sa-vikalpakaṃ brahma | tasya brahmaṇo nirvikalpako’ham eva nānyaḥ pratiṣṭhāśrayaḥ | kiṃ-viśiṣṭasya ? amṛtasyāmaraṇa-dharmakasyāvyayasya vyaya-rahitasya | kiṃ ca, śāśvatasya ca nityasya dharmasya jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇasya sukhasya taj-janitasya aikāntikasya ekānta-niyatasya ca, pratiṣṭhāham iti vartate

 

Rāmānuja


hiśabdo hetau; yasmād aham avyabhicāribhaktiyogena sevito ‚mṛtasyāvyayasya ca brahmaṇaḥ pratiṣṭhā, tathā śāśvatasya ca dharmasya atiśayitanityāiśvaryasya; eikāntikasya ca sukhasya „vāsudevaḥ sarvam” ityādinā nirdiṣṭasya jñāninaḥ prāpyasya sukhasyetyarthaḥ / yady api śāśvatadharmaśabdaḥ prāpakavacanaḥ, tathāpi pūrvottarayoḥ prāpyarūpatvena tatsāhacaryādayam api prāpyalakṣakaḥ / etad uktaṃ bhavati pūrvatra „daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī mama māyā duratyayā / mām eva ye prapadyante” ity ārabhya guṇātyayasya tatpūrvakākṣarair bhagavatprāptīnāṃ ca bhagavatprapattyekopāyatāyāḥ pratipāditatvād ekāntabhagavatprapattyekopāyo guṇātyayaḥ tatpūrvakabrahmabhāvaś ceti
 

Śrīdhara


tatra hetum āha brahmaṇo hīti | hi yasmād brahmaṇo ‚haṃ pratiṣṭhā pratimā | ghanībhūtaṃ brahmaivāham | yathā ghanībhūtaḥ prakāśa eva sūrya-maṇḍalaṃ tadvad ity arthaḥ | tathāvyayasya nityasya | amṛtasya mokṣasya ca nitya-muktatvāt | tathā tat-sādhanasya śāśvatasya dharmasya ca śiddja-sattvātmakatvāt | tathaikāntikasya akhaṇḍitasya sukhasya ca pratiṣṭhāham | paramānandaik-rūpatvāt | ato mat-sevino mad-bhāvasyāvaśyambhāvitvād yuktam evoktaṃ brahma-bhūyāya kalpata iti
 

Madhusūdana


atra hetum āha brahmaṇa iti | brahmaṇas tat-pada-vācyasya sopādhikasya jagad-utpatti-sthiti-laya-hetoḥ pratiṣṭhā pāramārthikaṃ nirvikalpalpakaṃ sac-cid-ānandātmakaṃ nirupādhikaṃ tat-pada-lakṣyam ahaṃ nivikalpako vāsudevaḥ pratitiṣṭhaty atreti pratiṣṭhā kalpita-rūpa-rahitam akalpitaṃ rūpam | ato yo mām upādhikaṃ brahma sevate sa brahma-bhūyāya kalpata iti yuktam eva |
kīdṛśasya brahmaṇaḥ pratiṣṭhāham ity ākāṅkṣāyāṃ viśeṣaṇāni amṛtasya vināśa-rahitasya, avyayasya vipariṇāma-rahitasya ca, śāśvatasyāpakṣaya-rahitasya ca, dharmasya jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇa-dharma-prāpyasya, sukhasya paramānanda-rūpasya | sukhasya viṣayendriya-saṃyogajatvaṃ vārayati aikāntikasyāvyabhicāriṇaḥ sarvasmin deśe kāle ca vidyamānasyaikāntika-sukha-rūpasyety arthaḥ | etādṛśasya brahmaṇo yasmād ahaṃ vāstavaṃ svarūpaṃ tasmān mad-bhaktaḥ saṃsārān mucyata iti bhāvaḥ | tathā coktaṃ brahmaṇā bhagavantaṃ śrī-kṛṣṇaṃ prati –
ekas tvam ātmā puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ
satyaḥ svayaṃ jyotir ananta ādyaḥ |
nityo ‚kṣaro ‚jasra-sukho nirañjanaḥ
pūrṇo ‚dvayo mukta upādhito ‚mṛtaḥ || [10.14.23] iti |
atra sarvopādhi-śūnya ātmā brahma tvam ity arthaḥ | śukenāpi stutim antareṇaivoktam –
sarveṣām api vastūnāṃ bhāvārtho bhavati sthitaḥ |
tasyāpi bhagavān kṛṣṇaḥ kim atad vastu rūpyatām || [BhP 10.14.57] iti |
sarveṣām eva kārya-vastūnāṃ bhāvārthaḥ sattā-rūpaḥ paramārtho bhavati kāryākāreṇa jāyamāne sopādhike brahmaṇi sthitaḥ kāraṇa-sattātiriktāyāḥ kārya-sattāyā anabhyupagamāt | tasyāpi bhavataḥ kāraṇasya sopādhikasya brahmaṇo bhāvārthaḥ sattā-rūpo ‚rtho bhagavān kṛṣṇaḥ sopādhikasya nirupādhike kalpitatvāt kalpitasya cādhiṣṭhānān atirekāt, bhagavataḥ kṛṣṇasya ca sarva-kalpanādhiṣṭhānatvena paramārtha-satya-nirupādhi-brahma-rūpatvāt | ataḥ kim atad-vastu tasmāc chrī-kṛṣṇād anyad vastu paramārthikaṃ kiṃ nirūpyatāṃ tad evaikaṃ paramārthikaṃ nānyat kim apīty arthaḥ | tad etad ihāpy uktaṃ brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham iti |
athavā tvad-bhaktas tvad-bhāvam āpnotu nāma kathaṃ nu brahma-bhāvāya kalpyate brahmaṇaḥ sakāśāt tavānyatvād ity āśaṅkyāha brahmaṇo hīti | brahmaṇaḥ paramātmanaḥ pratiṣṭhā paryāptir aham eva na tu mad-bhinnaṃ brahmety arthaḥ | tathāmṛtasya amṛtatvasya mokṣasya cāvyayasya sarvathānucchedyasya ca ca pratiṣṭhāham eva | mayy eva mokṣaḥ paryavastio mat-prāptir eva mokṣa ity arthaḥ | tathā śāśvatasya nitya-mokṣa-phalasya dharmasya jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇasya ca paryāptir aham eva | jñāna-niṣṭhā-lakṣaṇo dharmo mayy eva paryavasito na tena mad-bhinnaṃ kiṃcit prāpyam ity arthaḥ | tathaikāntikasya sukhasya ca paryāptir aham eva parmānanda-rūpatvān na mad-bhinnaṃ kiṃcit sukhaṃ prāpyam astīty arthaḥ | tasmād yuktam evoktaṃ mad-bhakto brahma-bhūyāya kalpata iti
 

Viśvanātha


nanu mad-bhaktānāṃ kathaṃ nirguṇa-brahmatva-prāptiḥ ? sā tu advitīya-tad-ekānubhavenaiva sambhavet | tatrāha brahmaṇo hīti | hi yasmāt parama-pratiṣṭhātvena prasiddhaṃ yad brahma tasyāpy ahaṃ pratiṣṭhā pratiṣṭhīyate ‚sminn iti pratiṣṭhā āśrayo ‚nna-mayādiṣu śrutiṣu sarvatraiva pratiṣṭhā-padasya tathārthatvāt | tathāmṛtasya pratiṣṭhā kiṃ svargīya-sudhāyāḥ ? na | avyayasya nāśa-rahitasya mokṣasyety arthaḥ | tathā śāśvatasya dharmasya sādhana-phala-daśayor api nitya-sthitasya bhakty-ākhyasya parama-dharmasyāhaṃ pratiṣṭhā, tathā tat-prāpyasyaikāntika-bhakta-sambandhinaḥ sukhasya premṇaś cāhaṃ pratiṣṭhā | ataḥ sarvasyāpi mad-adhīnatvāt kaivalya-kāmanayā kṛtena mad-bhajanena brahmaṇi līyamāno brahmatvam api prāpnoti |
atra brahmaṇo ‚haṃ pratiṣṭhā ghanībhūtaṃ brahmaivāhaṃ yathā ghanībhūta-prakāśa eva sūrya-maṇḍalaṃ tadvad ity arthaḥ iti svāmi-caraṇāḥ | sūryasya tejo-rūpatve ‚pi yathā tejasa āśrayatvam apy ucyate | evaṃ me kṛṣṇasya brahma-rūpatve ‚pi brahmaṇaḥ pratiṣṭhātvam api | atra śrī-viṣṇu-purāṇam api pramāṇam — śubhāśrayaḥ sa cittasya sarvagasya tathātmanaḥ [ViP 6.7.76] iti vyākhyātaṃ ca tatrāpi svāmi-caraṇaiḥ | sarvagasyātmanaḥ para-brahmaṇo ‚pi āśrayaḥ pratiṣṭhā | tad uktaṃ bhagavatā brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham iti | tathā viṣṇu-dharme ‚pi naraka-dvādaśī-prasaṅge –
prakṛtau puruṣe caiva brahmaṇy api sa prabhuḥ |
yathaika eva puruṣo vāsudevo vyavasthitaḥ || iti |
tatraiva māsarkṣa-pūjā-prasaṅe —
yathācyutas tvaṃ parataḥ parasmāt
sa brahma-bhūtāt parataḥ parātmā | iti |
tathā hari-vaṃśe ‚pi vipra-kumārānayana-prasaṅge arjunaṃ prati śrī-bhagavad-vākyaṃ —
tat-paraṃ paramaṃ brahma sarvaṃ vibhajate jagat |
mamaiva tad ghanaṃ tejo jñātum arhasi bhārata || (HV 2.114.11-12)
brahma-saṃhitāyām api (5.40) —
yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-
koṭīṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam |
tad brahma niṣkalam anantam aśeṣa-bhūtaṃ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṃ tam ahaṃ bhajāmi || iti |
aṣṭama-skandhe ca (8.24.38) —
madīyaṃ mahimānaṃc ca para-brahmeti śabditam |
vetsyasy anugṛhītaṃ me sampraśnair vivṛtaṃ hṛdi || iti bhagavad-uktiś ca |
madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādāś ca vyācakṣate sma yathā — nanu tvad-bhaktas tvad-bhāvam āpnotu nāma kathaṃ brahma-bhūyāya kalpate brahmaṇaḥ sakāśāt tavānyatvād ity āśaṅkyāha brahmaṇo hīti | pratiṣṭhā paryāptir aham eveti | paryāptiḥ paripūrṇatā ity amaraḥ |
parākṛta-mano-dvandvaṃ
paraṃ brahma narākṛti |
saundarya-sāra-sarvasvaṃ
vande nandātmajaṃ mahaḥ || ity upaślokayāmāsuś ca
 

Baladeva


nanu tad-viveka-khyātyā tvad-eka-bhaktyā ca guṇātīto labdha-svarūpo brahma-śabdito muktaḥ kathaṃ tiṣṭhed iti cet tatrāha brahmaṇo hīti | hir niścaye | brahmaṇas tat-pūrvakayā tayā sattvādyāvaraṇātyayād āvirbhāvita-svaguṇāṣṭakasyāmṛtasya mṛitir nirgatasyāvyayasya tādrūpyaṇaikarasasya muktasya mad-atipriyasyāham eva vijñānānanda-mūrtir ananta-guṇo niravadyaḥ suhṛtatamaḥ sarveśvaraḥ | pratiṣṭhā pratiṣṭhīyate ‚tra iti nirukteḥ paramāśrayo ‚tipriyo bhavāmīti tādṛśaṃ māṃ parayā bhaktyānubhavaṃs tiṣṭhatīti | na matto viśleṣa-leśo na ca punar āvartate, yad gatvā na nivartante muktānāṃ paramā gatiḥ iti smṛtibhyaḥ |
nanu muktas tvāṃ kathaṃ śrayeta śravaṇa-phalasya mukter lābhād iti ced asty atiśayitaṃ phalam iti bhāvenāha śāśvatasya sādhāraṇasya sukhasya ca vicitra-līlā-rasasyāham eva pratiṣṭheti | tīvrānanda-rūpa-tad-vibhūti-mal-līlānubhavāya mām eva samāśrayatīty evam āha śrutiḥ raso vai saḥ, rasaṃ hy evāyaṃ labdhvānandī bhavati [TaittU 2.7.1] iti
 
 


BhG 14.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi ṣaṭtriṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation


Thus [ends] the thirty-sixth chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan
śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde guṇa-vimardano / guṇa-traya-nirdeśo / guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yogo / tri-guṇa-viveko / sattva-rajas-tamo-guṇa-maya-jagad-varṇana-pūrvakaṃ / guṇātīta-sthiti-prāpti-sādhana-jñāna-nirdeśanaṃ / guṇātīta-yogo / jñāna-vijñāna-yogo / prakṛti- guṇa-bhedo / prakṛti-puruṣa-guṇa-bhedo / guṇa-traya-vicāro / guṇa-traya-guṇātīta-lakṣaṇa-vibhāga-yogo nāma catur-daśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the fourteenth chapter entitled: Friction of the Guṇas / Showing the Three Guṇas / The Yoga of Division into the Three Guṇas / Discussion on the Three Guṇas / The First Description of the World regarding the Nature of the Guṇas – Sattva, Rajas and Tamas / Th Description of Knowledge on Practice, Achieving and Surpassing the Guṇas / The Yoga of Surpassing the Guṇas / The Yoga of Knowledge and Wisdom / Divisions of the Guṇas of Nature / Division into Nature, Human and Guṇas / Discussion on the Three Guṇas / The Yoga of Divisions, Symptoms of Surpassing the Guṇas and the Three Guṇas.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


kṛṣṇādhīna-guṇāsaṅga-prasañjita-bhavāmbudhim |
sukhaṃ tarati mad-bhakta ity abhāṣi caturdaśe ||
 

Madhusūdana


parākṛtana-mad-bandhaṃ paraṃ brahma narākṛti |
saundarya-sāra-sarvasvaṃ vande nandātmajaṃ mahaḥ ||
iti śrīmat-paramahaṃsa-parivrājakācārya-śrī-viśveśvara-sarasvatī-pāda-śiṣya-śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-viracitāyāṃ śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā-gūḍhārtha-dīpikāyām guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yogo nāma caturdaśo ‚dhyāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


anartha eva traiguṇyaṃ nistraiguṇyaṃ kṛtārthatā |
tac ca bhaktyaiva bhavatīty adhyāyārtho nirūpitaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
caturdaśo ‚yaṃ gītāsu saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||
 

Baladeva


saṃsāro guṇa-yogaḥ syād vimokṣas tu guṇātyayaḥ |
tat-siddhir hari-bhaktyaivety etad buddhaṃ caturdaśāt ||