atha pañca-daśo ‘dhyāyaḥ – puruṣottama-yogaḥ

Now the fifteenth chapter: “The Yoga of the Supreme Person”


Śāṃkara


yasmān mad-adhīnaṃ karmiṇāṃ karma-phalaṃ jñānināṃ ca jñāna-phalam, ato bhakti-yogena māṃ ye sevante te mama prasādāj jñāna-prāpti-krameṇa guṇātītā mokṣaṃ gacchanti | kim u vaktavyam ātmanas tattvam eva samyak vijānanta ity ato bhagavān arjunenāpṛṣṭo’py ātmanas tattvaṃ vivakṣur uvāca ūrdhva-mūlam ity ādinā | tatra tāvad vṛkṣa-rūpaka-kalpanayā vairāgya-hetoḥ saṃsāra-svarūpaṃ varṇayati—viraktasya hi saṃsārāt bhagavat-tattva-jñāne’dhikāraḥ, nānyasyeti |
 

Rāmānuja


kṣetrādhyāye kṣetrakṣetrajñabhūtayoḥ prakṛtipuruṣayoḥ svarūpaṃ viśodhya viśuddhasyāparicchinnajñānaikākārasyaiva puruṣasya prākṛtaguṇasaṅgapravāhanimitto devādyākārapariṇataprakṛtisaṃbandho ‚nādir ity uktam / anantare cādhyāye puruṣasya kāryakāraṇobhayāvasthaprakṛtisaṃbandho guṇasaṅgamūlo bhagavataiva kṛta ity uktvā guṇasaṅgaprakāraṃ savistaraṃ pratipādya guṇasaṅganivṛttipūrvakātmayāthātmyāvāptiś ca bhagavadbhaktimūlety uktam / idānīṃ bhajanīyasya bhagavataḥ kṣarākṣarātmakabaddhamuktavibhūtimattām, vibhūtibhūtāt kṣarākṣarapuruṣadvayān nikhilaheyapratyanīkakalyāṇaiktānatayā atyantotkarṣeṇa visajātīyasya bhagavataḥ puruṣottamatvaṃ ca vaktum ārabhate / tatra tāvad asaṅgarūpaśastracchinnabandhām akṣarākhyavibhūtiṃ vaktuṃ chedyarūpabandhākāreṇa vitatam acitpariṇāmaviśeṣam aśvatthavṛkṣākāram kalpayan
 

Śrīdhara


vairāgyeṇa vinā jñānaṃ na ca bhaktir ataḥ sphuṭam |
vairāgyopaskṛtaṃ jñānam īśaḥ pañcadaśe ‚diśat ||
 

Madhusūdana


pūrvādhyāye bhagavtā saṃsāra-bandha-hetūn guṇān vyākhyāya teṣām atyayena brahma-bhāvo mokṣo mad-bhajanena labhyata ity uktam —
māṃ ca yo ‚vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate |
sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate || [Gītā 14.26] iti |
tatra manuṣyasya tava bhakti-yogena kathaṃ brahma-bhāva ity āśaṅkāyāṃ svasya brahma-rūpatā-jñāpanāya sūtra-bhūto ‚yaṃ śloko bhagavatoktaḥ –
brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham amṛtasyāvyayasya ca |
śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca ||[Gītā 14.27] iti |
asya sūtrasya vṛtti-sthānīyo ‚yaṃ pañcadaśo ‚dhyāya ārabhyate | bhagavataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇasya hi tattvaṃ jñātvā tat-prema-bhajanena guṇātītaḥ san brahma-bhāvaṃ katham āpnuyāl loka iti | tatra brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham ity ādi bhagavad-vacanam ākarṇya mama tulyo manuṣyo ‚yaṃ katham evaṃ vadatīti vismayāviṣṭam apratibhayā lajjayā ca kiṃcid api praṣṭum aśaknuvan tam arjunam ālakṣya kṛpayā sva-svarūpaṃ vivakṣuḥ śrī-bhagavān uvāca ūrdhveti |
 

Viśvanātha


saṃsāra-cchedako ‚saṅga ātmeśāṃśaḥ kṣarākṣarāt |
uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ iti pañcadaśe kathā ||
 

Baladeva


saṃsāra-cchedi vairāgyaṃ jīvo me ‚ṃśaḥ sanātanaḥ |
ahaṃ sarvottamaḥ śrīmān iti pañcadaśe smṛtam ||
 
 

BhG 15.1

śrī-bhagavān uvāca
ūrdhva-mūlam adhaḥ-śākham aśvatthaṃ prāhur avyayam
chandāṃsi yasya parṇāni yas taṃ veda sa veda-vit

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syntax


śrī-bhagavān (the glorious Lord) uvāca (he spoke):
ūrdhva-mūlam (whose roots are above) adhaḥ-śākham (whose branches are below) avyayam (imperishable) aśvattham (the holy fig tree) prāhuḥ (they call).
chandāṁsi (Vedic hymns) yasya (whose) parṇāni (leaves) [santi] (they are).
yaḥ (he who) tam (that) veda (he knows),
saḥ (he) veda-vit (knower of the Vedas).

 

grammar

śrī-bhagavān śrī-bhagavant 1n.1 m.; [TP]: śriyā yukto bhagavān itithe Lord united with majesty (from: śrī – lustre, majesty, fortune; bhaj – to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship, bhaga – a share, good fortune, opulence; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses, bhagavant – who possesses opulence);
uvāca vac (to speak) [Perf.] P 1v.1he spoke;
ūrdhva-mūlam ūrdhva-mūla 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya mūlam ūrdhvam asti saḥwhose root is above (from: vṛdh – to grow, ūrdhva – upper, high, av. ūrdhvam – above; mūla – root, source, basis, foundation);
adhaḥ-śākham adhaḥ-śākha 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya śākhā adhaḥ santi saḥwhose branches are below (from: adhas av. – down, below; śākhā – branch, part, division);
aśvattham aśvattha 2n.1 m.under which a horse stands; holy fig tree / [Ficus Religiosa] (from: aśva – horse; sthā – to stand; other names of this tree: pippala, bodhi-druma; according to tradition: śvaḥ āgāmi-divasa-paryantaṁ sthāsyatīti śvattham, na śvattham iti aśvattham vinaśvaram – śvas [tomorrow] – lasting till the end of the coming day – this is śvattha, not lasting till the end of the coming day – this is aśvattha, or perishable);
prāhuḥ pra-ah (to declare) [Perf.] P 1v.3they declared (inflected only in [Perf.], other forms from: brū);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 n.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
chandāṁsi chandas 1n.3 n. Vedic hymns (from: chandas – desire, will);
yasya yat sn. 6n.1 m.whose;
parṇāni parṇa 1n.3 n. leaves, feathers (from: parṇ – to be green);
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
veda vid (to know, to understand) [Perf.] P 1v.1 (meaning Praes.) – he knows;
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
vedavit veda-vit 1n.1 m.; yo vedān vetti saḥwho knows the Vedas (from: vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas; -vit – suffix: who knows);

 

textual variants


adhaḥ-śākham → adhaḥ-śākhām / adhaḥ-śākhāḥ (whose branches are below / branches are below);
yasya → tasya (of this);

Similar verses: Kaṭhopaniṣad 2.3.1 (the first and second padas); Maitry-upaniṣad 6.15;

 
 



Śāṃkara


ūrdhva-mūlaṃ kālataḥ sūkṣmatvāt kāraṇatvān nityatvāt mahattvāc cordhvam | ucyate brahmāvyaktaṃ māyā śaktimat, tan mūlam asyeti so’yaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣaḥ ūrdhva-mūlaḥ | śruteś ca—ūrdhva-mūlo’vāk-śākha eṣo’śvatthaḥ sanātanaḥ [kṛtaṭhuttaṃ 2.3.1] iti | purāṇe ca—
avyakta-mūla-prabhavas tasyaivānugrahotthitaḥ |
buddhi-skandha-mayaś caiva indriyāntara-koṭaraḥ ||
mahā-bhūta-viśākhaś ca viṣayaiḥ patravāṃs tathā |
dharmādharma-supuṣpaś ca sukha-duḥkha-phalodayaḥ ||
ājīvyaḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ brahma-vṛkṣaḥ sanātanaḥ |
etad brahma-vanaṃ cāsya brahmācarati sākṣivat ||
etac chittvā ca bhittvā ca jñānena paramāsinā |
tataś cātma-gatiṃ prāpya tasmān nāvartate punaḥ || [mātrbh 14.35.20-22] ity ādi |
taṃ ūrdhva-mūlaṃ saṃsāraṃ māyā-mayaṃ vṛkṣam āhuḥ | adhaḥ-śākhaṃ mahad-ahaṃkāra-tanmātrādayaḥ śākhā ivāsyādho bhavantīti so’yam adhaḥ-śākhaḥ, tam adhaḥ-śākham | na śvo’pi sthātety aśvatthas taṃ kṣaṇa-pradhvaṃsinam aśvatthaṃ prāhuḥ kathayanty avyayaṃ saṃsāra-māyāyā anādi-kāla-pravṛttatvāt so’yaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣo’vyayaḥ, anādy-anta-dehādi-saṃtānāśrayo hi suprasiddhaḥ, tam avyayam | tasyaiva saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya idam anyat viśeṣaṇaṃ—chandāṃsi yasya parṇāni, chandāṃsi cchādanād ṛg-yajuḥ-sāma-lakṣaṇāni yasya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya parṇānīva parṇāni | yathā vṛkṣasya parirakṣaṇārthāni parṇāni, tathā vedāḥ saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-parirakṣaṇārthā dharmādharma-tad-dhetu-phala-prakāśanārthatvāt | yathā-vyākhyātaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣaṃ sa-mūlaṃ yas taṃ veda sa veda-vit, vedārtha-vid ity arthaḥ | na hi sa-mūlāt saṃsāra-vṛkṣād asmāj jñeyo’nyo’ṇu-mātro’py avaśiṣṭo’stīty ataḥ sarvajñaḥ sarva-vedārtha-vid iti sa-mūla-saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-jñānaṃ stauti
 

Rāmānuja


yaṃ saṃsārākhyam aśvatham ūrdhvamūlam adhaś śākham avyayaṃ prāhuḥ śrutayaḥ, „ūrdhvamūlo ‚vākchākha eṣo ‚śvatthas sanātanaḥ”, „ūrdhvamūlam avākchākhaṃ vṛkṣaṃ yo veda saṃprti” ityādyāḥ / saptalokopariniviṣṭacaturmukhāditvena tasyordhvamūlatvam / pṛthivīnivāsisakalanarapaśumṛgakrimikīṭapataṅgasthāvarāntatayā adhaś śākhatvam / asaṅgahetubhūtād a samyagjñanodayāt pravāharūpeṇācchedyatvenāvyayatvam / yasya cāśvatthasya chandāṃsi parṇāny āhuḥ / chandāṃsi śrutayaḥ, „vāyavyaṃ śvetam ālabheta bhūtikāmaḥ”, „aindrāgnam ekādaśa kapālaṃ nirvapet prajākāmaḥ” ityādiśrutipratipāditaiḥ kāmyakarmabhir vardhate ‚yaṃ saṃsāravṛkṣa iti chandāṃsy evāsya parṇāni / parṇair hi vṛkṣo vardhate / yas tam evaṃbhūtam aśvatthaṃ veda, sa vedavit / vedo hi saṃsāravṛkṣacchedopāyaṃ vadati; chedyavṛkṣasvarūpajñānaṃ chedanopāyajñanopayogīti vedavid ity ucyate
 

Śrīdhara


pūrvādhyānte māṃ ca yo ‚vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate [Gītā 14.26] ity ādinā parameśvaram ekānta-bhaktyā bhajatas tat-prasāda-labdha-jñānena brahma-bhāvo bhavatīty uktam | na caikānta-bhaktiḥ jñānaṃ cāviraktasya sambhavatīti vairāgya-pūrvakaṃ jñānam upadeṣṭu-kāmaḥ prathamaṃ tāvat sārdha-ślokābhyāṃ saṃsāra-svarūpaṃ vṛkṣa-rūpakālaṅkāreṇa varṇayan bhagavān uvāca ūrdhva-mūlam iti | ūrdhvam uttamaḥ kṣarākṣarābhyām utkṛṣṭaḥ puruṣottamo mūlaṃ yasya tam | adha iti tato ‚rvācīnāṃ kāryopādhayo hiraṇyagarbhādayo gṛhyante | te tu śākhā iva śākhā yasya tam | vinaśvaratvena śvaḥ prabhāta-paryantam api na sthāsyatīti viśvāsānarhatvād aśvatthaṃ prāhuḥ | pravāha-rūpeṇāvicchedād avyayaṃ ca prāhuḥ | ūrdhva-mūlo ‚vāk-śākha eṣo ‚śvatthaḥ sanātana [KaṭhU 2.3.1] ity ādyāḥ śrutayaḥ | chandāṃsi vedā yasya parṇāni dharmādharma-pratipādana-dvāreṇa cchāyā-sthānīyaiḥ karma-phalaiḥ saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya sarva-jīvāśrayaṇīyatva-pratipādanāt parṇa-sthānīyā vedāḥ | yas tam evambhūtam aśvatthaṃ veda sa eva vedārtha-vit | saṃsāra-prapañca-vṛkṣasya mūlam īśvaraḥ | brahmādayas tad-aṃśāḥ śākhā-sthānīyāḥ | sa ca saṃsāra-vṛkso vinaśvaraḥ | pravāha-rūpeṇa nityaś ca | vedoktaiḥ karmabhiḥ sevyatām āpāditaś ca ity etāvān eva hi vedārthaḥ | ata evaṃ vidvān vedavid iti stūyate
 

Madhusūdana


tatra viraktasyaiva saṃsārād bhagavat-tattva-jñāne ‚dhikāro nānyatheti pūrvādhyāyoktaṃ parameśvarādhīna-prakṛti-puruṣa-saṃyoga-kāryaṃ saṃsāraṃ vṛkṣa-rūpa-kalpanayā varṇayati vairāgyāya prastuta-guṇātītatvopāyatvāt tasya | ūrdhvam utkṛṣṭaṃ mūlaṃ kāraṇaṃ sva-prakāśa-paramānanda-rūpatvena nityatvena ca brahma | atahvordhvaṃ sarva-saṃsāra-bādhe ‚py abādhitaṃ sarva-saṃsāra-bhramādhiṣṭhānaṃ brahma tad eva māyayā mūlam asyety ūrdhva-mūlam | adha ity arvācīnāḥ kāryopādhayo hiraṇyagrabhādyā gṛhyante | te nānā-dik-prasṛtatvāc chākhā iva śākhā asyety adhaḥ-śākham | āśu-vināśitvena na śvo ‚pi sthāteti viśvāsānarham aśvattham māyā-mayaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣam avyayam anādy-ananta-dehādi-santānāśrayam ātma-jñānam antareṇānucchedyam anantam avyayam āhuḥ śrutayaḥ smṛtayaś ca | śrutayas tāvat — ūrdhva-mūlo ‚vāk-śākha eṣo ‚śvatthaḥ sanātanaḥ [KaṭhU 2.3.1] ity ādyaḥ kaṭha-vallīṣu paṭhitāḥ | arvāñco nikṛṣṭāḥ kāryopādhayo mahad-ahaṅkāra-tanmātrādayo vā śākhā asyety arvāk-śākha ity adhaḥ-śākha-pada-samānārthaḥ | sanātana tiy avyaya-pada-samānārtham |
smṛtayaś ca-
avyakta-mūla-prabhavas tasyaivānugrahotthitaḥ |
buddhi-skandha-mayaś caiva indriyāntara-koṭaraḥ ||
mahā-bhūta-viśākhaś ca viṣayaiḥ patravāṃs tathā |
dharmādharma-supuṣpaś ca sukha-duḥkha-phalodayaḥ ||
ājīvyaḥ sarva-bhūtānāṃ brahma-vṛkṣaḥ sanātanaḥ |
etad brahma-vanaṃ cāsya brahmācarati sākṣivat ||
etac chittvā ca bhittvā ca jñānena paramāsinā |
tataś cātma-gatiṃ prāpya tasmān nāvartate punaḥ || [Mbh 14.35.20-22] ity ādayaḥ |
avyaktam avyākṛtaṃ māyopādhikaṃ brahma tad eva mūlaṃ kāraṇaṃ tasmāt prabhavo yasya sa tathā | tasyaiva mūlasyāvyaktasyānugrahād atidṛḍhatvād utthitaḥ saṃvardhitaḥ | vṛkṣasya hi śākhāḥ skandhād udbhavanti | saṃsārasya ca buddheḥ sakāśān nānā-vidhāḥ pariṇāmā bhavanti | tena sādharmyeṇa buddhir eva skandhas tan-mayas tat-pracuro ‚yam | indriyāṇām antarāṇi cchidrāṇy eva koṭarāṇi yasya sa tathā | mahānti bhūtāny ākāśādīni pṛthivy-antāni vividhāḥ śākhā yasya viśākhaḥ stambho yasyeti vā | ājīvya upajīvyaḥ | brahmaṇā paramātmanādhiṣṭhito vṛkṣo brahma-vṛkṣaḥ | ātma-jñānaṃ vinā chettum aśakyatayā sanātanaḥ | etad brahma-vanam asya brahmaṇo jīva-rūpasya bhogyaṃ vananīyaṃ sambhajanīyam iti vanaṃ brahma sākṣivad ācarati na tv etat kṛtena lipyata ity arthaḥ | etad brahma-vanaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣātmakaṃ chittvā ca bhittvā cāhaṃ, brahmāsmīty atidṛḍha-jñāna-khaḍgena sa-mūlaṃ nikṛtyety arthaḥ ātma-rūpāṃ gatiṃ prāpya tasmād ātma-rūpān mokṣān nāvartata ity arthaḥ | spaṣṭam itarat |
atra ca gaṅgā-taraṅga-nudyamānottuṅga-tat-tīra-tiryaṅ-nipatitam ardhonmūlitaṃ mārutena mahāntam aśvattham upamānīkṛtya jīvantam iyaṃ rūpaka-kalpaneti draṣṭavyam | tena nordhva-mūlatvādhaḥ-śākhatvādy-anupapattiḥ | yasya māyā-mayasyāśvatthasya cchandāṃsi cchādanāt tattva-vastu-prāvaraṇāt saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-rakṣaṇād vā karma-kāṇḍāni ṛg-yajuḥ-sāma-lakṣaṇāni parṇānīva parṇāni | yathā vṛkṣasya parirakṣaṇāthāni parṇāni bhavanti tathā saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya parirakṣaṇāthāni karma-kāṇḍāni dharmādharmaa-tad-dhetu-phala-prakāśanārthatvāt teṣām | yas taṃ yathā-vyākhyātaṃ sa-mūlaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣaṃ māyā-mayam aśvatthaṃ veda jānāti sa veda-vit karma-brahmākhya-vedārtha-vit sa evety arthaḥ | saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya hi mūlaṃ brahma hiraṇyagarbhādayaś ca jīvāḥ śākhā-sthānīyāḥ | sa ca saṃsāra-vṛkṣaḥ svarūpeṇa vinaśvaraḥ pravāha-rūpeṇa cānantaḥ | sa ca vedoktaiḥ karmabhiḥ sicyate brahma-jñānena ca cchidyata ity etāvān eva hi vedārthaḥ | yaś ca vedārthavit sa eva sarva-vid iti sa-mūla-vṛkṣa-jñānaṃ stauti sa vedavid iti
 

Viśvanātha


pūrvādhyāye —
māṃ ca yo ‚vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate |
sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate || [Gītā 14.26] ity uktam |
tatra tava manuṣyasya bhakti-yogena kathaṃ brahma-bhāva iti cet, satyam ahaṃ manuṣya eva kintu brahmaṇo ‚pi tasya pratiṣṭhā paramāśraya ity asya sūtra-rūpasya vṛtti-sthānīyo ‚yaṃ pañcadaśādhyāya ārabhyate | tatra sa guṇān samatītya ity uktam iti guṇamyo ‚yaṃ saṃsāraḥ kaḥ, kuto vāyaṃ pravṛttas tad-bhaktyā saṃsāram atikrāmyan jīvo vā kaḥ | brahma-bhūyāya kalpate ity uktaṃ brahma vā kiṃ | brahmaṇaḥ pratiṣṭhā tvaṃ vā ka ity-ādy-apekṣāyāṃ prathamam atiśayokty-alaṅkāreṇa saṃsāro ‚yam adbhuto ‚śvattha-vṛkṣa iti varṇayati | ūrdhve sarva-lokopari-tale satya-loke prakṛti-bījottha-prathama-praroha-rūpa-mahat-tattvātmakaś caturmukha eka eva mūlaṃ yasya tam | adhaḥ svar-bhuvor-bhūlokeṣu anantā deva-gandharva-kinnarāsura-rākṣasa-preta-bhūta-manuṣya-gavāśvādi-paśu-pakṣi-kṛmi-kīṭa-pataṅga-sthāvarās tāḥ śākhā yasya tam aśvatthaṃ dharmādi-caturvarga-sādhakatvād aśvattham uttamaṃ vṛkṣam | śleṣeṇa bhaktimatāṃ na śvaḥ sthāsyatīty aśvatthaṃ naṣṭa-prāyam ity arthaḥ | abhaktānāṃ tv avyayam anaśvaram | chandāṃsi vāyavyaṃ śvetam ālabheta bhūmikām aindram ekādaśaka-pālaṃ nirvapet prajākāmaḥ ity ādyāḥ karma-pratipādakā vedāḥ saṃsāra-vardhakatvāt parṇāni | vṛkṣo hi parṇaiḥ śobhate | yas taṃ jānāti sa vedajñaḥ | tathā ca ūrdhva-mūlo ‚vāk-śākha eṣo ‚śvatthaḥ sanātanaḥ [KaṭhU 2.3.1] iti kaṭha-vallī-śrutiḥ
 

Baladeva


pūrvatra vijñānānandasyautpattika-guṇāṣṭakasyāpi jīvasya karma-rūpānādi-vāsanānuguṇena bhagavat-saṅkalpena prakṛti-guṇa-saṅgaḥ | sa ca bahuvidhas tad-atyayaś ca bhagavad-bhakti-śiraskena viveka-jñānena bhavet tasmiṃś ca sati samprāpta-nija-svarūpo jīvo bhagavantam āśritya prmodo sarvadā tasmiṃs tiṣṭhatīty uktam | atha tad-viveka-jñāna-sthairya-karaṃ vairāgyaṃ jīvasya bhajanīya-bhagavad-aṃśatvaṃ bhagavataḥ svetara-sarvottamatvaṃ cokteṣv artheṣūpayogāya pañcadaśe ‚smin varṇyate | tatra tāvad guṇa-viracitasya saṃsārasya vairāgya-vaiccedyatvāt saṃsāraṃ vṛkṣatvena vairāgyaṃ ca śastratvena rūpayan varṇayati bhagavān — ūrdhvamūlam ity ādibhis tribhiḥ |
saṃsāra-rūpam aśvattham ūrdhva-mūlam adhaḥ-śākhaṃ prāhuḥ | ūrdhvaṃ sarvopari-satya-loke pradhāna-bījottha-prathama-praroha-rūpa-mahat-tattvātmaka-caturmukha-rūpaṃ mūlaṃ yasya saḥ | adhaḥ satya-lokād arvācīneṣu svar-bhuvar-bhūr-lokeṣu deva-gandharva-kinnarāsura-yakṣa-rākṣasa-manuṣya-paśu-pakṣi-kīṭa-pataṅga-sthāvarāntā nānādik-prasṛtatvāc chākhā yasya tam | caturvarga-phalāśrayatvād aśvattham uttama-vṛkṣam | tādṛśena viveka-jñānena vinā nivṛtter abhāvād avyayaṃ pravāha-rūpeṇa nityaṃ ca | tam āhuḥ śrutayaś cātra —
ūrdhva-mūlo ‚vāk-śākha
eṣo ‚śvatthaḥ sanātanaḥ |
ūrdhva-mūlam arvāk-śākhaṃ
vṛkṣaṃ yo veda samprati || [KaṭhU 2.3.1] ity ādikāḥ |
yasya saṃsārāśvatthasya chandāṃsi karmākarma-pratipādakāni śruti-vākyāni vāsanāā-rūpa-tan-nidāna-vardhakatvāt parṇāni prāhus tāni cchandāṃsi vāyavyaṃ śvetam ālabheta bhūti-kāma aindram ekādaśaka-pālaṃ nirvapet prajā-kāmaḥ ity ādīni bodhyāni | patrais tarur vardhate śobhate ca tam aśvatthaṃ yo veda yathoktaṃ jānāti sa eva veda-vit | vedaḥ khalu saṃsārasya vṛkṣatvaṃ chedyatvābhiprāyeṇāha tad-chedanopāyajño vedārthavid iti bhāvaḥ |
 
 


BhG 15.2

adhaś cordhvaṃ prasṛtās tasya śākhā guṇa-pravṛddhā viṣaya-pravālāḥ
adhaś ca mūlāny anusaṃtatāni karmānubandhīni manuṣya-loke

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syntax


manuṣya-loke (in the world of people) tasya [aśvatthasya] (of this holy fig tree) guṇa-pravṛddhāḥ (which are nourished by the guṇas) viṣaya-pravālāḥ (whose youngs shoots are the objects) śākhāḥ (branches) adhaḥ (downwards) ūrdhvam ca (and upwards) prasṛtāḥ (extended) [santi] (they are),
karmānubandhīni ca (and whose consequence is activity) mūlāni (roots) adhaḥ (downwards) anusantatāni (spread) [santi] (they are).
 

grammar

adhaḥ av.downwards, below;
ca av.and;
urdhvam av.upwards, above;
prasṛtāḥ prasṛta (pra-sṛ – to move forwards) [PP] 1n.3 f.being extended, being wide-spreading;
tasya tat sn. 6n.1 m.its;
śākhāḥ śākhā 1n.3 f. branches, parts, divisions;
guṇa-pravṛddhāḥ guṇa-pravṛddha 1n.3 f.; [TP]: guṇaiḥ pravṛddhā iti which are nourished by the guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; vṛdh – to grow, pra-vṛddha – grown up, experienced, mighty);
viṣaya-pravālāḥ viṣaya-pravāla 1n.3 f.; [TP]: yāsāṁ viṣayāḥ pravālāḥ santi tāḥ whose youngs shoots are the objects (from: viṣ – to be active, to perform; viṣa – active, poison, viṣaya – sphere, territory, scope, sense object, subject; val – to turn, to move, pra-vāla – young shoot, sprout, new leaf);
adhaḥ av.downwards, below;
ca av.and;
mūlāni mūla 1n.3 n.roots, sources, basis, foundations;
anusaṁtatāni anu-saṁ-tata (tan – to spread, to pervade) [PP] 1n.3 n.being extended, spread, pervaded;
karmānubandhīni karma-anubandhi 1n.3 n.; BV: yeṣāṁ karmānubandhy asti tāniwhose consequence is activity (from: kṛ – to do, karman – activity and its result; anu-bandh – to bind, to fetter, anu-bandha – binding, connection, result; anu-bandhin – connected to, being a consequence; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
manuṣya-loke manuṣya-loke 7n.1 m.; manuṣyāṇāṁ loka itiin the world of people (from: man – to think, manu – a man, a person; loka – world);

 

textual variants


cordhvaṁ → cordhvaṁ ca (and upwards and);
tasya → yasya (whose);
karmānubandhīni → karmānubaṁdhena ([extended] by the relation to activity);

The first pada of verse 15.2 is similar to the third pada of verse Muṇḍakopaniṣad 2.2.11;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tasyaitasya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasyāparāvayava-kalpanocyate—
adho manuṣyādibhyo yāvat sthāvaram, ata ūrdhvaṃ ca yāvad brahmaṇo viśva-sṛjo dhāma ity etad-antaṃ yathā-karma yathā-śrutaṃ jñāna-karma-phalāni, tasya vṛkṣasya śākhā iva śākhāḥ prasṛtāḥ pragatāḥ | guṇa-pravṛddhāḥ guṇaiḥ sattva-rajas-tamobhiḥ pravṛddhāḥ sthūlīkṛtā upādāna-bhūtaiḥ | viṣaya-pravālā viṣayāḥ śabdādayaḥ pravālā iva dehādi-karma-phalebhyaḥ śākhābhyo’ṅkurī-bhavantīva, tena viṣaya-pravālāḥ śākhāḥ | saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya parama-mūlam upādāna-kāraṇaṃ pūrvam uktam | athedānīṃ karma-phala-janita-rāga-dveṣādi-vāsanā mūlānīva dharmādharma-pravṛtti-kāraṇāny avāntara-bhāvīni tāny adhaś ca devādy-apekṣayā mūlāny anusantatāny anupraviṣṭani karmānubandhīni karma dharmādharma-lakṣaṇam anubandhaḥ paścād-bhāvi, yeṣām udbhūtim anu udbhavati, tāni karmānubandhīni manuṣya-loke viśeṣataḥ | atra hi manuṣyāṇāṃ karmādhikāraḥ prasiddhaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


tasya manuṣyādiśākhasya vṛkṣasya tattatkarmakṛtā aparāś ca adhaḥ śākhāḥ punar api manuṣyapaśvādirūpeṇa prasṛtā bhavanti; ūrdhvaṃ ca gandharvayakṣadevādirūpeṇa prasṛtā bhavanti / tāś ca guṇapravṛddhāḥ guṇaiḥ sattvādibhiḥ pravṛddhāḥ, viṣayapravālāḥ śabdādiviṣayapallavāḥ / katham ity atrāha
brahmalokamūlasyāsya vṛkṣasya manuṣyāgrasya, adho manuṣyaloke mūlāny anusantatāni; tāni ca karmānubandhīni karmāṇy evānubandhīni mūlāni adho manuṣyaloke ca bhavantītyarthaḥ / manuṣyatvāvasthāyāṃ kṛtair hi karmabhiḥ adho manuṣyapaśvādayaḥ, ūrdhvaṃ ca devādayo bhavanti /
asya vṛkṣasya caturmukhāditvenordhvamūlatvam, tatsantānaparamparayā manuṣyāgratvenādhaś śākhatvam, manuṣyatve kṛtaiḥ karmabhir mūlabhūtaiḥ punar apy adhaś cordhvaṃ ca prasṛtaśākhatvam iti yathedaṃ rūpaṃ nirdiṣṭam, na tathā saṃsāribhir upalabhyate / manuṣyo ‚haṃ devadattasya putro yajñadattasya pitā tadanurūpaprigrahaś cety etāvanmātram upalabhyate / tathā asya vṛkṣasya antaḥ vināśo ‚pi guṇamayabhogeṣv asaṅgakṛta iti nopalabhyate / tathā asya guṇasaṅga evādir iti nopalabhyate / tasya pratiṣṭhā ca anātmani ātmābhimānarūpam ajñānam iti nopalabhyate; pratitiṣṭhaty asminn+eveti hy ajñānam evāsya pratiṣṭhā /
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca adhaś ceti | hiraṇyagarbhādayaḥ kāryopādhayo jīvāḥ śākhā-sthānīyatvenoktāḥ | teṣu ca ye duṣkṛtinas te ‚dhaḥ paśv-ādi-yoniṣu prasṛtās tasya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya śākhāḥ | kiṃ ca, guṇaiḥ sattvādi-vṛttibhir jala-secanair iva yathāyathaṃ pravṛddhā vṛddhiṃ prāptāḥ | kiṃ ca, viṣayā rūpādayaḥ pravālāḥ pallava-sthānīyā yāsāṃ tāḥ | śākhāgra-sthānīyābhir indriya-vṛttibhiḥ saṃyuktatvāt | kiṃ ca, adhaś ca ca-śabdād ūrdhvaṃ ca | mūlāny anusantatāni virūḍhāni | mukhyaṃ mūlam īśvara eva | imāni tv antarālāni mūlāni tat-tad-bhoga-vāsanā-lakṣaṇāni | teṣāṃ kāryam āha manuṣya-loke karmānubandhīnīti | karmaivānubandhy uttara-kāla-bhāvi yeṣāṃ tāni | ūrdhvādho-lokeṣūpabhukta-tat-tad-bhoga-vāsanādibhir hi karma-kṣaye manuṣya-lokaṃ prāptānāṃ tat-tad-anurūpeṣu karmasu pravṛttir bhavati | tasminn eva hi karmādhikāro nānyeṣu lokeṣu | ato manuṣya-loka ity uktam
 

Madhusūdana


tasyaiva saṃsāra-vṛkṣasyāvayava-sambandhiny aparā kalpanocyate adhaś ceti | pūrvaṃ hiraṇyagarbhādayaḥ kāryopādhayo jīvāḥ śākhā-sthānīyatvenoktāḥ | idānīṃ tu tad-gato viśeṣa ucyate | teṣu ye kapūya-caraṇā duṣkṛtinas te ‚dhaḥ paśv-ādi-yoniṣu prasṛtā vistāraṃ gatāḥ | ye tu ramaṇīya-caraṇāḥ sukṛtinas ta ūrdhvaṃ devādi-yoniṣu prasṛtā ato ‚dhaś ca manuṣyatvād ārabhya viriñci-paryantam ūrdhvaṃ ca tasmād evārabhya satya-loka-paryantaṃ prasṛtās tasya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya śākhāḥ | kīdṛśas tāḥ ? guṇaiḥ sattva-rajas-tamo bhir dehendriya-viṣayākāra-pariṇatair jala-secanair iva pravṛddhāḥ sthūlībhūtāḥ | kiṃ ca, viṣayāḥ śabdādayaḥ pravālāḥ pallavā iva yāsāṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-śākhānāṃ tās tathā śākhāgra-sthānīyābhir indriya-vṛttibhiḥ sambandhād rāgādhiṣṭhānatvāc ca |saṃyuktatvāt | kiṃ ca, adhaś ca ca-śabdād ūrdhvaṃ ca mūlāny avāntarāṇi tat-tad-bhoga-janita-rāga-dveṣādi-vāsanā-lakṣaṇāni mūlānīva dharmādharma-pravṛtti-kārakāṇi tasya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasyānusantatāni anusyūtāni | mukhyaṃ ca mūlaṃ brahmaiveti na doṣaḥ | kīdṛśāny avāntara-mūlāni ? karma dharmādharma-lakṣaṇam anubandhuṃ paścāj janayituṃ śīlaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni karmānubandhīni | kutra ? manuṣya-loke manuṣyaś cāsau lokaaś cety adhikṛto brāhmaṇyādi-viśiṣṭo deho manuṣya-lokas tasmin bāhulyena karmānubandhīni | manuṣyāṇāṃ hi karmādhikāraḥ prasiddhaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


adhaḥ paśv-ādi-yoniṣu ūrdhve devādi-yoniṣu prasṛtās tasya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya guṇaiḥ sattvādi-vṛttibhir jala-sekair iva pravṛddhāḥ | viṣayā śabdādayaḥ pravālāḥ pallava-sthānīyā yāsāṃ tāḥ | kiṃ ca tasya mūle sarva-lokair alakṣito mahā-nidhiḥ kaścid astīty anumīyate yam eva mūla-jaṭābhir avalambya sthitasya tasyāśvattha-vṛkṣasyāpi baṭa-vṛkṣasyeva śākhāsv api bāhyā jaṭāḥ santīty āha adhaś ceti | brahma-loka-mūlasyāpi tasyādhaś ca manuṣya-loke karmānubandhīni karmānulambīni mūlāny anusantatāni nirantaraṃ vistṛtāni bhavanti | karma-phalānāṃ yatas tato bhogānte punar manuṣya-janmany eva karmasu pravṛttāni bhavantīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


kiṃ cādha iti | tasyokta-lakṣaṇasya saṃsārāśvatthasya śākhā adha ūrdhvaṃ ca prasṛtāḥ | adho manuṣya-paśv-ādi-yoniṣu duṣkṛtair ūrdhvaṃ ca deva-gandharvādi-yoniṣu sukṛtair vistṛtāḥ | guṇaiḥ sattvādi-vṛttibhir ambu-niṣekair iva pravṛddhāḥ sthaulya-bhājaḥ | viṣayāḥ śabda-sparśādayaḥ pravālāḥ pallavā yāsāṃ tāḥ | śākhāgra-sthānīyābhiḥ śrotrādi-vṛttibhir yogād rāgādhiṣṭhānatvāc ca śabdādīnāṃ pallava-sthānīyatvam |
tasyāśvatthasyādhaś ca śabdād ūrdhvaṃ cāvāntarāṇi mūlāny anusantatāni vistṛtāni santi | tāni ca tat-tad-bhoga-janita-rāga-dveṣādi-vāsanā-rūpāṇi dharmādharma-pravṛtti-kāritvān mūla-tulyāny ucyante | mukhyaṃ mūlaṃ tādṛk caturmukhas tat-tad-vāsanās tv avāntara-mūlāni nyagrodhasyaiva jaṭopajaṭāvṛndānīti bhāvaḥ | tāni kīdṛśānīty āha manuṣya-loke karmānubandhīni yatas tataḥ karma-phala-bhogāvasāne sati punar manuṣya-loke karma-hetu-bhūtāni bhavantīty arthaḥ | sa lokaḥ khalu karma-bhūmir iti prasiddham
 
 


BhG 15.3-4

na rūpam asyeha tathopalabhyate nānto na cādir na ca saṃpratiṣṭhā
aśvattham enaṃ suvirūḍha-mūlam asaṅga-śastreṇa dṛḍhena chittvā
tataḥ padaṃ tat parimārgitavyaṃ yasmin gatā na nivartanti bhūyaḥ
tam eva cādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prapadye yataḥ pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā purāṇī

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syntax


iha (here) asya [aśvatthasya] (of this holy fig tree) rūpam (form) na upalabhyate (it is not perceived),
tathā antaḥ (similarly the end) na [upalabhyate] (it is not perceived),
ādiḥ (beginning) na [upalabhyate] (it is not perceived),
sampratiṣṭhā ca (and basis) na [upalabhyate] (it is not perceived).
enam su-virūḍha-mūlam aśvattham (of this holy fig tree, whose root is fully developed) dṛḍhena asaṅga-śastreṇa (with the strong weapon of detachment) chittvā (after cutting),
tataḥ (then) tat padam (that abode) parimārgitavyam (to be sought) [asti] (it is),
yasmin [pade] (that abode which to) gatāḥ (having gone) bhūyaḥ (again) na nivartanti (they do not return),
yataḥ [puruṣāt] (he from whom) eṣā purāṇī pravṛttiḥ (this ancient activity) prasṛtā (begun) [asti] (it is),
tam eva ca ādyam puruṣaṁ (and indeed to this primeval person) prapadye (I surrender).

 

grammar

na av.not;
rūpam rūpa 1n.1 n. shape, figure, beauty (from: rūp – to form);
asya idam sn. 6n.1 n.of this;
iha av.here (often meaning: in this world);
tathā av.in that manner, so, in like manner;
upalabhyate upa-labh (to obtain, to perceive) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is perceived;
na av.not;
antaḥ anta 1n.1 m.end, limit, settlement, inside, nature;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
ādiḥ ādi 1n.1 m.beginning, origin;
na av.not;
ca av.and;
saṁpratiṣṭhā saṁpratiṣṭhā 1n.1 f.base, foundation, position (from: prati-sthā – to stand firmly);
aśvattham aśvattha 2n.1 m.under which a horse stands; holy fig tree / [Ficus Religiosa] (from: aśva – horse; sthā – to stand; other names of this tree: pippala, bodhi-druma; according to tradition: śvaḥ āgāmi-divasa-paryantaṁ sthāsyatīti śvattham, na śvattham iti aśvattham vinaśvaram – śvas [tomorrow] – lasting till the end of the coming day – this is śvattha, not lasting till the end of the coming day – this is aśvattha, or perishable);
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.this;
suvirūḍha-mūlam suvirūḍha-mūla 2n.1 m.; BV: yasya mūlāni suvirūdhāni santi tam whose roots are fully developed (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; vi-ruh – to grow out, to remove, [PP] suvirūḍha – fully grown up, fully developed; mūla – root, source, basis, foundation);
asaṅga-śastreṇa asaṅga-śastra 3n.1 n.; [TP]: asaṅgasya śastreneti with the weapon of detachment (from: śas – to cut; śastra – a weapon which is handled as opposed to weapon which is thrown – astra; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, a-saṅga – lack of attachment, lack of desires, lack of relations);
dṛḍhena dṛḍha (dṛṁh – to make strong) [PP] 3n.1 n.with firm, with hard, not to be bent;
chittvā chid (to cut) absol.after cutting;

*****

tataḥ av.then, after that, from that, for that reason (from: tat – indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
padam pada 1n.1 n.step, foot, mark, site, part, word (from: pad – to fall, to go, to apply to);
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
parimārgitavyam parimārgitavya (pari-xmārg – to search) PF 1n.1 n.to be searched, to be sought;
yasmin yat sn. 7n.1 m.in which;
gatāḥ gata (gam – to go) [PP] 1n.3 m.those having gone;
na av.not;
nivartanti ni-vṛt (to stop, to turn back) Praes. P 1v.3 they return;
bhūyaḥ av.more, again, besides;
tam tat sn. 2n.1 m.that;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
ādyam ādya 2n.1 m.first, main, excellent;
puruṣam puruṣa 2n.1 m.person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
prapadye pra-pad (to surrender) Praes. Ā 3v.1 I surrender;
yataḥ av.from which (from: yat – which; indeclinable ablative with an ending –tas);
pravṛttiḥ pravṛtti 1n.1 f.activity (from: pra-vṛt – to start to act, to surpass);
prasṛtā pra-sṛtā (pra-sṛ – to move forward, to spread out) [PP] 1n.1 f.being extended, being wide-spreading;
purāṇī purāṇī 1n.1 f.ancient, belonging to old times (from: pur – to precede; purāṇa – ancient, belonging to old times);

 

textual variants


tathopalabhyatetathopapadyate / tatopalabhyate (thus [one does not] come to / for this reason it is perceived);
saṁpratiṣṭhāsaṁpratiṣṭhitā (position);
suvirūḍha-mūlampravirūḍha-mūlam / sva-virūḍha-mūlam (whose roots are strong / whose own roots are strong);
dṛḍhena → śitena (with sharp);
chittvā → hitvā (after abandoning);
padaṁ → paraṁ (supreme);
tat → yat (that which);
parimārgitavyaṁpadaṁ mārgitavyaṁ / para-mārgitavyaṁ (abode to be sought / supreme to be sought);
yasmin gatā na nivartanti bhūyaḥyasmin gato na nivarteta bhūyaḥ (where to gone, again they would not return);
prapadye → prapadyed / taṁ prapadya (he would surrender / to that you must surrender);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yas tv ayaṃ varṇitaḥ saṃsāra-vṛkṣaḥ—
na rūpam asyeha yathopavarṇitaṃ tathā naiva upalabhyate, svapna-marīcy-udaka-māyā-gandharva-nagara-samatvāt | dṛṣṭa-naṣṭa-svarūpo hi sa ity ata eva nānto na paryanto niṣṭhā parisamāptir vā vidyate | tathā na cādiḥ | “ita ārabhyāyaṃ pravṛttaḥ” iti na kenacid gamyate | na ca saṃpratiṣṭhā sthitir madhyam asya na kenacid upalabhyate | aśvattham enaṃ yathoktaṃ suvirūḍha-mūlaṃ suṣṭhu virūḍhāni virohaṃ gatāni sudṛḍhāni mūlāni yasya tam enaṃ suvirūḍha-mūlam | asaṅga-śastreṇa asaṅgaḥ putra-vitta-lokaiṣaṇābhyo vyutthānaṃ tenāsaṅga-śastreṇa dṛḍhena paramātmābhimukhya-niścaya-dṛḍhīkṛtena punaḥ punar vivekābhyāsāśma-niśitena cchitvā saṃsāra-vṛkṣaṃ sa-bījam uddhṛtya |

tataḥ paścāt yat padaṃ vaiṣṇavaṃ tat parimārgitavyam, parimārgaṇam anveṣaṇaṃ jñātavyam ity arthaḥ | yasmin pade gatāḥ praviṣṭā na nivartanti nāvartante bhūyaḥ punaḥ saṃsārāya | kathaṃ parimārgitavyam ity āha—tam eva ca yaḥ pada-śabdenokta ādyam ādau bhavam ādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prapadye ity evaṃ parimārgitavyaṃ tac-charaṇatayā ity arthaḥ | ko’sau puruṣaḥ ? ity ucyate—yato yasmāt puruṣāt saṃsāra-māyā-vṛkṣa-pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā niḥsṛtā aindrajālikād iva māyā | purāṇī ciraṃtanī

 

Rāmānuja


enam uktaprakāraṃ suvirūḍhamūlam suṣṭhu vividhaṃ rūḍhamūlam aśvatthaṃ samyagjñānamūlena dṛḍhena guṇamayabhogāsaṃgākhyena śastreṇa chitvā, tataḥ viṣayāsaṃgād dhetoḥ tat padaṃ parimārgitavyam anveṣaṇīyam, yasmin gatā bhūyo na nivartante

katham anādikālapravṛtto guṇamayabhogasaṃgaḥ tanmūlaṃ ca viparītajñānaṃ nivartata ity ata āha
ajñānādinivṛttaye tam eva ca ādyam kṛtsnasyādibhūtam, „mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sacarācaram”, „ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattas sarvaṃ pravartate”, „mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya” ityādiṣūktam ādyaṃ puruṣam eva śaraṇaṃ prapadyet tam eva śaraṇaṃ prapadyeta / yataḥ yasmāt kṛtsnasya sraṣṭur iyaṃ guṇamayabhogasaṅgapravṛttiḥ, purāṇī purātanī prasṛtā / uktaṃ hi mayaitatpūrvam eva, „daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī mam māyā dūratyayā / mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṃ taranti te” iti / prapadyeyataḥ pravṛttir iti vā pāṭhaḥ; tam eva cādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prpadya śaraṇam upagamya, iyataḥ ajñānanivṛttyādeḥ kṛstnasyaitasya sādhanabhūtā pravṛttiḥ purāṇī purātanī praṛtā / purātanānāṃ mumukṣūṇāṃ pravṛttiḥ purāṇī / purātanā hi mumukṣavo mām eva śaraṇam upagamya nirmuktabandhās saṃjātā ityarthaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca, na rūpam iti | iha saṃsāre sthitaiḥ prāṇibhir asya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya tathordhva-mūlatvādi-prakāreṇa rūpaṃ nopalabhyate | na cānto ‚vasānam aparyaptatvāt | na cādir anāditvāt | na ca sampratiṣṭhā sthitiḥ | kathaṃ tiṣṭhatīti nopalabhyate | yasmād evambhūto ‚yaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣo durucchedo ‚narthakaraś ca tasmād enaṃ dṛḍhena vairāgyena śastreṇa cchitvā tattva-jñāne yatetety āha aśvattham enam iti sārdhena | enam aśvatthaṃ suvirūḍha-mūlam atyanta-baddha-mūlaṃ santam | asaṅgaḥ saṅga-rāhityam ahaṃ-mamatā-tyāgaḥ | tena śastreṇa dṛḍhena samyag-vicāreṇa cchittvā pṛthak-kṛtya |

tata iti | tataś tasya mūla-bhūtaṃ tat padaṃ vastu parimārgitavyam anveṣṭavyaṃ | kīdṛśaṃ, yasmin gatā yat padaṃ prāptāḥ santo bhūyo na nivartanti nāvartanta ity arthaḥ | anveṣaṇa-prakāram evāha tam eveti | yata eṣā purāṇī cirantanī saṃsāra-pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā vistṛtā | tam eva cādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prapadye śaraṇaṃ vrajāmi | ity evam ekānta-bhaktyānveṣṭavyam ity arthaḥ

 

Madhusūdana


yas tv ayaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣo varṇita iha saṃsāre sthitaiḥ prāṇibhir asya saṃsāra-vṛkṣasya tathordhva-mūlatvādi tathā tena prakāreṇa rūpaṃ nopalabhyate svapna-marīcy-udaka-māyā-gandharva-nagaravan mṛṣātvena dṛṣṭa-naṣṭa-svarūpatvāt tasya | ata eva tasyānto ‚vasānam nopalabhyate | etāvatā kālena samāptiṃ gamiṣyatīti aparyaptatvāt | na cāsyādir upalabhyate | ita ārabhya pravṛtta ity anāditvāt | na ca sampratiṣṭhā sthitir madhyama-sthopalabhyate | ādy-anta-pratiyogikatvāt tasya | yasmād evaṃ-bhūto ‚yaṃ saṃsāra-vṛkṣo durucchedaḥ sarvānartha-karaś ca tasmād anādy-ajñānena suvirūḍha-mūlam atyanta-baddha-mūlaṃ prāg-uktam aśvatthaṃ asaṅga-śastreṇa saṅgaḥ spṛhāsaṅgaḥ saṅga-virodhi vairāgyaṃ putra-vitta-lokaiṣaṇā-tyāga-rūpaṃ tad eva śastraṃ rāga-dveṣa-maya-saṃsāra-virodhitvāt, tenāsaṅga-śastreṇa dṛḍhena paramātma-jñānautsukhya-dṛḍhīkṛtena punaḥ punar vivekābhyāsa-niśitena cchittvā sa-mūlam uddhṛtya vairāgya-śama-damādi-sampattyā sarva-karma-saṃnyāsaṃ kṛtvety etat |

tato gurum upasṛtya tato ‚śvatthād ūrdhvaṃ vyavasthitaṃ tad vaiṣṇavaṃ padaṃ vedānta-vākya-vicāreṇa parimārgitavyaṃ mārgayitavyam anveṣṭavyaṃ so ‚nveṣṭabhyaḥ sa vijijñāsitavya iti śruteḥ | tat padaṃ śravaṇādinā jñātavyam ity arthaḥ | kiṃ tat padaṃ yasmin pade gatāḥ praviṣṭā jñānena na nivartanti nāvartante bhūyaḥ punaḥ saṃsārāya | kathaṃ tat parimārgitavyam ? ity āha – yaḥ pada-śabdenoktas tam eva cādyam ādau bhavaṃ puruṣaṃ yenedaṃ sarvaṃ pūrṇaṃ taṃ puruṣu pūrṣu vā śayānaṃ prapadye śaraṇaṃ gato ‚smīty evaṃ tad-eka-śaraṇatayā tad anveṣṭavyam ity arthaḥ | taṃ kaṃ puruṣaṃ ? yato yasmāt puruṣāt pravṛttir māyā-maya-saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-pravṛttiḥ purāṇī cirantany anādir eṣā prasṛtā niḥsṛtaindrajālikād iva māyā-hasty-ādi taṃ puruṣaṃ prapadya ity anvayaḥ

 

Viśvanātha


kiṃ ceha manuṣya-loke ‚sya rūpaṃ svarūpaṃ tathā sa-niścayaṃ nopalabhyate satyo ‚yaṃ mithyāyaṃ nityo ‚yam iti vādi-mata-vaividhyād iti bhāvaḥ | na cānto ‚paryantatvān na cādir anāditvān na ca sampratiṣṭhāśrayaḥ | kiṃ vādhāraḥ ko ‚yam ity api nopalabhyate tattva-jñānābhāvād iti bhāvaḥ | yathā tathāyaṃ bhavatu jīva-mātra-duḥkhaika-nidānasyāsya chedakaṃ śastram asaṅgaṃ jñātvā tenaitaṃ chittvaivāsya mūla-tala-stho mahānidhir anveṣṭavya ity āha aśvattham iti | asaṅgo ‚nāsaktiḥ sarvatra vairāgyam iti yāvat tena śastreṇa kuṭhāreṇa cchitvā svataḥ pṛthak-kṛtya tatas tasya mūla-bhūtaṃ tat-padaṃ vastu mahā-nidhi-rūpaṃ brahma parimārgitavyam | kīdṛśaṃ tad ata āha yasmin gatā yat padaṃ prāptāḥ santo bhūyo na nivartante na cāvartanta ity arthaḥ | anveṣaṇa-prakāram āha yata eṣā purāṇī cirantanī saṃsāra-pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā vistṛtā tam evādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prapadye bhajāmīti bhaktyā anveṣṭavyam ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


na rūpam iti asyāśvatthasya rūpam iha manuṣya-loke tathā nopalabhyate yathordhva-mūlatvādi-dharmakatayā mayopavarṇitam | na cāsyānto nāśa upalalabhyate | katham ayaṃ anartha-vrāta-jaṭilo vinaśyed iti na jñāyate | na cāsyādi-kāraṇam upalabhyate | kuto ‚yam īdṛśo jāto ‚stīti | na cāsya sampratiṣṭhā samāśrayo ‚py upalabhyate | kiṃ samāśrayo ‚yaṃ satiṣṭhat iti |
kintu manusyoo ‚haṃ putro yajña-dattasya,, pitā ca deva-dattasya, tad-anurūpa-karma-kārī sukhī duḥkhī, sāsmin deśe ‚smin grāme nivasāmīty etāvad eva vijñāyata ity arthaḥ | yasmād evaṃ durbodho ‚nartha-vrate hetuś cāyam aśvatthas tasmāt sat-prasaṅga-labdha-vastu-yāthātmya-jñānenainam asaṅga-śastreṇa vairāgya-kuṭhāreṇa dṛḍhena vivekābhyāsa-niśitena cchitvā svataḥ pṛthak-kṛtya tat padaṃ parimārgitavyam iti pareṇānvayaḥ | saṅgo viṣayābhilāṣas tad-virodhy asaṅgo vairāgyaṃ, tad eva śastraṃ tad-abhilāṣa-nāśakatvāt suvirūḍha-mūlaṃ pūrvokta-rītyātyantaṃ baddha-mūlam | tataḥ saṃsārāśvattha-mūlād uparisthitaṃ tat padaṃ parimārgitavyaṃ mat-prasaṅga-labdhaiḥ śravaṇādibhiḥ sādhanair anveṣṭavyam |
tat padaṃ kīdṛśaṃ tatrāha yasminn iti | yasmin gatās taiḥ sādhanair yat prāptā janās tato na nivartante svargād iva na patanti | mārgaṇa-vidhim āha tam eveti | yataḥ purāṇī cirantanīyaṃ jagat-pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā vistṛtā | tam eva cādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prapadye śaraṇaṃ vrajāmīti prapatti-pūrvakaiḥ śravaṇādibhis tan-mārgaṇam uktam | yo jagad-dhetur yat-porapattyā saṃsāra-nivṛttiḥ sa khalu kṛṣṇa eva ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavaḥ ity ādeḥ | daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī ity ādeś ca tad-ukteḥ | na tad bhāsayata ity ādinā vyaktībhāvitvāc ca
 
 


BhG 15.5

nirmāna-mohā jita-saṅga-doṣā adhy-ātma-nityā vinivṛtta-kāmāḥ
dvaṃdvair vimuktāḥ sukha-duḥkha-saṃjñair gacchanty amūḍhāḥ padam avyayaṃ tat

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syntax


nirmāṇa-mohāḥ (who are without pride and bewilderment) jita-saṅga-doṣāḥ (who conquered the evil of attachment) adhyātma-nityāḥ (who are eternally [absorbed] in the Supreme Self) vinivṛtta-kāmāḥ (whose desires are stopped) sukha-duḥkha-saṁjñaiḥ dvandvaiḥ (by the opposites called pleasure and distress) vimuktāḥ (who are freed) amūḍhāḥ (not bewildered) tat avyayam padam (to that imperishable abode) gacchanti (they go).

 

grammar

nirmāṇa-mohāḥ nir-māṇa-moha 1n.3 m.; DV / BV: yebhyo mānaś ca mohaś ca nirgatau staḥ te who are without pride and bewilderment (from: niḥ – out of, away from, without; man – to think, māna – respect, honour, pride; muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied, moha – perplexity, loss of consciousness, bewilderment, error);
jita-saṅga-doṣāḥ jita-saṅga-doṣa 1n.3 m.; BV: yaiḥ saṅgasya doṣo jito ‘sti te who conquered the evil of attachment (from: ji – to conquer, [PP] jita – conquered, defeated; sam-gam – come together or sañj – to attach, to stick, to embrace, saṅga – clinging, contact, relation, desire, attachment; duṣ – to become bad, to be defiled, to perish, doṣa – evil, fault, guilt);
adhy-ātma-nityāḥ adhi-ātma-nitya 1n.3 m.; adhyātmani nityaṁ [pariniṣṭhitā] iti who are eternally [absorbed] in the Supreme Self (from: adhi – over, above; ātman – self; adhy-ātma – governing the self, the Supreme Spirit; nitya – continual, eternal);
vinivṛtta-kāmāḥ vinivṛtta-kāma 1n.3 m.; BV: yebhyaḥ kāmāḥ vinivṛttāḥ santi te whose desires are stopped (from: vi-ni-vṛt – to stop, to turn back, vi-ni-vṛtta – stopped, held back; kam –to wish, to love, to long for, kāma – wish, desire);
dvaṁdvaiḥ dvaṁdva 3n.3 m. by opposites (from: dva – two, dvaṁdva – two-two, pair of opposites);
vimuktāḥ vimukta (vi-muc – to liberate, to release) [PP] 1n.3 m.who are freed (requires ablative or instrumental);
sukha-duḥkha-saṁjñaiḥ sukha-duḥkha-saṁjña 1n.3 m.; DV / BV: sukhaṁ ca duḥkhaṁ ceti yeṣāṁ saṁjñāsti taiḥ by these called pleasure and distress (from: su – prefix: good, excellent, beautiful, virtuous; kha – cavity, hole, nave; su-kha – joy, happiness; dur / dus – prefix: difficult, bad, hard; duḥ-kha – pain, difficulty; literally: good or bad hole in the nave [of a wheel through which an axis runs] that makes the moving smooth or not; or from: su-sthā and duḥ-sthā; sam-jñā – to be of one opinion, to understand, saṁjñā – made known, communicated, called, definiowane);
gacchanti gam (to go) Praes. P 1v.3 they go;
amūḍhāḥ a-mūḍha (muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.3 m. who are not bewildered (regarding what? – requires locative);
padam pada 2n.1 n.step, pace, footmark, site, part, portion, word (from: pad – to fall, to go, to apply to);
avyayam a-vyaya 2n.1 n.unchangeable, imperishable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;

 

textual variants


nirmāṇa-mohā → nirmāna-mohā (who are without pride and bewilderment);
adhyātma-nityā → adhyātma-vidyā / adhyātma-yogā / adhyātma-niṣṭhā / adhyātma-cittā (who have knowledge of the Supreme Self / whose  yoga is related to the Supreme Self / whose steadiness is in the Supreme Self / whose minds are in the Supreme Self);
vinivṛtta-kāmāḥ → vinivarta-kāmāḥ (whose desires are stopped);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kathaṃ-bhūtās tat padaṃ gacchantīty ucyate—
nirmāna-mohā mānaś ca mohaś ca māna-mohau, tau nirgatau yebhyas te nirmāna-mohā māna-moha-varjitāḥ | jita-saṅga-doṣāḥ saṅga eva doṣaḥ saṅga-doṣaḥ, jitaḥ saṅga-doṣo yais te jita-saṅga-doṣāḥ | adhyātma-nityāḥ paramātma-svarūpālocana-nityās tat-parāḥ | vinivṛtta-kāmā viśeṣato nirlepena nivṛttāḥ kāmā yeṣāṃ te vinivṛtta-kāmāḥ | yatayaḥ saṃnyāsino dvandvaiḥ priyāpriyādibhir vimuktāḥ sukha-duḥkha-saṃjñaiḥ parityaktā gacchanty amūḍhā moha-varjitāḥ padam avyayaṃ tad yathoktam
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ māṃ śaraṇam upagamya nirmānamohāḥ nirgatānātmātmābhimānarūpamohāḥ, jitasaṅgadoṣā jitaguṇamayabhogasaṅgākhyadoṣāḥ / adhyātmanityāḥ ātmani yaj jñānaṃ tad adhyātmam, ātmajñānaniratāḥ / vinivṛttakāmāḥ vinivṛttataditarakāmāḥ sukhaduḥkhasajñair dvandvaiś ca vimuktāḥ, amūḍhāḥ ātmānātmasvabhavajñāḥ, tad avyayaṃ padaṃ gacchanti anavacchinnajñānākāram ātmānaṃ yathāvasthitaṃ prāpnuvanti; māṃ śaraṇam upagatānāṃ matprasādāder evaitāḥ sarvāḥ pravṛttayaḥ suśakāḥ siddhiparyantā bhavantītyarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tat-prāptau sādhanāntarāṇi darśayann āha nirmāneti | nirgatau māna-mohau ahaṅkāra-mithyātisiveśau yebhyas te | jitaḥ putrādi-saṅga-rūpo doṣo yais te | adhyātma ātma-jñāne nityāḥ pariniṣṭhitāḥ | viśeṣeṇa nivṛttaḥ kāmo yebhyas te | sukha-duḥkha-hetutvāt sukha-duḥkha-saṃjñāni śītoṣṇādīni dvandvāni | tair vimuktāḥ | ata evāmūḍhā nivṛtāvidyāḥ santaḥ | tad avyayaṃ padaṃ gacchanti
 

Madhusūdana


parimārgaṇa-pūrvakaṃ vaiṣṇavaṃ padaṃ gacchatām aṅgāntarāṇy āha nirmāṇeti | māno ‚haṅkāro garvaḥ | mohas tv aviveko viparyayo vā | tābhyāṃ niṣkrāntā nirmāna-mohāḥ | tau nirgatau yebhyas te vā | tathāhaṅkārāvivekābhyāṃ rahitā iti yāvat | jita-saṅga-doṣāḥ priyāpriya-saṃvidhāv api rāga-dveṣa-varjitā iti yāvat | adhyātma-nityāḥ paramātma-svarūpa-lokcana-tat-parāḥ | vinivṛtta-kāmā viśeṣeto niravaśeṣeṇa nivṛttāḥ kāmā viṣaya-bhogā yeṣāṃ te | viveka-vairāgya-dvārā tyakta-sarva-karmāṇa ity arthaḥ | dvandvaiḥ śītoṣṇādi-kṣut-pipāsādibhiḥ sukha-duḥkha-saṃjñaiḥ sukha-duḥkha-hetutvāt sukha-duḥkha-nāmakaiḥ sukha-duḥkha-saṅgair iti pāṭhāntare sukha-duḥkhābhyāṃ saṅgaḥ sambandho yeṣāṃ taiḥ sukha-duḥkha-saṅgair dvandvair vimuktāḥ parityaktāḥ | amūḍhā vedānta-pramāṇa-saṃjāta-samyag-jñāna-nivāritātmaājñānās tad avyayaṃ yathoktaṃ padaṃ gacchanti
 

Viśvanātha


tad-bhaktau satyāṃ janāḥ kīdṛśā bhūtvā taṃ padaṃ prāpnuvantīty apekṣāyām āha nirmāneti | adhyātma-nityā adhyātma-vicāro nity nitya-kartavyo yeṣāṃ te paramātmālocana-tat-parāḥ
 

Baladeva


tat-prapattau satyāṃ kīdṛśāḥ santas tat padaṃ prāpnuvantīty āha nirmāneti | mānaḥ sat-kāra-janyo garvaḥ | moho mithyābhiniveśas tābhyāṃ nirgatāḥ | jitaḥ saṅga-doṣaḥ priya-bhāryādi-sneha-lakṣaṇo yais te | adhyātmaṃ sva-parātma-viṣayako vimarśaḥ sa nityo nitya-kartavyo yeṣāṃ te | sukhādi-hetutvāt tat-saṃjñair dvandvaiḥ śītoṣṇādibhir vimuktās tat-sahiṣṇavaḥ | amūḍhāḥ prapatti-vidhijñāḥ
 
 


BhG 15.6

na tad bhāsayate sūryo na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥ
yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṃ mama

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syntax


yat [padam] (that abode to which) gatvā (after going)
[te] (they) na nivartante (they do not return),
sūryaḥ (Sun) tat [padam] (that abode) na bhāsayate (it does not illuminate),
śaśāṅkaḥ (Moon) [tat padam] (that abode) na [bhāsayate] (it does not illuminate),
pāvakaḥ (fire) [tat padam] (that abode) na [bhāsayate] (it does not illuminate),
tat (that) mama (my) paramam dhāma (the supreme abode) [asti] (it is).

 

grammar

na av.not;
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
bhāsayate bhās (to shine, to be bright) caus. Praes. Ā 1v.1it causes to shine, it illuminates;
sūryaḥ sūrya 1n.1 m. Sun;
na av.not;
śaśāṅkaḥ śaśa-aṅka 1n.1 m.; BV: yasyāṅkaḥ śaśo ‘sti saḥrabbit-marked, Moon (from: śaśa – rabbit, hare; aṅka – sign, line, mark);
na av.not;
pāvakaḥ pāvaka 1n.1 m.pure, fire (from: – to purify);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.which;
gatvā gam (to go) absol.after going;
na av.not;
nivartante ni-vṛt (to stop, to turn back) Praes. Ā 1v.3they return;
tat tat sn. 1n.1 n.that;
dhāma dhāman 1n.1 n.abode, house, state, majesty, splendour (from: dhā – to put);
paramam parama 1n.1 n.supreme, the highest (superlative of: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme);
mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;

 

textual variants


na tad → na yad (whoich not);
na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥna śaśī na ca pāvakaḥ (not the Moon nor fire);
nivartantenivarteta (he would return);

The third and fourth pada of verse 15.6 ar similar to the third and fourth pada of verse BhG 8.21;

 
 



Śāṃkara


tad eva padaṃ punar viśeṣyate—
tat dhāmeti vyavahitena dhāmnā saṃbadhyate | tad dhāma tejo-rūpaṃ padaṃ na bhāsayate sūrya ādityaḥ sarvāvabhāsana-śaktimattve’pi sati | tathā na śaśāṅkaś candraḥ, na pāvako nāgnir api | yad dhāma vaiṣṇavaṃ padaṃ gatvā prāpya na nivartante, yac ca sūryādir na bhāsayate, tad dhāma padaṃ paramaṃ viṣṇor mama padam
 

Rāmānuja


tad atmajyotir na sūryo bhāsayate, na śaśāṅkaḥ, na pāvakaś ca / jñānam eva hi sarvasya prakāśakam; bāhyāni tu jyotīṃṣi viṣayendriyasaṃbandhavirodhitamonirasanadvāreṇopakārakāṇi / asya ca prakāśako yogaḥ / tadvirodhi cānādikarma / tannivartanaṃ coktaṃ bhagavatprapattimūlam asaṅgādi / yad gatvā punar na nivartante, tat paramaṃ dhāma paraṃ jyotiḥ mama madīyam; madvibhūtibhūtaḥ mamāṃśa ityarthaḥ / ādityādīnām api prakāśakatvena tasya paramatvam / ādityādīni hi jyotīṃṣi na jñānajyotiṣaḥ prakāśakāni; jñānam eva sarvasya prakāśakam
 

Śrīdhara


tad eva gantavyaṃ padaṃ viśinaṣṭi na tad iti | tat padaṃ sūryādayo na prakāśayanti | yat prāpya na nivartante yoginaḥ | tad dhāma svarūpaṃ paramaṃ mama | anena sūryādi-prakāśa-viṣayatvena jaḍatva-śītoṣṇādi-doṣa-prasaṅgo nirastaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


tad eva gantavyaṃ padaṃ viśinaṣṭi na tad iti | yad vaiṣṇavaṃ padaṃ gatvā yogino na nivartante tat padaṃ sarvāvabhāsana-śaktimān api sūryo na bhāsayate | sūryāsta-maye ‚pi candro bhāsako dṛṣṭa ity āśaṅkyāha na śaśāṅkaḥ | sūryācandramasor ubhayor apy asta-maye ‚gniḥ prakāśako dṛṣṭa ity āśaṅkyāha na pāvakaḥ | bhāsayata ity ubhayatrāpy anuṣajyate | kutaḥ sūryādīnāṃ tatra prakāśanāsāmarthyam ity ata āha tad dhāma jyotiḥ svayaṃ-prakāśam ādiyādi-sakala-jaḍa-jyotir-avabhāsakaṃ paramaṃ prakṛṣṭaṃ mama viṣṇoḥ svarūpātmakaṃ padam | na hi yo yad-bhāsyaḥ sa svabhāsakaṃ taṃ bhāsayitum īṣṭe | tathā ca śrutiḥ –
na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto ‚yam agniḥ |
tam eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti || [KaṭhU 2.2.15] iti |
etena tat padaṃ vedyaṃ na vā, ādye vedya-bhinna-veditṛ-sāpekṣatvena dvaitāpattir dvitīye sva-puruṣārthatvāpattir ity apāstam | avedyatve saty api svayam aparokṣatvāt tatrāvedyatvaṃ sūryādy-abhāsyatvenātroktaṃ, sarva-bhāsakatvena tu svayam aparokṣatvaṃ yad āditya-gataṃ teja ity atra vakṣyati | evam ubhābhyāṃ ślokābhyāṃ śruter dalad-vacaṃ vyākhyātam iti draṣṭavyam
 

Viśvanātha


tat padam eva kīdṛśam ity apekṣāyām āha na tad iti | auṣṇya-śaityādi-duḥkha-rahitaṃ tat sva-prakāśam iti bhāvaḥ | tan mama paramaṃ dhāma sarvotkṛṣṭam ajaḍam atīndriyaṃ tejaḥ sarva-prakāśakam | yad uktaṃ hari-vaṃśe —
tat paraṃ paramaṃ brahma sarvaṃ vibhajate jagat |
mamaiva tad ghanaṃ tejo jñātum arhasi bhārata || [HV 2.114.12] iti |
na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ
nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto ‚yam agniḥ |
tam eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ
tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti || iti [KaṭhU 2.2.15] śrutibhyaś ca
 

Baladeva


gantavyaṃ padaṃ viśiṣyan paricāyayati na tad iti | prapannā yad gatvā yato na nivartante | tan mamaiva dhāma svarūpaṃ paramaṃ śrīmat | sarvāvabhāsakā api sūryādayas tan na bhāsayanti prakāśayanti | na tatra sūryo bhāti ity ādi-śruteś ca | sūryādibhir aprakāśyas teṣāṃ prakāśakaḥ sva-prakāśaka-cid-vigraho lakṣmīpatir aham eva pada-śabda-bodhyaḥ prapannair labhya ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 15.7

mamaivāṃśo jīva-loke jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ
manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati

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syntax


jīva-loke (in the world of living) jīva-bhūtaḥ (being life) mama eva (just my) sanātanaḥ aṁśaḥ (eternal part)
prakṛti-sthāni (which are situated in nature) manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhāni (of which the mind is the sixth) indriyāṇi (the senses) karṣati (he attains).

 

grammar

mama asmat sn. 6n.1my;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
aṁśaḥ aṁśa 1n.1 m.share, portion, part (from: aṁś – to distribute);
jīva-loke jīva-loka 7n.1 m.; [TP]: jīvānāṁ loka itiin the world of living (from: jīv – to live, jīva – living, living being, life; loka – world);
jīva-bhūtaḥ jīva-bhūta 1n.1 m.being life / comprising the living beings (from: jīv – to live, jīva – living, living being, life; bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
sanātanaḥ sanātana 1n.1 m.eternal, primeval;
manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhāni manaḥ-ṣaṣṭha 2n.3 n.; yeṣāṁ manaḥ ṣaṣṭham asti tāniof which the mind is the sixth (from: man – to think, manas – the mind; ṣaṭ – six, ṣaṣṭha – sixth);
indriyāṇi indriya 2n.3 n.the senses (from: ind – to be powerful);
prakṛti-sthāni prakṛti-stha 2n.3 n.; yāni prakṛtau tiṣṭhanti tāniwhich are situated in nature (from: pra-kṛ – to produce, prakṛti – nature, primary substance, original cause; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
karṣati kṛṣ (to draw, to pull) Praes. P 1v.1he pulls, he attains;

 
 



Śāṃkara


nanu sarvā hi gatir āgaty-antāḥ | saṃyogāḥ viprayogāntāḥ [mātrbh 11.2.3] iti hi prasiddham | katham ucyate tat dhāma gatānāṃ nāsti nivṛttiḥ ? iti | śṛṇu tatra kāraṇaṃ—
mamaiva param ātmano nārāyaṇasya, aṃśo bhāgo’vayava eka-deśa ity anarthāntaraṃ jīva-loke jīvānāṃ loke saṃsāre jīva-bhūtaḥ kartā bhokteti prasiddhaḥ sanātanaś cirantanaḥ | yathā jala-sūryakaḥ sūryāṃśo jala-nimittāpāye sūryam eva gatvā na nivartate ca tenaivātmanā gacchati, evam eva | yathā ghaṭādy-upādhi-paricchinno ghaṭādy-ākāśa ākāśāṃśaḥ san ghaṭādi-nimittāpāye ākāśaṃ prāpya na nivartate | ata upapannam uktaṃ yad gatvā na nivartante iti |
nanu niravayavasya paramātmanaḥ kuto’vayava eka-deśo’ṃśaḥ iti ? sāvayavatve ca vināśa-prasaṅgo’vayava-vibhāgāt | naiṣa doṣaḥ, avidyā-kṛtopādhi-paricchinna eka-deśo’ṃśa iva kalpito yataḥ | darśitaś cāyam arthaḥ kṣetrādhyāye vistaraśaḥ | sa ca jīvo mad-aṃśatvena kalpitaḥ kathaṃ saṃsaraty utkrāmati ca ? ity ucyate—manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi śrotrādīni prakṛti-sthāni sva-sthāne karṇa-śaṣkuly-ādau prakṛtau sthitāni karṣati ākarṣati
 

Rāmānuja


ittham uktasvarūpaḥ sanātano mamāṃśa eva san kaścid anādikarmarūpāvidyāveṣṭito jīvabhūto jīvaloke vartamāno devamanuṣyādiprakṛtipariṇāmaviśeṣaśarīrasthāni manaṣṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi karṣati / kaścic ca pūrvoktena mārgeṇāsyā avidyāyāḥ muktaḥ svena rūpeṇāvatiṣṭhate / jīvabhūtas tv atisaṃkucitajñānāiśvaryaḥ karmalabdhaprakṛtipariṇāmaviśeṣarūpaśarīrasthānām indriyāṇāṃ manaṣṣaṣṭhānām īśvaraḥ tāni karmānuguṇam itas tataḥ karṣati
 

Śrīdhara


nanu ca tvadīyaṃ dhāma prāptāḥ santo yadi na nivartante tarhi sati sampadya na viduḥ sati sampadyāmahe ity ādi śruteḥ suṣupti-pralaya-samaye tattva-prāptiḥ sarveṣām astīti ko nāma saṃsārī syād ity āśaṅkya saṃsāriṇaṃ darśayati mamaiveti pañcabhiḥ | mamaivāṃśo yo ‚yam avidyayā jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ sarvadā saṃsāritvena prasiddhaḥ | asau suṣupti-pralayayoḥ prakṛtau līnatayā sthitāni manaḥ ṣaṣṭhaṃ yeṣāṃ tānīndriyāṇi punar jīva-loke saṃsāropabhogārtham ākarṣati | etac ca karmendriyāṇāṃ prāṇasya copalakṣaṇārtham | ayaṃ bhāvaḥ saatyaṃ suṣupti-pralayayor api mad-aṃśatvāt sarvasāpi jīva-mātrasya mayi layād asty eva mat-prāptiḥ | tathāpy avidyāyāvṛtasya sānuśayasya sa-prakṛtike mayi layaḥ | na tu śuddhe | tad uktam — avyaktād vyaktayaḥ sarve prabhantīty ādinā | ataś ca punaḥ saṃsārāya nirgacchan avidvān prakṛtau līnatayā sthitāni svopādhi-bhūtānīndriyāṇi ākarṣati | viduṣāṃ tu śuddha-svarūpa-prāpter nāvṛttir iti
 

Madhusūdana


jīvasya tu pāramārthikaṃ svarūpaṃ brahmaivety asakṛd āveditam | tad etat sarvaṃ pratipādyata uttareṇa granthena | tatra jīvasya brahma-rūpatvād ajñāna-nivṛttyā tat-svarūpaṃ prāptasya tato na pracyutir iti pratipādyate mamaivāṃśa [Gītā 15.7a] iti ślokārdhena | suṣuptau tu sarva-kārya-saṃskāra-sahitājñāna-sattvāt tataḥ punaḥ saṃsāro jīvasyeti manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhāni [Gītā 15.7b] iti ślokārdhena pratipādyate | tatas tasya vastuto ‚saṃsāriṇo ‚pi māyayā saṃsāraṃ prāptasya manda-matibhir deha-tādātmyaṃ prāpitasya dehād vyatirekaḥ pratipādyate śarīram [Gītā 15.8] ity ādinā ślokārdhena | śrotraṃ cakṣur [Gītā 15.9] ity ādinā tu yathāyathaṃ sva-viṣayeṣv indriyāṇāṃ pravartakasya tasya tebhyo vyatirekaḥ pratipādyate | evaṃ dehendriyādi-vilakṣaṇam utkrānty-ādi-samaye svātma-rūpatvāt kim iti sarve na paśyantīty āśaṅkāyāṃ viṣaya-vikṣipta-cittā darśana-yogyam api taṃ na paśyantīty uttaram ucyate utkrāmantam [Gītā 15.10a] ity ādinā ślokena | taṃ jñāna-cakṣuṣaḥ paśyantīti vivṛtaṃ yatanto yoginaḥ [Gītā 15.11a] iti ślokārdhena | vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti [Gītā 15.10b] ity etad vivṛtaṃ yatanto ‚pi [Gītā 15.11b] iti ślokārdheneti pañcānāṃ ślokānāṃ saṅgatiḥ | idānīṃ akṣarāṇi vyākhyāsyāmo mameti |
mamaiva paramātmano ‚ṃśo niraṃśasyāpi māyayā kalpitaḥ sūryasyeva jale nabhasa iva ca ghaṭe mṛṣābhedavān aṃśa ivāṃśo jīva-loke saṃsāre, sa ca prāṇa-dhāraṇopādhinā jīva-bhūtaḥ kartā bhoktā saṃsaratīti mṛṣaiva prasiddhim upāgataḥ sanātano nitya upādhi-paricchede ‚pi vastutaḥ paramātmatva-rūpatvāt | ato jñānādi-jñāna-nivṛttyā sva-svarūpaṃ brahma prāpya tato na nivartanta iti yuktam |
evam-bhūto ‚pi suṣuptāt katham āvartata ity āha – manaḥ ṣaṣṭhaṃ yeṣāṃ tāni śrotra-tvak-cakṣū-rasana-ghrāṇākhyāni pañcendriyāīndrasyātmano viṣayopalabdhi-karaṇatayā liṅgāni jāgrat-svapna-bhoga-janaka-karma-kṣaye prakṛti-sthāni prakṛtāvajñāne sūkṣma-rūpeṇa sthitāni punar-jāgrad-bhoga-janaka-karmodaye bhogārthaṃ karṣati kūrmo ‚ṅgānīva prakṛter ajñānād ākarṣati viṣaya-grahaṇa-yogyatayāvirbhāvayatīty arthaḥ | ato jñānād anāvṛttāv apy ajñānād āvṛttir nānupapanneti bhāvaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tvad-bhaktyā saṃsāram atikrāmyan ta-pada-gāmī jīvaḥ ka ity apekṣāyām āha mamaivāṃśa iti | yad uktaṃ vārāhe svāṃśaś cātha vibhinnāṃśa iti dvedhāyam iṣyate | vibhinnāṃśas tu jīvaḥ syāt iti | sanātano nityaḥ sa ca baddha-daśāyāṃ manaḥ eva ṣaṣṭhaṃ yeṣāṃ tānīndriyāṇi prakṛtāv upādhau sthitāni karṣati | mamaiva etānīti svīyatvābhimānena gṛhītāṃ pādārgala-śṛṅkhalām iva karṣati
 

Baladeva


nanu tvat-prapattyā yas tat-padaṃ yāti, sa jīvaḥ ka ity apekṣāyām āha mamaiveti | jīvaḥ sarveśvarasya mamaivāṃśo, na tu brahma-rudrāder īśvarasya, sa ca sanātano nityo, na tu ghaṭākāśādivat kalpitaḥ | sa ca jīva-loke prapañce sthito manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi śrotrādīni karṣati pādādi-śṛṅkhalā iva vahati | tāni kīdṛṃśīty āha prakṛti-sthāni prakṛti-vikāra-bhūtāhaṅkāra-kāryāṇīty arthaḥ | tatra manaḥ sāttvikāhaṅkārasya śrotrādikaṃ tu rājasāhaṅkārasya kāryam iti bodhyam | bhagavat-prapattyā prākṛta-karaṇa-hīno bhagaval-lokaṃ gatas tu bhāgavatair deha-karaṇair vibhūṣaṇair iva viśiṣṭo bhagavantaṃ saṃśrayan nivasatīti sūcyate — sa vā eṣa brahma-niṣṭha idaṃ śarīraṃ martyam atisṛjya brahmābhisampadya brahmaṇā paśyati brahmaṇā śṛṇoti brahmaṇaivedaṃ sarvam anubhavati iti mādhyandināyana-śruteḥ | vasanti yatra puruṣāḥ sarve vaikuṇṭha-mūrtayaḥ [BhP 3.15.14] ity ādi smṛteś ca | bhagavat-saṅkalpa-siddha-cid-vigrahas tatra bhavatīti |
yat tu ghaṭākāśavaj jalākāśavad vā jīve brahmaṇo ‚ṃśo ‚ntaḥ-karaṇenāvacchedāt tasmin pratibimba-nāśād vā ghaṭa-jala-nāśe tat-tad-ākāśasya śuddhākāśatvavad antaḥ-karaṇa-nāśe jīvāṃśasya śuddha-brahmatvam iti vadanti, na tat sāram, jīva-bhūtaḥ, mamāṃśaḥ, sanātanaḥ ity ukti-vyākopāt | paricchedādi-vāda-dvayasya dehino ‚smin yathā [Gītā 2.12] ity atra pratyākhyānāc ca | pratibimba-sādṛśyāt tu tattvaṃ mantavyam ambuvad adhikaraṇa-vinirṇayāt | tasmāt brahmopasarjanatvaṃ jīvasya brahmāṃśatvaṃ vidhu-maṇḍalasya śatāṃśaḥ śukra-maṇḍalam ity ādau dṛṣṭaṃ cedam eka-vastv-eka-deśatvaṃ cāṃśatvam āhuḥ | brahma khalu śaktimad ekaṃ vastu brahma-śaktiḥ, itas tv anyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parāṃ jīva-bhūtām [Gītā 7.5] iti pūrvokter atas tad eka-deśāt tad-aṃśo jīvaḥ
 
 


BhG 15.8

śarīraṃ yad avāpnoti yac cāpy utkrāmatīśvaraḥ
gṛhītvaitāni saṃyāti vāyur gandhān ivāśayāt

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syntax


īśvaraḥ (lord) yat śarīram (that body which) avāpnoti (he obtains),
yat ca api (and that which) utkrāmati (he leaves),
vāyuḥ iva (as if the wind) āśayāt (from the restng place) gandhān (aroma) [gṛhītvā] (after taking),
[saḥ] (he) etāni [indriyāṇi] (these senses) gṛhītvā (after taking) saṁyāti (he goes along [with them]).

 

grammar

śarīram śarīra 2n.1 n. body (from: śri – to lean on, to rest on; or from: śṝ – to break, to crush, śarīra – easy to be destroyed, the body);
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n.that which;
or av.yat = yadāwhen;
avāpnoti ava-āp (to obtain) Praes. P 1v.1he obtains;
yat yat sn. 2n.1 n. that which;
ca av.and;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
utkrāmati ut-kram (to go out, to die, to cross over) Praes. P 1v.1he goes out, he leaves;
īśvaraḥ īśvara 1n.1 m.ruler, lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);
gṛhītvā grah (to take) absol.after taking;
etāni etat sn. 1n.3 n.these;
saṁyāti sam- (to meet, to attain) Praes. P 1v.1he attains;
vāyuḥ vāyu 1n.1 m.the wind (from: – to blow);
gandhān gandha 2n.3 m.aromas;
iva av.like, in the same manner as, almost, exactly;
āśayāt āśaya 5n.1 m. from resting place, abode, seat, heart, mind (from: ā-śī – to lie, to rest);

 

textual variants


utkrāmatīśvaraḥutkramateśvaraḥ / utkramatīśvaraḥ (the lord leaves);
gṛhītvaitāni → gṛhītvā tāni (after taking these);
gandhān → gandham (aroma);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kasmin kāle ?—
yac cāpi yadā cāpi utkrāmatīśvaro dehādi-saṃghāta-svāmī jīvaḥ, tadā karṣati [15.8] iti ślokasya dvitīya-pādo’rtha-vaśāt prāthamyena saṃbadhyate | yadā ca pūrvasmāt śarīrāt śarīrāntaram avāpnoti tadā gṛhītvaitāni manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi saṃyāti samyak yāti gacchati | kim iva ? ity āha—vāyuḥ pavano gandhān iva āśayāt puṣpādeḥ
 

Rāmānuja


yac śarīram avāpnoti, yamāc charīrād utkrāmati, tatrāyam indriyāṇām īśvaraḥ etāni indriyāṇi bhūtasūkṣmais saha gṛhītvā saṃyāti vāyur gandhān ivāśayāt / yathā vāyuḥ srakcandanakastūrikādyāśayāt tatsthānāt sūkṣmāvayavais saha gandhān gṛhītvānyatra saṃyāti, tadvad ityarthaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


tāny ākṛṣya kiṃ karotīti | atrāha śarīram iti | yad yadā śarīrāntaraṃ karma-vaśād avāpnoti yataś ca śarīrād utkrāmatīśvaro dehādīnāṃ svāmī tadā pūrvasmāt śarīrād etāni gṛhītvā tac-charīrāntaraṃ samyag yāti | śarīre saty api indriya-grahaṇe dṛṣṭāntaḥ | āśayāt sva-sthānāt kusumādeḥ sakāśāt gandhān gandhavataḥ sūkṣmān aṃśān gṛhītvā vāyur yathā gacchati tadvat
 

Madhusūdana


asmin kāle karṣatīty ucyate śarīram iti | yad yadotkrāmati bahir nirgacchatīśvaro dehendriya-saṃghātasya svāmī jīvas tadā yato dehād utkrāmati tato manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi karṣatīti dvitīya-pādasya prathamam anvaya utkramaṇottara-bhāvitvād gamanasya | na kevalaṃ karṣaty eva, kintu yad yadā ca pūrvasmāc charīrāntaram avāpnoti tadaitāni manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhāīndriyāṇi gṛhītvā saṃyāty api samyak punar āgamana-rāhityena gacchaty api | śarīre saty evendriya-grahaṇe dṛṣṭāntaḥ – āśayāt kusumādeḥ sthānād gandhān gandhātmakān sūkṣmān aṃśān gṛhītvā yathā vāyur vāti tadvat
 

Viśvanātha


tāny akṛṣya kiṃ karotīty apekṣāyām āha śarīram iti | yat sthūla-śarīraṃ karma-vaśād avāpnoti, yac ca yasmāc ca śarīrād utkrāmati niṣkrāmati, īśvaro dehendriyādi-svāmī jīvaḥ tasmāt tatra etānīndriyāṇi bhūta-sūkṣmaiḥ saha gṛhītvaiva saṃyāti vāyur gandhāni iveti vāyur yathāśayād gandhāśrayāt srak-candanādeḥ sakāśāt sūkṣmāvayavaiḥ saha gandhān gṛhītvānyatra yāti tadvad ity arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


jīva-loke sthita indriyāṇi karṣati ity uktam | tat pratipādayati śarīram iti | īśvaraḥ śarīrendriyāṇaṃ svāmī jīvo yad yadā pūrva-śarīrād anyac charīram avāpnoti, yadā cāptāc charīrād utkrāmati, tadaitānīndriyāṇi bhūta-sūkṣmaiḥ saha gṛhṭivā yāty āśayāt puṣpa-kośād gandhān gṛhītvā vāyur iva sa yathānyatra yāti tadvat
 
 


BhG 15.9

śrotraṃ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṃ ca rasanaṃ ghrāṇam eva ca
adhiṣṭhāya manaś cāyaṃ viṣayān upasevate

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syntax


ayam [īśvaraḥ] (that lord) śrotram (ear) cakṣuḥ (eye) sparśanam ca (and touch) rasanam (and taste) ghrāṇam eva ca (and indeed smell) manaḥ ca (and the mind) adhiṣṭhāya (after presiding)
viṣayān (objects) upasevate (he visits).
 

grammar

śrotram śrotra 2n.1 n. ear, hearing (from: śru – to hear, to listen);
cakṣuḥ cakṣuḥ 2n.1 n.sight, look, eye (from: cakṣ – to see, to look at);
sparśanam sparśana 2n.1 n. touch, the sense of touch (from: spṛś – to touch);
ca av.and;
rasanam rasana 2n.1 n. taste, tongue (from: ras – to taste, to relish, to love);
ghrāṇam ghrāṇa 2n.1 n. smell, nose (from: ghā – to smell);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
adhiṣṭhāya adhi-sthā (to stand upon, to superintend) absol.after presiding;
manaḥ manas 1n.1 n.the mind (from: man – to think);
ca av.and;
ayam idam sn. 1n.1 m.he;
viṣayān viṣaya 2n.3 m. spheres, territories, scopes, sense objects, subjects (from: viṣ – to be active, to perform);
upasevate upa-sev (to visit, to serve) Praes. Ā 1v.1he visits, he serves;

 

textual variants


śrotraṁ and cakuḥ interchange the position;
sparśanaṁ ca sparśanaś ca (and touch);
rasanaṁ → rasanāṁ (sense of taste);
manaś cāyaṁ → manaś caiva / manaś cainyaṁ (and indeed the mind / and that mind);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kāni punas tāni—
śrotraṃ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṃ ca tvag-indriyaṃ rasanaṃ ghrāṇam eva ca manaś ca ṣaṣṭhaṃ pratyekam indriyeṇa saha, adhiṣṭhāya deha-stho viṣayān śabdādīn upasevate
 

Rāmānuja


kāni punas tānīndriyāṇīty atrāha
etāni manaṣṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi adhiṣṭhāya svasvaviṣayavṛttyanuguṇāni kṛtvā, tān śabdādīn viṣayān upasevate upabhuṅkte
 

Śrīdhara


tāny evendriyāṇi darśayan yad arthaṃ gṛhītvā gacchati tad āha śrotram iti | śrotrādīni bāhyendriyāṇi manaś cāntaḥkaraṇaṃ, tāny adhiṣṭāyāśritya śabdādīn viṣayān ayaṃ jīva upabhuṅkte
 

Madhusūdana


tāny evendriyāṇi darśayan yad arthaṃ gṛhītvā gacchati tad āha śrotram iti | śrotraṃ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṃ ca rasanaṃ ghrāṇam eva ca | ca-kārāt karmendriyāṇi prāṇaṃ ca manaś ca ṣaṣṭham adhiṣṭhāyaivāśrityaiva viṣayān śabdādīn ayaṃ jīva upasevate bhuṅkte
 

Viśvanātha


tatra gatvā kiṃ karotīty ata āha śrotram iti | śrotrādīnīndriyāṇi manaś cādhiṣṭhāyāśritya viṣayān śabdādīn upabhuṅkte
 

Baladeva


tāni gṛhītvā kim arthaṃ yāti | tatrāha śrotram iti | śrotrādīni samanaskāny adhiṣṭhāyāśrityāyaṃ jīvo viṣayān śabdādīn upabhuṅkte | tad arthaṃ tad-grahaṇam ity arthaḥ | ca-śabdāt karmendriyāṇi ca pañca prāṇāṃś cādhiṣṭhāye ty avagamyam
 
 


BhG 15.10

utkrāmantaṃ sthitaṃ vāpi bhuñjānaṃguṇānvitam
vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti paśyanti jñāna-cakṣuṣaḥ

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vimūḍhāḥ (those bewildered) utkrāmantam (him who is leaving) sthitam vā api (or him who stays) bhuñjānam vā (or him who enjoys) guṇānvitam (who is endowed in guṇas) na anupaśyanti (they do not see),
jñāna-cakṣuṣaḥ (those whose eye is knowledge) [tam] (him) paśyanti (they see).

 

grammar

utkrāmantam utkrāmant (ut-kram – to go out, to die, to cross over) PPr 2n.1 m.him who is leaving;
sthitam sthita (sthā – to stand) [PP] 2n.1 n.him who stays;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
bhuñjānam bhuñjāna (bhuj – to eat, to enjoy) PPr 2n.1 m.him who enjoys;
av.or, and, on the other side, but even if, however;
guṇānvitam guṇa-anvita 2n.1 m.; [TP]: guṇair anvitam itiwho is endowed in guṇas (from: grah – to take, guṇa – quality, virtue, thread; anu-i – to go along, [PP] anv-ita – endowed: with what? – requires instrumental);
vimūḍhāḥ vimūḍha (vi-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.3 m. bewildered, fools (regarding what? – requires locative);
na av.not;
anupaśyanti anu-dṛś (to see po kolei) Praes. P 1v.3they see;
paśyanti dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.3they see;
jñāna-cakṣuṣaḥ jñāna-cakṣuḥ 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣāṁ cakṣur jñānam asti tewhose eye is knowledge (from: jñā – to know, to understand, jñāna – knowledge, wisdom, intelligence; cakṣ – to see, to look at, caku – sight, look, eye);

 

textual variants


utkrāmantaṁ sthitaṁ vāpi tiṣṭhataṁ tam utkrāmaṁtaṁ vā / tiṣṭhatam utkrāmaṁtaṁ vā / utkrāmantaṁ sthitaṁ cāpi (him who stays or is leaving / him who stays or is leaving / him who is leaving or even stays);
vā → ca (and);
jñāna-cakṣuṣaḥ → jñāna-cakṣuṣā (with the eye knowledge);
 
 



Śāṃkara


evaṃ deha-gataṃ dehāt—
utkrāmantaṃ dehaṃ pūrvopāttaṃ parityajantaṃ sthitaṃ vāpi dehe tiṣṭhantaṃ bhuñjānāṃ vā śabdādīṃś copalabhamānaṃ guṇānvitaṃ sukha-duḥkha-mohādyair guṇair anvitam anugataṃ saṃyuktam ity arthaḥ | evaṃ-bhūtam apy enam atyanta-darśana-gocara-prāptaṃ vimūḍhā dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-viṣaya-bhoga-balākṛṣṭa-cetas tayānekadhā mūḍhā nānupaśyanti | aho kaṣṭaṃ vartate ity anukrośati ca bhagavān | ye tu punaḥ pramāṇa-janita-jñāna-cakṣuṣas ta enaṃ paśyanti jñāna-cakṣuṣo vivikta-dṛṣṭaya ity arthaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ guṇānvitaṃ sattvādiguṇamayaprakṛtipariṇāmaviśeṣamanuṣyatvādisaṃsthānapiṇḍasaṃsṛṣṭam, piṇḍaviśeṣād utkrāmantaṃ piṇḍaviśeṣe ‚vathitaṃ vā, guṇamayān viṣayān bhuñjānaṃ vā kadācid api prakṛtipariṇāmaviśeṣamanuṣyatvādipiṇḍād vilakṣaṇaṃ jñānaikākāraṃ vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti / vimūḍhāḥ manuṣyatvādipiṇḍātmatvābhimāninaḥ / jñānacakṣuṣas tu piṇḍātmavivekaviṣayajñānavantaḥ sarvāvastham apy enaṃ viviktākāram eva paśyanti
 

Śrīdhara


nanu kārya-kāraṇa-saṅghāta-vyatirekeṇa evambhūtam ātmānaṃ sarve ‚pi kiṃ na paśyanti | tatrāha utkrāmantam iti | utkrāmantaṃ dehād dehāntaraṃ gacchantaṃ tasminn eva dehe sthitaṃ vā viṣayān bhuñjānaṃ vā guṇānvitam indriyādi-yuktaṃ jīvaṃ vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti nālokayanti | jñānam eva cakṣur yeṣāṃ te vivekinaḥ paśyanti
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ deha-gataṃ darśana-yogayam api dehāt utkrāmantam iti | utkrāmantaṃ dehāntaraṃ gacchantaṃ pūrvasmāt, sthitaṃ vāpi tasminn eva dehe, bhuñjānaṃ vā śabdādīn viṣayān | guṇānvitam sukha-duḥkha-mohātmakair guṇair anvitam | evaṃ sarvāsv avasthāsu darśana-yogyam apy enaṃ vimūḍhā dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-viṣaya-bhoga-vāsanākṛṣṭa-cetastayātmānātma-vivekāyogyā nānupaśyanti | aho kaṣṭaṃ vartata ity ajñān anukrośati bhagavān | ye tu pramāṇa-janita-jñāna-cakṣuṣo vivekinas ta eva paśyanti
 

Viśvanātha


nanu yamād dehān niṣkrāmati yasmin dehe vā tiṣṭhati tatra sthitvā vā yathā bhogān bhuṅkte ity evaṃ viśeṣaṃ nopalabhāmahe | tatrāha utkrāmantaṃ dehānn niṣkrāmantaṃ, sthitaṃ dehāntare vartamānaṃ ca viṣayān bhuñjānaṃ ca guṇānvitam indiryādi-sahitaṃ vimūḍhā avivekinaḥ jñāna-cakṣuṣo vivekinaḥ
 

Baladeva


evaṃ śarīrasthatvenānubhavayogyam avivekinas tam ātmānaṃ nānubhavantīty āha ud iti | śarīrād utkrāmantaṃ tatraiva sthitaṃ vā sthitvā viṣayān bhuñjānaṃ vā guṇānvitaṃ sukha-duḥkha-mohair indiryādibhir vānvitaṃ yuktam anubhava-yogyam apy ātmānaṃ vimūḍhāś cirantana-jñāna-cakṣuṣo viveka-jñāna-netrās tu taṃ paśyanti | śarīrādi-viviktam anubhavanti
 
 


BhG 15.11

yatanto yoginaś cainaṃ paśyanty ātmany avasthitam
yatanto ‘py akṛtātmāno nainaṃ paśyanty acetasaḥ

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syntax


yatantaḥ (who are endeavouring) yoginaḥ ca (and yogīs) enam (him) ātmani avasthitam (situated in the self) paśyanti (they see).
yatantaḥ api (although those who are endeavouring) akṛtātmānaḥ (whose self is not ready) acetasaḥ (without consciousness) enam (him) na paśyanti (they do not see).

 

grammar

yatantaḥ yatant (yat – to endeavour) PPr 1n.3 m.who are endeavouring, who are striving;
yoginaḥ yogin 1n.3 m.yogīs, those engaged (yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage, yoga – yoga, yoking, application, a means, one of the schools of Hindu philosophy);
ca av.and;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.him;
paśyanti dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.3they see;
ātmani ātman 7n.1 m.in the self;
avasthitam ava-sthita (ava-sthā – to be present) [PP] 2n.1 m.situated;
yatantaḥ yatant (yat – to endeavour) PPr 1n.3 m.who are endeavouring, who are striving;
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
akṛtātmānaḥ a-kṛta-ātman 1n.3 m.; BV: yeṣām ātmā akṛto ‘sti tewhose self is not ready (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made, a-kṛta – udone, unprepared, incomplete; ātman – self);
na av.not;
enam etat sn. 2n.1 m.him;
paśyanti dṛś (to see) Praes. P 1v.3they see;
acetasaḥ a-cetas 1n.3 m.those unconscious, insensible, unthinking (from: cit – to perceive, to think; cetas – mind, thought, heart, consciousness);

 

textual variants


cainaṁ → caiva / caivaṁ / ‘py enaṁ (and indeed / and thus / although him [they see]);
yatanto py akṛtātmāno yatato py kṛtātmāno / yatato py akṛtātmāno / yataṁto nyakṛtātmāno (although of one endeavouring whose self is ready / although of one endeavouring whose self is not ready / one endeavouring whose self is made ready by others);
nainaṁ → naivaṁ (not thus);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yatantaḥ prayatnaṃ kurvanto yoginaś ca samāhita-cittā enaṃ prakṛtam ātmānaṃ paśyanty ayam aham asmīty upalabhanta ātmani svasyāṃ buddhāv avasthitam | yatanto’pi śāstrādi-pramāṇair akṛtātmāno’saṃskṛtātmānas tapasā indriya-jayena ca, duścaritād anuparatāḥ, aśānta-darpāḥ prayatnaṃ kurvanto’pi nainaṃ paśyanty acetaso’vivekinaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


matprapattipūrvakaṃ karmayogādiṣu yatamānās tair nirmalāntaḥkaraṇā yogino yogākhyena cakṣuṣā ātmani śarīre ‚vasthitam api śarīrād viviktaṃ svena rūpeṇāvasthitam enaṃ paśyanti / yatamānā apy akṛtātmānaḥ matprapattivirahiṇaḥ tata evāsaṃskṛtamanasaḥ, tata eva acetasaḥ ātmāvalokanasamarthacetorahitāḥ nainaṃ paśyanti
 

Śrīdhara


durjñeyaś cāyaṃ yato vivekiṣv api kecit paśyanti kecin na paśyantīty āha yatanta iti | yatanto dhyānādibhiḥ prayatamānā yoginaḥ kecid enam ātmānam ātmani dehe ‚vasthitaṃ viviktaṃ paśyanti | śāstrābhyāsādibhiḥ prayatnaṃ kurvāṇā apy akṛtātmāno ‚viśuddha-cittā ata evācetaso manda-mataya enaṃ na paśyanti
 

Madhusūdana


paśyanti jñāna-cakṣuṣa ity etad vivṛṇoti yatanta iti | ātmani sva-buddhāv avasthitaṃ pratiphalitam enam ātmānam yatanto dhyānādibhiḥ prayatamānā yogina eva paśyanti | co ‚vadhāraṇe | yatamānā apy akṛtātmāno yajñādibhir aśodhitāntaḥ-karaṇā ata evācetaso viveka-śūnyā nainaṃ paśyantīti vimūḍhā nānupaśyantīty etad vivaraṇam
 

Viśvanātha


te ca vivekino yatamānā yogina evety āha yatanta iti | akṛtātmāno ‚śuddha-cittāḥ
 

Baladeva


jñāna-cakṣuṣaḥ paśyanti ity etad vivṛṇvan durjñānatāṃ tasyāh yatanta iti | kecid yogino yatamānāḥ śravaṇādy-upāyān anutiṣṭhanta ātmani śarīre ‚vasthitam enam ātmānaṃ paśyanti | kecid yatamānā apy akṛtātmāno ‚nirmala-cittā ato ‚vacetaso ‚nudita-viveka-jñānā enaṃ na paśyantīti durjñeyam ātma-tattvam ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 15.12

yad āditya-gataṃ tejo jagad bhāsayate ‘khilam
yac candramasi yac cāgnau tat tejo viddhi māmakam

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syntax


āditya-gatam (present in the Sun) yat tejaḥ (which splendour),
candramasi ca (and in the Moon) yat [tejaḥ] (which splendour),
agnau ca (and in fire) yat [tejaḥ] (which splendour),
akhilam jagat (the whole world) bhāsayate (it illuminates),
[tvam] (you) tat tejaḥ (that splendour) māmakam (my) viddhi (you must know).

 

grammar

yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.which;
āditya-gatam āditya-gata 1n.1 n.; [TP]: āditye gatam itipresent in the Sun (from: āditya – descendant of Aditi, Sun; gam – to go, [PP] gata – gone);
tejaḥ tejas 1n.1 n.sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
jagat jagat 2n.1 n.world, moving, mankind (from: gam – to go);
bhāsayate bhās (to shine, to be bright) caus. Praes. Ā 1v.1it causes to shine, it illuminates;
akhilam a-khila 2n.1 n.whole, complete, without a gap (from: khila – hole, gap);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.which;
candramasi candra-mas 7n.1 m.in the Moon (from: cand – to shine, to be bright, candra – Moon; mas – to measure, mās – month, Moon);
yat yat sn. 1n.1 n.which;
ca av.and;
agnau agni 7n.1 m.in fire (from: ag – to move tortuously);
tat tat sn. 2n.1 n.that;
tejaḥ tejas 2n.1 n.sharpness, heat, splendour, prowess, semen (from: tij – to sharpen, to tolerate);
viddhi vid (to know, to understand) Imperat. P 2v.1you must know;
māmakam māmaka 2n.1 m.my, mine;

 

textual variants


tejo → jyotir (light);
bhāsayate → bhāvayate (it causes to appear);
yac candramasi → yaś caṁdramasi (which in the Moon);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yat padaṃ sarvasyāvabhāsakamapy agnyādity ādikaṃ jyotiḥ nāvabhāsayate, yat prāptā ca mumukṣavaḥ punaḥ saṃsārābhimukhāḥ na nivartante, yasya ca padasya upādhi-bhedam anuvidhīyamānāḥ jīvāḥ—ghaṭākāśādayaḥ iva ākāśasya—aṃśāḥ, tasya padasya sarvātmatvaṃ sarvavyavahārāspadatvaṃ ca vivakṣuś caturbhiḥ ślokaiḥ vibhūtisaṃkṣepamāha bhagavān—
yat āditya-gatam ādityāśrayam | kiṃ tat ? tejo dīptiḥ prakāśo jagad bhāsayate prakāśayaty akhilaṃ samastam | yac candramasi śaśabhṛti tejo’vabhāsakaṃ vartate, yac cāgnau hutavahe, tat tejo viddhi vijānīhi māmakaṃ madīyaṃ mama viṣṇos taj jyotiḥ | athavā, āditya-gataṃ tejaś caitanyātmakaṃ jyotir yac candramasi, yac cāgnau vartate tat tejo viddhi māmakaṃ madīyaṃ mama viṣṇos taj jyotiḥ |
nanu sthāvareṣu jaṅgameṣu ca tat samānaṃ caitanyātmakaṃ jyotiḥ | tatra katham idaṃ viśeṣaṇaṃ—yad āditya-gatam ity ādi | naiṣa doṣaḥ, sattvādhikyād vistaratvopapatteḥ | ādity-ādiṣu hi sattvam atyanta-prakāśam atyanta-bhāsvaram | atas tatraivāvistaraṃ jyotir iti tad viśiṣyate, na tu tatraiva tad adhikam iti | yathā hi loke tulye’pi mukha-saṃsthāne na kāṣṭha-kuḍyādau mukham āvirbhavati, ādarśādau tu svacche svacchatare ca tāratamyenāvirbhavati tadvat
 

Rāmānuja


evaṃ ravicandrāgnīnām indriyasannikarṣavirodhisaṃtamasanirasanamukhenendriyānugrāhakatayā prakāśakānāṃ jyotiṣmatām api prakāśakajñānajyotir ātmā muktāvastho jīvāvasthaś ca bhagavadvibhūtir ity uktam, „tad dhāma pramaṃ mama”, „mamaivāṃśo jīvaloke jīvabhūtas sanātanaḥ” iti / idānīm acitpariṇāmaviśeṣabhūtam ādityādīnāṃ jyotiṣmatāṃ jyotir api bhagavad vibhūtir ity āha
akhilasya jagato bhāsakam eteṣām ādityādīnāṃ yat tejaḥ, tan madīyaṃ tejaḥ tais tair ārādhitena mayā tebhyo dattam iti viddhi
 

Śrīdhara


tad evaṃ na tad bhāsayate sūrya ity ādinā pārameśvaraṃ paraṃ dhāmoktam | tat-prāptānāṃ cāpunar-āvṛttir uktā | tatra ca saṃsāriṇo ‚bhāvam āśaṅkya saṃsāri-svarūpaṃ dehādi-vyatiriktaṃ darśitam | idānīṃ tad eva pārameśvaraṃ rūpam ananta-śaktitvena nirūpayati yad ity ādi-caturbhiḥ | ādiyādiṣu sthitaṃ yad aneka-prakāraṃ tejo viśvaṃ prakāśayati tat sarvaṃ tejo madīyam eva jānīhi
 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ yat padaṃ sarvāvabhāsana-kṣamā apy ādityādayo bhāsayituṃ na kṣamante yat-prāptāś ca mumukṣavaḥ punaḥ saṃsārāya nāvartante yasya ca padasyopādi-bhedam anu vidhīyamānā jīvā ghaṭākāśādaya ivākāśasya kalpitāṃśā mṛṣaiva saṃsāram anubhavanti tasya padasya sarvātmatva-sarva-vyavahārāspadatva-pradarśanena brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham [Gītā 14.27] iti prāg uktaṃ vivarītuṃ caturbhiḥ ślokair ātmano vibhūti-saṃkṣepam āha bhagavān yad iti | na tatra sūryo bhāti na candra-tārakaṃ nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto ‚yam agniḥ [KaṭhU 2.2.15] ity ādinā | tam eva bhāntam anubhāti sarvaṃ tasya bhāsā sarvam idaṃ vibhāti [KaṭhU 2.2.15] iti śruty-artham anena vyākhyāyate | yad āditya-gataṃ tejaś caitnyātmakaṃ jyotir yac candramasi yac cāgnau sthitaṃ tejo jagad akhilam avabhāsayate tat tejo māmakaṃ madīyaṃ viddhi | yadyapi sthāvara-jaṅgameṣu samānaṃ caitanyātmakaṃ jyotis tathāpi sattvotkarṣeṇādityādīnām utkarṣāt tatraivāvistarāṃ caitanya-jyotir iti tair viśeṣyate yad āditya-gatam ity ādi | yathā tulye ‚pi mukha-saṃnidhāne kāṣṭha-kuḍyādau na mukham āvirbhavati | ādarśādau ca svacche svacchatare ca tāratamyenāvirbhavati tadvad yad āditya-gataṃ teja ity uktvā punas tat tejo viddhi māmakam iti tejo-grahaṇād yad ādityādi-gataṃ tejaḥ prakāśaḥ para-prakāśa-samarthaṃ sita-bhāsvaraṃ rūpaṃ jagad akhilaṃ rūpavad vastu avabhāsayate | evaṃ yac candramasi yac cāgnau jagad-avabhāsakaṃ tejas tan māmākaṃ viddhīti vibhūti-kathanāya dvitīyo ‚py artho draṣṭavyaḥ | anyathā tan māmakaṃ viddhīty etāvad brūyāt tejo-grahaṇam antareṇaiveti bhāvaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


tad evaṃ jīvasya baddhāvasthāyāṃ yat yat prāpya-vastu tatrāham eva sūrya-candrādy-ātmakaḥ sann upakaromīty āha yad iti tribhiḥ | āditya-sthitaṃ teja eva udaya-parvate prātar uditya jīvasya dṛṣṭādṛṣṭa-bhoga-sādhana-karma-pravartanārthaṃ jagad bhāsayata evaṃ ca yac candramasi aganau ca tat tad akhilaṃ māmakam eva | sūryādi-saṃjño ‚ham eva bhavāmīty arthaḥ | tat tejasa eva tat-tad-vibhūtir iti bhāvaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha mad-aṃśasya jīvasya saṃsāra-raktasya mumukṣoś ca bhoga-mokṣa-sādhanam aham eveti bhāvenāha yad iti caturbhiḥ | āditye sthitaṃ yat tejo yac candre ‚gnau ca sthitaṃ sat sarvaṃ jagat prakāśayati, tat tejo māmakaṃ madīyaṃ viddhi | uditena sūryeṇa jvalitena ca vahninādṛṣṭa-bhoga-sādhanāni karmāṇi niṣpadyante | timira-jāḍya-nāśādayaś ca sukha-hetavo bhavanti | uditena candreṇa cauṣadhi-poṣa-tāpa-śānti-jyotsnāvihārās tathābhūtā bhavantīti teṣāṃ tat-tat-sādhakaṃ tejo mat-tejo-vibhūtir ity arthaḥ
 
 


BhG 15.13

gām āviśya ca bhūtāni dhārayāmy aham ojasā
puṣṇāmi cauṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ somo bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ

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syntax


aham ca (and I) ojasā (by energy) gām (the Earth) āviśya (after entering)
bhūtāni (beings) dhārayāmi (I support),
rasātmakaḥ ca (and whose essence is taste) somaḥ (Moon) bhūtvā (after becoming)
sarvāḥ auṣadhīḥ (all herbs) puṣṇāmi (I nourish).

 

grammar

gām go 2n.1 f. the Earth (from: gam – to go; go – moving, cow, earth, an organ of sense);
āviśya ā-viś (to approach, to enter) absol.after entering, after approaching;
ca av.and;
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
dhārayāmi dhṛ (to hold) Praes. caus. 3v.1 I support, I cause to hold;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
ojasā ojas 3n.1 n.by strenght, by power, by energy;
puṣṇāmi puṣ (to flourish, to thrive, to nourish) Praes. 3v.1 I nourish;
ca av.and;
auṣadhīḥ auṣadhi 2n.3 f.herbs, plants, medicines (from: oṣadhi – herb);
sarvāḥ sarva sn. 1n.3 f.all;
somaḥ soma 1n.1 m.juice, nectar, Moon, soma (from: su – to extract);
bhūtvā bhū (to be) absol.after becoming;
rasātmakaḥ rasa-ātmaka 1n.1 m.whose essence is taste (from: ras – to taste, to relish, to love, rasa – juice, nectar, taste; ātmaka – in compounds: being of this nature);

 

textual variants


gām → mām (me);
gām āviśya ca → yogām āviśya (after taking possession of yoga);
cauṣadhīḥ → coṣadhīḥ / vauṣadhīḥ (or herbs);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
gāṃ pṛthivīm āviśya praviśya dhārayāmi bhūtāni jagad aham ojasā balena | yad balaṃ kāma-rāga-vivarjitam aiśvaraṃ rūpaṃ jagad-vidhāraṇāya pṛthivyāṃ praviṣṭaṃ yena pṛthivī gurvī nādhaḥ patati na vidīryate ca | tathā ca mantra-varṇaḥ—yena dyaur ugrā pṛthivī ca dṛḍhā [sthitaittsarv 4.1.8] iti, sa dādhāra pṛthivīṃ [rādhāk 8.7.3.1] ity ādiś ca | ato gām āviśya ca bhūtāni carācarāṇi dhārayāmīti yuktam uktam | kiṃ ca, pṛthivyāṃ jātā oṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ vrīhi-yavādyāḥ puṣṇāmi puṣṭi-matīḥ rasa-svādumatī ca karomi somo bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ somaḥ san rasātmakaḥ rasa-svabhāvaḥ | sarva-rasānām ākaraḥ somaḥ | sa hi sarva-rasātmakaḥ sarvāḥ oṣadhīḥ svātma-rasān anupraveśayan puṣṇāti
 

Rāmānuja


pṛthivyāś ca bhūtadhāriṇyā dhārakatvaśaktir madīyety āha
ahaṃ pṛthivīm āviśya sarvāṇi bhūtāni ojasā mamāpratihatasāmarthyena dhārayāmi / tathāham amṛtarasamayas somo bhūtvā sarvauṣadhīḥ puṣṇāmi
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca gām iti | gāṃ pṛthvīm ojasā balenādhiṣṭhāyāham eva carācarāṇi bhūtāni dhārayāmi | aham eva rasamayaḥ somo bhūtvā brīhy-ādy-auṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ saṃvardhayāmi
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca, gāṃ pṛthivīm pṛthivī-devatā-rūpeṇāviśyaujasā nijena balena pṛthivīṃ dhūli-muṣṭi-tulyāṃ dṛḍhīkṛtya bhūtāni pṛthivyādheyāni vastūny aham eva dhārayāmi | anyathā pṛthivī sikatā-muṣṭivad viśīryatādho nimajjed vā | yena dyaur ugrā pṛthivī ca dṛḍhā [YajuḥK 1.8.5, TaittS 4.1.8] iti mantra-varṇāt | sa dādhāra pṛthivīm [Ṛk 8.7.3.1] iti ca hiraṇyagarbha-bhāvāpannaṃ bhagavantam evāha | kiṃ ca, rasātmakaḥ sarva-rasa-svabhāvaḥ somo bhūtvauṣadhīḥ sarvā brīhi-yavādyāḥ pṛthivyāṃ jātā aham eva puṣṇāmi puṣṭimatī rasa-svādumatīś ca karomi
 

Viśvanātha


gāṃ pṛthvīm ojasā sva-śaktyāviśyādhiṣṭhāyāham eva carācarāṇi bhūtāni dhārayāmi | tathāham evāmṛta-rasamayaḥ somo bhūtvā brīhy-ādy-auṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ saṃvardhayāmi
 

Baladeva


gām iti pāṃśu-muṣṭi-tulyāṃ gāṃ pṛthivīm ojasā sva-śaktyāviśya dṛḍhīkṛtya bhūtāni sthira-carāṇi dhārayāmi | mantra-varṇaś caivam āha — yena dyaur ugrā pṛthivī ca dṛḍhā [Ṛk 8.7.3.1] iti | anyathāsau sikatā-muṣṭivad-viśīryeṇa nimajjed veti bhāvaḥ | tathāham eva rasātmakaḥ somo ‚mṛtamayaś candro bhūtvā sarvā auṣadhīr nikhilā brīhy-ādyāḥ puṣṇāmi | svādu-vividha-rasa-pūrṇāḥ karomi | tathā ca bhūmiloke sthitasya jīvasya vividha-prāsāda-bāṭikā-taḍāgādi-krīḍā-sthānāni nirmāya nānā-rasān bhuñjānasya tat-tat-sādhanam aham eveti
 
 


BhG 15.14

ahaṃ vaiśvānaro bhūtvā prāṇināṃ deham āśritaḥ
prāṇāpāna-samāyuktaḥ pacāmy annaṃ catur-vidham

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syntax


aham (I) vaiśvānaraḥ (the fire of digestion) bhūtvā (after becoming)
prāṇinām (of those breathing) deham (body) āśritaḥ (taken shelter)
prāṇāpāna-samāyuktaḥ (endowed with inhale and exhale) catur-vidham annam (four kinds of food) pacāmi (I digest).

 

grammar

aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
vaiśvānaraḥ vaiśvā-nara 1n.1 m. belonging to all people, omnipresent, Sun, the fire of digestion (from: viś – to enter, viśva – all, whole, world; nṛ man, mankind, nara – a man, a person);
bhūtvā bhū (to be) absol.after becoming;
prāṇinām prāṇin 6n.3 m.of the owners of life, of living beings (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – breath, life; -in, -min, -vin – sufixes meaning one who possesses);
deham deha 2n.1 m.body (from: dih – to anoint, to smear, deha – a form, shape, body);
āśritaḥ āśrita (ā-śri – to  adhere, to lean on, to rest on, to depend on) [PP] 1n.1 m.taken shelter (of whom? – requires accusative);
prāṇāpāna-samāyuktaḥ prāṇa-apāna-samāyukta 1n.1 f.; DV / [TP]: prāṇena ca apānena ca samāyukta iti endowed with inhale and exhale (from: pra-an – to breath upwards prāṇ – to breath, to live, prāṇa – breath, air going upwards; ap-an – to breath downwards, apāna – air going downwards; sam-ā-yuj – to yoke, to join, to engage together, [PP] sam-ā-yukta – yoked, endowed with);
pacāmi pac (to cook, to digest) Praes. P 3v.1I cook, I digest;
annam anna (ad – to eat) [PP] 2n.1 n. food;
catur-vidham catur-vidha 2n.1 n.fourfold, of four kinds (from: catur – four; vi-dhā – to divide, vidhā – division, part; four kinds of food: bhokṣyam – to be chewed, bhojyam – to be eaten without chewing, lehyam – to be licked, coṣyam – to be sucked);

 

textual variants


vaiśvānaroviśvā-naro (relating to all people);
āśritaḥāsthitaḥ / āviṣṭaḥ (situated / who entered);
prāṇāpāna-samāyuktaḥ → prāṇāpānaḥ samāyuktaḥ / prāṇāpāna-sakhaṁ bhūtvā (endowed, being inhale and exhale / after becoming friend of inhale and exhale);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
aham eva vai vaiśvānara udara-stho’gnir bhūtvā—ayam agnir vaiśvānaro yo’yam antaḥ puruṣe yenedam annaṃ pacyate yad idam adyate [bhāvātmauttaṃ 5.9.1] ity ādi-śruteḥ | vaiśvānaraḥ san prāṇināṃ prāṇavatāṃ deham āśritaḥ praviṣṭaḥ prāṇāpāna-samāyuktaḥ prāṇāpānābhyāṃ samāyuktaḥ saṃyuktaḥ pacāmi paṅkti karomy annam aśanaṃ caturvidhaṃ catuṣprakāraṃ bhojyaṃ bhakṣyaṃ coṣyaṃ lehyaṃ ca | bhoktā vai vānaro’gniḥ | agner bhojyam annaṃ somaḥ | tad etad ubhayam agnīṣomau sarvam iti paśyato’nna-doṣa-lepo na bhavati
 

Rāmānuja


ahaṃ vaiśvānaro jāṭharānalo bhūtvā sarveṣāṃ prāṇināṃ deham āśritaḥ tair bhuktaṃ khādyacūṣyalehyapeyātmakaṃ caturvidham annaṃ prāṇāpānavṛttibhedasamāyuktaḥ pacāmi
 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca aham iti | aham īśvara eva vaiśvānaro jaṭharāgnir bhūtvā prāṇināṃ dehasyāntaḥ praviśya prānāpānābhyāṃ ca tad-uddīpakābhyāṃ sahitaḥ prāṇibhir bhuktaṃ bhakṣyaṃ bhojyaṃ lehyaṃ coṣyaṃ ceti caturvidham annaṃ pacāmi | tatra yad dantair avakhaṇḍyāvakhaṇḍya bhakṣyate pūpādi tad bhakṣyam | yat tu kevalaṃ jihvayā viloḍya nigīryate pāyasādi tad bhojyam | yaj jihvāyāṃ nikṣipya rasāsvādena kramaśo nigīryate dravībhūtaṃ guḍādi tal lehyam | yat tu daṃṣṭrādibhir niṣpīḍya sārāṃśaṃ nigīryāvaśiṣṭaṃ tyajyata ikṣu-daṇḍādi tac coṣyam iti caturvidho ‚sya bhedaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca aham iti | aham īśvara eva vaiśvānaro jaṭharo ‚gnir bhūtvā ayam agnir vaiśvānaro yo ‚yam antaḥ puruṣe yenedam annaṃ pacyate yad idam adyate [BAU 5.9.1] ity ādi śruti-pratipāditaḥ san prāṇināṃ sarveṣāṃ deham āśrito ‚ntaḥ praviṣṭaḥ prānāpānābhyāṃ tad-uddīpakābhyāṃ saṃyuktaḥ saṃdhukṣitaḥ san pacāmi prāṇibhir bhuktam annaṃ caturvidham bhakṣyaṃ bhojyaṃ lehyaṃ coṣyaṃ ceti | tatra yad dantair avakhaṇḍyāvakhaṇḍya bhakṣyate pūpādi tad bhakṣyam | yat tu kevalaṃ jihvayā viloḍya nigīryate sūpaudanādi tad bhojyam | yaj jihvāyāṃ nikṣipya rasāsvādena nigīryate kiṃcid dravībhūtaṃ guḍa-rasālā-śikhariṇy-ādi tal lehyam | yat tu dantair niṣpīḍya rasāṃśaṃ nigīryāvaśiṣṭaṃ tyajyate yathekṣu-daṇḍādi tac coṣyam iti bhedaḥ | bhoktā yaḥ so ‚gnri vaiśvānaro yad bhojyam annaṃ sa somas tad etad ubhayam agnīṣomau sarvam iti dhyāyato ‚nna-doṣa-lepo na bhavatīty api draṣṭavyam
 

Viśvanātha


vaiśvānaro jaṭharānalaḥ prāṇāpānābhyāṃ tad uddīpakābhyāṃ sahitaś caturvidhaṃ bhakṣyaṃ bhojyaṃ lehyaṃ coṣyam | bhakṣyaṃ danta-cchedyaṃ bhṛṣṭa-canakādi bhojyaṃ modakādi | lehyaṃ guḍādi | coṣyam ikṣu-daṇḍādi
 

Baladeva


bhogyānām annādīnāṃ pāka-hetuś cāham evety āha aham iti | vaiśvānaro jaṭharāgnis tac-charīrako bhūtvā prāṇināṃ sarveṣāṃ deham udaram āśritaḥ prānāpānābhyāṃ tad-uddīpakābhyāṃ samāyuktaś ca sann ahaṃ tair bhuktaṃ caturvidham annaṃ pacāmi pākaṃ nayāmi | śrutiś caivam āha ayam agnir vaiśvānaro yo ‚yam antaḥ puruṣe yenedaṃ annaṃ pacyate ity ādinā | tathā cāham eva jāṭharāgni-śarīras tad-upakārīty evam āha sūtrakāraḥ — śabdādibhyo ‚ntaḥ pratiṣṭhānāc ca ity ādinā | annasya cāturvidhyaṃ ca bhakṣyaṃ bhojyaṃ lehyaṃ cūṣyaṃ ceti bhedāt | danta-cchedyaṃ caṇaka-pūpādi | bhakṣyaṃ carvyam iti cocyate | modakaudana-sūpādi bhojyaṃ | pāyasa-guḍa-madhv-ādi lehyaṃ | pakvāmrekṣu-daṇḍādi cūṣyaṃ | soma-vaiśvānarayoḥ svābhedenoktiḥ sva-vyāpyatvād iti bodhyam
 
 


BhG 15.15

sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi saṃniviṣṭo mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṃ ca
vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyo vedānta-kṛd veda-vid eva cāham

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syntax


aham ca (and I) sarvasya (of all) hṛdi (in the heart) sanniviṣṭaḥ (entered) [asmi] (I am),
mattaḥ (from me) smṛtiḥ (remembrance) jñānam (knowledge) apohanaṁ ca (and taking away) [santi] (they are).
sarvaiḥ vedaiḥ ca (and by all the Vedas) aham eva (only I) vedyaḥ (to be known) [asmi] (I am),
aham ca (and I) vedānta-kṛt (the creator of Vedānta) veda-vit eva (indeed the knower of the Veda) [asmi] (I am).

 

grammar

sarvasya sarva sn. 6n.1 m.of all;
ca av.and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
hṛdi hṛd 7n.1 n.in the heart;
saṁniviṣṭaḥ sam-ni-viṣṭa (ni-viś – to enter) [PP] 1n.1 m. seated, entered;
mattaḥ av.from me (from: mat – the basic form of a personal ponoun „I” singular used in compounds; indeclinable ablative with an ending: -tas);
smṛtiḥ smṛti 1n.1 f.remembrance, tradition, sacred texts of tradition (from: smṛ – to think, to remember);
jñānam jñāna 1n.1 n.knowledge, wisdom, intelligence (from: jñā – to know, to understand);
apohanam apohan 1n.1 n.taking away, forgetting (from: apa-ūh – to remove, to carry away, apoha – removing, taking away);
ca av.and;
vedaiḥ veda 3n.3 m.by the Vedas (from: vid – to know, to understand);
ca av.and;
sarvaiḥ sarva sn. 3n.3 n.by all;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
vedyaḥ vedya (vid – to know, to understand) PF 1n.1 m.to be known, to be understood;
vedānta-kṛt vedānta-kṛt 1n.1 m.; yaḥ vedāntaṁ karoti saḥ who creates Vedānta (from: vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas; anta – the end, limit, boundary, death; vedānta – the conclusion of the Veda = Brahma-sūtra – work treating of the knowledge of Brahman; kṛ – to do, -kṛt – suffix indicates a doer);
veda-vit veda-vit 1n.1 m.; yo vedān vetti saḥwho knows the Vedas (from: vid – to know, to understand, veda – the Vedas; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;

 

textual variants


mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam mattaḥ smṛti-jñānam / matta-smṛtiṛ jñānam / matta-smṛti-jñānam (from me remembrance and knowledge / furious remembrance and knowledge / madness, remembrance and knowledge);
apohanaṁamohanaṁ (lack of bewilderment);
veda-vid eva → veda-kṛd eva (indeed the creator of the Vedas);
 
 



Śāṃkara


kiṃ ca—
sarvasya ca prāṇi-jātasyāham ātmā san hṛdi buddhau saṃniviṣṭaḥ | ato matta ātmanaḥ sarva-prāṇināṃ smṛtir jñānaṃ tad-apohanaṃ cāpagamanaṃ ca | yeṣāṃ yathā puṇya-karmaṇāṃ puṇya-karmānurodhena jñāna-smṛtī bhavataḥ, tathā pāpa-karmaṇāṃ pāpa-karmānurūpeṇa smṛti-jñānayor apohanaṃ cāpāyanam apagamanaṃ ca | vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva paramātmā vedyo veditavyaḥ | vedānta-kṛd vedāntārtha-saṃpradāya-kṛd ity arthaḥ, veda-vid vedārtha-vid eva cāham
 

Rāmānuja


atra paramapuruṣavibhūtibhūtau somavaiśvānarau ahaṃ somo bhūtvā, vaiśvānaro bhūtvā iti tatsāmānādhikaraṇyena nirdiṣṭau / tayoś ca sarvasya bhūtajātasya ca paramapuruṣasāmānādhikaraṇyanirdeśahetum āha

tayoḥ somavaiśvānarayoḥ sarvasya ca bhūtajātasya sakalapravṛttinivṛttimūlajñānodayadeśe hṛdi sarvaṃ matsaṃkalpena niyacchan aham ātmatayā sanniviṣṭaḥ / tathāhuḥ śrutayaḥ, „antaḥ praviṣṭaś śāstā janānāṃ sarvātmā”, „yaḥ pṛthivyāṃ tiṣṭhan”, „ya ātmani tiṣṭhan ātmano ‚ntaro ….. yamayati”, „padmakośapratīkāśaṃ hṛdayaṃ cāpy adhomukham”, „atha yad idam asmin brahmapure daharaṃ puṇḍarīkaṃ veśma” ityādyāḥ / smṛtayaś ca, „śāstā viṣṇur aśeṣasya jagato yo jaganmayaḥ”, „praśāsitāraṃ sarveṣām aṇīyāṃsam aṇīyasām”, „yamo vaivasvato rājā yas tavaiṣa hṛdi sthitaḥ” ityādyāḥ / ato matta eva sarveṣāṃ smṛtir jāyate / smṛtiḥ pūrvānubhūtiviṣayam anubhavasaṃskāramātrajaṃ jñānam / jñānam indriyaliṅgāgamayogajo vastuniścayaḥ; so ‚pi mattaḥ / apohanaṃ ca / apohanam jñānanivṛttiḥ / apohanam ūhanaṃ vā; ūhanam ūhaḥ; ūho nāma idaṃ pramāṇam itthaṃ pravartitum arhatīti pramāṇapravṛttyarhatāviṣayaṃ sāmagryādinirūpaṇajanyaṃ pramāṇānugrāhakaṃ jñānam; sa coho matta eva / vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ / ato ‚gnisūryavāyusomendrādīnāṃ madantaryāmikatvena madātmakatvāt tatpratipādanaparair api sarvair vedair aham eva vedyaḥ, devamanuṣyādiśabdair jīvātmaiva / vedāntakṛd vedānām „indraṃ yajeta”, „varuṇaṃ yajeta” ity evam ādīnām antaḥ phalam; phale hi te sarve vedāḥ paryavasyanti; antakṛt phalakṛt; vedoditaphalasya pradātā cāham evetyarthaḥ / tad uktaṃ pūrvam eva, „yo yo yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitum icchati” ity ārabhya „labhate ca tataḥ kāmān mayaiva vihitān hi tān” iti, „ahaṃ hi sarvayajñānāṃ bhoktā ca prabhur eva ca” iti ca / vedavid eva cāham vedavic cāham eva / evaṃ madabhidhāyinaṃ vedam aham eva veda; ito ‚nyathā yo vedārthaṃ
brūte na sa vedavid ity abhiprāyaḥ

 

Śrīdhara


kiṃ ca sarvasya prāni-jātasya hṛdi samyag-antaryāmi-rūpeṇa praviṣṭo ‚ham | ataś ca matta eva hetoḥ prāṇi-mātrasya pūrvānbhūtārtha-viṣayā smṛtir bhavati | jñānaṃ ca viṣayendndriya-saṃyogajaṃ bhavati | āpohanaṃ ca tayoḥ pramoṣo bhavati | vedaiś ca sarvais tat-tad-devatādi-rūpeṇāham eva vedyaḥ | vedānta-kṛt tat-sampradāya-pravartakaś ca | jñānado gurur aham ity arthaḥ | veda-vid eva ca vedārtha-vid apy aham eva
 

Madhusūdana


kiṃ ca, sarvasya brahmādi-sthāvarāntasya prāṇi-jātasyāham ātmā san hṛdi buddhau saṃniviṣtaḥ sa eṣa iha praviṣṭaḥ [BAU 1.4.7] iti śruteḥ | anena jīvenātmanānupraviśya nāma-rūpe vyākaravāṇi [ChāU 6.3.2] iti ca | ato matta ātmana eva hetoḥ prāṇi-jātasya yathānurūpaṃ smṛtir etaj janmani pūrvānubhūtārtha-viṣayā vṛttir yogināṃ ca janmāntarānubhūtārtha-viṣayāpi | tathā matta eva jñānaṃ viṣayendriya-saṃyogajaṃ bhavati | yogināṃ ca deśa-kāla-viprakṛṣṭa-viṣayam api | evaṃ kāma-krodha-śokādi-vyākula-cetasām apohanaṃ ca smṛti-jñānayor apāyaś ca matta eva bhavati |
evaṃ svasya jīva-rūpatām uktvā brahma-rūpatām āha – vedaiś ca sarvair indrādi-devatā-prakāśakair api aham eva vedyaḥ sarvātmatvāt |
indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇam agnim āhur
atho divyaḥ sa suparṇo garutmān |
ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadanti
agniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānam āhuḥ || [Ṛk 2.3.22.6] iti mantra-varṇāt |
eṣa u hy eva sarve devāḥ iti ca śruteḥ | vedānta-kṛd vedāntārtha-sampradāya-pravartako veda-vyāsādi-rūpeṇa | na kevalam etāvad eva veda-vid eva cāhaṃ karma-kāṇḍopāsanā-kāṇḍa-jñāna-kāṇḍātmaka-mantra-brāhmaṇa-rūpa-sarva-vedārtha-vic cāham eva | ataḥ sādhūktaṃ brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham [Gītā 14.27] ity ādi
 

Viśvanātha


yathaiva jaṭhare jaṭharāgnir ahaṃ tathaiva sarvasya carācarasya hṛdi sanniviṣṭo buddhi-tattva-rūpo ‚ham eva | yato matto buddhi-tattvād eva pūrvānubhūtārtha-viṣayānusmṛtir bhavati | tathā viṣayendriya-yogajaṃ jñānaṃ ca apohanaṃ smṛti-jñānayor apagamaś ca bhavatīti | jīvasya bandhāvasthāyāṃ svasyopakārakatvam uktvā mokṣāvasthāyāṃ yat prāpyaṃ tatrāpy upakāratvam āha vedair iti | veda-vyāsa-dvārā vedānta-kṛd aham eva yato vedavid vedārtha-tattva-jño ‚ham eva matto ‚nyo vedārthaṃ na jānātīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


prāṇināṃ jñānājñāna-hetuś cāham evety āha sarvasya ceti | tayoḥ soma-vaiśvānarayoḥ sarvasya ca prāṇi-vṛndasya hṛdi nikhila-pravṛtti-hetu-jñānodaya-dehe ‚ham eva niyāmakatvena sanniviṣṭaḥ | antaḥ-praviṣṭaḥ śāstā janānām [TaittA 3.11] | ity ādi-śravaṇāt | ato matta eva sarvasya smṛtiḥ pūṛvānubhūta-vastu-viṣayānusandhi-jñānaṃ ca viṣayendriya-sannikarṣa-janyaṃ jāyate | tayor apohanaṃ pramoṣaś ca matto bhavati | evam uktaṃ uddhavena tvatto jñānaṃ hi jīvānāṃ pramoṣas tatra śaktitaḥ iti |
evaṃ sāṃsārika-bhoga-sādhanatāṃ svasyoktvā mokṣa-sādhanatām āha vedaiś ceti | sarvair nikhilair vedair aham eva sarveśvaraḥ sarva-śaktimān kṛṣṇo vedyaḥ | yo ‚sau sarvair vedair gīyate iti śruteḥ | atra karma-kāṇḍena paramparayā jñāna-kāṇḍena tu sākṣād iti bodhyam | katham evaṃ pratyetavyam iti cet tatrāha vedānta-kṛd aham eveti | vedānām anto ‚rtha-nirṇayas tat-kṛd aham eva bādarāyaṇātmanā | evam āha sūtra-kāraḥ — ta tu samanvayāt [Vs 1.1.4] ity ādibhiḥ | nanv anye vedārtham anyathā vyācakṣyate | tatrāha vedavid eva cāham ity aham eva vedavid iti | bādarāyaṇaḥ san yam artham ahaṃ niraṇaiṣaṃ sa eva vedārthas tato ‚nyathā tu bhrānti-vijṛmbhita iti | tathā ca mokṣa-pradasya sarveśvara-tattvasya vedair abodhanād aham eva mokṣa-sādhanam
 
 


BhG 15.16

dvāv imau puruṣau loke kṣaraś cākṣara eva ca
kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭa-stho ‘kṣara ucyate

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syntax


loke (in the world) kṣaraḥ ca akṣaraḥ eva ca (perishable and imperishable) dvau imau puruṣau (these two persons) [staḥ] (they are).
[tatra] (among them) sarvāṇi bhūtāni (all creatures) kṣaraḥ (perishable) [ucyate] (called),
kūṭa-sthaḥ (who is situated on the top) akṣaraḥ (imperishable) ucyate (it is called).

 

grammar

dvau dvi 1n.2 m.two;
imau idam sn. 1n.2 m.they [two];
puruṣau puruṣa 1n.2 m.persons (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
kṣaraḥ kṣara 1n.1 m. perishable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish);
ca av.and;
akṣaraḥ a-kṣara 1n.1 m. imperishable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
eva av.certainly, just, merely;
ca av.and;
kṣaraḥ kṣara 1n.1 m. perishable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish);
sarvāṇi sarva sn. 1n.3 n.all;
bhūtāni bhūta 1n.3 n.beings, creatures (from: bhū – to be, [PP] bhūta – been, real, world);
kūṭa-sthaḥ kūṭa-stha 1n.1 m.; yaḥ kūṭe tiṣṭhati saḥwho is situted on the top (from: kūṭa – summit, peak, heap; sthā – to stand, stha – suffix: being in);
akṣaraḥ a-kṣara 1n.1 m. imperishable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
ucyate vac (to speak) Praes. pass. 1v.1it is said;

 

textual variants


ucyate → eva ca (and just);
 
 



Śāṃkara


bhagavata īśvarasya nārāyaṇākhyasya vibhūti-saṃkṣepa ukto viśiṣṭopādhi-kṛto yad āditya-gataṃ tejaḥ [gītā 15.12] ity ādinā | athādhunā tasyaiva kṣarākṣaropādhi-pravibhaktatayā nirupādhikasya kevalasya tattva-svarūpa-nirdidhārayiṣayottara-ślokā ārabhyante | tatra sarvam evātītān āgatān antarādhyāyārtha-jātaṃ tridhā rāśīkṛtya āha—

dvāv imau pṛthag-rāśī-kṛtau puruṣāv ity ucyete loke saṃsāre—kṣaraś ca kṣaratīti kṣaro vināśī ity eko rāśiḥ | aparaḥ puruṣo’kṣaras tad-viparītaḥ, bhagavato māyā-śaktiḥ, kṣarākhyasya puruṣasya utpatti-bījam aneka-saṃsāri-jantu-kāma-karmādi-saṃskārāśraya akṣaraḥ puruṣa ucyate | kau tau puruṣau ? ity āha svayam eva bhagavān—kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni, samastaṃ vikāra-jātam ity arthaḥ | kūṭāsthaḥ kūṭāḥ rāśī rāśir iva sthitaḥ | athavā, kūṭā māyā vacanā jihmatā kuṭilatā iti paryāyāḥ | aneka-māyā-vacanādi-prakāreṇa sthitaḥ kūṭāsthaḥ | saṃsāra-bījānantyāt, na kṣaratīty akṣara ucyate

 

Rāmānuja


ato matta eva sarvavedānāṃ sārabhūtam artham śṛṇu
kṣaraś cākṣaraś ceti dvāv imau puruṣau loke prathitau / tatra kṣaraśabdanirdiṣṭaḥ puruṣo jīvaśabdābhilapanīyabrahmādistambaparyantakṣaraṇasvabhāvācitsaṃsṛṣṭasarvabhūtāni / atrācitsaṃsargarūpaikopādhinā puruṣa ity ekatvanirdeśaḥ / akṣaraśabdanirdiṣṭaḥ kūṭasthaḥ acitsaṃsargaviyuktaḥ svena rūpeṇāvasthito muktātmā / sa tv acitsaṃsargābhavād acitpariṇāmaviśeṣabrahmādidehāsādhāraṇo na bhavatīti kūṭastha ity ucyate / atrāpy ekatvanirdeśo ‚cidviyogarūpaikopādhinābhihitaḥ / na hi itaḥ pūrvam anādau kāle mukta eka eva / yathoktam, „bahavo jñānatapasā pūtā madbhāvam āgatāḥ”, „sarge ‚pi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca” iti
 

Śrīdhara


idānīṃ tad dhāma paramaṃ mameti yad uktaṃ svakīyaṃ sarvottama-svarūpaṃ tad darśayati dvāv iti tribhiḥ | kṣaraś cākṣaraś ceti dvāv imau puruṣau loke prasiddhau | tāv evāha tatra kṣaraḥ puruṣo nāma sarvāṇi bhūtāni brahmādi-sthāvarāntāni śarīrāṇi | aviveki-lokasya śarīreṣv eva puruṣatva-prasiddheḥ | kuṭo rāśiḥ śilā-rāśiḥ | parvata iva deheṣu naśyatsv api nirvikāratayā tiṣṭhatīti kūṭashtaś cetano bhoktā | sa tv akṣaraḥ puruṣa ity ucyate vivekibhiḥ
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ sopādhikam ātmānam uktvā kṣarākṣara-śabda-vācya-kārya-kāraṇopādhi-dvaya-viyogena nirupādhikaṃ śuddham ātmānaṃ pratipādayati kṛpayā bhagavān arjunāya dvāv imāv iti tribhiḥ ślokaiḥ | dvāv imau pṛthag-rāśī-kṛtau puruṣau puruṣopādhitvena puruṣa-śabda-vyapadeśyau loke saṃsāre | kau tau ? ity āha kṣarākṣara eva ca kṣaratīti kṣaro vināśī kārya-rāśir ekaḥ puruṣaḥ | na kṣaratīty akṣaro vināśa-rahitaḥ kṣarākhyasya puruṣasyotpatti-bījaṃ bhagavato māyā-śaktir dvitīyaḥ puruṣaḥ | tau puruṣau vyācaṣṭe svayam eva bhagavān kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni samastaṃ kārya-jātam ity arthaḥ | kūṭasthaḥ kūṭo yathārtha-vastv-ācchādanenāyathārth-vastu-prakāśanaṃ vañcanaṃ māyety anarthāntaram | tenāvaraṇa-vikṣepa-śakti-dvaya-rūpeṇa sthitaḥ kūṭastho bhagavān māyā-śakti-rūpaḥ kāraṇopādhiḥ saṃsāra-bījatvenānantyād akṣara ucyate |
kecit tu kṣara-śabdenācetana-vargam uktvā kūṭastho ‚kṣara ucyata ity anena jīvam āhuḥ | tan na samyak | kṣetrajñasyaiveha puruṣottamatvena pratipādyatvāt | tasmāt kṣarākṣara-śabdābhyāṃ kārya-kāraṇopādhī ubhāv api jaḍāv evocyete ity eva yuktam
 

Viśvanātha


yasmād aham eva vedavit tasmāt sarva-vedārtha-niṣkarṣaṃ saṅkṣepeṇa bravīmi śṛṇu ity āha dvāv imāv iti tribhiḥ | loke caturdaśa-bhuvanātmake jaḍa-prapañce imau dvau puruṣau cetanau staḥ | kau tāv ata āha kṣaraṃ sva-svarūpāt kṣarati vicyuto bhavatīti kṣaro jīvaḥ | sva-svarūpān na kṣaratīty akṣara brahmaiva | etad vai tad akṣaraṃ gārgi brāhmaṇā vividiṣanti | iti śruteḥ | akṣaraṃ brahma paramam iti smṛteś ca akṣara-śabdo brahma-vācaka eva dṛṣṭaḥ | kṣarākṣarayor arthaṃ punar viśadayati sarvāṇi bhūtāni eko jīva eva anādy-avidyayā svarūpa-vicyutaḥ san karma-paratantraḥ samaṣṭy-ātmako brahmādi-sthāvarāntāni bhūtāni bhavatīty arthaḥ | jātyā vā ekavacanam | dvitīya-puruṣo ‚kṣaras tu kūṭastha ekenaiva svarūpeṇavicyutimatā sarva-kāla-vyāpī | ekarūpatayā tu yaḥ kāla-vyāpī sa kūṭasthaḥ ity amaraḥ
 

Baladeva


bādarāyaṇātmanā nirṇītaṃ vedārthaṃ saṅkṣipyāha dvāv iti | lokyate tattvam anena iti vyutpatter loke vede | dvau puruṣau prathitau imāv iti pramāṇa-siddhatā sūcyate | tau kāv ity āha kṣaraś ceti | śarīra-kṣaraṇāt kṣaro ‚nekāvastho baddho ‚cit-saṃsargaika-dharma-sambandhād ekatvena nirdiṣṭaḥ | akṣaras tad-abhāvād ekāvastho mukto ‚cid-viyogaika-dharma-sambandhād ekatvena nirdiṣṭaḥ | kṣarākṣarau sphuṭayati sarvāṇi brahmādi-stambāntāni bhūtāni kṣaraḥ | kūtasthaḥ sadiakāvastho muktas tv akṣaraḥ | ekatva-nirdeśaḥ prāg-ukta-yukter bodhyaḥ | bahavo jñāna-tapasā ity ādeḥ | idaṃ jñānam upāśritya ity ādeś ca bahutva-saṅkhyākaḥ saḥ
 
 


BhG 15.17

uttamaḥ puruṣas tv anyaḥ paramātmety udāhṛtaḥ
yo loka-trayam āviśya bibharty avyaya īśvaraḥ

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syntax


yaḥ īśvaraḥ (that lord which) avyayaḥ ca (and unchangeable) loka-trayam (three worlds) āviśya (after entering) bibharti (he sustains),
[saḥ] tu (but he) [kṣara-puruṣākṣara-puruṣābhyām] anyaḥ (other than perishable and imperishable man) uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ (the supreme person) paramātmā iti (the supreme self) udāhṛtaḥ (he is declared).
 

grammar

uttamaḥ uttama 1n.1 m.the best, uppermost, highest (superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
puruṣaḥ puruṣa 1n.1 m.a person (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people);
tu av.but, then, or, and;
anyaḥ anya sn. 1n.1 m.other;
paramātmā parama-ātman 1n.1 m.the supreme self (from: para – beyond, ancient, final, the best, the supreme, parama –  supreme, the highest; ātman – self;
or param ātmanthe ancient self;
iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
udāhṛtaḥ ud-ā-hṛta (ud-ā-hṛ – to set up, to declare), [PP] 1n.1 n.set up, declared;
yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
loka-trayam loka-traya 2n.1 n.; lokānāṁ trayam itithree worlds (from: loka – world; tri – three; traya – threefold);
āviśya ā-viś (to approach, to enter) absol.after entering, after approaching;
bibharti bhṛ (to bear, to carry, to hold) Praes. P 1v.1he sustains;
avyayaḥ a-vyaya 1n.1 m.unchangeable (from: vi-i – to go away, to disappear, vyaya – going away, changeable, expense);
īśvaraḥ īśvara 1n.1 m.ruler, lord (from: xīś – to own, to reign, īśa – ruler, lord);

 

textual variants


avyaya → avyayam (unchangeable [three worlds]);
 
 



Śāṃkara


ābhyāṃ kṣarākṣarābhyām anyo vilakṣaṇaḥ kṣarākṣaropādhi-dvaya-doṣeṇāspṛṣṭaḥ nitya-śuddha-buddham ukta-svabhāvaḥ—
uttama utkṛṣṭatamaḥ puruṣas tv anyo’tyanta-vilakṣaṇa ābhyāṃ paramātmeti paramaś cāsau dehādy-avidyā-kṛtātmabhyaḥ, ātmaś ca sarva-bhūtānāṃ pratyak-cetanaḥ, ity ataḥ paramātmety udāhṛta ukto vedānteṣu | sa eva viśiṣyate yo loka-trayaṃ bhūr-bhuvaḥ-svar-ākhyaṃ svakīyayā caitanya-bala-śaktyā āviśya praviśya bibharti svarūpa-sad-bhāva-mātreṇa bibharti dhārayati | avyayo nāsya vyayo vidyata ity avyayaḥ | kaḥ ? īśvaraḥ sarvajño nārāyaṇākhya īśana-śīlaḥ
 

Rāmānuja


uttamaḥ puruṣas tu tābhyāṃ kṣarākṣaraśabdanirdiṣṭābhyāṃ baddhamuktapuruṣābhyām anyaḥ arthāntarabhūtaḥ paramātmety udāhṛtaḥ sarvāsu śrutiṣu / paramātmeti nirdeśād eva hy uttamaḥ puruṣo baddhamuktapuruṣābhyāṃ arthāntarabhūta ity avagamyate / katham? yo lokatrayam āviśya bibharti / lokyata iti lokaḥ; tattrayaṃ lokatrayam / acetanaṃ tatsaṃsṛṣṭaś cetano muktaś ceti pramāṇāvagamyam etat trayaṃ ya ātmatayā āviśya bibharti, sa tasmād vyāpyād bhartavyāc cārthāntarabhūtaḥ / itaś coktāl lokatrayād arthāntarabhūtaḥ; yataḥ so ‚vyayaḥ, īśvaraś ca; avyayasvabhāvo hi vyayasvabhāvād acetanāt tatsaṃbandhena tadanusāriṇaś ca cetanād acitsaṃbandhayogyatayā pūrvasaṃbandhino muktāc cārthāntarabhūta eva / tathaitasya lokatrayasyeśvaraḥ, īśitavyāt tasmād arthāntarabhūtaḥ
 

Śrīdhara


yad artham etau lakṣitau tam āha uttama iti | etābhyāṃ kṣarāksarābhyām anyo vilakṣaṇas tu uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ | vailakṣaṇyam evāha paramaś cāsāv ātmā cety udāhṛtaḥ uktaḥ śrutibhiḥ | ātmatvena kṣarād acetanād vilakṣaṇaḥ | paramatvenākṣarāc cetanād bhoktur vilakṣaṇa ity arthaḥ | paramātmatvaṃ darśayati yo loka-trayam iti | ya īśvara īśana-śīlo ‚vyayaś ca nirvikāra eva san loka-trayaṃ kṛsnam āviśya bibharti pālayati
 

Madhusūdana


ābhyāṃ kṣarākṣarābhyāṃ vilakṣaṇaḥ kṣarākṣaropādhi-dvaya-doṣeṇāspṛṣṭo nitya-śuddha-buddha-mukta-svabhāvaḥ uttama iti | uttama utkṛṣṭatamaḥ puruṣas tv anyonya evātyanta-vilakṣaṇa ābhyāṃ kṣarākṣarābhyāṃ jaḍa-rāśibhyām ubhaya-bhāsakas tṛtīyaś cetana-rāśir ity arthaḥ | paramātmety udāhṛto ‚nna-maya-prāṇa-maya-mano-maya-jñāna-mayānanda-mayebhyaḥ pañcabhyo ‚vidyā-kalpitātmabhyaḥ paramaḥ prakṛṣṭo ‚kalpito brahma pucchaṃ pratiṣṭhety ukta ātmā ca sarva-bhūtānāṃ pratyak-cetana ity ataḥ paramātmety uktao vedānteṣu | yaḥ paramātmā loka-trayam bhūr-bhuvaḥ-svar-ākhyaṃ sarvaṃ jagad iti yāvat | āviśya svakīyayā māyā-śaktyādhiṣṭhāya bibharti sattā-sphūrti-pradānena dhārayati poṣayati ca | kīdṛśaḥ ? avyayaḥ sarva-vikāra-śūnya īśvaraḥ sarvasya niyantā nārāyaṇaḥ sa uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ paramātmety udāhṛta ity anvayaḥ | sa uttamaḥ puruṣa iti śruteḥ
 

Viśvanātha


jñānibhir upāsyaṃ brahmoktvā yogibhir upāsyaṃ paramātmānam āha uttama iti | tu-śabdaḥ pūrva-vaiśiṣṭhyād dyotakaḥ | jñānibhyaś cādhiko yogīty upāsaka-vaiśiṣṭyād evopāsya-vaiśiṣṭyaṃ ca labhyate | paramātma-tattvam eva darśayati ya īśvara īsana-śīlo ‚vyayo nirvikāra eva san loka-trayaṃ kṛtsnam āviśya bibharti dhārayati pālayati ca
 

Baladeva


yad arthaṃ dvau puruṣau nirūpitau tam āha uttama iti | anyaḥ kṣarākṣarābhyāṃ na tu tayor evaikaḥ saṅkalpa iti bhāvaḥ | tatra śruti-sammatim āha paramātmeti | uttamatā-prayojakaṃ dharmam āha yo loketi | na caitaj jagad-vidhāraṇa-pālana-rūpam īśanaṃ baddhasya jīvasya karmāsambhavāt | na ca muktasya jagad-vyāpāra-varjam iti pratiṣedhāc ca
 
 


BhG 15.18

yasmāt kṣaram atīto ‘ham akṣarād api cottamaḥ
ato ‘smi loke vede ca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ

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syntax


yasmāt (because) aham (I) kṣaram (perishable) atītaḥ (who has surpassed),
akṣarāt api ca (and even than the imperishable) uttamaḥ (highest),
ataḥ (therefore) loke vede ca (in the world and in the Veda) puruṣottamaḥ ([as] the best among men) prathitaḥ (celebrated) asmi (I am).

 

grammar

yasmāt av. (5n.1) – because (from: yat sn. – which, indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
kṣaram kṣara 2n.1 m. perishable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish);
atītaḥ atīta (ati-i – to cross over) [PP] 1n.1 m.who has surpassed;
aham asmat sn. 1n.1I;
akṣarāt a-kṣara 5n.1 m. than imperishable (from: kṣar – to flow, to perish, kṣara – perishable);
api av.although, moreover, besides, even;
ca av.and;
uttamaḥ uttama 1n.1 m.the best, uppermost, highest (superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
ataḥ av.from this, hence, therefore (indeclinable ablative with an ending -tas);
asmi as (to be) Praes. P 3v.1I am;
loke loka 7n.1 m.in the world;
vede veda 7n.1 m.in the Veda (vid – to know, to understand);
ca av.and;
prathitaḥ prathita (prath – to spread, to become known) [PP] 1n.1 m.known, celebrated;
puruṣottamaḥ puruṣa-uttama 1n.1 m.; [TP]: puruṣāṇām uttama itithe best among men (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);

 

textual variants


yasmāttasmāt (therefore);
akṣarād api akṣarasya api (nawet imperishable);
ato ‘smiato ‘smin (therefore in this);
 
 



Śāṃkara


yathā-vyākhyātasyeśvarasya puruṣottama ity etat nāma prasiddham | tasya nāma-nirvacana-prasiddhayārthavattvaṃ nāmno darśayan niratiśayo’ham īśvara ity ātmānaṃ darśayati bhagavān—
yasmāt kṣaram atīto’haṃ saṃsāra-māyā-vṛkṣam aśvatthākhyam atikrānto’ham akṣarād api saṃsāra-māyā-rūpa-vṛkṣa-bīja-bhūtād api cottama utkṛṣṭatamaḥ ūrdhvatamo vā | atas tābhyāṃ kṣarākṣarābhyām uttamatvād asmi loke vede ca prathitaḥ prakhyātaḥ | puruṣottama ity evaṃ māṃ bhakta-janā viduḥ | kavayaḥ kāvyādiṣu cedaṃ nāma nibadhnanti | puruṣottama ity anenābhidhānenābhigṛṇanti
 

Rāmānuja


yasmād evam uktaiḥ svabhāvaiḥ kṣaraṃ puruṣam atīto ‚ham, akṣarān muktād apy uktair hetubhir utkṛṣṭatamaḥ, ato ‚haṃ loke vede ca puruṣottama iti prathito ‚smi / vedārthāvalokanāl loka iti smṛtir ihocyate / śrutau smṛtau cety arthaḥ / śrutau tāvat, „paraṃ jyotir upasaṃpadya svena rūpeṇābhiniṣpadyate, sa uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ” ityādau / smṛtav api, „aṃśāvatāraṃ puruṣottamasya hy anādimadhyāntam ajasya viṣṇoḥ” ityāda
 

Śrīdhara


evam uktaṃ puruṣottamatvam ātmano nāma-nirvacanena darśayati yasmādi it | yasmāt kṣaraṃ jaḍa-vargam atikrānto ‚haṃ nityam uktatvāt | akṣarāc cetana-vargād apy uttamaś ca niyantṛtvāt | ato loke vede ca puruṣottama iti prathitaḥ prakhyāto ‚smi | tathā ca śrutiḥ – sa eva sarvasyeśānaḥ sarvasyādhipatiḥ sarvam idaṃ praśāstīty ādi
 

Madhusūdana


idānīṃ yathā-vyākhyāteśvarasya kṣarākṣara-vilakṣaṇasya puruṣottama ity etat prasiddha-nāma-nirvacanenedṛśaḥ parameśvaro ‚ham evety ātmānaṃ darśayati bhagavān brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāhaṃ [Gītā 14.27] tad dhāma paramaṃ mama [Gītā 15.6] ityādi prāg-ukta-nija-mahima-nirdhāraṇāya yasmād iti | yasmāt kṣaraṃ kāryatvena vināśinaṃ māyāmayaṃ saṃsāra-vṛklṣam aśvatthākhyam atīto ‚tikrānto ‚haṃ parameśvaro ‚kṣarād api māyākhyād avyākṛtād akṣarāt parataḥ para iti pañcamy-antākṣara-padena pratipāditāt saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-bīja-bhūtāt sarva-kāraṇād api cottama utkṛṣṭatamaḥ | ataḥ kṣarākṣarābhyāṃ puruṣotpādhibhyām adhyāsena puruṣa-pada-vyapadśyābhyām uttamatvād asmi bhavāmi loke vede ca prathitaḥ prakhyātaḥ puruṣottama iti sa uttamaḥ puruṣa iti veda udāhṛta eva loke ca kavi-kāvyādau harir yathaikaḥ puruṣottamaḥ smṛtaḥ ity ādi prasiddham |
kāruṇyato naravad ācarataḥ parārthān
pārthāya bodhitavato nijam īśvaratvam |
sac-cit-ukhaika-vapuṣaḥ puruṣottamasya
nārāyaṇasya mahimā na hi mānam eti ||
kecin nigṛhya karaṇāni visṛjya bhogam
āsthāya yogam amalātma-dhiyo yatante |
nārāyaṇasya mahimānam ananta-pāram
āsvādayann amṛta-sāram ahaṃ tu muktaḥ ||
 

Viśvanātha


yogibhir upāsyaṃ paramātmānam uktvā bhaktair upāsyaṃ bhagavantaṃ vadan bhagavattve ‚pi svasya kṛṣṇa-svarūpasya puruṣottama iti nāma vyācakṣāṇaḥ sarvotkarṣam āha yasmād iti | kṣaraṃ puruṣaṃ jīvātmānam atītaḥ akṣarāt puruṣāt brahmata uttamād avikārāt paramātmanaḥ puruṣād apy uttamaḥ |
yoginām api sarveṣāṃ
mad-gatenāntarātmanā |
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ || [Gītā 6.47] iti |
upāsaka-vaiśiṣṭyād evopāsya-vaiśiṣṭya-lābhāt | ca-kārād bhagavato vaikuṇṭha-nāthādeḥ sakāśād api ete cāṃśa-kalāḥ puṃsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam iti sūtokter aham uttamaḥ |
atra yadyapy ekam eva sac-cid-ānanda-svarūpaṃ vastu brahma-paramātma-bhagavat-śabdair ucyate na tu vastutaḥ svarūpataḥ ko ‚pi bhedo ‚sti svarūpa-dvayābhāvāt (BhP 6.9.35) iti ṣaṣṭha-skandhokteḥ | tad api tat-tad-upāsakānāṃ sādhanataḥ phalataś ca bheda-darśanāt bheda iva vyavahriyate | tathā hi brahma-paramātma-bhagavad-upāsakānāṃ krameṇa tat-tat-prāpti-sādhanaṃ jñānaṃ yogo bhaktiś ca | phalaṃ ca jñāna-yogayor vastuto mokṣa eva, bhaktes tu premavat-pārṣadatvaṃ ca | tatra bhaktyā vinā jñāna-yogābhyāṃ naiṣkarmyam apy acyuta-bhāva-varjitaṃ na śobhate [BhP 1.5.12] iti | pureha bhūman bahavo ‚pi yoginaḥ [BhP 10.14.5] ity ādi-darśanāt na mokṣa iti |
brahmopāsakaiḥ paramātmopāsakaiḥ sva-sādhya-phala-siddhy-arthaṃ bhagavato bhaktir avaśyaṃ kartavyaiva | bhagavad-upāsakas tu sva-sādhya-phala-siddhy-arthaṃ na brahmopāsanāpi paramātmopāsanā kriyate | na jñānaṃ na ca vairāgyaṃ prāyaḥ śreyo bhaved iha [BhP 11.20.31] iti, yat karmabhir yat tapasā jñāna-vairāgyataś ca yat [BhP 11.20.32] ity ādau –
sarvaṃ mad-bhakti-yogena
mad-bhakto labhate ‚ñjasā |
svargāpavargaṃ mad-dhāma
kathañcid yadi vāñchati || iti [BhP 11.20.33] |
yā vai sādhana-sampattiḥ
puruṣārtha-catuṣṭaye |
tayā vinā tad āpnoti
naro nārāyaṇāśrayaḥ || ity ādi vacanebhyaḥ ||
ataeva bhagavad-upāsanayā svargāpavarga-premādīni sarva-phalāny eva labdhuṃ śakyante | brahma-paramātmopāsanayā tu na premādīnīty ata eva brahma-paramātmābhyāṃ bhagavad-utkarṣaḥ khalu abhede ‚py ucyate | yathā tejastvenābhede ‚pi jyotir dīpāgni-puñjeṣu madhye śītādy-ārti-kṣayād dhetor agni-puñja eva śreṣṭha ucyate | tatrāpi bhagavataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇasya tu parama evotkarṣaḥ | yathā agni-puñjād api sūryasya, yena brahmopāsanā-paripākato labhyo nirvāṇa-mokṣaḥ sva-dveṣṭṛbhyo ‚py agha-bak-jarāsandhādibhyo mahā-pāpibhyo datta iti | ataeva brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham ity atra yathāvad eva vyākhyātaṃ śrī-svāmi-caraṇaiḥ |
śrī-madhusūdana-sarasvatī-pādair api —
cid-ānandākāraṃ jalada-ruci-sāraṃ śruti-girāṃ
vraja-strīṇāṃ hāraṃ bhava-jaladhi-pāraṃ kṛta-dhiyām |
vihantuṃ bhūbhāraṃ vidadhad-avatāraṃ muhur aho
tato vāraṃ vāraṃ bhajata kuśalārambha-kṛtinaḥ || iti |
vaṃśī-vvibhūṣita-karān nava-nīradābhāt
pītāmbarād aruṇa-bimba-phalādharauṣṭhāt |
pūrṇendu-sundara-mukhād aravinda-netrāt
kṛṣṇāt paraṃ kim api tattvam ahaṃ na jāne || iti |
pramāṇato ‚pi nirṇīyaṃ
kṛṣṇa-māhātmyam adbhutam |
na śaknuvanti ye soḍhuṃ
te mūḍhā nirayaṃ gatāḥ ||
ity uktavadbhiḥ kṛṣṇe sarvotkarṣa eva vyavasthāpita ity ataḥ dvāv imau ity ādi śloka-trayasyāsya vyākhyāyām asyām abhyasūyā nāviṣkartavyā | namo ‚stu kevala-vidbhyaḥ
 

Baladeva


atha puruṣottama-nāma-nirvacanaṃ svasya tattvam āha yasmād iti uttama utkṛṣṭatamaḥ | loke pauruṣeyāgame lokyate vedārtho ‚nena iti nirukteḥ | vede tāvad eṣa samprasādo ‚smāc charīrāt samutthāya paraṃ jyotīrūpaṃ sampadya svena rūpeṇābhiniṣpadyate, sa uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ ity ādau prathitaḥ yat paraṃ jyotiḥ samprasādenopasampannaṃ sa uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ paramātmetiy arthaḥ | loke ca –
tair vijñāpita-kāryas tu
bhagavān puruṣottamaḥ |
avatīrṇo mahā-yogī
satyavatyāṃ parāśarāt || [SkandaP] ity ādau prathitaḥ
 
 


BhG 15.19

yo mām evam asaṃmūḍho jānāti puruṣottamam
sa sarva-vid bhajati māṃ sarva-bhāvena bhārata

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syntax


he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
yaḥ asammūḍhaḥ (he who is unbewildered) mām puruṣottamam (me as the best among men) evam (thus) jānāti (he knows),
saḥ sarva-vit (he, knower of all) sarva-bhāvena (with all his heart) mām (me) bhajati (he worships).

 

grammar

yaḥ yat sn. 1n.1 m.he who;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
evam av.thus;
asaṁmūḍhaḥ a-saṁ-mūḍha (sam-muh – to become confused, bewildered, stupefied) [PP] 1n.1 m.not bewildered;
jānāti jñā (to know) Praes. P 1v.1he knows;
puruṣottamam puruṣa-uttama 2n.1 m.; [TP]: puruṣāṇām uttamam itithe best among men (from: pur – to precede, to lead or pṝ – to fill, to nourish, puru – abundance, pūru – people; ut-tama – uppermost, highest, superlative of: ud – upwards, above);
saḥ tat sn. 1n.1 m.he;
sarva-vit sarva-vit 1n.1 m.; yaḥ sarvaṁ vetti saḥwho knows everything (from: sarva – all, whole; vid – to know, to understand, -vit – suffix: who knows);
bhajati bhaj (to share, to love, to rejoice, to worship) Praes. P 1v.1he worships;
mām asmat sn. 2n.1me;
sarva-bhāvena sarva-bhāva 6n.3 m.; sarvena bhāvenetiwith all his nature, with all his emotions, with all his heart (from: sarva – all, whole; bhū – to be, bhāva – state, existence, nature, emotions);
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


The third pada of verse 15.19 is the same as the second pada of verse BhG 18.62;
 
 



Śāṃkara


athedānīṃ yathā-niruktam ātmānaṃ yo veda, tasyedaṃ phalam ucyate—
yo mām īśvaraṃ yathokta-viśeṣaṇam evaṃ yathoktena prakāreṇa asaṃmūḍhaḥ saṃmoha-varjitaḥ san jānāty ayam aham asmīti puruṣottamaṃ, sa sarva-vit sarvātmanā sarvaṃ vettīti sarvajñaḥ sarva-bhūta-sthaṃ bhajati māṃ sarva-bhāvena sarvātmatayā he bhārata
 

Rāmānuja


ya evam uktena prakāreṇa puruṣottamaṃ mām asaṃmūḍho jānāti kṣarākṣarapuruṣābhyām, avyayasvabhāvatayā vyāpanabharaṇāiśvaryādiyogena ca visajātīyaṃ jānāti, sa sarvavin matprāptyupāyatayā yad veditavyaṃ tat sarvaṃ veda; bhajati māṃ sarvabhāvena ye ca matprāptyupāyatayā madbhajanaprakārā nirdiṣṭāḥ taiś ca sarvair bhajanaprakārair māṃ bhajate / sarvair madviṣayair vedanair mama yā prītiḥ, yā ca mama sarvair madviṣayair bhajanaiḥ, ubhayavidhā sā prītir anena vedanena mama jāyate // ity etat puruṣottamatvavedanaṃ pūjayati
 

Śrīdhara


evambhūteśvarasya jñātuḥ phalam āha ya iti | evam ukta-prakāreṇāsammūḍho niścita-matiḥ san yo māṃ puruṣottamaṃ jānāti sa sarva-bhāvena sarva-prakāreṇa mām eva bhajati | tataś ca sarvavit sarvajño bhavati
 

Madhusūdana


evaṃ nāma-nirvacana-jñāne phalam āha yo mām iti | yo mām īśvaram evaṃ yathokta-nāma-nirvacanenāsaṃmūḍho manuṣya evāyaṃ kaścit kṛṣṇa iti saṃmoha-varjito jānāty ayam īśvara eveti puruṣottamaṃ prāg vyākhyātaṃ sa māṃ bhajati sevate sarvavin māṃ sarvātmānaṃ vettīti sa eva sarvajñaḥ sarva-bhāvena prema-lakṣaṇena bhakti-yogena he bhārata | ato yad uktam –
māṃ ca yo ‚vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate |
sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate || [Gītā 14.26] iti tad upapannam |
yathoktaṃ brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham iti tad apy upapannataram |
cid-ānandākāraṃ jalada-ruci-sāraṃ śruti-girāṃ
vraja-strīṇāṃ hāraṃ bhava-jaladhi-pāraṃ kṛta-dhiyām |
vihantuṃ bhūbhāraṃ vidadhad-avatāraṃ muhur aho
tato vāraṃ vāraṃ bhajata kuśalārambha-kṛtinaḥ ||
 

Viśvanātha


nanv etasmiṃs tvayā vyavasthāpite ‚py arthe vādino vivadanta eva, tatra vivadantāṃ te man-māyā-mohitāḥ sādhus tu na muhyatīty āha yo mām iti | asammūḍho vādināṃ vādiar aprāpta-saṃmohaḥ | sa eva sarvavid anadhīta-śāstre ‚pi sa sarva-śāstrārtha-tattva-jñaḥ | tad-anyaḥ kilādhītādhyāśita-sarva-śāstre ‚pi saṃmūḍhaḥ samyaṅ-mūrkha eveti bhāvaḥ | tathā ya evaṃ jānāti sa eva māṃ sarvato-bhāvena bhajati | tad anye bhajann api na māṃ bhajatīty arthaḥ
 

Baladeva


tātparya-dyotanāya puruṣottamatva-vettuḥ phalam āha yo mām iti | evaṃ mad-ukta-niruktyā na tv aśva-karṇādivat saṃjñā-mātratvena | yo māṃ puruṣottamaṃ jānāty asaṃmūḍhaḥ | prokte puruṣottamatve saṃśaya-śūnyaḥ san, sa śloka-trayasyaivārthaṃ jānan sarva-vit | nikhilasya vedasya tatraiva tātparyāt | puruṣottamatvajño māṃ sarva-bhāvena sarva-prakāreṇa bhajaty upāste | sarva-vedārtha-vettari sarva-bhakty-aṅgānuṣṭhātari ca yo me prasādaḥ sa tasmin bhaved iti me puruṣottamatve sandihānas tv adhīta-sarva-vedo ‚py ajñaḥ | sarvathā bhajann apy abhakta iti bhāvaḥ
 
 


BhG 15.20

iti guhyatamaṃ śāstram idam uktaṃ mayānagha
etad buddhvā buddhimān syāt kṛta-kṛtyaś ca bhārata

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syntax


he anagha (O sinless one!), he bhārata (O descendant of Bhārata!),
iti (thus) mayā (by me) idam guhyatamam śāstram (this most secret teaching) uktam (said) [asti] (it is),
etad (this) buddhvā (after understanding)
buddhimān (who has the intelligence) kṛta-kṛtyaḥ ca (and one by whom what is to be done is done) syāt (he would be).

 

grammar

iti av.thus (used to close the quotation);
guhyatamam guhyatama 1n.1 n.the most secret (from: xguh – to cover, to hide, PF guhya – to be hidden, secret, mystery; superlative of: guhya – guhya-tara, guhya-tama);
śāstram śāstra 1n.1 n.order, precept, teaching, scripture (from: śās – to teach);
idam idam 2n.1 n.this;
uktam ukta (vac – to speak) [PP] 1n.1 n.spoken, called;
mayā asmat sn. 3n.1by me;
anagha an-agha 8n.1 m.O sinless one (from: agha – evil, sin, suffering);
etat etat sn. 1n.1 n.this;
buddhvā budh (to wake, to perceive, to understand) absol.after knowing;
buddhimān buddhimant 1n.1 m.who has intelligence (from: budh – to wake, to perceive, to understand, buddhi – intelligence, thought, understanding, knowledge, idea, opinion; -mant / -vant – suffix denoting one who possesses);
syāt as (to be) Pot. P 1v.1he would be;
kṛta-kṛtyaḥ kṛta-kṛtya 1n.1 m.; BV: yena kṛtaṁ kṛtyam asti saḥ by whom what is to be done is done (from: kṛ – to do, [PP] kṛta – done, made; PF kṛtya – to be done);
ca av.and;
bhārata bhārata 8n.1 m.O descendant of Bhārata;

 

textual variants


guhyatamaṁ → guptatamaṁ (th emost secret);
idam uktaṁ mayānagha → mayā proktaṁ tavānagha (O sinless one, I said to you);
kṛta-kṛtyaś ca → kṛta-kṛtyaṁ ca;
 
 



Śāṃkara


asmin adhyāye bhagavat-tattva-jñānaṃ mokṣa-phalam uktvā, atha idānīṃ tat stauti—
iti etad guhyatamaṃ gopyatamam, atyanta-rahasyam ity etat | kiṃ tat ? śāstram | yady api gītākhyaṃ samastaṃ śāstram ucyate, tathāpy ayam evādhyāya iha śāstram ity ucyate stuty-arthaṃ prakaraṇāt | sarvo hi gītā-śāstrārtho’smin adhyāye samāsena uktaḥ | na kevalaṃ gītā-śāstrārtha eva, kiṃtu sarvaś ca vedārtha iha parisamāptaḥ | yas taṃ veda sa veda-vit [gītā 15.1] vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ [gītā 15.15] iti coktam | idam uktaṃ kathitaṃ mayā he’nagha apāpa ! etac chāstraṃ yathā-darśitārthaṃ buddhvā buddhimān syāt bhavet nānyathā | kṛta-kṛtyaś ca bhārata kṛtaṃ kṛtyaṃ kartavyaṃ yena sa kṛta-kṛtyaḥ | viśiṣṭa-janma-prasūtena brāhmaṇena yat kartavyaṃ tat sarvaṃ bhagavat-tattve vidite kṛtaṃ bhaved ity arthaḥ | na cānyathā kartavyaṃ parisamāpyate kasyacid ity abhiprāyaḥ | sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate [gītā 4.33] iti coktam |
etad dhi janma-sāmagryaṃ brāhmaṇasya viśeṣataḥ |
prāpyaitat kṛta-kṛtyo hi dvijo bhavati nānyathā || [mātranu 12.93]
iti ca mānavaṃ vacanam | yataḥ etat paramārthatattvaṃ mattaḥ śrutavān asi, ataḥ kṛtārthas tvaṃ bhārateti
 

Rāmānuja


itthaṃ mama puruṣottamatvapratipādanaṃ sarveṣāṃ guhyānāṃ guhyatamam idaṃ śāstram, „tvam anaghatayā yogyatamaḥ” iti kṛtvā mayā tavoktam / etad buddhvā buddhimāṃs syāt kṛtakṛtyaś ca māṃ prepsunā upādeyā yā buddhiḥ sā sarvā upāttā syāt: yac ca tena kartavyam, tat sarvaṃ kṛtaṃ syād ityarthaḥ / anena ślokena, anantaroktaṃ puruṣottamaviṣayaṃ jñānaṃ śāstrajanyam evaitat sarvaṃ karoti, na tatsākṣātkārarūpam ity ucyate
 

Śrīdhara


adhyāyārtham upasaṃharati itīti | ity anena saṃkṣepa-prakāreṇa guhyatamam atirahasyaṃ sampūrṇaṃ śāstram eva mayoktam | na tu punar viṃśati-ślokam adhyāya-mātraṃ he anagha vyasana-śūnya | ata etan mad-uktaṃ śāstraṃ buddhyā buddhimān samyag jñānī syaāt | ṛta-kṛtyaś ca syāt | yo ‚pi ko ‚pi he bhārata tvaṃ kṛta-kṛtyo ‚sīti kiṃ vaktavyam iti bhāvaḥ
 

Madhusūdana


idānīm adhyāyārthaṃ stuvann upasaṃharati itīti | iti anena prakāreṇa guhyatamaṃ rahasyatamaṃ sampūrṇaṃ śāstram eva saṃkṣepeṇedam asminn adhyāye mayoktaṃ he ‚naghāvyasana | etad buddhvānyo ‚pi yaḥ kaścid buddhimān ātma-jñānavān syāt kṛtaṃ sarvaṃ kṛtyaṃ yena na punaḥ kṛtyāntaraṃ yasyāsti sa kṛtakṛtyaś ca syāt | viśiṣṭa-janma-prasūtena brāhmaṇena yat kartavyaṃ tat sarvaṃ bhagavat-tattve vidite kṛtaṃ bhavet na tv anyathā kartavyaṃ parisamāpyate kasyacid ity abhiprāyaḥ | he bhārata tvaṃ tu mahākula-prasūtaḥ svayaṃ ca vyasana-rahita iti kula-guṇena sva-guṇena caitad buddhvā kṛta-kṛtyo bhaviṣyasīti kim u vaktavyam ity abhiprāyaḥ
 

Viśvanātha


adhyāyārtham upasaṃharati itīti | viṃśatyā ślokair ebhir atirahasyaṃ śāstram eva sampūrṇaṃ mayoktam
 

Baladeva


athaitad apātreṣv aprakāśyam iti bhāvenāha itīti | ity evaṃ saṃkṣepa-rūpaṃ puruṣottamatva-nirūpakam idaṃ triślokī-śāstraṃ tubhyaṃ parama-bhaktāya mayoktam | he anagha, tvaāpy apātreṣu naitat prakāśyam iti bhāvaḥ | etad buddhvā buddhimān parokṣa-jñānī syāt | kṛtakṛtyo ‚parokṣa-jñānī ceti puruṣottamatva-jñānam abhyarcyate
 
 


BhG 15.colophon

iti śrī-mahābhārate bhiṣma-parvaṇi sapta-triṃśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

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translation


Thus [ends] the thirty-seventh chapter in Bhīṣma-parvan in the venerable Mahābhārata.

 

textual variants


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṃ saṃhitāyāṃ vaiyāsakyāṃ bhīṣma-parvaṇi*

In the venerable Mahābhārata, [which is] Vyāsa’s saṁhitā [composed] of one hundred thousand [verses], in Bhīṣma-parvan

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsu upaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṃ yoga-śāstre śrī-kṛṣṇārjuna-saṃvāde akṣara-nirdeśo / puruṣottama-yogo / guhya-śāstra-vivarṇana-pūrvakaṃ puruṣottama-yogātmako / puruṣottama-prakṛti-yogo / buddhi-yogo / saṃsāra-viṣa-vṛkṣa-ccheda-kuṭhāra-yogo / saṃsāra-vṛkṣa-cchedana-yogo nāma pañca-daśo ‘dhyāyaḥ

in glorious songs of the Lord, in the upaniṣads, in the knowledge of brahman, in the science of yoga, in the dialogue of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna thus [ends] the fifteenth chapter entitled: Description of the Imperishable / The Yoga of the Best of Men / The secret Teaching Given Earlier of the Nature of  Yoga of the Best of Men / The Yoga of Nature and the Best of Men / The Yoga of Intelligence / The Yoga of an Axe Cutting the Poisonous Tree of Emanation / The Yoga of Cutting the Tree of Emanation.

* This part of a colophon comes from: Śrīmad-Bhagavad-gītā (Bengali script), commentary of: Śrīdhara Svāmipāda “Subodhinī”, Bengali translation: Nārāyaṇa-dāsa Bhakti-sudhā-kara, Gaudīya mission Kalkuta 1996r.

 
 



Śrīdhara


saṃsāra-śākhinaṃ chittvā spaṣṭaṃ pañcadaśe vibhuḥ |
puruṣottama-yogākhye paraṃ padam upādiśat ||
 

Madhusūdana


vaṃśī-vibhūṣita-karān nava-nīradābhāt
pītāmbarād aruṇa-bimba-phalādharoṣṭhāt |
pūrṇendu-sundara-mukhād aravinda-netrāt
kṛṣṇāt paraṃ kim api tattvam ahaṃ na jāne ||1||
sadā sadānanda-pade nimagnaṃ mano manobhāvam apākaroti |
gatāgatāyāsam apāsya sadyaḥ parāparātītam upaiti tattvam ||2||
śaivāḥ saurāś ca gāṇeśā vaiṣṇavāḥ śakti-pūjakāḥ |
bhavanti yan-mayāḥ sarve so ‚ham asmi paraḥ śivaḥ ||3||
pramāṇato ‚pi nirṇīyaṃ kṛṣṇa-māhātmyam adbhutam |
na śaknuvanti ye soḍhuṃ te mūḍhā nirayaṃ gatāḥ ||4||
 

Viśvanātha


jaḍa-caitanya-vargāṇāṃ vivṛtaṃ kurvatā kṛtam |
kṛṣṇa eva mahotkarṣa ity adhyāyārtha īritaḥ ||
iti sārārtha-varṣiṇyāṃ harṣiṇyāṃ bhakta-cetasām |
gītāsv ayaṃ pañcadaśaḥ saṅgataḥ saṅgataḥ satām ||
 

Baladeva


baddhān muktāc ca yaḥ puṃso bhinnas tad-bhṛt tad-uttamaḥ |
sa pumān harir eveti prāptaṃ pañcadaśād ataḥ ||